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Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering ...


Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen

Honors Theses

Coastal water quality in the Grand Strand of South Carolina is directly influenced by human activities. Nutrient-rich runoff, stemming from numerous anthropogenic sources, finds its way into coastal waters through freshwater inputs often through tidal creeks, termed swashes. In order to better describe the amount of nutrient inputs into Singleton Swash and White Point Swash, we examine anthropogenic runoff from isolated identifiable point discharges and their nutrient concentrations. We report concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, as the sum of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) and phosphate in discharge and creek water. We hypothesize that nutrient concentrations of isolated, minor point ...


Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson

Honors Theses

Sandy coastlines serve crucial functions to coastal economies and coastal ecology alike. In the past, organic-poor sands were considered of lower importance than organic-rich muds. Recent studies showed that sands’ low organic matter concentrations are due to high biogeochemical cycling rates, driven by rapid physical exchange, but remain infrequently studied. I present time-series of sand mass-loss-on-ignition (LOI, an organic matter proxy) profiles from February 2017 onwards at multiple sites along Long Bay, South Carolina. LOI profiles exhibit subsurface maximum values, unlike the typical decrease with depth in muddy sediments. I hypothesize that organic matter distribution with depth is affected by ...


Groundwater-Ephemeral Stream Interaction Before And After Storm Events, Jennifer Sabbak 2021 Susquehanna University

Groundwater-Ephemeral Stream Interaction Before And After Storm Events, Jennifer Sabbak

Senior Scholars Day

Almost 60 percent of stream miles in the continental United States only flow seasonally or after storms according to a study done by the EPA in 2013. Although these streams make up a vast majority of stream miles throughout the United States, seasonal and ephemeral stream channels are not often regularly monitored. This study will focus on analyzing the hydrology of an unnamed, underrepresented ephemeral stream within Snyder County, Pennsylvania. This stream runs through Susquehanna University’s CEER site and drains into Penn Creek. The objective of this study is to accurately represent the stream’s groundwater recharge rate by ...


The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman 2021 University of Maine at Farmington

The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman

Michael D. Wilson Symposium

Climate change is directly affecting tundra ecosystems in northern regions, and warming temperatures have caused discontinuous permafrost and thawing sediments across the region. This project investigates how increasing erosion and the foraging patterns of migratory snow geese may degrade habitat for aquatic invertebrates in the upper Mast River, located in Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada. In the past two decades, many of the important species of aquatic invertebrates have shown declines. Declining invertebrate populations are predicted to affect aquatic ecosystems and decrease the resources available to shorebirds and waterfowl, which breed and migrate through this area.


Reaction Intensity Partitioning: A New Perspective Of The National Fire Danger Rating System Energy Release Component, Francis M. Fujioka, David R. Weise, Shyh-Chin Chen, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos 2021 Chapman University

Reaction Intensity Partitioning: A New Perspective Of The National Fire Danger Rating System Energy Release Component, Francis M. Fujioka, David R. Weise, Shyh-Chin Chen, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The Rothermel fire spread model provides the scientific basis for the US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) and several other important fire management applications. This study proposes a new perspective of the model that partitions the reaction intensity function and Energy Release Component (ERC) equations as an alternative that simplifies calculations while providing more insight into the temporal variability of the energy release component of fire danger. We compare the theoretical maximum reaction intensities and corresponding ERCs across 1978, 1988 and 2016 NFDRS fuel models as they are currently computed and as they would be computed under the proposed ...


Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson 2021 The Ohio State University

Drought-Induced Biomass Burning As A Source Of Black Carbon To The Central Himalaya Since 1781 Ce As Reconstructed From The Dasuopu Ice Core, Joel D. Barker, Susan Kaspari, Paulo Gabrielli, Anna Wegner, Emilie Beaudon, M. Roxana Sierra-Hernández, Lonnie Thompson

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Himalayan glaciers are melting due to atmospheric warming, with the potential to limit access to water for more than 25 % of the global population that resides in these glacier meltwater catchments. Black carbon has been implicated as a factor that is contributing to Himalayan glacier melt, but its sources and mechanisms of delivery to the Himalayas remain controversial. Here, we provide a 211-year ice core record spanning 1781–1992 CE for refractory black carbon (rBC) deposition from the Dasuopu glacier ice core that has to date provided the highest-elevation ice core record (7200 m). We report an average rBC concentration ...


Vims Ferry Pier Ambient Water Monitoring Data, Salinity And Temperature, Daily Summary 1947-2003, Gary F. Anderson 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Vims Ferry Pier Ambient Water Monitoring Data, Salinity And Temperature, Daily Summary 1947-2003, Gary F. Anderson

Data

Bulk water parameters of Temperature and Salinity were measured at the VIMS Ferry Pier from 1947 to 2003. Initial methods were undocumented but likely automated with an instrument and chart recorder since the data consists of a daily high and low measurement from which a mean value was derived.

Beginning in 1971 an automated instrument recorded continuously from which 2-hour measurements were made and daily minimum and maxima were derived. Beginning in 1986 an Inter-Ocean CTD instrument placed at mid-depth was interfaced to a digital data logger (Campbell Scientific CRJ) that recorded data every six minutes, resulting in 240 measurements ...


Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the Wachapreague lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for short-term research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment to educators for their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a long-term status ...


Investigating Decadal Changes Of Multiple Hydrological Products And Land-Cover Changes In The Mediterranean Region For 2009–2018, Wenzhao Li, Sachi Perera, Erik Linstead, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham el-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa 2021 Chapman University

Investigating Decadal Changes Of Multiple Hydrological Products And Land-Cover Changes In The Mediterranean Region For 2009–2018, Wenzhao Li, Sachi Perera, Erik Linstead, Rejoice Thomas, Hesham El-Askary, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Land-cover change is a critical concern due to its climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences. In this study, we used multiple variables including precipitation, vegetation index, surface soil moisture, and evapotranspiration obtained from different satellite sources to study their association with land-cover changes in the Mediterranean region. Both observational and modeling data were used for climatology and correlation analysis. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were used to extract surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration data. Intercomparing the results of FLDAS and GLDAS suggested that FLDAS data had better ...


Bog Plant/Lichen Tissue Nitrogen And Sulfur Concentrations As Indicators Of Emissions From Oil Sands Development In Alberta, Canada, R. Kelman Wieder, Melanie A. Vile, Kimberli D. Scott, Cara M. Albright, James C. Quinn, Dale H. Vitt 2021 Villanova University

Bog Plant/Lichen Tissue Nitrogen And Sulfur Concentrations As Indicators Of Emissions From Oil Sands Development In Alberta, Canada, R. Kelman Wieder, Melanie A. Vile, Kimberli D. Scott, Cara M. Albright, James C. Quinn, Dale H. Vitt

Health Faculty Publications

Increasing gaseous emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) associated with oil sands development in northern Alberta (Canada) has led to changing regional wet and dry N and S deposition regimes. We assessed the potential for using bog plant/lichen tissue chemistry (N and S concentrations, C:N and C:S ratios, in 10 plant/lichen species) to monitor changing atmospheric N and S deposition through sampling at five bog sites, 3-6 times per growing season from 2009 to 2016. During this 8-year period, oil sands N emissions steadily increased, while S emissions steadily decreased. We examined the following: (1 ...


Impact Assessment And Management Challenges Of Key Rural Human Health Infrastructure Under Sea Level Rise, Molly Mitchell, Robert Isdell, Julie Herman, Christine Tombleson 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Impact Assessment And Management Challenges Of Key Rural Human Health Infrastructure Under Sea Level Rise, Molly Mitchell, Robert Isdell, Julie Herman, Christine Tombleson

VIMS Articles

Accelerating sea level rise in Virginia, United States, will significantly increase the flooding threat to low-lying roads, residences, and critical infrastructure as well as raise the water table, allowing saltwater intrusion into well water and threatening the function of septic fields. Although most of the adaptation work in Virginia has focused on urban economic centers, the majority of the coastline is rural and faces different threats and opportunities to address them compared to urban areas due to their reduced economic assets and their reliance on private infrastructure. In this case study, we assess the potential for geospatially quantifying impact to ...


Healthy Trees – Healthy People: A Model For Engaging Citizen Scientists In Exotic Pest Detection In Urban Parks, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Lynne K. Rieske 2021 University of Kentucky

Healthy Trees – Healthy People: A Model For Engaging Citizen Scientists In Exotic Pest Detection In Urban Parks, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Lynne K. Rieske

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Healthy Trees – Healthy People (HT-HP) is an outreach and education program created to enlist and train participants in exotic pest detection while providing them with structured opportunities to connect with urban nature and increase their physical and emotional health. HT- HP creates infrastructure to increase engagement by the urban populace in the urban tree canopy. The program solicits participants to engage in an 8-week intervention designed to expand capacity to detect non-native insect pests and pathogens, while increasing physical activity, raising awareness of healthy lifestyle choices, and improving the health of participants. Program participants were trained in tree and tree ...


Changes In Fire Weather Climatology Under 1.5 ◦C And 2.0 ◦C Warming, Rackhun Son, Hyungjun Kim, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Sung-Ho Woo, Ji-Yoon Jeong, Byung-Doo Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Matthew LaPlante, Chun-Geun Kwon, Jin-Ho Yoon 2021 Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

Changes In Fire Weather Climatology Under 1.5 ◦C And 2.0 ◦C Warming, Rackhun Son, Hyungjun Kim, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Sung-Ho Woo, Ji-Yoon Jeong, Byung-Doo Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Matthew Laplante, Chun-Geun Kwon, Jin-Ho Yoon

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The 2015 Paris Agreement led to a number of studies that assessed the impact of the 1.5 ◦C and 2.0 ◦C increases in global temperature over preindustrial levels. However, those assessments have not actively investigated the impact of these levels of warming on fire weather. In view of a recent series of high-profile wildfire events worldwide, we access fire weather sensitivity based on a set of multi-model large ensemble climate simulations for these low-emission scenarios. The results indicate that the half degree difference between these two thresholds may lead to a significantly increased hazard of wildfire in certain ...


Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman 2021 University of California, Davis

Ecological Risk Assessment Of Managed Relocation As A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, Aviv Karasov-Olson, Mark W. Schwartz, Julian D. Olden, Sarah Skikne, Jessica J. Hellmann, Sarah Allen, Christy Brigham, Danielle Buttke, David J. Lawrence, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Gregor W. Schuurman, Melissa Trammell, Cat Hawkins Hoffman

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

Changing climate and introduced species are placing an increasing number of species at risk of extinction. Increasing extinction risk is increasing calls to protect species by relocating, or translocating, them to locations with more favorable biotic or climatic conditions. Managed relocation, or assisted migration, of species entails risks to both the conservation target organisms being moved as well as the recipient ecosystems into which they are moved.

Recognizing this risk, calls have been made for practitioners interested in considering a managed relocation project to engage in a serious risk assessment prior to advancing a project. We engaged a ...


Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry house operations and use of litter as a soil amendment in Accomack County Virginia has raised concerns for water quality impacts on both seaside and bayside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESVA). This ongoing investigation is examining freshwater stream water quality in Accomack Virginia to identify water quality impairments from poultry operation storm water runoff. Previous sampling data from 2019 has been integrated into this report. Sampling in 2020 followed an extended drought period (base flow) and two inch rainfall events (storm flow) in streams at road crossings in Accomack County Bayside and Seaside drainages. Dissolved ...


How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler 2021 University of Louisville

How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler

Grawemeyer Colloquium Papers

Across the world, it is estimated that 4.5 billion people live near water sources “impaired” for use or contact. Standards for human-interaction are established by international organizations such as the WHO, and legislative bodies from national to local levels with jurisdiction over the quality of our waterways to ensure public & environmental health. Standards are often assessed from “grab-samples” taken from a waterbody at a certain time, with a minimum number analyzed. Water-quality standards in the United States are enforced under the Clean Water Act (CWA) via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), applying to “waters of the United States” (WOTUS ...


Investigating The Lagged Relationship Between Smap Soil Moisture And Live Fuel Moisture In California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Keun Hang S. Yang, Menas Kafatos 2021 Chapman University

Investigating The Lagged Relationship Between Smap Soil Moisture And Live Fuel Moisture In California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Keun Hang S. Yang, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Live fuel moisture (LFM), defined as the ratio between water in the fresh biomass out of the dry biomass, is a vital measurement of vegetation water content and flammability. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of in-situ measurement of LFM at all the active sites in California, USA and revealed the difference between evergreen forest and shrub/scrub, the two dominant land cover types in California's fire-prone regions. We found that LFM of evergreen forest responses to soil moisture increase later than shrub/scrub, due to a later occurrence of major precipitation, a lower air temperature, and the ...


An Assessment Of The Filling Process Of The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam And Its Impact On The Downstream Countries, Prakrut Kansara, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, Venkat Lakshmi, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa, Mohamed Abdelaty Sayed 2021 University of Virginia

An Assessment Of The Filling Process Of The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam And Its Impact On The Downstream Countries, Prakrut Kansara, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, Venkat Lakshmi, Thomas Piechota, Daniele Struppa, Mohamed Abdelaty Sayed

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), formerly known as the Millennium Dam, has been filling at a fast rate. This project has created issues for the Nile Basin countries of Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia. The filling of GERD has an impact on the Nile Basin hydrology and specifically the water storages (lakes/reservoirs) and flow downstream. In this study, through the analysis of multi-source satellite imagery, we study the filling of the GERD reservoir. The time-series generated using Sentinel-1 SAR imagery displays the number of classified water pixels in the dam from early June 2017 to September 2020, indicating a ...


Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019a). The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill upstream of the site triggered a higher resolution sampling of the stream in an attempt to isolate a source of the nitrogen loading (Snyder and Ross, 2019b). Accomack County has requested repeated sampling of this stream segment to monitor nutrient attenuation trends from the site, and stations were established for that purpose. This Final Report provides a summary of ...


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