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Increasing Population, Urbanization And Climatic Factors In Lagos State, Nigeria: The Nexus And Implications On Water Demand And Supply, Amidu Owolabi Ayeni Dr. 2017 University of Lagos

Increasing Population, Urbanization And Climatic Factors In Lagos State, Nigeria: The Nexus And Implications On Water Demand And Supply, Amidu Owolabi Ayeni Dr.

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This study examines the impact of population, urbanization, and climate on water supply in Lagos State. Population baseline data used for this research were based on provisional census data of 1963, 1973, 1991 and 2006. Information on water production, demand and supply for this study were cleaned from the Nigerian Bureau of statistics (NBS), Lagos State Water Corporation reports of different years and relevant literature on Lagos water supply and demand. Urbanization assessment were based on multi-temporal imageries from Landsat MSS, TM, NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat ETM+ for 1975, 1995, 2007, and 2015 respectively. The Census data revealed that the population ...


The Effects Of Traffic Related Air Pollution And Proposed Legal Remedies, Alessandro Magi 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Traffic Related Air Pollution And Proposed Legal Remedies, Alessandro Magi

Bridges: An Undergraduate Journal of Contemporary Connections

This paper intends to examine the environmental issues that accompany air pollution generated from traffic related incidents, and the implications that this mass-generated pollution has on air quality, as well as the quality of life of humans exposed chronically to airborne carcinogens. Traffic related air pollution is an environmental problem that is heightened by urban design and population demographics such as urban sprawl, spatial distribution, population density, and infrastructure design. Furthermore, this paper will scrutinize Canadian legislation that regulates traffic related air pollutants, and develop an argument for how to apply legislation going forward. As Cartier, Benmarinha, and Brousselle (2015 ...


Persistent Organic Pollutants And Mortality In The United States, Kristiann Fry, Melinda Power 2017 George Washington University

Persistent Organic Pollutants And Mortality In The United States, Kristiann Fry, Melinda Power

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background/Objectives: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are environmentally and biologically persistent chemicals that include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Currently, there is limited data on the association between exposure to POPs and the risk of mortality in the general US population. The objective of this study was to determine if higher exposure to POPs are associated with greater risk of all-cause, cancer, heart/cerebrovascular disease, or other-cause mortality in persons aged 60 years and older.

Methods: The analyses included participants aged 60 years and older from the 1999-2006 National ...


Mapping Of Environmental Effects Of Hydraulic Fracking Using Satellite Imagery, donald correll 2017 Murray State University

Mapping Of Environmental Effects Of Hydraulic Fracking Using Satellite Imagery, Donald Correll

Scholars Week

Hydrofracking is a drilling technique that has been around since the late 1940s. Since the 1990s, a widespread technique has been developed known as horizontal drilling. The process starts by drilling a well vertically or at an angle into the ground about 1-2 miles. The well is then encased with steel or cement, to “ensure” nothing leaks into the groundwater. Once the layer of rock has been reached, drillers begin drilling horizontally up to around one mile. Fracking fluid is pumped into the well at very high pressures (up to 9,000 psi), which creates fissures/cracks in the rock ...


Least-Cost Control Of Agricultural Nutrient Contributions To The Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Todd Campbell, Manoj K. Jha, Hongli Feng, Philip W. Gassman, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Sylvia Secchi, Catherine L. Kling 2017 University of Washington

Least-Cost Control Of Agricultural Nutrient Contributions To The Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Todd Campbell, Manoj K. Jha, Hongli Feng, Philip W. Gassman, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Sylvia Secchi, Catherine L. Kling

Catherine Kling

No abstract provided.


Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold 2017 Iowa State University

Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold

Catherine Kling

Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. The eastern part of this region is comprised of the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which is considered a key contributing area for water pollution and the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. A point of crucial importance in this basin is therefore how intensive corn-based cropping systems for food and fuel production can be sustainable and coexist with a healthy water environment, not only under existing climate but also under climate change conditions in ...


Degraded Water Quality In Lakes: Consequences For Use, Hocheol Jeon, Catherine L. Kling, Yongjie Ji 2017 Iowa State University

Degraded Water Quality In Lakes: Consequences For Use, Hocheol Jeon, Catherine L. Kling, Yongjie Ji

Catherine Kling

Iowa, like many states in the Midwest, suffers from poor water quality. Excess nutrients in the state’s lakes and streams contribute to odor, limited clarity, excess algae and plant growth, and can contribute to a number of other undesirable changes to habitat and water quality. These changes, in turn, can reduce the usage and enjoyment of lakes and streams. Likewise, improvements in water quality brought about by reduced nutrient pollution or lake improvement projects can increase the number of visitors and their enjoyment of natural environments. To better understand what Iowans value about their natural environment and how changes ...


Environmentally Friendly Industries: An Examination Of Ecotourism As The Solution To The Environmental Degradation Caused By The International Tourism Industry, Whitney Michael 2017 Johnson & Wales University

Environmentally Friendly Industries: An Examination Of Ecotourism As The Solution To The Environmental Degradation Caused By The International Tourism Industry, Whitney Michael

Honors Theses – Charlotte Campus

The increasing visibility of ecological alterations due to global climate change have required high-impact industries to reexamine their environmental impact. Transnational organizations such as the United Nations have identified the current management practices of the international tourism industry as a significant contributing factor to global warming. The high volume implications of the large-scale establishments necessary to lodging facilities in the tourism trade are responsible for damages such as resource depletion and pollution. Existing levels of environmental impact show irreparable and imminent damage to the world environment if current methods of the industry are allowed to continue.

New trends in consumer ...


Increased Habitat Connectivity Homogenizes Freshwater Communities: Historical And Landscape Perspectives, Angela L. Strecker, Jeffrey Thomas Brittain 2017 Portland State University

Increased Habitat Connectivity Homogenizes Freshwater Communities: Historical And Landscape Perspectives, Angela L. Strecker, Jeffrey Thomas Brittain

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

  1. Increases in habitat connectivity can have consequences for taxonomic, functional, and genetic diversity of communities. Previously isolated aquatic habitats were connected with canals and pipelines in the largest water development project in the US history, the Columbia Basin Project (CBP; eastern Washington, USA), which also altered environmental conditions; however, the ecological consequences are largely unknown.

  2. Using a historical dataset, we examined long-term patterns in zooplankton communities, water chemistry and clarity, testing the hypothesis that increased connectivity will result in taxonomic homogenization. Further, we tested contemporary drivers of communities using a comprehensive set of environmental and landscape variables.

  3. Waterbodies were sampled ...


Yale’S Environmental Performance Index: The Construction And Use Of A Composite Index For Global Sustainability, Zach Wendling 2017 FES

Yale’S Environmental Performance Index: The Construction And Use Of A Composite Index For Global Sustainability, Zach Wendling

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


U.S. Drought Monitor, January 17, 2017, Richard Tinker 2017 NOAA/NWS/NCEP/CPC

U.S. Drought Monitor, January 17, 2017, Richard Tinker

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for January 17, 2017 (1/17/17) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


U.S. Drought Monitor, January 10, 2017, David Miskus 2017 NOAA/NWS/NCEP/CPC

U.S. Drought Monitor, January 10, 2017, David Miskus

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for January 10, 2017 (1/10/17) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama 2017 President of the United States

The Irreversible Momentum Of Clean Energy, Barack Obama

US Department of Energy Publications

The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to human activity is increasing global av-erage surface air temperatures, disrupting weather patterns, and acidifying the ocean (1). Left unchecked, the continued growth of GHG emissions could cause global average tem-peratures to increase by another 4°C or more by 2100 and by 1.5 to 2 times as much in many midcontinent and far northern locations (1). Although our understanding of the impacts of climate change is increasingly and disturbingly clear, there is still debate about the proper course for U.S. policy—a debate that is ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, January 3, 2017, David Miskus 2017 NOAA/NWS/NCEP/CPC

U.S. Drought Monitor, January 3, 2017, David Miskus

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for January 3, 2017 (1/3/17) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


Can Community Structure Track Sea-Level Rise? Stress And Competitive Controls In Tidal Wetlands, Lisa M. Schile, John Callaway, K M. Suding, N M. Kelly 2017 University of San Francisco

Can Community Structure Track Sea-Level Rise? Stress And Competitive Controls In Tidal Wetlands, Lisa M. Schile, John Callaway, K M. Suding, N M. Kelly

Environmental Science

Climate change impacts, such as accelerated sea-level rise, will affect stress gradients, yet impacts on competition/stress tolerance trade-offs and shifts in distributions are unclear. Ecosystems with strong stress gradients, such as estuaries, allow for space-for-time substitutions of stress factors and can give insight into future climate-related shifts in both resource and nonresource stresses. We tested the stress gradient hypothesis and examined the effect of increased inundation stress and biotic interactions on growth and survival of two congeneric wetland sedges, Schoenoplectus acutus and Schoenoplectus americanus. We simulated sea-level rise across existing marsh elevations and those not currently found to reflect ...


Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Vigorous discussions and disagreements about the future changes in drought intensity in the U.S. Great Plains have been taking place recently within the literature. These discussions have involved widely varying estimates based on drought indices and model-based projections of the future. To investigate and understand the causes for such a disparity between these previous estimates, the authors analyzed the soil moisture at the near-surface soil layer and the entire soil column, as well as the Palmer drought severity index, the Palmer Z index, and the standardized precipitation and evaporation index using the output from the Community Climate System Model ...


Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Earlier snowmelt, decreasing soil moisture, decreased corn yields, increasing extreme precipitation events—these are some of the weather effects currently observed in the central United States that might well have their origin in the rapidly warming Arctic. These and other implications of Arctic warming were among the topics discussed at a fall 2015 workshop, Implications of a Changing Arctic on Water Resources and Agriculture in the Central U.S (Wilhite and Morrow 2016).

The United States assumed chairmanship of the Arctic Council in April 2015, making the workshop topic timely. Given the importance of the Midwest and Great Plains region ...


A Self-Calibrating Runoff And Streamflow Remote Sensing Model For Ungauged Basins Using Open-Access Earth Observation Data, A Poortinga, W Bastiaanssen, G Simons, David Saah, G Senay, M Fenn, B Bean, J Kadyszewski 2017 University of San Francisco

A Self-Calibrating Runoff And Streamflow Remote Sensing Model For Ungauged Basins Using Open-Access Earth Observation Data, A Poortinga, W Bastiaanssen, G Simons, David Saah, G Senay, M Fenn, B Bean, J Kadyszewski

Environmental Science

Due to increasing pressures on water resources, there is a need to monitor regional water resource availability in a spatially and temporally explicit manner. However, for many parts of the world, there is insufficient data to quantify stream flow or ground water infiltration rates. We present the results of a pixel-based water balance formulation to partition rainfall into evapotranspiration, surface water runoff and potential ground water infiltration. The method leverages remote sensing derived estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, Leaf Area Index, and a single F coefficient to distinguish between runoff and storage changes. The study produced significant correlations between ...


Estimating The Number Of Recreational Anglers For A Given Waterbody, Kevin L. Pope, Larkin A. Powell, Brian S. Harmon, Mark A. Pegg, Christopher J. Chizinski 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Estimating The Number Of Recreational Anglers For A Given Waterbody, Kevin L. Pope, Larkin A. Powell, Brian S. Harmon, Mark A. Pegg, Christopher J. Chizinski

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Knowing how many anglers use a given body of water is paramount for understanding components of a fishery related to angling pressure and harvest, yet no study has attempted to provide an estimate of the population size of anglers for a given waterbody. Here, we use information from creel surveys in a removal-sampling framework to estimate total numbers of anglers using six reservoirs in Nebraska, USA, and we examine the influence of the duration of sampling period on those estimates. Population estimates (N ± SE) of unique anglers were 2050 ± 45 for Branched Oak Lake, 1992 ± 29 for Calamus Reservoir, 929 ...


Associated Dataset: Climate Change Impacts On Southern Ross Sea Phytoplankton Composition, Productivity And Export, Daniel E. Kaufman, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Walker O. Smith Jr., Eileen E. Hofmann, Michael S. Dinniman, John C.P. Hemmings 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Associated Dataset: Climate Change Impacts On Southern Ross Sea Phytoplankton Composition, Productivity And Export, Daniel E. Kaufman, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Walker O. Smith Jr., Eileen E. Hofmann, Michael S. Dinniman, John C.P. Hemmings

Data

This dataset includes data used in the publication Kaufman et al., 2017, JGR-Oceans in revision, which investigates how these climatic changes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, may alter phytoplankton composition, primary productivity and export. A one-dimensional version of the Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification was adapted for use in the Ross Sea (MEDUSA-RS). Glider measurements were used to force MEDUSA-RS, which includes diatoms and both solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis antarctica. Model performance was evaluated with glider observations, and experiments were conducted using projections of physical drivers for mid- and late-21st century. Additional scenarios examined ...


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