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Portland-Vancouver Ultra-Ex: Evaluating Relationships Between Governance And Environmental Quality In Urban Ecosystems, J. Alan Yeakley, Sally Duncan, Steve Bollens, Connie P. Ozawa, Vivek Shandas, Heejun Chang, Marion Dresner, Sean N. Gordon, John A. Harrison, Jeffrey D. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo, Noelwah R. Netusil, Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens, Mark Stephan, Paul R. Thiers 2016 Portland State University

Portland-Vancouver Ultra-Ex: Evaluating Relationships Between Governance And Environmental Quality In Urban Ecosystems, J. Alan Yeakley, Sally Duncan, Steve Bollens, Connie P. Ozawa, Vivek Shandas, Heejun Chang, Marion Dresner, Sean N. Gordon, John A. Harrison, Jeffrey D. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo, Noelwah R. Netusil, Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens, Mark Stephan, Paul R. Thiers

J. Alan Yeakley

The Portland-Vancouver Urban Long Term Research Area (ULTRA-Ex) is a multidisciplinary project aimed at understanding the feedbacks between human and natural systems in urban settings. The ULTRA-Ex project is seeking to answer the overarching question: How do human governance and biophysical systems respond interactively to both press and pulse disturbances in urban socio-ecological systems?

This presentation provides early observations and findings from the PV ULTRA-Ex project.


Post-Fire Comparisons Of Forest Floor And Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, And Mercury Pools With Fire Severity Indices, Randy Kolka, Brian Sturtevant, Phil Townsend, Jessica Miesel, Peter Wolter, Shawn Fraver, Tom DeSutter 2016 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service

Post-Fire Comparisons Of Forest Floor And Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, And Mercury Pools With Fire Severity Indices, Randy Kolka, Brian Sturtevant, Phil Townsend, Jessica Miesel, Peter Wolter, Shawn Fraver, Tom Desutter

Peter Wolter

Forest fires are important contributors of C, N, and Hg to the atmosphere. In the fall of 2011, a large wildfire occurred in northern Minnesota and we were able to quickly access the area to sample the forest floor and mineral soil for C, N, and Hg pools. When compared with unburned reference soils, the mean loss of C resulting from fire in the forest floor and the upper 20 cm of mineral soil was 19.3 Mg ha−1, for N the mean loss was 0.17 Mg ha−1, and for Hg the mean loss was 9.3 ...


Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan 2016 Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Measurement Of The Ocean Economy From National Income Accounts To The Sustainable Blue Economy, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The widespread efforts to incorporate the economic values of oceans into national income accounts have reached a stage where coordination of national efforts is desirable. A symposium held in 2015 began this process by bringing together representatives from ten countries. The symposium concluded that a definition of core ocean industries was possible but beyond that core the definition of ocean industries is in flux. Better coordination of ocean income accounts will require addressing issues of aggregation, geography, partial ocean industries, confidential, and imputation is also needed. Beyond the standard national income accounts, a need to incorporate environmental resource and ecosystem ...


The Feasibility Of Using Drones To Count Songbirds, Andrew M. Wilson, Janine M. Barr, Megan E. Zagorski 2016 Gettysburg College

The Feasibility Of Using Drones To Count Songbirds, Andrew M. Wilson, Janine M. Barr, Megan E. Zagorski

Environmental Studies Student Conference Presentations

Point and transect counts are the most common bird survey methods, but are subject to biases and accessibility issues. To eliminate some of these biases, we propose attaching a recorder to a consumer-grade quadcopter (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, or UAV) to estimate songbird populations from audio recordings. We conducted a blind experiment using broadcast recordings to estimate the detection radius of a compact recorder attached to a UAV, and found that the detection radius did not vary significantly when the UAV was flown at elevations of 20, 40 and 60m. We field tested our system by comparing UAV-based bird counts with ...


Land Cover Data For The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011 Arcgis V10.3 Geodatabase, Gregory A. Carter, Carlton P. Anderson, Kelly L. Lucas, Nathan L. Hopper 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Land Cover Data For The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011 Arcgis V10.3 Geodatabase, Gregory A. Carter, Carlton P. Anderson, Kelly L. Lucas, Nathan L. Hopper

Land Cover Data for the Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011

Land cover on the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands was surveyed in 2010-2011 as part of continuing research on island geomorphic and vegetation dynamics following the 2005 impact of Hurricane Katrina. Results of the survey include sub-meter GPS location, a listing of dominant vegetation species and field photographs recorded at 375 sampling locations distributed among Cat, West Ship, East Ship, Horn, Sand, Petit Bois and West Dauphin Islands. The survey was conducted in a period of intensive remote sensing data acquisition over the northern Gulf of Mexico by federal, state and commercial organizations in response to the 2010 Macondo Well (Deepwater Horizon ...


Freshwater Algae In Northwest Washington, Volume I, Cyanobacteria, Robin A. Matthews 2016 Western Washington University

Freshwater Algae In Northwest Washington, Volume I, Cyanobacteria, Robin A. Matthews

Robin A. Matthews

The idea for this guide, Freshwater Algae in Northwest Washington, began in 2006 when the Institute for Watershed Studies (www.wwu.edu/iws) expanded its Northwest Lakes monitoring project to collect water quality samples from more than 70 local lakes. This volume, Cyanobacteria, is part of a series describing freshwater algae in Northwest Washington, and includes simple algal keys that can be used by students with little experience in taxonomy, as well as members of the general public. Although the emphasize is on freshwater lakes, samples collected in streams, seeps, waterfalls, and other lotic systems are included, with comments on ...


Anthropogenic Particles In Natural Sediment Sinks: Microplastics Accumulation In Tributary, Beach And Lake Bottom Sediments Of Lake Ontario, North America, Anika M. Ballent 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Anthropogenic Particles In Natural Sediment Sinks: Microplastics Accumulation In Tributary, Beach And Lake Bottom Sediments Of Lake Ontario, North America, Anika M. Ballent

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surface waters of the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with microplastics, however, microplastics in the sediments of the region are poorly documented. This study provides a baseline of micro- and macro-plastics contamination in nearshore, tributary and beach sediments of Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River. Microplastics were quantified and characterized by morphology and composition using visual identification and Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics are most concentrated in nearshore sediments in the vicinity of urban and industrial regions. Concentrations in Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour consistently measured > 500 particles per kg dry sediment, and maximum concentrations of ~28,000 ...


Implications Of Manipulations Of Soil Quality On The Growth Of European Buckthorn (Rhamnus Cathartica) In A Greenhouse, Sam L. Pepper, Liam Heneghan 2016 DePaul University

Implications Of Manipulations Of Soil Quality On The Growth Of European Buckthorn (Rhamnus Cathartica) In A Greenhouse, Sam L. Pepper, Liam Heneghan

DePaul Discoveries

European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is an invasive shrub that is capable of changing the nitrogen content of a soil through the deposition of its nitrogen rich leaf litter. This change creates conditions that may favor recolonizing by buckthorn and negatively affect the growth of native plants. In this greenhouse experiment, we examined the effect of altering soil quality by adding mulch comprised of buckthorn wood on above and belowground biomass, stem length and leaf production of buckthorn saplings. We found that buckthorn saplings planted in buckthorn mulch had reduced stem length and leaf production compared to growth in control ...


Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, Mark J. Potosnak, Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, Paul Ritter 2016 DePaul University

Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, Mark J. Potosnak, Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, Paul Ritter

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere. In this poster presentation we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT and 900 MHz spread spectrum) that do not require a ...


Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos 2016 Western Kentucky University

Linking In-Situ Data With Remote Sensing To Analyze Tropical Glacier Stability And Retreat In The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Chandler H. Santos

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Glaciers are a major source of freshwater around the world, but they are melting at an increased rate due to atmospheric warming resulting from anthropogenic climate change. In addition to temperature increases, light-absorbing particulates on glaciers also are contributing to glacial melt. This research examines how black carbon, released into the air through partial combustion of biofuels, is affecting the surface albedo of glaciers. I also delineate possible sources of black carbon in the Cordillera Blanca region of Peru. Ground data were collected each year from 2011 to 2013 during the local dry season. Effective black carbon (eBC) values were ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

Kevin Hallinan

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Kevin Hallinan

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki 2016 AGH University o Science and Technology

Przykład Wykorzystania Próbników Pasywnych Do Oceny Przestrzennego Zróżnicowania Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń W Powietrzu Miejskim, Paulina Bździuch, Angelika Zemełka, Kamil Kozieł, Joanna Żołyniak, Ewelina Bączek, Barbara Rososińska, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the estimation of the spatial differentiation of selected gaseous pollutant concentrations in urban air using measurement results performed with the passive method. The research was conducted in the city of Sucha Beskidzka in the winter season (2014/2015) and in the city of Krakow in the summer season (2015). Analysis comprised three major air pollutants for which it was possible to use the passive samplers – nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and additionaly benzene. Exposure time of passive samplers lasted one month. In Sucha Beskidzka and Krakow respectively two and three measurement series of NO2 and SO2 ...


The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe Method For Estimating Field Scale Soil Water Content: Advances And Applications, William A. Avery 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe Method For Estimating Field Scale Soil Water Content: Advances And Applications, William A. Avery

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The need for accurate, real-time, reliable, and multi-scale soil water content (SWC) monitoring is critical for a multitude of scientific disciplines trying to understand and predict the earth’s terrestrial energy, water, and nutrient cycles. One promising technique to help meet this demand is fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes (CRNP). However, the relationship between observed low-energy neutrons and SWC is affected by local soil and vegetation calibration parameters. This effect may be accounted for by a calibrated equation based on local soil type and the amount of standing biomass. However, determining the calibration parameters for this equation is labor ...


Odor Monitoring At The New Orleans East Bank Wastewater Treatment Plant, Felicia R. Figinsky 2016 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

Odor Monitoring At The New Orleans East Bank Wastewater Treatment Plant, Felicia R. Figinsky

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen Sulfide is a corrosive, odorous, and hazardous gas that can cause issues for wastewater collection systems and treatment plants. When evaluating hydrogen sulfide concentrations it is important to consider the source, odor causing mechanism, and its level of toxicity. In this study, continuous hydrogen sulfide monitoring was performed for 8 locations within the New Orleans East Bank Wastewater Treatment Plant for a span of 5 months. Hot spots within the plant are located and data analysis is performed based on daily and hourly averages of hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The data was configured to show peak hydrogen sulfide concentrations at ...


Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill 2016 Chapman University

Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has been shown to impact the environment and threaten both human and animal health, especially in heavily populated urban areas, yet to date there remains a paucity of direct measurements. Recent studies have suggested that ammonia may be generated as a byproduct of fossil fuel emissions due to highly active catalytic converters in light-duty gasoline vehicles. To investigate this relationship, an airborne miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS) was used to directly measure atmospheric ammonia and combustion reaction products in the Southern California LA Basin, during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). The temporal ...


The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

This study was done in an effort to better understand the multifaceted issues in amphibian decline, specifically within the eastern regions of Nebraska, to determine whether or not human-induced acid rain contributed to the decline. This is a heavily important topic of research as amphibians worldwide are declining related to many issues that stem from climate change and several other environmental issues of that nature. This study looked to use acidic pH within soil from western Nebraska to determine the reactionary impacts (primarily lesions) the western tiger salamander had after being subjected to it. It was found that pH did ...


Dynamical Characteristics Of Atmospheric Aerosols Over Ig Region, Manish Sharma, Ramesh P. Singh, Rajesh Kumar 2016 Sharda University, India

Dynamical Characteristics Of Atmospheric Aerosols Over Ig Region, Manish Sharma, Ramesh P. Singh, Rajesh Kumar

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) region are primarily dependent on the geographical settings and meteorological conditions. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out over three different cities i.e. Kanpur, Greater Noida and Amritsar during 2010-2013. Level-3 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) terra daily global grid product with spatial resolution of 1° × 1° shows the mean AOD at 500 nm wavelength value of 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 with the standard deviation of 0.43, 0.39 and 0.36 respectively over Amritsar, Greater Noida and Kanpur ...


Thiophene Based Molecular Sensors Towards Mercury Detection, Austin K. Shigemoto, Carolyn N. Virca, Sam Underwood, Lauren Shetterly, Theresa M. McCormick 2016 Portland State University

Thiophene Based Molecular Sensors Towards Mercury Detection, Austin K. Shigemoto, Carolyn N. Virca, Sam Underwood, Lauren Shetterly, Theresa M. Mccormick

Student Research Symposium

Toxic heavy metals such as mercury have increased in concentration in the environment due to pollution. Inorganic mercury in the environment can be later converted to a more toxic form: methylmercury. Regular consumption of fish containing methylmercury can lead to several cognitive and motor disorders as well as Minamata disease. The current methods used to detect both methylmercury and inorganic mercury in sea life and drinking water involve long sample preparation and cost. In order to more efficiently track this toxic metal in the environment and identify contaminated food and water sources, a cheaper and faster method of detection is ...


Then And Now: Vegetative Change Detection On Mount St. Helens 2000-2015, Douglas S. Thalacker, Andrés Holz 2016 Portland State University

Then And Now: Vegetative Change Detection On Mount St. Helens 2000-2015, Douglas S. Thalacker, Andrés Holz

Student Research Symposium

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) proved a dramatic event with many important socio-economic consequences. In addition, this eruption resulted in an array of ecological consequences with subsequent studies and profound theoretical ramifications. The eruption created a complex gradient in disturbance severity on the northern aspect of MSH3, promoting successional processes from varying starting points and change rates. This study uses a landscape-scale approach to quantify spatio-temporal trends in vegetative responses to the eruption from 2000-2015, relying on Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery focusing on the primary and (i.e. no biological legacies) secondary (i.e. with biological ...


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