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Farm To Boardroom: How Improving Farm Conditions Leads To Sustained And Ethical Profit, Emily Mueller 2021 Fordham University

Farm To Boardroom: How Improving Farm Conditions Leads To Sustained And Ethical Profit, Emily Mueller

Student Theses 2015-Present

As a society evolving and innovating at a pace faster than ever before seen in human history, we find ourselves at a crossroads of dealing with planetary boundaries and improving social standards. We are met with a crisis just thirty years away; the crisis of needing to be able to effectively and sustainably feed ten billion people across the globe. The 20th century brought on a booming age for industrializing the food system in order to increase yield and thus profit. The new process was a significant breakthrough at its time, but now we must face the question of when ...


Integrated Estuary Governance, Mary Jane Angelo, J.W. Glass 2021 William & Mary Law School

Integrated Estuary Governance, Mary Jane Angelo, J.W. Glass

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Estuaries are complex, dynamic ecosystems that play a critical role in supporting crucial economic industries, such as commercial fishing and tourism, and providing the resources necessary to sustain coastal communities. A range of anthropogenic environmental stressors are threatening the health of estuaries throughout the world. Traditional top-down single resource focused environmental regulatory approaches have proved inadequate to protect and restore estuarine systems. In recent years, scientific and legal academics, as well as policymakers, have called for more holistic participatory approaches to addressing environmental challenges. Drawing on the literature on ecosystem management, integrated water resources management, collaborative governance, and adaptive management ...


Conceptual Framework Linking Resource Size And Recreational Use, Derek Kane 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Conceptual Framework Linking Resource Size And Recreational Use, Derek Kane

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Participation in recreational activities at natural resource systems is important to many people. However, the use of these resource systems can cause negative social and ecological impacts. To manage the potential negative impacts of resource use, natural resource managers must have the ability to quantify and monitor the amount of use that is occurring. Unfortunately, it is difficult and costly to quantify and monitor resource system use. Natural resource management would benefit from uncovering a simple, easily accessible metric that could predict resource system use. The size of a resource system is related to social and ecological aspects of the ...


Consumer Food Waste Behaviors In Relation To Open Date Label Misinterpretation, Daniel Hutchings, Elisabeth Seliga, Anya O'Meara, Anna Blank 2021 University of Southern Maine

Consumer Food Waste Behaviors In Relation To Open Date Label Misinterpretation, Daniel Hutchings, Elisabeth Seliga, Anya O'Meara, Anna Blank

Thinking Matters Symposium

In the United States, the legal framework for product date labeling is minimal and varies across states. Manufacturers have the discretion to use any date label that they deem appropriate, and this lack of uniformity leaves room for misinterpretation by both retailers and consumers. Previous studies have examined consumer misinterpretation of date labels and how this lack of knowledge correlates to food waste behaviors. This study was aimed at understanding how consumers apply their knowledge about date labels to make decisions about purchasing and discarding food. The research was conducted via an intercept survey outside of a grocery store to ...


The Power Of Information: Information, Leak Notices, And Water Conservation In Edina, Mn, Federico Chung 2021 Macalester College

The Power Of Information: Information, Leak Notices, And Water Conservation In Edina, Mn, Federico Chung

Economics Honors Projects

This paper provides evidence on the effects of information provision on households’ water use. I use quarterly household consumption data from a utility in Minnesota to test the effect of a new residential water billing system on households’ water consumption. The updated billing format was possible as the utility transitioned to an automated meter reading (AMR) system. I also study impacts of another source of improved information provision from AMR adoption, faster high-water consumption notices. I find mixed evidence of the impact of personalized information on households’ water use. Households respond to high-consumption notices by significantly reducing consumption, even relative ...


Groundwater-Ephemeral Stream Interaction Before And After Storm Events, Jennifer Sabbak 2021 Susquehanna University

Groundwater-Ephemeral Stream Interaction Before And After Storm Events, Jennifer Sabbak

Senior Scholars Day

Almost 60 percent of stream miles in the continental United States only flow seasonally or after storms according to a study done by the EPA in 2013. Although these streams make up a vast majority of stream miles throughout the United States, seasonal and ephemeral stream channels are not often regularly monitored. This study will focus on analyzing the hydrology of an unnamed, underrepresented ephemeral stream within Snyder County, Pennsylvania. This stream runs through Susquehanna University’s CEER site and drains into Penn Creek. The objective of this study is to accurately represent the stream’s groundwater recharge rate by ...


Development Of Mine Soils In A Chronosequence Of Forestry-Reclaimed Sites In Eastern Kentucky, Kenton L. Sena, Kevin M. Yeager, Christopher D. Barton, John M. Lhotka, William E. Bond, Kimberly J. Schindler 2021 University of Kentucky

Development Of Mine Soils In A Chronosequence Of Forestry-Reclaimed Sites In Eastern Kentucky, Kenton L. Sena, Kevin M. Yeager, Christopher D. Barton, John M. Lhotka, William E. Bond, Kimberly J. Schindler

Lewis Honors College Faculty Publications

Surface mining for coal has contributed to widespread deforestation and soil loss in coal mining regions around the world, and particularly in Appalachia, USA. Mined land reforestation is of interest in this and other regions where forests are the dominant pre-mining land use. This study evaluated mine soil development on surface-mined sites reforested according to the Forestry Reclamation Approach, representing a chronosequence of time ranging from 0 to 19 years after reclamation. Soils were sampled in depth increments to 50 cm and analyzed for a suite of soil physical and chemical characteristics. Overall, soil fines (silt + clay) tended to increase ...


Tournament And Non-Tournament Anglers Have Little Effect On A Largemouth Bass Population Compared To Natural Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael J. Weber 2021 Iowa State University

Tournament And Non-Tournament Anglers Have Little Effect On A Largemouth Bass Population Compared To Natural Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael J. Weber

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Popularity of bass Micropterus spp. catch and release and tournament angling during the past decade has resulted in increased potential for these activities to induce population level effects. Understanding capture rates and mortality sources relative to total population mortality is essential to focus of management. We conducted monthly electrofishing, solicited nontournament angler tag returns, and censused largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides tournaments at Brushy Creek Lake, IA, USA from April 2015 to June 2018. We used a multistate mark-recapture model to evaluate the effects of air temperature, water temperature, tournament bass per angler, and tournament initial mortality on non-tournament and tournament ...


Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams 2021 James Madison University

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reptiles utilize a variety of environmental cues to inform and drive animal behavior such as chemical scent trails produced by food or conspecifics. Decrypting the scent-trailing behavior of vertebrates, particularly invasive species, enables the discovery of cues that induce exploratory behavior and can aid in the development of valuable basic and applied biological tools. However, pinpointing behaviors dominantly driven by chemical cues versus other competing environmental cues can be challenging. Y-mazes are common tools used in animal behavior research that allow quantification of vertebrate chemosensory behavior across a range of taxa. By reducing external stimuli, Y-mazes remove confounding factors and ...


S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This is a book of cranes, from A to Z, written and illustrated by the world’s foremost authority on the 15 species of these wonderful and ancient birds. It is a book for all ages, and for all who love and marvel at the beauty, order, and variety of the natural world.

Cranes exhibit complex behavior, pair-bonding, and fascinating social interactions. They migrate huge distances, crossing continents, oceans, and mountains between their nesting and wintering areas. Seven of the world’s 15 crane species are listed as “vulnerable,” three as “endangered,” one as “critically endangered,” and only three as ...


Reimagining The Duck Stamp, Hunting Licensure And Public Land Preservation, Alec Wayne Boyd-Devine 2021 Western Kentucky University

Reimagining The Duck Stamp, Hunting Licensure And Public Land Preservation, Alec Wayne Boyd-Devine

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The American Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp, or Duck Stamp, is a form of licensure issued by the Federal Government for waterfowl hunters. Why do physical stamps act as licensure to hunt waterfowl on both public and private land in the United States? How did the stamp become the key that grants access to resources that supposedly should be owned by the public? The duck stamp has been well-documented in conservation communities as a resource which has made significant positive impacts on the environment. The increase of anti-hunting sentiments in our society combined with fewer hunters per capita may ...


Large Area Land Cover Mapping Using Deep Neural Networks And Landsat Time-Series Observations, Shahriar Shah Heydari 2021 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Large Area Land Cover Mapping Using Deep Neural Networks And Landsat Time-Series Observations, Shahriar Shah Heydari

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation focuses on analysis and implementation of deep learning methodologies in the field of remote sensing to enhance land cover classification accuracy, which has important applications in many areas of environmental planning and natural resources management.

The first manuscript conducted a land cover analysis on 26 Landsat scenes in the United States by considering six classifier variants. An extensive grid search was conducted to optimize classifier parameters using only the spectral components of each pixel. Results showed no gain in using deep networks by using only spectral components over conventional classifiers, possibly due to the small reference sample size ...


Participant And Socio-Ecological Outcomes Of The Hofmann Open-Water Laboratory (Howl) Citizen Science Project, Meredith Hovis, Frederick Cubbage, Madhusudan Katti, Kathleen McGinley 2021 North Carolina State University

Participant And Socio-Ecological Outcomes Of The Hofmann Open-Water Laboratory (Howl) Citizen Science Project, Meredith Hovis, Frederick Cubbage, Madhusudan Katti, Kathleen Mcginley

Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship

Citizen science, also known as participatory research, combines the efforts of professional researchers and community volunteers to collect data. We have established one such collaborative project in eastern North Carolina, near the 79,000-acre Hofmann Forest, called the Hofmann Open-Water Laboratory (HOWL) citizen science project. The White Oak River, New River, and Trent River all flow out of the Hofmann. The Hofmann is an ecological keystone in the region, acting as a natural filtration system for harmful runoff that occurs in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Our purposes for this study were twofold: (a) to evaluate the HOWL project ...


Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor 2021 Boise State University

Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated on complex process ...


Protocol For Monitoring Fish Communities In Small Streams In The Heartland Inventory And Monitoring Network, Version 2.0, Hope R. Dodd, David G. Peitz, Gareth Rowell, Janice A. Hinsey, David E. Bowles, Lloyd W. Morrison, Michael D. DeBacker, Jennifer L. Haack-Gaynor, Jeffrey M. Williams 2021 United States National Park Service

Protocol For Monitoring Fish Communities In Small Streams In The Heartland Inventory And Monitoring Network, Version 2.0, Hope R. Dodd, David G. Peitz, Gareth Rowell, Janice A. Hinsey, David E. Bowles, Lloyd W. Morrison, Michael D. Debacker, Jennifer L. Haack-Gaynor, Jeffrey M. Williams

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

Fish communities are an important component of aquatic systems and are good bioindicators of ecosystem health. Land use changes in the Midwest have caused sedimentation, erosion, and nutrient loading that degrades and fragments habitat and impairs water quality. Because most small wadeable streams in the Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network (HTLN) have a relatively small area of their watersheds located within park boundaries, these streams are at risk of degradation due to adjacent land use practices and other anthropogenic disturbances. Shifts in the physical and chemical properties of aquatic systems have a dramatic effect on the biotic community ...


Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman 2021 University of California, Davis

Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

Changing climate and introduced species are placing an increasing number of species at risk of extinction. Increasing extinction risk is increasing calls to protect species by relocating, or translocating, them to locations with more favorable biotic or climatic conditions. Managed relocation, or assisted migration, of species entails risks to both the conservation target organisms being moved as well as the recipient ecosystems into which they are moved.

Recognizing this risk, calls have been made for practitioners interested in considering a managed relocation project to engage in a serious risk assessment prior to advancing a project. We engaged a ...


Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. VerCauteren 2021 USDA APHIS NWRC

Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the 21st century, invasive animals rank second only to habitat destruction as the greatest threat to global biodiversity. Socially-acceptable and cost-effective strategies are needed to reduce the negative economic and environmental impacts of invasive animals. We investigated the potential for sodium nitrite (SN; CAS 7632-00-0) to serve as an avian toxicant for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). We also assessed the non-target hazard of an experimental formulation of SN that is being developed as a toxicant for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa L.). In gavage experiments with European starlings, we identified a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for ...


Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. DeLiberto 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.

We report a wildlife epidemiologic investigation of mammals captured on or near properties in Utah, USA, where outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in farmed mink. Mink farms are relatively common in the United States, and most are small family farms. The US ...


How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler 2021 University of Louisville

How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler

Grawemeyer Colloquium Papers

Across the world, it is estimated that 4.5 billion people live near water sources “impaired” for use or contact. Standards for human-interaction are established by international organizations such as the WHO, and legislative bodies from national to local levels with jurisdiction over the quality of our waterways to ensure public & environmental health. Standards are often assessed from “grab-samples” taken from a waterbody at a certain time, with a minimum number analyzed. Water-quality standards in the United States are enforced under the Clean Water Act (CWA) via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), applying to “waters of the United States” (WOTUS ...


Modeling The Release And Spreading Of Permanganate From Aerated Slow-Release Oxidants In A Laboratory Flow Tank, Ann Kambhu, Yusong Li, Troy E. Gilmore, Steve D. Comfort 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Modeling The Release And Spreading Of Permanganate From Aerated Slow-Release Oxidants In A Laboratory Flow Tank, Ann Kambhu, Yusong Li, Troy E. Gilmore, Steve D. Comfort

Papers in Natural Resources

Aerated, slow-release oxidants are a relatively new technology for treating contaminated aquifers. A critical need for advancing this technology is developing a reliable method for predicting the radius of influence (ROI) around each drive point. In this work, we report a series of laboratory flow tank experiments and numerical modeling efforts designed to predict the release and spreading of permanganate from aerated oxidant candles (oxidant-wax composites). To mimic the design of the oxidant delivery system used in the field, a double screen was used in a series of flow tank experiments where the oxidant was placed inside the inner screen ...


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