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Community Science And The Ecological Merits Of Backyard Habitat Patches And Adjacent Green-Spaces For Urban Avian Species, Kristen S. Gulick, Nikkie West, Marion Dresner 2017 Portland State University

Community Science And The Ecological Merits Of Backyard Habitat Patches And Adjacent Green-Spaces For Urban Avian Species, Kristen S. Gulick, Nikkie West, Marion Dresner

Marion Dresner

In what ways do small-scale urban backyards contribute to local bird abundance and biodiversity? In what ways might these yards serve as an ‘extension’ of neighboring native forest areas? This project investigates the contribution that a group of backyards, certified through the Backyard Habitat Certification Program, have in the suburb of Hillsdale, Oregon, which is adjacent to the natural area of Keller Woodland. Backyard owners functioning as citizen or community scientists assisted with conducting residential bird point-counts once a week in each backyard and the natural area. Counts were done for a total of 8 weeks during nesting season to ...


Estimation Of The Virtualwater Content Of Main Crops On The Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models And Evapotranspiration Methods, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Yuyoung Choi, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee 2017 Chapman University

Estimation Of The Virtualwater Content Of Main Crops On The Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models And Evapotranspiration Methods, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Yuyoung Choi, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Sustainable agriculture in the era of climate change needs to find solutions for the retention and proper utilization of water. This study proposes an ensemble approach for identifying the virtual water content (VWC) of main crops on the Korean Peninsula in past and future climates. Ensemble results with low uncertainty were obtained using three regional climate models, five potential evapotranspiration methods, and the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The productivity results of major crops (rice and maize) under climate change are likely to increase more than in the past based on the ensemble results. The ensemble VWC is ...


The Limitation Of Spread Of Non-Native Marine Invertebrates From Artificial Structures To Natural Habitats, Whitney McClees, Catherine E. de Rivera 2017 Portland State University

The Limitation Of Spread Of Non-Native Marine Invertebrates From Artificial Structures To Natural Habitats, Whitney Mcclees, Catherine E. De Rivera

Catherine E. de Rivera

Artificial structures created for aquatic anthropogenic activities are often colonized and fouled by many non-native species, few of which have invaded natural areas. Some research has indicated predation is limiting the spread of non-native species, while other research has indicated that it is dispersal-driven. To determine the effects of dispersal limitation and predation on the risk to surrounding habitats of being invaded by non-native species established on marina docks, we used a three-factor design, deploying seven unglazed ceramic panels per each treatment combination of 1) inside versus outside a marina in Yaquina Bay, Oregon; 2) cage keeping out predators >mesh ...


Fish And Macroinvertebrate Response To Restored Off Channel Habitats On The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Caleb Uerling 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fish And Macroinvertebrate Response To Restored Off Channel Habitats On The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Caleb Uerling

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Anthropogenic alterations to large rivers ranging from impoundments to levees have caused many rivers to no longer access the floodplain. The ecological integrity of floodplain rivers depends on the interaction between main-channel and floodplain habitats. Fish communities inhabiting floodplain habitats are often dictated by the type of habitat and conditions within that habitat. As restoration projects are undertaken it is imperative that managers understand how fish and macroinvertebrates respond to these events. We collected fish, macroinvertebrates, and habitat parameters on two restored floodplain habitats on the lower Platte River, Nebraska to answer questions about aquatic community response to floodplain restoration ...


Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, R. K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart 2017 Iowa State University

Using The Storm Water Management Model To Predict Urban Headwater Stream Hydrological Response To Climate And Land Cover Change, J. Y. Wu, Janette R. Thompson, R. K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz, Timothy W. Stewart

Timothy W. Stewart

Streams are natural features in urban landscapes that can provide ecosystem services for urban residents. However, urban streams are under increasing pressure caused by multiple anthropogenic impacts, including increases in human population and associated impervious surface area, and accelerated climate change. The ability to anticipate these changes and better understand their effects on streams is important for developing and implementing strategies to mitigate potentially negative effects. In this study, stream flow was monitored during April-November (2011 and 2012), and the data were used to apply the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for five urban watersheds in central Iowa, USA, representing ...


Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz 2017 Iowa State University

Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz

Timothy W. Stewart

Urban stream condition is often degraded by human activities in the surrounding watershed. Given the complexity of urban areas, relationships among variables that cause stream degradation can be difficult to isolate. We examined factors affecting stream condition by evaluating social, terrestrial, stream hydrology and water quality variables from 20 urban stream watersheds in central Iowa, U.S.A. We used path analysis to examine and quantify social and ecological factors related to variation in stream conditions. Path models supported hypotheses that stream water quality was influenced by variables in each category. Specifically, one path model indicated that increased stream water ...


Reconnecting Iowa Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (1), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa State University

Reconnecting Iowa Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (1), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Changing the configuration of tile drainage structures to allow subsurface flow through a riparian buffer could offer farmers another option for nitrate removal. This project examined the effects of using tiling and buffers to enhance the denitrification process.


Riparian Buffer Systems In Crop And Rangelands, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas M. Isenhart, Joseph P. Colletti 2017 Iowa State University

Riparian Buffer Systems In Crop And Rangelands, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas M. Isenhart, Joseph P. Colletti

Thomas M. Isenhart

Riparian ecosystems occupy a narrow belt of land along streams and around lakes and wetlands and are characterized by plant and animal communities that are dependent on close proximity to water. These ecotones function as buffer zones for materials moving from the uplands toward the surface water. They control stream morphology and ecology and also maintain landscape biodiversity by providing diverse habitats and corridors for animals and plants. Most of the riparian zones in the Midwestern agroecosystems and arid and semiarid western rangelands have been extensively impacted by agricultural cropping and grazing activities. These impacts have generally decreased water quality ...


Reconnecting Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (2), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin 2017 Iowa State University

Reconnecting Riparian Buffers With Tile Drainage (2), Dan B. Jaynes, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin

Thomas M. Isenhart

This is a continuation of an earlier pilot project (E2010-01) where tile discharge was rerouted to allow subsurface flow through an established riparian buffer. This third year of observations allowed researchers to gather more data on nitrate removal using this system.


Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. DeVault, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Increased Abundance And First Breeding Record Of The Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Brasilianus) On The Alluvial Plain Of Mississippi, Katie C. Hanson, Travis L. Devault, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Neotropic Cormorant) has been observed with increasing frequency in the alluvial plain (Delta region) of Mississippi. In the past 6 years, 22 individuals have been observed in 20 separate sightings during spring and summer. These sightings have occurred at breeding colonies of other colonial waterbirds and commercial aquaculture facilities of Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh). Two sexually mature Neotropic Cormorants have been collected at a colonial waterbird breeding colony near the Mississippi River in the western Delta region among fl ocks of Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorants). Twice during the summer of 2008, confi rmed nesting of Neotropic Cormorants ...


Using Variance Components To Estimate Power In A Hierarchically Nested Sampling Design, Maria Dzul, Philip M. Dixon, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines 2017 Iowa State University

Using Variance Components To Estimate Power In A Hierarchically Nested Sampling Design, Maria Dzul, Philip M. Dixon, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines

Stephen J Dinsmore

We used variance components to assess allocation of sampling effort in a hierarchically nested sampling design for ongoing monitoring of early life history stages of the federally endangered Devils Hole pupfish (DHP) (Cyprinodon diabolis). Sampling design for larval DHP included surveys (5 days each spring 2007–2009), events, and plots. Each survey was comprised of three counting events, where DHP larvae on nine plots were counted plot by plot. Statistical analysis of larval abundance included three components: (1) evaluation of power from various sample size combinations, (2) comparison of power in fixed and random plot designs, and (3) assessment of ...


Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Drastic losses of wetland habitats across North America over the past century have resulted in population declines of many marsh birds therefore emphasizing the need for proper management of remaining wetlands for the conservation of marsh birds. Our objective was to evaluate the probability of site occupancy of secretive marsh birds in Iowa in response to habitat variables at multiple scales. We conducted call-broadcast surveys for eight species of marsh birds at wetlands in Iowa from 16 May–15 July 2009 and from 20 April–10 July 2010. We utilized occupancy models in Program MARK to estimate site occupancy probability ...


Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Wetlands continue to decline throughout North America and the Prairie Pothole Region, thus emphasizing the importance of understanding population trends and habitat associations of wetland species to ensure effective conservation and habitat management of those species. We estimated density and abundance and evaluated habitat associations of the Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana georgiana) in Iowa. We conducted standardized distance sampling surveys for Swamp Sparrows and measured habitat characteristics at 307 wetlands in two regions of Iowa in 2009 and 2010. We used Program Distance to model detection probability and estimate region-specific breeding densities of Swamp Sparrows at Iowa wetlands. We ...


Factors Affecting Snowy Plover Chick Survival In A Managed Population, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Eleanor P. Gaines, Scott F. Pearson, David J. Lauten, Kathleen J. Castelein 2017 Iowa State University

Factors Affecting Snowy Plover Chick Survival In A Managed Population, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Eleanor P. Gaines, Scott F. Pearson, David J. Lauten, Kathleen J. Castelein

Stephen J Dinsmore

Understanding survival of precocial chicks in the period immediately following hatching has important conservation implications because population growth is often sensitive to post-hatching survival. We studied federally threatened Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) broods at the northern limit of their range in coastal Oregon (n ¼ 1,157) and Washington (n ¼ 84) from 1991 to 2011 in an attempt to understand seasonal, annual, and spatial patterns of chick survival. In Oregon, plover chick survival increased with age, varied between sites, and was greater at sites with predator management. The mean probability of surviving from hatch to fledging at ...


Identifying Sources Of Error In Surveys Of Devils Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon Diabolis), Maria Dzul, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Philip M. Dixon, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines 2017 Iowa State University

Identifying Sources Of Error In Surveys Of Devils Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon Diabolis), Maria Dzul, Michael C. Quist, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Philip M. Dixon, Michael R. Bower, Kevin P. Wilson, D. Bailey Gaines

Stephen J Dinsmore

We assessed four potential sources of error in estimating size of the population of Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis): net, time of day, diver, and order of diver. Experimental dives (3/day) were conducted during 4 days in July 2009. Effects of the four sources of error on estimates from dive surveys were analyzed using a split-split plot ANOVA. Diver and order of diver had no significant influence on estimates, whereas the effect of presence or absence of a net was significant. Effects of time of day and presence or absence of a net showed a significant interaction with depth ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Landscape Configuration On Site Occupancy And Movement Dynamics Of Odonates In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Karen Kinkhead, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluating The Effects Of Landscape Configuration On Site Occupancy And Movement Dynamics Of Odonates In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Karen Kinkhead, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Odonates contribute highly to global biodiversity and are considered good indicators of environmental quality, but they are under-studied and quantitative information on their habitat associations is lacking. Our objective was to examine the effects of landscape configuration on site occupancy and movement dynamics of four odonate species in Iowa: Tramea onusta, Epitheca princeps, Pantala flavescens, and Calopteryx maculata. We conducted standardized visual encounter surveys for odonates at 233 public properties in Iowa from 2007 to 2011 and computed landscape variables within a 200, 600 m, and 1 km radius of each surveyed site. Using a robust design occupancy model in ...


Effects Of Grassland Habitat And Plant Nutrients On Soybean Aphid And Natural Enemy Populations, Nicholas P. Schmidt, Matthew E. O'Neal, Lisa A. Schulte Moore 2017 Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.

Effects Of Grassland Habitat And Plant Nutrients On Soybean Aphid And Natural Enemy Populations, Nicholas P. Schmidt, Matthew E. O'Neal, Lisa A. Schulte Moore

Matthew E. O'Neal

The soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an invasive economic pest of soybean (Glycine max[L.] Merrill) in the United States. Research has shown the endemic natural enemy community in the United States is capable of suppressing A. glycines below EILs, but this biological control is inconsistent, especially in simple agricultural landscapes. In the course of a 3-yr project (2006–2008) we sought to determine the affects of landscape composition, configuration, and plant nutrients (N, P, and K) on A. glycines and aphidophagous natural enemy abundance. Specifically, we tested whether nearby grasslands contribute to the abundance of natural ...


Alternative Intertemporal Permit Trading Regimes With Stochastic Abatement Costs, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao 2017 Iowa State University

Alternative Intertemporal Permit Trading Regimes With Stochastic Abatement Costs, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao

Hongli Feng

We examine the social efficiency of alternative intertemporal permit trading regimes. Banking with a 1-to-1 ratio and with a non-unitary intertemporal trading ratio (ITR) are compared with each other and with the no-banking permit trading regime. The more industry-wide shocks vary, and/or the more they are negatively correlated across time, the more efficient is a bankable permit regime. When the slope of the benefit function is greater than the slope of the damage function, banking with ITR=1+r is more efficient than a no-banking regime. Banking with ITR=1 can be more efficient than a no-banking regime. However ...


The Dynamics Of Carbon Sequestration And Measures Of Cost-Effectiveness, Hongli Feng 2017 Iowa State University

The Dynamics Of Carbon Sequestration And Measures Of Cost-Effectiveness, Hongli Feng

Hongli Feng

The cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration alternatives has often been discussed in the economics literature on sequestration. Average or marginal costs and annual carbon supply curves are often used as measures of cost-effectiveness. Sequestration is inherently a temporal process and how time is accounted for in the various measures of cost-effectiveness is critical for appropriate cross-study comparisons. I examine three factors that affect the magnitude of measured cost-effectiveness: the study period, the sequestration path, and the discount rate if discounting is used. The extent to which these factors affect the consistency of cross-study comparisons is empirically illustrated.


The Designation Of Co-Benefits And Its Implication For Policy: Water Quality Versus Carbon Sequestration In Agricultural Soils, Silvia Secchi, Manoj K. Jha, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Hongli Feng, Philip W. Gassman, Catherine L. Kling 2017 Iowa State University

The Designation Of Co-Benefits And Its Implication For Policy: Water Quality Versus Carbon Sequestration In Agricultural Soils, Silvia Secchi, Manoj K. Jha, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Hongli Feng, Philip W. Gassman, Catherine L. Kling

Hongli Feng

This study investigates the implications of treating different environmental benefits as the primary target of policy design. We focus on two scenarios, estimating for both of them in-stream sediment, nutrient loadings, and carbon sequestration. In the first, we assess the impact of a program designed to improve water quality in Iowa on carbon sequestration, and in the second, we calculate the water quality impact of a program aimed at maximizing carbon sequestration. In both cases, the policy instrument is the retirement of land from agricultural production. Our results, limited to the state of Iowa, and to the case of set-aside ...


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