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Processes Controlling Carbon Cycling In Antarctic Glacier Surface Ecosystems, Elizabeth A. Bagshaw, Martyn Tranter, Jemma L. Wadham, Andrew G. Fountain, A. Dubnick, S. Fitzsimons 2016 Cardiff University

Processes Controlling Carbon Cycling In Antarctic Glacier Surface Ecosystems, Elizabeth A. Bagshaw, Martyn Tranter, Jemma L. Wadham, Andrew G. Fountain, A. Dubnick, S. Fitzsimons

Andrew G. Fountain

Glacier surface ecosystems, including cryoconite holes and cryolakes, are significant contributors to regional carbon cycles. Incubation experiments to determine the net production (NEP) of organic matter in cryoconite typically have durations of 6-24 hours, and produce a wide range of results, many of which indicate that the system is net heterotrophic. We employ longer term incubations to examine the temporal variation of NEP in cryoconite from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica to examine the effect of sediment disturbance on system production, and to understand processes controlling production over the lifetimes of glacier surface ecosystems. The shorter-term incubations have durations of ...


Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill 2016 Chapman University

Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has been shown to impact the environment and threaten both human and animal health, especially in heavily populated urban areas, yet to date there remains a paucity of direct measurements. Recent studies have suggested that ammonia may be generated as a byproduct of fossil fuel emissions due to highly active catalytic converters in light-duty gasoline vehicles. To investigate this relationship, an airborne miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS) was used to directly measure atmospheric ammonia and combustion reaction products in the Southern California LA Basin, during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). The temporal ...


Robust Estimates Of Value Of A Statistical Life For Developing Economies: An Application To Pollution And Mortality In Santiago, Brad J. Bowland, John C. Beghin 2016 University of Minnesota

Robust Estimates Of Value Of A Statistical Life For Developing Economies: An Application To Pollution And Mortality In Santiago, Brad J. Bowland, John C. Beghin

John Beghin

The value-of-statistical-life (VSL) approach is used by environmental economists to value mortality changes resulting from environmental improvement, such as decreases in air pollution. Due to the scarcity of data, VSL estimates are not available for developing countries. Using robust regression techniques, the authors conduct a meta-analysis of VSL studies in industrialized countries to derive a VSL prediction function for developing economies, accounting for differences in risk, income, human capital levels, and other demographic characteristics.


The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

The Effect Of Soil Ph On The Integument Of Western Tiger Salamanders, Aaron Devine, Dennis M. Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

This study was done in an effort to better understand the multifaceted issues in amphibian decline, specifically within the eastern regions of Nebraska, to determine whether or not human-induced acid rain contributed to the decline. This is a heavily important topic of research as amphibians worldwide are declining related to many issues that stem from climate change and several other environmental issues of that nature. This study looked to use acidic pH within soil from western Nebraska to determine the reactionary impacts (primarily lesions) the western tiger salamander had after being subjected to it. It was found that pH did ...


Thiophene Based Molecular Sensors Towards Mercury Detection, Austin K. Shigemoto, Carolyn N. Virca, Sam Underwood, Lauren Shetterly, Theresa M. McCormick 2016 Portland State University

Thiophene Based Molecular Sensors Towards Mercury Detection, Austin K. Shigemoto, Carolyn N. Virca, Sam Underwood, Lauren Shetterly, Theresa M. Mccormick

Student Research Symposium

Toxic heavy metals such as mercury have increased in concentration in the environment due to pollution. Inorganic mercury in the environment can be later converted to a more toxic form: methylmercury. Regular consumption of fish containing methylmercury can lead to several cognitive and motor disorders as well as Minamata disease. The current methods used to detect both methylmercury and inorganic mercury in sea life and drinking water involve long sample preparation and cost. In order to more efficiently track this toxic metal in the environment and identify contaminated food and water sources, a cheaper and faster method of detection is ...


Aquifer Vulnerability Modeling In New Jersey Through The Use Of Modified Drastic Methodology, Clement Uduk, Tanja Hopmans 2016 Portland State University

Aquifer Vulnerability Modeling In New Jersey Through The Use Of Modified Drastic Methodology, Clement Uduk, Tanja Hopmans

Student Research Symposium

Due to the global average increase in temperature over the last 50 years, sea levels have been rising and making coastal aquifers more susceptible to saltwater intrusion. The average rate of sea level rise has increased from 2 mm/year to 3.5 mm/year during the twentieth century. The state of New Jersey is not only densely populated but the development along coastlines makes inundation a potential serious threat. New Jersey is diverse in aquifer types, in addition to the types of water bodies surrounding New Jersey, and makes for an interesting case study for groundwater vulnerability. The EPA ...


Then And Now: Vegetative Change Detection On Mount St. Helens 2000-2015, Douglas S. Thalacker, Andrés Holz 2016 Portland State University

Then And Now: Vegetative Change Detection On Mount St. Helens 2000-2015, Douglas S. Thalacker, Andrés Holz

Student Research Symposium

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) proved a dramatic event with many important socio-economic consequences. In addition, this eruption resulted in an array of ecological consequences with subsequent studies and profound theoretical ramifications. The eruption created a complex gradient in disturbance severity on the northern aspect of MSH3, promoting successional processes from varying starting points and change rates. This study uses a landscape-scale approach to quantify spatio-temporal trends in vegetative responses to the eruption from 2000-2015, relying on Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery focusing on the primary and (i.e. no biological legacies) secondary (i.e. with biological ...


How 5-Day Weather Patterns And Buoyancy Regulation Impact Algal Community Assemblage, Roberta Brunkalla 2016 Portland State University

How 5-Day Weather Patterns And Buoyancy Regulation Impact Algal Community Assemblage, Roberta Brunkalla

Student Research Symposium

The purpose of this study is to model how 5-day weather patterns and algal buoyancy regulation influence the competition between two bloom forming cyanobacteria species in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Sudden changes in weather patterns can quickly impact lake thermal structure, which can rapidly influence the competition between buoyancy regulating cyanobacteria. By modeling competition, I hope to address how altered climate would shift the competitive advantage to toxin forming cyanobacteria. I plan on accomplishing this by coupling a one-dimensional hydrodynamic and algal competition model, with lake specific physiological parameters. A sensitivity test of the model could reveal dramatic shifts in ...


Gaur (Bos Gaurus) Abundance, Distribution, And Habitat Use Patterns In Kuiburi National Park, Southwestern Thailand, Supatcharee Tanasarnpaiboon 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Gaur (Bos Gaurus) Abundance, Distribution, And Habitat Use Patterns In Kuiburi National Park, Southwestern Thailand, Supatcharee Tanasarnpaiboon

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Population status of gaur (Bos gaurus), a wild cattle, in most habitats where they are present, is still unknown. As the use of camera traps in wildlife studies are widespread, I developed photographic individual identification procedures and utilized encounter histories of gaur individuals from camera trap data to estimate gaur abundance and density using the spatially explicit capture-recapture analysis. The study was conducted at Kuiburi National Park, southwestern Thailand, comprised of dry evergreen forest, moist evergreen forest, and man-modified secondary forest during November 2013- January 2015. I conducted 71 direct observations in a savannah-like habitat area to observe the numbers ...


Relationships Between Nutrients, Periphyton Abundance, And Benthic Macroinvertebrate Scrapers In Ozark Highland Streams, Harrison Smith 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Relationships Between Nutrients, Periphyton Abundance, And Benthic Macroinvertebrate Scrapers In Ozark Highland Streams, Harrison Smith

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

We collected samples from seven Arkansas streams during the months of August 2014 and February 2015 with the objective of determining possible relationships between nutrients, periphyton abundance and benthic macroinvertebrates. We hypothesized that periphyton would be positively associated with nutrients, and that increases in periphyton biomass would increase the abundance and diversity of benthic scraper families. Samples were collected from three transects at each site. The periphyton was analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and ash free dry mass and Chl-a content. Macroinvertebrates families belonging to the feeding group of grazers/scrapers were compared with water column and periphyton nutrient concentrations ...


Global Worming: A Quantitative Study About Greenhouse Gas Flux In Surface Soils Facilitated By The Anecic Earthworm, Lumbricus Terrestris, Under Rising Global Temperature, Rachel Briden Frei, Jose A. Amador 2016 University of Rhode Island

Global Worming: A Quantitative Study About Greenhouse Gas Flux In Surface Soils Facilitated By The Anecic Earthworm, Lumbricus Terrestris, Under Rising Global Temperature, Rachel Briden Frei, Jose A. Amador

Senior Honors Projects

Climate change is the long-term alteration in the Earth’s average weather conditions believed to be driven by greenhouse gases (GHG): carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These alterations are expected to cause more extreme weather events, gradually warmer global temperatures and greater amounts of precipitation. Roughly 20% of the Earth’s CO2, one-third of CH4 and two-thirds of N2O emissions, originate from soils, and earthworms are known to accelerate GHG. As climate change proceeds, there is expected to be an increase in global temperature of 2-6ºC. Temperature is ...


Initial Wetland Hydrology And Vegetation Composition In Predicted Wetlands Adjacent To Lake Naconiche, Nacogdoches County, Texas, Amy L. Urbanovsky 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Initial Wetland Hydrology And Vegetation Composition In Predicted Wetlands Adjacent To Lake Naconiche, Nacogdoches County, Texas, Amy L. Urbanovsky

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plans for the construction of Lake Naconiche, located in northern Nacogdoches County, included a monitoring project to demonstrate at least 176 acres of land adjacent to the lake would be converted into wetlands. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the creation of wetlands around the lake and establish a benchmark of vegetation composition and condition for future comparison. Eight locations, placed where the majority of wetlands were expected to form, were chosen for monitoring from the shoreline at 348 feet above mean sea level (ft MSL) to the county fee take line at 357 ft MSL.

Shallow groundwater ...


Now Hear This! Orientation And Behavioral Responses Of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta Caretta, To Environmental Acoustic Cues, Bethany Holtz 2016 Gettysburg College

Now Hear This! Orientation And Behavioral Responses Of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta Caretta, To Environmental Acoustic Cues, Bethany Holtz

Celebration

Although the visual and geologic orientation cues utilized by sea turtle hatchlings during seafinding, when they move from the nest to the sea after hatching, have been well studied, the potential for auditory stimuli to act as an orientation cue has not been well explored. Over the past several decades our knowledge of the auditory capacity of sea turtles has increased greatly, yet little is known about the biological significance of this sensory ability. To investigate whether hatchlings can use ocean sounds during seafinding, we measured the behavioral responses of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) collected from nesting beaches ...


The Value Of Long-Term Stream Invertebrate Data Collected By Citizen Scientists, Patrick Michael Edwards 2016 Portland State University

The Value Of Long-Term Stream Invertebrate Data Collected By Citizen Scientists, Patrick Michael Edwards

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

The purpose of this investigation was to systematically examine the variability associated with temporally-oriented invertebrate data collected by citizen scientists and consider the value of such data for use in stream management. Variability in invertebrate data was estimated for three sources of variation: sampling, within-reach spatial and long-term temporal. Long-term temporal data were also evaluated using ordinations and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). Through two separate investigations over an 11-year study period, participants collected more than 400 within-reach samples during 44 sampling events at three streams in the western United States. Within-reach invertebrate abundance coefficient of variation (CV) ranged ...


Improved Microplate Fluorometric Soil Enzyme Assay For Β-Glucosidase Detection, Emily C. Hoehn 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Improved Microplate Fluorometric Soil Enzyme Assay For Β-Glucosidase Detection, Emily C. Hoehn

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Soil microbes produce extracellular enzymes responsible for degrading complex organic compounds to release energy and nutrients. Measurement of soil enzymes can be considered an indicator of soil health and microbial community composition because of its sensitivity to agricultural and management practices. Fluorescence enzyme assays tend to be more sensitive than spectrophotometric (ie. colorimetric) assays and a 96-well plate has the potential capacity for high-throughput use. Development of a newly modified enzyme assay using fluorometric (4-methylumbelliferone), automated pipetting system and sonication, as well as a reduction in replicates allows for a higher sample throughput rate suitable for service laboratory use. The ...


Relations Between Stream Chemistry, Fish Diversity, And Land Use In The Upper Little Miami Watershed, Connor J. Gilmour, Randy Howell, David Paulding, Charles W. Reynolds, Mark A. Gathany 2016 Cedarville University

Relations Between Stream Chemistry, Fish Diversity, And Land Use In The Upper Little Miami Watershed, Connor J. Gilmour, Randy Howell, David Paulding, Charles W. Reynolds, Mark A. Gathany

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Streams are susceptible to numerous threats to their water quality and biodiversity. In southwest Ohio a major driver of these impacts is associated with current agricultural practices and associated legacy effects. These structural and chemical impacts are known to affect biodiversity in these streams. The objective of this study was to document and examine relationships among land-use/land cover, stream chemistry, and fish diversity in the headwaters streams of the Little Miami Watershed. Three streams (Little Miami River, Massies Creek - North Fork, and Massies Creek - South Fork) were sampled in the upper headwaters as well as downstream. Air and water ...


A Mobile Canoe-Mounted, Geo-Referenced, 3-D Water Quality Analyzer, Alex Shpik, Alysse Ness, Ryan Vernich 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Mobile Canoe-Mounted, Geo-Referenced, 3-D Water Quality Analyzer, Alex Shpik, Alysse Ness, Ryan Vernich

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Water quality analysis is vital to ensure the health of water sources, as well as identifying pollutants and modeling how they affect a river system. Current methods of collecting water samples consist of stationary samplers that measure changes in water quality at only one location over time. We have designed a mobile, canoe-mounted, water quality analyzing system that will enable researchers to efficiently collect a large number of water quality samples with an associated GPS location and depth for each data point. While the canoe travels in parallel swaths bank to bank, the unit will alternately collect samples from 3 ...


A Biological Survey Of Sloan's Crossing Pond, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Christiane M. Soldo Ms. 2016 Murray State University

A Biological Survey Of Sloan's Crossing Pond, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, Christiane M. Soldo Ms.

Scholars Week

Sloan’s Crossing Pond (SCP) is a popular visitor attraction in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP) that was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in 1939. In recent years, the pond has begun to shallow and fill with sediment. The National Park Service (NPS) is tasked with preserving landscapes in their pre-Colombian state. However, NPS is obligated to preserve all natural artifacts that are greater than 50 years old, such as Sloan’s Pond that was constructed by the CCC. Furthermore, the park service is required to provide recreation and entertainment to visitors. These conflicting management goals make it ...


The Measure Of Nematode Diversity In Response To Varying Management Practices And Features In Restored And Remnant Prairie Ecosystems, Heaven A. Hulshizer 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Measure Of Nematode Diversity In Response To Varying Management Practices And Features In Restored And Remnant Prairie Ecosystems, Heaven A. Hulshizer

UCARE Research Products

"Tallgrass prairies are the most endangered ecosystem in North America” (Helen et al 2013). “Surveys suggest that since European settlement, declines in area of native prairie range as high as 99.9%”(Sampson, Fred and Fritz Knopf 1994). Prairie ecosystem services are abundant and range from mitigating floods to promoting biodiversity. (USDA Forest Service).Given these benefits, restoring prairies and maintaining native areas should be an important conservation priority. Nematodes, the most abundant animal species on earth, have been used as bio-indicators of soil quality (Neher; Todd). To better understand the dynamics of nematode diversity in native and restored prairies ...


Iron Mobility In Desert Sandstone Aquifers: The Possible Role Of Siderite, Lubna Al Azri, David Loope 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Iron Mobility In Desert Sandstone Aquifers: The Possible Role Of Siderite, Lubna Al Azri, David Loope

UCARE Research Products

Jordanians and a large number of refugees are drinking radiumcontaminated water from a sandstone aquifer. The problem is that this water passed through sandstone of the Disi Formation only after carbon dioxide and methane had bleached the sandstone, dissolving the Iron-oxide coatings and liberating heavy metals and radionuclides . The Iron that once coated the grains migrated to form Iron bands in the lower Um Ishrin Formation.

The major practical significance of this study involves water quality. The movement of Iron sandstone aquifers can drastically change groundwater chemistry; understanding how and when this movement takes place will help in locating safe ...


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