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Africa's Urban Adaptation Transition Under A 1.5° Climate, Mark Pelling, Hayley Leck, Lorena Pasquini, Idowu Ajibade, Emanuel Osuteye, Susan Parnell, Shuaib Lwasa, Cassidy Johnson, Arabella Fraser, Alejandro Barcena, Soumana Boubacar 2018 King's College London

Africa's Urban Adaptation Transition Under A 1.5° Climate, Mark Pelling, Hayley Leck, Lorena Pasquini, Idowu Ajibade, Emanuel Osuteye, Susan Parnell, Shuaib Lwasa, Cassidy Johnson, Arabella Fraser, Alejandro Barcena, Soumana Boubacar

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Highlights

• Everyday risk associated with inadequate basic infrastructure and poverty make even small natural hazards impactful in African cities.

• Enhanced development opportunity is the best for of risk reduction.

• Integrating risk reduction into development is constrained by donor priorities, fragmented city governance and data and monitoring gaps.

• Integrating risk reduction into development is enabled through community networks collaborating with city authorities, locally accountable leadership and improved risk data and forecasting.


Impacts Of 4r Nitrogen Management On Drainage Water Quality, Matthew J. Helmers 2018 Iowa State University

Impacts Of 4r Nitrogen Management On Drainage Water Quality, Matthew J. Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

Much of the U.S. Corn Belt is characterized by relative flat, poorly-drained areas which with extensive subsurface drainage, have become some of the most valuable and productive agricultural land in the world. However, this is not without consequences. Nitrate-N loss from these systems is of particular concern due to its potential adverse impacts on both public health and ecosystem function. In addition to the potential local impacts on receiving waters in the Corn Belt, nitrogen loads from the region are suspected as a primary contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. For nearly 30 years Iowa State University ...


Simulation Of Daily Flow Pathways, Tile-Drain Nitrate Concentrations, And Soil-Nitrogen Dynamics Using Swat, Michelle L. Soupir, Matthew J. Helmers, William G. Crumpton, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Philip W. Gassman 2018 Iowa State University

Simulation Of Daily Flow Pathways, Tile-Drain Nitrate Concentrations, And Soil-Nitrogen Dynamics Using Swat, Michelle L. Soupir, Matthew J. Helmers, William G. Crumpton, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Philip W. Gassman

Michelle L. Soupir

Tile drainage significantly alters flow and nutrient pathways and reliable simulation at this scale is needed for effective planning of nutrient reduction strategies. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been widely utilized for prediction of flow and nutrient loads, but few applications have evaluated the model's ability to simulate pathway-specific flow components or nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in tile-drained watersheds at the daily time step. The objectives of this study were to develop and calibrate SWAT models for small, tile-drained watersheds, evaluate model performance for simulation of flow components and NO3-N concentration at daily intervals, and evaluate simulated ...


Near Shore Beach Volume Modeling Approach For Setting Beach Bacteria Tmdls: A Case Study, Hickory Grove Lake, Iowa, Rohith D. Gali, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Near Shore Beach Volume Modeling Approach For Setting Beach Bacteria Tmdls: A Case Study, Hickory Grove Lake, Iowa, Rohith D. Gali, Michelle L. Soupir

Michelle L. Soupir

A novel approach to set bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) using a Near-Shore Beach Volume (NSBV) model was described along with recommendations for design of a monitoring network to support this method. Sources of fecal bacteria in the Hickory Grove Lake watershed include unpermitted septic systems, manure applications in the watershed, livestock access to streams, waterfowl, and wildlife. The Lake Inlet, Lake Outlet, and Lake Beach were monitored for E. coli concentrations from 2010-2012, this monitoring data was used to assess relationships between watershed bacteria loads and the beach bacteria levels. Fecal bacteria from waterfowl were identified as the ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich 2018 Iowa State University

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich

Thomas M. Isenhart

Denitrification within riparian buffers may trade reduced nonpoint source pollution of surface waters for increased greenhouse gas emissions resulting from denitrification-produced nitrous oxide (N2O). However, little is known about the N2O emission within conservation buffers established for water quality improvement or of the importance of short-term N2O peak emission following rewetting dry soils and thawing frozen soils. Such estimates are important in reducing uncertainties in current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies estimating soil N2O emission which are based on N inputs. This study contrasts N2O emission from riparian buffer systems of three perennial vegetation types and an adjacent ...


Re-Entrained Road Dust Pm10 Emission From Selected Streets Of Krakow And Its Impact On Air Quality, Marek Bogacki, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Adriana Szulecka 2018 AGH University o Science and Technology

Re-Entrained Road Dust Pm10 Emission From Selected Streets Of Krakow And Its Impact On Air Quality, Marek Bogacki, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Adriana Szulecka

Robert Oleniacz

Scientific research studies conducted in various parts of the world confirm that PM10 concentrations in urban air depend to a great extent on the resuspension processes of the dust deposited on the road surface. The paper presents the results of the study related to the determination of the re-entrained PM10 emissions from four selected streets of Krakow (Southern Poland) together with the assessment of its impact on air quality. Examined streets are characterised by different traffic intensity (from 500 to over 20 000 vehicles per day) and individual vehicle structure. Dust material sampling and estimation of the PM10 emission were ...


Evapotranspiration Estimates Derived Using Multi-Platform Remote Sensing In A Semiarid Region, Kyle Knipper, Terri Hogue, Russell Scott, Kristie J. Franz 2018 Colorado School of Mines

Evapotranspiration Estimates Derived Using Multi-Platform Remote Sensing In A Semiarid Region, Kyle Knipper, Terri Hogue, Russell Scott, Kristie J. Franz

Kristie Franz

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the water balance, especially in arid and semiarid regions. The current study takes advantage of spatially-distributed, near real-time information provided by satellite remote sensing to develop a regional scale ET product derived from remotely-sensed observations. ET is calculated by scaling PET estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products with downscaled soil moisture derived using the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and a second order polynomial regression formula. The MODis-Soil Moisture ET (MOD-SMET) estimates are validated using four flux tower sites in southern Arizona USA, a calibrated empirical ET model, and model ...


Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon? Evidence From The Nepal Community Forestry Program, Randall Bluffstone, Eswaran Somanathan, Prakash Jha, Harisharan Luintel, Rajesh Bista, Mike Toman, Naya Paudel, Bhim Adhikari 2018 Portland State University

Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon? Evidence From The Nepal Community Forestry Program, Randall Bluffstone, Eswaran Somanathan, Prakash Jha, Harisharan Luintel, Rajesh Bista, Mike Toman, Naya Paudel, Bhim Adhikari

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Highlights

• Presumed open access forests have as little as 34% of those under collective action.

• No evidence that Community Forestry Programme forests store more carbon

.• Carbon from collective action not conditional on Community Forestry Programme.


The Role Of Environmental Filtering In Structuring Appalachian Tree Communities: Topographic Influences On Functional Diversity Are Mediated Through Soil Characteristics, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. McEwan 2018 University of Dayton

The Role Of Environmental Filtering In Structuring Appalachian Tree Communities: Topographic Influences On Functional Diversity Are Mediated Through Soil Characteristics, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Identifying the drivers of community assembly has long been a central goal in ecology, and the development of functional diversity indices has provided a new way of detecting the influence of environmental gradients on biotic communities. For an old-growth Appalachian forest, we used path analysis to understand how patterns of tree functional diversity relate to topography and soil gradients and to determine whether topographic effects are mediated through soil chemistry. All of our path models supported the idea of environmental filtering: stressful areas (high elevation, low soil moisture, low soil nutrients) were occupied by communities of low functional diversity, which ...


Variation In Angler Distribution And Catch Rates Of Stocked Rainbow Trout In A Small Reservoir, Brian S. Harmon, Dustin R. Martin, Christopher J . Chizinski, K. L. Pope 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Variation In Angler Distribution And Catch Rates Of Stocked Rainbow Trout In A Small Reservoir, Brian S. Harmon, Dustin R. Martin, Christopher J . Chizinski, K. L. Pope

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship of catch rates and angler party location for two days following a publicly announced put-and-take stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Catch rates declined with time since stocking and distance from stocking. We hypothesized that opportunity for high catch rates would cause anglers to fish near the stocking location and disperse with time, however distance between angler parties and stocking was highly variable at any given time. Spatially explicit differences in catch rates can affect fishing quality. Further research could investigate the variation between angler distribution and fish distribution within a waterbody.


Population Characteristics Of Shovelnose Sturgeon During Low- And High-Water Conditions In The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Jeremy J. Hammen, Martin J. Hamel, Matthew L. Rugg, Edward J. Peters, Mark A. Pegg 2018 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia, MO

Population Characteristics Of Shovelnose Sturgeon During Low- And High-Water Conditions In The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Jeremy J. Hammen, Martin J. Hamel, Matthew L. Rugg, Edward J. Peters, Mark A. Pegg

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Cycles of low- and high-water periods (i.e., years) in river systems are natural occurrences, but understanding how cyclical climatological patterns affect fishes, especially long-lived species, is unclear. We assessed Shovelnose Sturgeon population dynamics between a period of low- (2001-2004) and high- (2009-2012) water years in the lower Platte River, Nebraska. Low-flow periods in the lower Platte River can cause disconnection(s) between upstream and downstream reaches resulting in isolated pools and elevated water temperatures leading to stressful situations for aquatic life and possible mortality. Our data show no measurable differences between key population indices between flow condition periods which ...


Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor de Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli de Oliveira, Cilene do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha 2018 São Paulo State University

Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor De Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela Da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli De Oliveira, Cilene Do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro De Magalhães Padilha

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

This paper presents a slurry sampling method for total mercury determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) in tissue of fish from the Amazon. The tissue samples were lyophilized and macerated, and then the slurry samples were prepared by putting 20 mg of tissue, added to a solution containing Triton X-100, Suprapur HNO3, and zirconium nitrate directly in sampling vials of a spectrometer. Mercury standard solutions were prepared under the same conditions as the slurry samples. The slurry samples and the mercury standard solutions were sonicated for 20 s. Twenty microliters of slurry samples were injected into the ...


Energy Star Tax Holiday Simply Advertising Gimmick, Lauren Klaasmeyer 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Energy Star Tax Holiday Simply Advertising Gimmick, Lauren Klaasmeyer

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

In January of this year, Senator Harr introduced Legislative Bill 325. From 12:01 A.M. on the first Friday of October through midnight of the first Sunday, all Energy Star products less than $1500 will be exempt from sales and use taxes. The special interest group, Nebraska Retail Federation, proposed the idea to Senator Harr. There was no move to advance the bill last session, so it could be brought back up this coming session or amended to another bill. When speaking with people at the capitol, it was said that the main reason it was not advanced was ...


The Fossil Fuel Energy Industry Vs. The Endangered Species Act, Cody Willnerd 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Fossil Fuel Energy Industry Vs. The Endangered Species Act, Cody Willnerd

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

It was several weeks ago that the Congressional Republicans made a push to reform the landmark Endangered Species Act to make it more friendly to landowners and fossil fuel industries. They would do this by releasing species earlier on the ESA list than before and instead focus on species that are in the greatest of need of attention. The reform would also have agencies focus on the economic costs to deny listings of species, require the agency to listen towards states concerns, and limit payouts for attorney fees in ESA litigations. This would be incredibly damaging to many species that ...


Building Our Way To A Better Future, Brad Shaner 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Building Our Way To A Better Future, Brad Shaner

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

The potential demolishing of the Clean Power Plan by the federal government in early October is looking like a losing fight in our war against carbon emissions at one of the biggest sources of these emissions. But we can continue to fight in this war and make an even bigger impact by focusing our efforts on the most ordinary and consistent thing in our modern lives; the buildings we live and work in. Some would say that high efficiency or green buildings are a commodity that only the wealthy individuals or businesses can achieve, but this doesn’t have to ...


Eliminate The Carbon Externality, Connor Mcfayden 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Eliminate The Carbon Externality, Connor Mcfayden

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

Before we do anything else, let’s establish two things: the global climate is changing at an alarming rate and the primary cause is human CO2 emissions. There is a worldwide scientific consensus on this fact. Even our own government, despite a remarkably vocal minority, has confirmed this. A report released this year by 13 government agencies identifies humans as the primary cause of global climate change and links this phenomenon to rising sea levels, increased incidence of droughts and floods, and the intensification of large storms. These events are the result of the carbon externality, the social costs of ...


A Forgotten Resource: Thorium, Daniel Rico 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Forgotten Resource: Thorium, Daniel Rico

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

The year is 1945, the morning of August 6th, 8:16am to be exact. The United States just dropped the world’s first militarized atomic weapon on Hiroshima, Japan. With this singular act the world virtually witnessed the end of its second world war, the birth of warfare like never before, and the foreseeable death of nuclear power. With this act an aura of negativity and destruction accompanied the word nuclear that it would likely never be rid of despite untapped high grade energy potential that can outweigh its military application. The bomb dropped on Hiroshima was composed of ...


Lithium-Ion Batteries: It’S Not About The Lithium., Jace Kranau 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Lithium-Ion Batteries: It’S Not About The Lithium., Jace Kranau

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

Malnourished children and tired men chip away with ancient tools at Cobalt-containing rock for you to have the next best electronic device. The impoverished, artisanal workers of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) supply up to 25 percent of global Cobalt according to The Washington Post. The battery manufacturers don’t care. Their dominant thought is profit.

Artisanal workers are paid between two and three U.S. dollars a day. “We are suffering. And our suffering is for what?”, 29-year-old digger, Nathan Muyamba, told The Post.

The batteries in phones, laptops and for some, their cars, contain Lithium, Cobalt, Nickel ...


Cardboard Ban Is An Investment Opportunity, John Schwaninger 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cardboard Ban Is An Investment Opportunity, John Schwaninger

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

Lincoln’s cardboard ban was a hot topic in 2016, but 2017 has shifted focus to the city’s recycling education contract. Gone is discussion of Mayor Chris Beutler’s failed, revived and ultimately victorious struggle to reform Lincoln’s recycling program. In its place, an air of financial discomfort stagnates over the city’s already troubled budget.

The cardboard ban will take effect April 2018. The recycling education program was drafted in part to support the ban by educating households about recycling drop-off locations and sorting requirements. However, the recycling education contract’s $850,000 cost raised eyebrows, undermining ...


Crop Productivity In The Ag Belt On Borrowed Time, Logan Winters 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Crop Productivity In The Ag Belt On Borrowed Time, Logan Winters

Op-Eds from ENSC230 Energy and the Environment: Economics and Policies

Most people by now have heard the terms “climate change” and global warming. Many acknowledge that it’s a problem, but they may not know how it can impact them directly. This is especially true for those living in the middle of the country, because most of the media attention goes to the coastal impacts of climate change. While putting adequate focus on the coastal impacts is a good start, since the most widespread and severe impacts will be coastal, but there needs to be more talk and discussion about the future impacts over the middle of the country. One ...


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