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Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, Lisa A. Schulte, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matt Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, David E. James, Randall K. Kolka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Chris Witte 2018 Iowa State University

Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, Lisa A. Schulte, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matt Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, David E. James, Randall K. Kolka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Chris Witte

Jarad Niemi

Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with ...


Modeling The Impacts Of Climate Change On Nitrogen Losses And Crop Yield In A Subsurface Drained Field, Zhaozhi Wang, Qhiming Qi, Lulin Xue, Melissa Bukovsky, Matthew J. Helmers 2018 McGill University

Modeling The Impacts Of Climate Change On Nitrogen Losses And Crop Yield In A Subsurface Drained Field, Zhaozhi Wang, Qhiming Qi, Lulin Xue, Melissa Bukovsky, Matthew J. Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

The effect of climate change on crop production and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) pollution from subsurface drained fields is of a great concern. Using the calibrated and validated RZWQM2 (coupled with CERES-Maize and CROPGRO in DSSAT), the potential effects of climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CO2) on tile drainage volume, NO3-N losses, and crop production were assessed integrally for the first time for a corn-soybean rotation cropping system near Gilmore City, Iowa. RZWQM2 simulated results under 20-year observed historical weather data (1990–2009) and ambient CO2 were compared to those under 20-year projected future meteorological data (2045–2064) and elevated ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich 2018 Iowa State University

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich

Thomas M. Isenhart

Denitrification within riparian buffers may trade reduced nonpoint source pollution of surface waters for increased greenhouse gas emissions resulting from denitrification-produced nitrous oxide (N2O). However, little is known about the N2O emission within conservation buffers established for water quality improvement or of the importance of short-term N2O peak emission following rewetting dry soils and thawing frozen soils. Such estimates are important in reducing uncertainties in current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies estimating soil N2O emission which are based on N inputs. This study contrasts N2O emission from riparian buffer systems of three perennial vegetation types and an adjacent ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Biofuel Production From Macroalgae (Seaweed), Mohsen Soleymani, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Biofuel Production From Macroalgae (Seaweed), Mohsen Soleymani, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD). By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production ...


Characterization And Biodegradation Behavior Of Bio-Based Poly(Lactic Acid) And Soy Protein Blends For Sustainable Horticultural Applications, Shengzhe Yang, Samy A. Madbouly, James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David A. Grewell, Kenneth McCabe, Michael R. Kessler, William R. Graves 2018 Iowa State University

Characterization And Biodegradation Behavior Of Bio-Based Poly(Lactic Acid) And Soy Protein Blends For Sustainable Horticultural Applications, Shengzhe Yang, Samy A. Madbouly, James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David A. Grewell, Kenneth Mccabe, Michael R. Kessler, William R. Graves

David A. Grewell

Adipic anhydride-plasticized soy protein (SP.A) was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at two concentrations (50/50 and 33/67) and was evaluated for use as a sustainable replacement for petroleum plastic in horticulture crop containers. Following the discovery that SP.A/PLA blends provide additional functions above that of petroleum plastic for this application, the present study evaluates the biodegradation behavior of these materials in soil and describes the substantial improvements in sustainability that result from the additional functions (intrinsic fertilizer and root improvement of plants) and the end-of-life option of biodegradation. After being buried in soil for ...


Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon? Evidence From The Nepal Community Forestry Program, Randall Bluffstone, Eswaran Somanathan, Prakash Jha, Harisharan Luintel, Rajesh Bista, Mike Toman, Naya Paudel, Bhim Adhikari 2018 Portland State University

Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon? Evidence From The Nepal Community Forestry Program, Randall Bluffstone, Eswaran Somanathan, Prakash Jha, Harisharan Luintel, Rajesh Bista, Mike Toman, Naya Paudel, Bhim Adhikari

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Highlights

• Presumed open access forests have as little as 34% of those under collective action.

• No evidence that Community Forestry Programme forests store more carbon

.• Carbon from collective action not conditional on Community Forestry Programme.


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2018, June 18-20, Brussels, Belgium, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2017 Wojciech Budzianowski Consulting Services

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2018, June 18-20, Brussels, Belgium, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Registration Form Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2017 Wojciech Budzianowski Consulting Services

Registration Form Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Abstract Template Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2017 Wojciech Budzianowski Consulting Services

Abstract Template Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Biomass Inlet Concentration On Mixing In A Double Screw Pyrolyzer, Breanna L. Marmur, Theodore J. Heindel 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Biomass Inlet Concentration On Mixing In A Double Screw Pyrolyzer, Breanna L. Marmur, Theodore J. Heindel

Theodore J. Heindel

The renewable energy industry relies on double screw pyrolyzers to convert cellulosic biomass into bio-oil. Bio-oil can then be converted into synthetic gasoline, diesel, and other transportation fuels, or can be converted into biobased chemicals for a wide range of applications. One of the processes by which bio-oil is produced in industry today is through fast pyrolysis, the fast thermal decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen. One type of pyrolyzer, a double screw pyrolyzer, features two intermeshing screws encased in a reactor which mechanically conveys and mixes the biomass and heat carrier media. The mixing effectiveness of ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Mix Proportioning For Prescriptive And Performance-Based Specifications For Sustainability, Peter C. Taylor, Halil Ceylan 2017 Iowa State University

A Comparative Analysis Of Mix Proportioning For Prescriptive And Performance-Based Specifications For Sustainability, Peter C. Taylor, Halil Ceylan

Halil Ceylan

With the recent advancements in concrete technology, design and production of “green concrete” is increasing in demand. Although, the production of structures that are entirely sustainable is still challenging, industry has shown progress by motivating alternative solutions to conventional concrete such as using recycled aggregates, binary and ternary mixes with high levels of supplementary cementitious materials, and alternative binders with different chemistry with lower carbon footprints than portland cement. However, mix proportioning guidelines for performance-based specifications have fallen behind these advancements. ACI 211, the mostcommonly used mix proportioning guideline for prescriptive-based specifications, is primarily focused on structural concrete, and has ...


Use Of An Alternative Natural Weed Suppressant: Effects Of Parboiled Rice Hill Mulch On The Growth Of Container Weeds, Amy R. Fields-Taylor, Vanessa Slinger-Friedman 2017 Kennesaw State University

Use Of An Alternative Natural Weed Suppressant: Effects Of Parboiled Rice Hill Mulch On The Growth Of Container Weeds, Amy R. Fields-Taylor, Vanessa Slinger-Friedman

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

The Chattahoochee Nature Center (CNC) is one of the leading educational centers in Georgia about the ecology of the Chattahoochee River. Due to lack of man power, keeping down the weeds in the CNC plant nursery is one of those tasks that often gets left undone. The nursery becomes overgrown with invasive weed species. Understandably, they must sometimes resort to the use of herbicides, such as Roundup®, to keep the hundreds of native and endangered species of plants housed at CNC from being choked out by invasive weeds. This study tests the ability to suppress weed growth by use of ...


Assessment Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Geothermal Heated Airport Pavement System, Weibin Shen, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim, Halil Ceylan 2017 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Geothermal Heated Airport Pavement System, Weibin Shen, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim, Halil Ceylan

Halil Ceylan

Geothermal heated pavement systems (GHPS), viz., the use of geothermal energy to heat pavements, have been used as an efficient alternative to de-icing chemicals and mechanical snow-removal equipment. Although some previous studies on pavement-heating systems have focused on their efficiency and economic viability, up to this point none of them have systematically investigated their potential to contribute toward global warming. This study applies life cycle assessment to analyze and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from the use of either GHPS or traditional snow-removal systems on airport runways and gate areas. A GHPS produces lower GHG emissions than a traditional ...


Planning Cities, Economically Or Communally: A Comparative Study Of Amsterdam And San Francisco, Raina Dawn Whittekiend 2017 The University of San Francisco

Planning Cities, Economically Or Communally: A Comparative Study Of Amsterdam And San Francisco, Raina Dawn Whittekiend

Master's Theses

Globalization has spun “community” off its axis. What once defined community is no longer the current state of the community. Increased economic transactions have led to the instability of communities that once depended on one another at the local level. These communities are now dependent on systems that do not know nor understand their actors. This lack of relationship between development and subject is witnessed and highly scrutinized in developing countries all over the world and has been intensely researched in academic literature. This thesis intends to better understand why in modernized global cities these same processes of development and ...


Failing Food Supply: Permaculture's Potential, John Faltin 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Failing Food Supply: Permaculture's Potential, John Faltin

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Conventional agriculture is the currently leading production method to grow crops in the western hemisphere. Long-term sustainability of the system and all the components is secondary to producing high yields each growing season, which leads to issues such as erosion and reduced soil quality. Other agricultural production methods such as permaculture aim to build soil and improve quality every growing season. This experiment intends to look at the potential of permaculture to improve soil quality on small-scales at the end of each growing season. The parameters to gauge success are a larger concentration of macronutrients at the end of the ...


Multiple Methods Of Public Engagement: Disaggregating Socio-Spatial Data For Environmental Planning In Western Washington, Usa, Rebecca J. McLain, David Banis, Alexa Todd, Lee Cerveny 2017 Portland State University

Multiple Methods Of Public Engagement: Disaggregating Socio-Spatial Data For Environmental Planning In Western Washington, Usa, Rebecca J. Mclain, David Banis, Alexa Todd, Lee Cerveny

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Highlights

• The effectiveness of participatory GIS approaches at engaging different publics was explored.

• Online surveys engaged urbanites; community workshops engaged rural residents.

• Urban and rural residents went to similar places but engaged in different activities.

• Use of multiple data collection methods will broaden public engagement.

• Mapping behavior studies are needed to improve understandings of PPGIS data quality.


A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Nutritionally Equivalent Meals With And Without Pork, Kelli Young 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Nutritionally Equivalent Meals With And Without Pork, Kelli Young

Theses and Dissertations

The following report details a life cycle assessment of several dietary and meal scenarios with and without pork. The goal of the LCA was to identify the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, water use, and land use of pork containing and porkless diets and meal plans in a field-to-fork analysis. The dietary and meal plan scenarios are iso-caloric meaning they contain the same number of calories. The first set of diets is based on a USDA consumption pattern, 2000 kcal per day. This diet was used to create three other dietary scenarios with and without pork. The USDA recommended food ...


How Livestock Production In Eastern Nebraska May Affect Nitrate Concentrations In Platte River, Yuzhe Luo 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

How Livestock Production In Eastern Nebraska May Affect Nitrate Concentrations In Platte River, Yuzhe Luo

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

The Platte River is one of the largest rivers in Nebraska and serves as a valuable water source to cities along its watershed. Water is essential for both human life and social and economic development. The human body cannot survive without water for more than 3 days, and many industries require water to function. At a regional scale, the total amount of water is relatively constant, which means if some water sources were contaminated there will be less water available to use.


Companion Planting: Effects Of Radishes On Squash Bugs, Daniel DeJong 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Companion Planting: Effects Of Radishes On Squash Bugs, Daniel Dejong

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Throughout history, humans have continuously looked for easier and improved ways of growing our food. Over centuries of hybridizing crop varieties and more recently the invention and implementation of genetically modified (GM) seeds, we have created a food system that is dependent on chemical and seed companies to provide protection from environmental pests. The purpose of this thesis is not to discredit or dissuade someone from using GM seeds, but to take a look at some methods that could protect crops from environmental pests naturally, either for organic farmers or home gardeners. Specifically this review will examine methods of controlling ...


Companion Planting: Effects Of Radishes On Squash Bugs, Daniel DeJong 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Companion Planting: Effects Of Radishes On Squash Bugs, Daniel Dejong

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Throughout history, humans have continuously looked for easier and improved ways of growing our food. Over centuries of hybridizing crop varieties and more recently the invention and implementation of genetically modified (GM) seeds, we have created a food system that is dependent on chemical and seed companies to provide protection from environmental pests. The purpose of this thesis is not to discredit or dissuade someone from using GM seeds, but to take a look at some methods that could protect crops from environmental pests naturally, either for organic farmers or home gardeners. Specifically this review will examine methods of controlling ...


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