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Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart 2016 University of Maine

Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart

Jonathan Rubin

No abstract provided.


Type And Timing Of Stream Flow Changes In Urbanizing Watersheds In The Eastern U.S., Kristina G. Hopkins, Nathaniel B. Morse, Daniel J. Bain, Neil D. Bettez, Nancy B. Grimm, Jennifer L. Morse, Monica M. Palta 2016 University of Pittsburgh

Type And Timing Of Stream Flow Changes In Urbanizing Watersheds In The Eastern U.S., Kristina G. Hopkins, Nathaniel B. Morse, Daniel J. Bain, Neil D. Bettez, Nancy B. Grimm, Jennifer L. Morse, Monica M. Palta

Jennifer L. Morse

Linking the type and timing of hydrologic changes with patterns of urban growth is essential to identifying the underlying mechanisms that drive declines in urban aquatic ecosystems. In six urbanizing watersheds surrounding three U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, and Pittsburgh, PA), we reconstructed the history of development patterns since 1900 and assessed the magnitude and timing of stream flow changes during watershed development. Development reconstructions indicated that the majority of watershed development occurred during a period of peak population growth, typically between 1950 and 1970. Stream flow records indicated significant increases in annual frequency of high-flow events in ...


Satellite-Based Management Tool For Oak Savanna Ecosystem Restoration, Peter T. Wolter, Elizabeth A. Berkley, Scott D. Peckham, Aditya Singh 2016 Iowa State University

Satellite-Based Management Tool For Oak Savanna Ecosystem Restoration, Peter T. Wolter, Elizabeth A. Berkley, Scott D. Peckham, Aditya Singh

Peter Wolter

The structure and function of oak Quercus spp. savanna ecosystems in the North American Midwest were originally maintained by an active disturbance regime (often fire). Subsequent reductions in the frequency of disturbance after European settlement have facilitated rapid, regional conversion of these ecosystems to more closed-canopy forest. Hence, regional-scale management strategies are now needed to restore critical spatial gradients of light, temperature, soil moisture, and soil organic matter for recovery and sustenance of the unique mosaic of understory grass and forb species assemblages that define oak savannas. Tree species composition, distribution, mortality, basal area, and canopy cover are important forest ...


Environmental Impact Analysis Of Soybean Oil Production From Expelling, Hexane Extraction And Enzyme Assisted Aqueous Extraction, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jasreen J. K. Sekhon, Tong Wang, Stéphanie Jung, Lawrence A. Johnson 2016 Iowa State University

Environmental Impact Analysis Of Soybean Oil Production From Expelling, Hexane Extraction And Enzyme Assisted Aqueous Extraction, Ming-Hsun Cheng, Weitao Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Jasreen J. K. Sekhon, Tong Wang, Stéphanie Jung, Lawrence A. Johnson

Lawrence A. Johnson

In the industry, expelling and hexane extraction are the two typical processes for soybean oil production. However, the low efficiency and hazardous chemical problem are the main issues for these two processes respectively. Enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) is applied to increase the efficiency without using organic solvent, which is replaced by water. The environmental impact analysis of these three processes are based on their mass flows, energy consumption and global warming potential. For mass flows, the environmental impact indices were calculated based on mass balance of input and output components. Energy consumption was used to evaluate the carbon ...


Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan 2016 Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The widespread efforts to incorporate the economic values of oceans into national income accounts have reached a stage where coordination of national efforts is desirable. A symposium held in 2015 began this process by bringing together representatives from ten countries. The symposium concluded that a definition of core ocean industries was possible but beyond that core the definition of ocean industries is in flux. Better coordination of ocean income accounts will require addressing issues of aggregation, geography, partial ocean industries, confidential, and imputation is also needed. Beyond the standard national income accounts, a need to incorporate environmental resource and ecosystem ...


Applications Of Time-Lapse Imagery For Monitoring And Illustrating Ecological Dynamics In A Water-Stressed System, Emma Brinley Buckley 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Applications Of Time-Lapse Imagery For Monitoring And Illustrating Ecological Dynamics In A Water-Stressed System, Emma Brinley Buckley

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Understanding and perceiving the natural world is a key part of management, policy, conservation, and inevitably for our future. Increased demand on natural resources has heightened the importance of documenting ecosystem changes, and knowledge-sharing to foster awareness. The advancement of digital technologies has improved the efficiency of passive monitoring, connectivity among systems, and expanded the potential for innovative and communicative approaches. From technological progression, time-lapse imagery has emerged a valuable tool to capture and depict natural systems. I sought to enhance our understanding of a water-stressed system by analyzing imagery, in addition to integrating images with data visualization to illustrate ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

Kevin Hallinan

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk 2016 Portland State University

Trajectory Analysis Of Black Carbon In The Arctic Region, Kimberly Gottschalk

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Black carbon (BC) is a troubling particulate. Commonly known as soot, BC forms through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass. It has a very low albedo compared to natural particulates making it a very efficient absorber of solar radiation. As BC is deposited on snow and ice, albedo is decreased - enhancing solar heating and increasing meltwater production. With rising air temperatures, melting rates of polar ice are increasing and are being enhanced by BC, leading to accelerated global sea level rise.

This study aimed to document sources and deposition areas of BC in the Arctic. Utilizing HySplit ...


Wpływ Prędkości I Kierunku Wiatru Na Jakość Powietrza W Krakowie, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Adriana Szulecka, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Marian Mazur 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Wpływ Prędkości I Kierunku Wiatru Na Jakość Powietrza W Krakowie, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Adriana Szulecka, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Marian Mazur

Robert Oleniacz

The paper discusses the role of wind speed and direction in shaping the levels of pollutant concentrations in the air in Krakow. For this purpose, the hourly averaged measurements of meteorological parameters and concentrations of selected air pollutants (PM10, PM2,5, NOx, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and C6H6) derived from the period of 2014-2015 and recorded within the area of Krakow city were used, with the differentiation associated with the type and location of measuring stations. Impact assessment of the meteorological parameters on air pollutant concentrations was determined with a nonparametric Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient values and on the ...


Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the estimation of the spatial differentiation of selected gaseous pollutant concentrations in urban air using measurement results performed with the passive method. The research was conducted in the city of Sucha Beskidzka in the winter season (2014/2015) and in the city of Krakow in the summer season (2015). Analysis comprised three major air pollutants for which it was possible to use the passive samplers – nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and additionaly benzene. Exposure time of passive samplers lasted one month. In Sucha Beskidzka and Krakow respectively two and three measurement series of NO2 and SO2 ...


After The Paris Agreement: How India Can Use Climate Financing To Implement A Sustainable Clean Cookstove Program, Hannah Kornfeld 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

After The Paris Agreement: How India Can Use Climate Financing To Implement A Sustainable Clean Cookstove Program, Hannah Kornfeld

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The burning of biomass for cooking purposes without proper ventilation and filters poses a massive health and climate risk. Health implications from exposure to household air pollution from this type of fuel impacts women and children in many developing countries, who spend many hours a day cooking and gathering fuel. Climate implications from burning solid biomass results in increased carbon dioxide and black carbon emissions, which contribute to global climate change. This thesis aims to explore the issues associated with biomass cookstoves in terms of both health and climate, and seeks to understand how a new national clean cookstove program ...


Wpływ Rodzaju Spalanych Paliw I Działań Termomodernizacyjnych Na Oddziaływanie Budynku Jednorodzinnego Na Jakość Powietrza, Robert Oleniacz, Magdalena Kasietczuk, Magdalena Kępka 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Wpływ Rodzaju Spalanych Paliw I Działań Termomodernizacyjnych Na Oddziaływanie Budynku Jednorodzinnego Na Jakość Powietrza, Robert Oleniacz, Magdalena Kasietczuk, Magdalena Kępka

Robert Oleniacz

The paper discusses the overall impact of the type of burned fuel and thermal renovation actions within a detached house on the emission of some pollutants into the air. It shows also an example of the assessment of the impact on air quality for residential building with a heated area of 185 m2, which came into use in 1997, for three periods of its operation with different way of heating and preparing domestic hot water, and heat loss to the environment (due to the changes made in this range by thermal renovation). This assessment takes into account the maximum and ...


Ocena Ekspozycji Budynku Wielorodzinnego Na Wpływ Emisji Benzenu Ze Stacji Paliw Oraz Transportu Drogowego W Okresie Letnim, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz, Adriana Szulecka 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Ocena Ekspozycji Budynku Wielorodzinnego Na Wpływ Emisji Benzenu Ze Stacji Paliw Oraz Transportu Drogowego W Okresie Letnim, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz, Adriana Szulecka

Robert Oleniacz

Concentration level of benzene in urban air in the summer is determined primarily (excluding the industrial areas) by emissions originating from road vehicles and fuel stations. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of a multifamily, five-storey residential building located in the Krakow city centre to the influence of benzene emitted from a nearby fuel station and road transport. Determination of the spatial distribution of benzene concentrations in the vicinity of evaluated building was conducted using measurement procedure with 10 passive samplers exposed over a period of 32 days at the turn of May and June 2015 ...


Zastosowanie Systemu Modelowania Aermod W Obliczeniach Dyspersji Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza W Warunkach Polskich, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Robert Oleniacz 2016 AGH University of Science and Technology

Zastosowanie Systemu Modelowania Aermod W Obliczeniach Dyspersji Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza W Warunkach Polskich, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Robert Oleniacz

Robert Oleniacz

The study assesses the possibility of implementing the AERMOD modeling system on Polish territory. Attention was drawn to the availability and the quality of meteorological and spatial data required for impact assessment of the emission sources on air quality. The potentiality of application of individual modeling system tools was discussed and the alternative data preparation methods were defined. The effects of application of the modeling system were exemplified by air quality impact assessment conducted for the existing facility – Sewage Sludge Incineration (SSI) Plant in Lodz – with different sources of meteorological data assumed. Discussion of the analysis results points to consequences ...


Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis 2016 University of San Francisco

Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis

Master's Projects

Oil spill models, ecological risks, response options, and costs were assessed for a discharge of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay from a train derailment. This assessment was based on the risk of crude by rail derailments into the San Francisco Bay; in 2014, California oil refineries imported over 240 million gallons of Bakken crude oil by rail for processing. A hypothetical scenario was developed from a derailment on the Union Pacific Railroad Bridge and discharging 100,000 gallons of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay. The oil trajectory impacted the Carquinez Strait, Suisun ...


Efficient Herbicide Application To Reduce Environmental Losses, James L. Baker, Steven K. Mickelson 2016 Iowa State University

Efficient Herbicide Application To Reduce Environmental Losses, James L. Baker, Steven K. Mickelson

Steven K. Mickelson

Media reports of atrazine in rainwater and surface and groundwater resources have prompted a concerned public, which includes farmers, to find more efficient, environmentally sound ways to apply pesticides and fertilizer.


Oil Contamination In Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Olof Lindén, Jonas Pålsson 2016 World Maritime University

Oil Contamination In Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Olof Lindén, Jonas Pålsson

Jonas Pålsson

The study shows extensive oil contamination of rivers, creeks, and ground waters in Ogoniland, Nigeria. The levels found in the more contaminated sites are high enough to cause severe impacts on the ecosystem and human health: extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPHs) (>10-C40) in surface waters up to 7420 μg L−1, drinking water wells show up to 42 200 μg L−1, and benzene up to 9000 μg L−1, more than 900 times the WHO guidelines. EPH concentrations in sediments were up to 17 900 mg kg−1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations reached 8.0 mg kg−1, in the ...


Oil Contamination In The Niger Delta, Jonas Pålsson, Olof Lindén 2016 World Maritime University

Oil Contamination In The Niger Delta, Jonas Pålsson, Olof Lindén

Jonas Pålsson

Oil spills in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has occurred frequently since oil extraction started in the 1950's. The oil spills originates from facilities and pipelines, leaks from ageing and abandoned infrastructure and from spills during transport and artisanal refining of stolen oil under primitive conditions. It is estimated that spills in Nigeria amount to 100 000 to 200 000 tons per year and have been doing so for almost 60 years. While a number of reports have been written about the Niger Delta and the civil unrest in this area during the last decades, very few scientific ...


The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

This study was done in an effort to better understand the multifaceted issues in amphibian decline, specifically within the eastern regions of Nebraska, to determine whether or not human-induced acid rain contributed to the decline. This is a heavily important topic of research as amphibians worldwide are declining related to many issues that stem from climate change and several other environmental issues of that nature. This study looked to use acidic pH within soil from western Nebraska to determine the reactionary impacts (primarily lesions) the western tiger salamander had after being subjected to it. It was found that pH did ...


Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho 2016 Iowa State University

Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho

Nancy Cornick

Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater (P < 0.10) proportions of applied precipitation and amounts of sediment and P transported in runoff from bare sites than from vegetated sites across grazing treatments. Similar differences were observed comparing vegetated sites in CSU and RS pastures with vegetated sites in CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, andEscherichia coli O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces ...


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