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Weights And Balances: Integrating Models For Prevention And Response To Southern California Offshore Oil Spills, Carmen Watts Clayton, Amoret Bunn 2016 CSUMB

Weights And Balances: Integrating Models For Prevention And Response To Southern California Offshore Oil Spills, Carmen Watts Clayton, Amoret Bunn

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Licensing offshore oil and gas reserves in the United States waters are overseen by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Safety and Enforcement (BSEE). The licensing application includes planning for any worst-case oil spill scenario between BSEE and the applicant based on lessons learned from historic offshore spills such as the Deepwater Horizon (2010), Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Union Oil Platform Blowout (1969). The process for planning to respond to oil spills involves coordination with multiple agencies, trustees, and stakeholders to ensure that oil spill responses consider multiple factors, including ecologically sensitive species, commercial transportation ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

J. Kissock

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker

Xiaoyang Zhang

The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...


Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart 2016 University of Maine

Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart

Jonathan Rubin

No abstract provided.


Persistence Of Trace Organic Contaminants From A Commercial Biosolids-Based Fertilizer In Aerobic Soils, Travis A. Banet, Jihyun R. Kim, Michael L. Mashtare 2016 Purdue University

Persistence Of Trace Organic Contaminants From A Commercial Biosolids-Based Fertilizer In Aerobic Soils, Travis A. Banet, Jihyun R. Kim, Michael L. Mashtare

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Municipal biosolids are recycled as agricultural fertilizers. Recent studies have raised concerns due to the presence of emerging contaminants in municipal biosolids. Previous research suggests that these contaminants have the potential to reside in biosolids-based fertilizers that are commercially distributed. Use of these products in urban/suburban areas may provide a pathway for these contaminants to enter ecosystems and impact human and environmental health. Soils from Purdue University’s community garden and MiracleGro Potting Mix were chosen to represent commonly used urban/suburban growth media. Triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl parabens were selected as compounds of interest for this study. A ...


Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan 2016 Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The widespread efforts to incorporate the economic values of oceans into national income accounts have reached a stage where coordination of national efforts is desirable. A symposium held in 2015 began this process by bringing together representatives from ten countries. The symposium concluded that a definition of core ocean industries was possible but beyond that core the definition of ocean industries is in flux. Better coordination of ocean income accounts will require addressing issues of aggregation, geography, partial ocean industries, confidential, and imputation is also needed. Beyond the standard national income accounts, a need to incorporate environmental resource and ecosystem ...


Applications Of Time-Lapse Imagery For Monitoring And Illustrating Ecological Dynamics In A Water-Stressed System, Emma Brinley Buckley 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Applications Of Time-Lapse Imagery For Monitoring And Illustrating Ecological Dynamics In A Water-Stressed System, Emma Brinley Buckley

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Understanding and perceiving the natural world is a key part of management, policy, conservation, and inevitably for our future. Increased demand on natural resources has heightened the importance of documenting ecosystem changes, and knowledge-sharing to foster awareness. The advancement of digital technologies has improved the efficiency of passive monitoring, connectivity among systems, and expanded the potential for innovative and communicative approaches. From technological progression, time-lapse imagery has emerged a valuable tool to capture and depict natural systems. I sought to enhance our understanding of a water-stressed system by analyzing imagery, in addition to integrating images with data visualization to illustrate ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

Kevin Hallinan

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk 2016 Portland State University

Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Black carbon (BC) is a troubling particulate. Commonly known as soot, BC forms through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass. It has a very low albedo compared to natural particulates making it a very efficient absorber of solar radiation. As BC is deposited on snow and ice, albedo is decreased - enhancing solar heating and increasing meltwater production. With rising air temperatures, melting rates of polar ice are increasing and are being enhanced by BC, leading to accelerated global sea level rise.

This study aimed to document sources and deposition areas of BC in the Arctic. Utilizing HySplit ...


Wpływ Prędkości I Kierunku Wiatru Na Jakość Powietrza W Krakowie, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Adriana Szulecka, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Marian Mazur 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Wpływ Prędkości I Kierunku Wiatru Na Jakość Powietrza W Krakowie, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Adriana Szulecka, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Marian Mazur

Robert Oleniacz

The paper discusses the role of wind speed and direction in shaping the levels of pollutant concentrations in the air in Krakow. For this purpose, the hourly averaged measurements of meteorological parameters and concentrations of selected air pollutants (PM10, PM2,5, NOx, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and C6H6) derived from the period of 2014-2015 and recorded within the area of Krakow city were used, with the differentiation associated with the type and location of measuring stations. Impact assessment of the meteorological parameters on air pollutant concentrations was determined with a nonparametric Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient values and on the ...


Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the estimation of the spatial differentiation of selected gaseous pollutant concentrations in urban air using measurement results performed with the passive method. The research was conducted in the city of Sucha Beskidzka in the winter season (2014/2015) and in the city of Krakow in the summer season (2015). Analysis comprised three major air pollutants for which it was possible to use the passive samplers – nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and additionaly benzene. Exposure time of passive samplers lasted one month. In Sucha Beskidzka and Krakow respectively two and three measurement series of NO2 and SO2 ...


After The Paris Agreement: How India Can Use Climate Financing To Implement A Sustainable Clean Cookstove Program, Hannah Kornfeld 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

After The Paris Agreement: How India Can Use Climate Financing To Implement A Sustainable Clean Cookstove Program, Hannah Kornfeld

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The burning of biomass for cooking purposes without proper ventilation and filters poses a massive health and climate risk. Health implications from exposure to household air pollution from this type of fuel impacts women and children in many developing countries, who spend many hours a day cooking and gathering fuel. Climate implications from burning solid biomass results in increased carbon dioxide and black carbon emissions, which contribute to global climate change. This thesis aims to explore the issues associated with biomass cookstoves in terms of both health and climate, and seeks to understand how a new national clean cookstove program ...


Wpływ Rodzaju Spalanych Paliw I Działań Termomodernizacyjnych Na Oddziaływanie Budynku Jednorodzinnego Na Jakość Powietrza, Robert Oleniacz, Magdalena Kasietczuk, Magdalena Kępka 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Wpływ Rodzaju Spalanych Paliw I Działań Termomodernizacyjnych Na Oddziaływanie Budynku Jednorodzinnego Na Jakość Powietrza, Robert Oleniacz, Magdalena Kasietczuk, Magdalena Kępka

Robert Oleniacz

The paper discusses the overall impact of the type of burned fuel and thermal renovation actions within a detached house on the emission of some pollutants into the air. It shows also an example of the assessment of the impact on air quality for residential building with a heated area of 185 m2, which came into use in 1997, for three periods of its operation with different way of heating and preparing domestic hot water, and heat loss to the environment (due to the changes made in this range by thermal renovation). This assessment takes into account the maximum and ...


Ocena Ekspozycji Budynku Wielorodzinnego Na Wpływ Emisji Benzenu Ze Stacji Paliw Oraz Transportu Drogowego W Okresie Letnim, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz, Adriana Szulecka 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Ocena Ekspozycji Budynku Wielorodzinnego Na Wpływ Emisji Benzenu Ze Stacji Paliw Oraz Transportu Drogowego W Okresie Letnim, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz, Adriana Szulecka

Robert Oleniacz

Concentration level of benzene in urban air in the summer is determined primarily (excluding the industrial areas) by emissions originating from road vehicles and fuel stations. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of a multifamily, five-storey residential building located in the Krakow city centre to the influence of benzene emitted from a nearby fuel station and road transport. Determination of the spatial distribution of benzene concentrations in the vicinity of evaluated building was conducted using measurement procedure with 10 passive samplers exposed over a period of 32 days at the turn of May and June 2015 ...


Zastosowanie Systemu Modelowania Aermod W Obliczeniach Dyspersji Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza W Warunkach Polskich, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Robert Oleniacz 2016 AGH University of Science and Technology

Zastosowanie Systemu Modelowania Aermod W Obliczeniach Dyspersji Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza W Warunkach Polskich, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Robert Oleniacz

Robert Oleniacz

The study assesses the possibility of implementing the AERMOD modeling system on Polish territory. Attention was drawn to the availability and the quality of meteorological and spatial data required for impact assessment of the emission sources on air quality. The potentiality of application of individual modeling system tools was discussed and the alternative data preparation methods were defined. The effects of application of the modeling system were exemplified by air quality impact assessment conducted for the existing facility – Sewage Sludge Incineration (SSI) Plant in Lodz – with different sources of meteorological data assumed. Discussion of the analysis results points to consequences ...


Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis 2016 University of San Francisco

Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis

Master's Projects

Oil spill models, ecological risks, response options, and costs were assessed for a discharge of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay from a train derailment. This assessment was based on the risk of crude by rail derailments into the San Francisco Bay; in 2014, California oil refineries imported over 240 million gallons of Bakken crude oil by rail for processing. A hypothetical scenario was developed from a derailment on the Union Pacific Railroad Bridge and discharging 100,000 gallons of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay. The oil trajectory impacted the Carquinez Strait, Suisun ...


Oil Contamination In Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Olof Lindén, Jonas Pålsson 2016 World Maritime University

Oil Contamination In Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Olof Lindén, Jonas Pålsson

Jonas Pålsson

The study shows extensive oil contamination of rivers, creeks, and ground waters in Ogoniland, Nigeria. The levels found in the more contaminated sites are high enough to cause severe impacts on the ecosystem and human health: extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPHs) (>10-C40) in surface waters up to 7420 μg L−1, drinking water wells show up to 42 200 μg L−1, and benzene up to 9000 μg L−1, more than 900 times the WHO guidelines. EPH concentrations in sediments were up to 17 900 mg kg−1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations reached 8.0 mg kg−1, in the ...


Oil Contamination In The Niger Delta, Jonas Pålsson, Olof Lindén 2016 World Maritime University

Oil Contamination In The Niger Delta, Jonas Pålsson, Olof Lindén

Jonas Pålsson

Oil spills in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has occurred frequently since oil extraction started in the 1950's. The oil spills originates from facilities and pipelines, leaks from ageing and abandoned infrastructure and from spills during transport and artisanal refining of stolen oil under primitive conditions. It is estimated that spills in Nigeria amount to 100 000 to 200 000 tons per year and have been doing so for almost 60 years. While a number of reports have been written about the Niger Delta and the civil unrest in this area during the last decades, very few scientific ...


The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

This study was done in an effort to better understand the multifaceted issues in amphibian decline, specifically within the eastern regions of Nebraska, to determine whether or not human-induced acid rain contributed to the decline. This is a heavily important topic of research as amphibians worldwide are declining related to many issues that stem from climate change and several other environmental issues of that nature. This study looked to use acidic pH within soil from western Nebraska to determine the reactionary impacts (primarily lesions) the western tiger salamander had after being subjected to it. It was found that pH did ...


Then And Now: Vegetative Change Detection On Mount St. Helens 2000-2015, Douglas S. Thalacker, Andrés Holz 2016 Portland State University

Then And Now: Vegetative Change Detection On Mount St. Helens 2000-2015, Douglas S. Thalacker, Andrés Holz

Student Research Symposium

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) proved a dramatic event with many important socio-economic consequences. In addition, this eruption resulted in an array of ecological consequences with subsequent studies and profound theoretical ramifications. The eruption created a complex gradient in disturbance severity on the northern aspect of MSH3, promoting successional processes from varying starting points and change rates. This study uses a landscape-scale approach to quantify spatio-temporal trends in vegetative responses to the eruption from 2000-2015, relying on Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery focusing on the primary and (i.e. no biological legacies) secondary (i.e. with biological ...


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