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Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

J. Kissock

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kissock

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker

Xiaoyang Zhang

The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...


Using Physical And Social Sensors In Real-Time Data Streaming For Natural Hazard Monitoring And Response, Yelena Kropivnitskaya 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Using Physical And Social Sensors In Real-Time Data Streaming For Natural Hazard Monitoring And Response, Yelena Kropivnitskaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Technological breakthroughs in computing over the last few decades have resulted in important advances in natural hazards analysis. In particular, integration of a wide variety of information sources, including observations from spatially-referenced physical sensors and new social media sources, enables better estimates of real-time hazard. The main goal of this work is to utilize innovative streaming algorithms for improved real-time seismic hazard analysis by integrating different data sources and processing tools into cloud applications. In streaming algorithms, a sequence of items from physical and social sensors can be processed in as little as one pass with no need to store ...


Portland-Vancouver Ultra-Ex: Evaluating Relationships Between Governance And Environmental Quality In Urban Ecosystems, J. Alan Yeakley, Sally Duncan, Steve Bollens, Connie P. Ozawa, Vivek Shandas, Heejun Chang, Marion Dresner, Sean N. Gordon, John A. Harrison, Jeffrey D. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo, Noelwah R. Netusil, Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens, Mark Stephan, Paul R. Thiers 2016 Portland State University

Portland-Vancouver Ultra-Ex: Evaluating Relationships Between Governance And Environmental Quality In Urban Ecosystems, J. Alan Yeakley, Sally Duncan, Steve Bollens, Connie P. Ozawa, Vivek Shandas, Heejun Chang, Marion Dresner, Sean N. Gordon, John A. Harrison, Jeffrey D. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo, Noelwah R. Netusil, Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens, Mark Stephan, Paul R. Thiers

J. Alan Yeakley

The Portland-Vancouver Urban Long Term Research Area (ULTRA-Ex) is a multidisciplinary project aimed at understanding the feedbacks between human and natural systems in urban settings. The ULTRA-Ex project is seeking to answer the overarching question: How do human governance and biophysical systems respond interactively to both press and pulse disturbances in urban socio-ecological systems?

This presentation provides early observations and findings from the PV ULTRA-Ex project.


Experimental Testing And Validation Of P-Band Bi-Static Remote Sensing Of Soil Moisture In 137-138mhz Range, Xiangyu Qu, Yao-Cheng Lin, James L. Garrison 2016 Purdue University

Experimental Testing And Validation Of P-Band Bi-Static Remote Sensing Of Soil Moisture In 137-138mhz Range, Xiangyu Qu, Yao-Cheng Lin, James L. Garrison

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Remote sensing using readily available communication signal transmitted by ORBCOMM satellites at very high frequency (VHF) range (137-138MHz) is a promising method for detecting the root zone soil moisture content. The radio wave reflectivity of soil is strongly correlated to soil moisture content. Therefore, if we were able to measure the reflectivity, we might be able to estimate the soil moisture content. In this preliminary study, we analyze direct signal data from the satellites to investigate and verify communication channels in frequency range of interest and their characteristics (bandwidth, pattern, etc.). The analysis of direct signal data is also used ...


Comparing Carbon Dioxide And Water Vapor Fluxes From Tilled And Non-Tilled Maize Canopy Fields, Heather Sussman, Richard Grant 2016 Purdue University

Comparing Carbon Dioxide And Water Vapor Fluxes From Tilled And Non-Tilled Maize Canopy Fields, Heather Sussman, Richard Grant

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Agricultural activities account for approximately 25% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Farm management practices, such as tillage and no-tillage, may contribute more to this percentage than others. The two most abundant greenhouse gases responsible for climate change are CO2 and H2O, therefore it is important to determine whether tillage or no-tillage emits less of these gases. Fluxes of CO2 and H2O from two maize canopy fields, one with tillage and one with no-tillage, were measured in Indiana during the 2016 growing season. This study utilized the eddy covariance method, which represents flux as a ...


Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan 2016 Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The widespread efforts to incorporate the economic values of oceans into national income accounts have reached a stage where coordination of national efforts is desirable. A symposium held in 2015 began this process by bringing together representatives from ten countries. The symposium concluded that a definition of core ocean industries was possible but beyond that core the definition of ocean industries is in flux. Better coordination of ocean income accounts will require addressing issues of aggregation, geography, partial ocean industries, confidential, and imputation is also needed. Beyond the standard national income accounts, a need to incorporate environmental resource and ecosystem ...


Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, Justin Gay 2016 University of Vermont

Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, Justin Gay

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

The goal of this project was to analyze the accuracy of the Lufft WS600 Weather Sensor in measuring the rate of both liquid and solid precipitation. Measurement accuracy, especially in remote locations, can be difficult to obtain and quantify. Wind, blowing debris, and atmospheric particles can all have the capacity to interfere with instruments that are not being continuously compared to manual observations. Access to quality precipitation data sets are important for both hydrologic and weather forecasting, climate monitoring, and understanding the role of water cycling through ecosystems. Commercially, weather sensors are heavily relied upon by the Federal Aviation Administration ...


The Feasibility Of Using Drones To Count Songbirds, Andrew M. Wilson, Janine M. Barr, Megan E. Zagorski 2016 Gettysburg College

The Feasibility Of Using Drones To Count Songbirds, Andrew M. Wilson, Janine M. Barr, Megan E. Zagorski

Environmental Studies Student Conference Presentations

Point and transect counts are the most common bird survey methods, but are subject to biases and accessibility issues. To eliminate some of these biases, we propose attaching a recorder to a consumer-grade quadcopter (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, or UAV) to estimate songbird populations from audio recordings. We conducted a blind experiment using broadcast recordings to estimate the detection radius of a compact recorder attached to a UAV, and found that the detection radius did not vary significantly when the UAV was flown at elevations of 20, 40 and 60m. We field tested our system by comparing UAV-based bird counts with ...


Land Cover Data For The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011 Arcgis V10.3 Geodatabase, Gregory A. Carter, Carlton P. Anderson, Kelly L. Lucas, Nathan L. Hopper 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Land Cover Data For The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011 Arcgis V10.3 Geodatabase, Gregory A. Carter, Carlton P. Anderson, Kelly L. Lucas, Nathan L. Hopper

Land Cover Data for the Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011

Land cover on the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands was surveyed in 2010-2011 as part of continuing research on island geomorphic and vegetation dynamics following the 2005 impact of Hurricane Katrina. Results of the survey include sub-meter GPS location, a listing of dominant vegetation species and field photographs recorded at 375 sampling locations distributed among Cat, West Ship, East Ship, Horn, Sand, Petit Bois and West Dauphin Islands. The survey was conducted in a period of intensive remote sensing data acquisition over the northern Gulf of Mexico by federal, state and commercial organizations in response to the 2010 Macondo Well (Deepwater Horizon ...


Freshwater Algae In Northwest Washington, Volume I, Cyanobacteria, Robin A. Matthews 2016 Western Washington University

Freshwater Algae In Northwest Washington, Volume I, Cyanobacteria, Robin A. Matthews

Robin A. Matthews

The idea for this guide, Freshwater Algae in Northwest Washington, began in 2006 when the Institute for Watershed Studies (www.wwu.edu/iws) expanded its Northwest Lakes monitoring project to collect water quality samples from more than 70 local lakes. This volume, Cyanobacteria, is part of a series describing freshwater algae in Northwest Washington, and includes simple algal keys that can be used by students with little experience in taxonomy, as well as members of the general public. Although the emphasize is on freshwater lakes, samples collected in streams, seeps, waterfalls, and other lotic systems are included, with comments on ...


Anthropogenic Particles In Natural Sediment Sinks: Microplastics Accumulation In Tributary, Beach And Lake Bottom Sediments Of Lake Ontario, North America, Anika M. Ballent 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Anthropogenic Particles In Natural Sediment Sinks: Microplastics Accumulation In Tributary, Beach And Lake Bottom Sediments Of Lake Ontario, North America, Anika M. Ballent

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surface waters of the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with microplastics, however, microplastics in the sediments of the region are poorly documented. This study provides a baseline of micro- and macro-plastics contamination in nearshore, tributary and beach sediments of Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River. Microplastics were quantified and characterized by morphology and composition using visual identification and Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics are most concentrated in nearshore sediments in the vicinity of urban and industrial regions. Concentrations in Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour consistently measured > 500 particles per kg dry sediment, and maximum concentrations of ~28,000 ...


Implications Of Manipulations Of Soil Quality On The Growth Of European Buckthorn (Rhamnus Cathartica) In A Greenhouse, Sam L. Pepper, Liam Heneghan 2016 DePaul University

Implications Of Manipulations Of Soil Quality On The Growth Of European Buckthorn (Rhamnus Cathartica) In A Greenhouse, Sam L. Pepper, Liam Heneghan

DePaul Discoveries

European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is an invasive shrub that is capable of changing the nitrogen content of a soil through the deposition of its nitrogen rich leaf litter. This change creates conditions that may favor recolonizing by buckthorn and negatively affect the growth of native plants. In this greenhouse experiment, we examined the effect of altering soil quality by adding mulch comprised of buckthorn wood on above and belowground biomass, stem length and leaf production of buckthorn saplings. We found that buckthorn saplings planted in buckthorn mulch had reduced stem length and leaf production compared to growth in control ...


Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, Mark J. Potosnak, Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, Paul Ritter 2016 DePaul University

Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, Mark J. Potosnak, Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, Paul Ritter

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere. In this poster presentation we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT and 900 MHz spread spectrum) that do not require a ...


Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos 2016 Western Kentucky University

Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Glaciers are a major source of freshwater around the world, but they are melting at an increased rate due to atmospheric warming resulting from anthropogenic climate change. In addition to temperature increases, light-absorbing particulates on glaciers also are contributing to glacial melt. This research examines how black carbon, released into the air through partial combustion of biofuels, is affecting the surface albedo of glaciers. I also delineate possible sources of black carbon in the Cordillera Blanca region of Peru. Ground data were collected each year from 2011 to 2013 during the local dry season. Effective black carbon (eBC) values were ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

Kevin Hallinan

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Kevin Hallinan

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


The Erskine Fire And Public-Lands Management In The American West, Char Miller 2016 Pomona College

The Erskine Fire And Public-Lands Management In The American West, Char Miller

Pomona Faculty Publications and Research

The Erskine Fire is big, fast and dangerous. Its power is evident in the tragic loss of life, the incineration of an estimated 150 structures and its rapid growth — more than 36,000 acres burned in its first 30 hours.


Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the estimation of the spatial differentiation of selected gaseous pollutant concentrations in urban air using measurement results performed with the passive method. The research was conducted in the city of Sucha Beskidzka in the winter season (2014/2015) and in the city of Krakow in the summer season (2015). Analysis comprised three major air pollutants for which it was possible to use the passive samplers – nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and additionaly benzene. Exposure time of passive samplers lasted one month. In Sucha Beskidzka and Krakow respectively two and three measurement series of NO2 and SO2 ...


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