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Implications Of Manipulations Of Soil Quality On The Growth Of European Buckthorn (Rhamnus Cathartica) In A Greenhouse, Sam L. Pepper, Liam Heneghan 2016 DePaul University

Implications Of Manipulations Of Soil Quality On The Growth Of European Buckthorn (Rhamnus Cathartica) In A Greenhouse, Sam L. Pepper, Liam Heneghan

DePaul Discoveries

European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is an invasive shrub that is capable of changing the nitrogen content of a soil through the deposition of its nitrogen rich leaf litter. This change creates conditions that may favor recolonizing by buckthorn and negatively affect the growth of native plants. In this greenhouse experiment, we examined the effect of altering soil quality by adding mulch comprised of buckthorn wood on above and belowground biomass, stem length and leaf production of buckthorn saplings. We found that buckthorn saplings planted in buckthorn mulch had reduced stem length and leaf production compared to growth in control ...


Preserving Biodiversity For A Climate Change Future: A Resilience Assessment Of Three Bay Area Species--Adenostoma Fasciculatum (Chamise), Arctostaphylos Canescens (Hoary Manzanita), And Arctostaphylos Virgata (Marin Manzanita), Alison S. Pollack 2016 University of San Francisco

Preserving Biodiversity For A Climate Change Future: A Resilience Assessment Of Three Bay Area Species--Adenostoma Fasciculatum (Chamise), Arctostaphylos Canescens (Hoary Manzanita), And Arctostaphylos Virgata (Marin Manzanita), Alison S. Pollack

Master's Projects

Anthropogenic climate change is an undeniable threat to the future of the natural world and human civilization. These shifts will have profound impacts on vegetation, especially for species endemic to isolated regions or sensitive to climate change factors. However, species resilience can predict success into the next century. Resilience is defined as the ability to withstand climate change factors, whereas vulnerability is defined as susceptibility to climate induced stress or damage.

Chaparral and coastal scrub ecosystems within the Bay Area of California provide a unique context for examining resilience, as many species are adapted to high temperatures, drought, and wildfire ...


Chapman University 2016 Environmental Audit: Residence Life Dining Services Equipment, Alexandra FW Sidun, Devon T. Bloss 2016 Chapman University

Chapman University 2016 Environmental Audit: Residence Life Dining Services Equipment, Alexandra Fw Sidun, Devon T. Bloss

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Chapman University accommodates over 1700 student meal plans per day through the on-campus dining services provided by Sodexo Restaurant Services. The commercial-grade kitchens found in the Randall Dining Commons (RDC) of Sandhu Conference Center are frequently used to prepare food for students for every meal, seven days a week. The RDC kitchen facility has staff working around the clock and high consumption electrical, water, and gas appliances constantly running to parallel the high demand. The frequent use of commercial kitchen appliances results in an enormous consumption of energy and water resources leading to comparably high utility bills. Measuring the energy ...


Fluctuating Survival Selection Explains Variation In Avian Group Size, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown, Erin A. Roche, Valerie A. O'Brien, Catherine E. Page 2016 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa

Fluctuating Survival Selection Explains Variation In Avian Group Size, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown, Erin A. Roche, Valerie A. O'Brien, Catherine E. Page

Papers in Natural Resources

Most animal groups vary extensively in size. Because individuals in certain sizes of groups often have higher apparent fitness than those in other groups, why wide group size variation persists in most populations remains unexplained. We used a 30-y mark– recapture study of colonially breeding cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) to show that the survival advantages of different colony sizes fluctuated among years. Colony size was under both stabilizing and directional selection in different years, and reversals in the sign of directional selection regularly occurred. Directional selection was predicted in part by drought conditions: birds in larger colonies tended to be ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


The Effect Of Diet On The Bovine Rumen Microbial Community Structure And Composition And Its Effects On Methane Production In Growing And Finishing Cattle, Allison L. Knoell 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effect Of Diet On The Bovine Rumen Microbial Community Structure And Composition And Its Effects On Methane Production In Growing And Finishing Cattle, Allison L. Knoell

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that contributes to global warming. A natural by-product of ruminant fermentation is the production and eructation of methane. Methane is produced by a small unique group of microorganism’s called methanogens that belong to the domain Archaea. Enteric methane represents 2-12% energy loss in ruminants. It is well established that diet affects the microbial community structure and composition. Fermentative products of the mixed microbial population (bacteria, fungi, and protozoa) become the substrates for methanogens. These substrates influence which microorganisms will thrive. However, the effect of diet on the microbial community while simultaneously calculating ...


Attitudes Of Air Pollution From Commercial Aircraft: A Comparison Between Cultures And Genders, Sierra L. Gaenicke, Scott R. Winter, Stephen Rice, Ismael Cremer 2016 Florida Institute of Technology - Melbourne

Attitudes Of Air Pollution From Commercial Aircraft: A Comparison Between Cultures And Genders, Sierra L. Gaenicke, Scott R. Winter, Stephen Rice, Ismael Cremer

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

Studies have focused on cultural and gender differences based on perceptions of air pollution. Although these studies provided valuable information on cultural and gender differences on perceptions of air pollution, there have not been studies conducted regarding consumer’s perceptions on air pollution from commercial aircraft and their willingness to fly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how varying pollution levels influenced participant’s willingness to fly across two nationalities and genders.

In the study, five hundred and ninety-nine participants from India and the United States answered questions related to their attitudes toward flying on an aircraft ...


Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. McGrew, Kenneth A. Foland 2016 Yale University

Transition From Contraction To Extension In The Northeastern Basin And Range: New Evidence From The Copper Mountains, Nevada, Jeffrey M. Rahl, Allen J. Mcgrew, Kenneth A. Foland

Allen J. McGrew

New mapping, structural analysis, and 40Ar/39Ar dating reveal an unusually well‐constrained history of Late Eocene extension in the Copper Mountains of the northern Basin and Range province. In this area, the northeast‐trending Copper Creek normal fault juxtaposes a distinctive sequence of metacarbonate and granitoid rocks against a footwall of Upper Precambrian to Lower Cambrian quartzite and phyllite. Correlation of the hanging wall with footwall rocks to the northwest provides an approximate piercing point that requires 8–12 km displacement in an ESE direction. This displaced fault slice is itself bounded above by another normal fault (the Meadow ...


Acoustic Detection Reveals Fine-Scale Distributions Of Myotis Lucifugus, Myotis Septentrionalis, And Perimyotis Subflavus In Eastern Nebraska, Jeremy A. White, Cliff Lemen, Patricia Freeman 2016 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Acoustic Detection Reveals Fine-Scale Distributions Of Myotis Lucifugus, Myotis Septentrionalis, And Perimyotis Subflavus In Eastern Nebraska, Jeremy A. White, Cliff Lemen, Patricia Freeman

Papers in Natural Resources

ABSTRACT.—Before white-nose syndrome arrives in Nebraska, it is important to document the preexposure distributions of cave bats in the state. We examined the distributions of Myotis lucifugus (little brown myotis), Myotis septentrionalis (northern long-eared myotis), and Perimyotis subflavus (tri-colored bat) in eastern Nebraska by setting acoustic detectors for a single night at 105 sites in wooded habitats during summers of 2012 and 2014. We compared 2 methods of determining presence at each site. Results of our analyses are fine-scale distributional maps for these bats and some range extensions from published records. Results for M. septentrionalis and P. subflavus are ...


Pastoralists' Perception On The Trend Of Various Climatic, Social And Environmental Variables In Baringo County, Kenya, Geoffrey L. Lelenguyah, Samuel K. Kabochi, John C. Biwot 2016 Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries

Pastoralists' Perception On The Trend Of Various Climatic, Social And Environmental Variables In Baringo County, Kenya, Geoffrey L. Lelenguyah, Samuel K. Kabochi, John C. Biwot

Journal of Ecological Anthropology

As global temperatures increase, more intense rainfall and more frequent droughts will have devastating effects on pastoral livelihoods. The aim of this study was to investigate pastoralists' perceptions on the impacts of climate variability on their livelihoods from 1971 to 2010. This study utilized household structured questionnaires. Statistical tests included t-test and Chi-square test (χ2). Statistically significant differences between the responses in strata 1 and 2 on the perceived trend of rainfall and floods towards the future were noted. This study recommends the strengthening of local institutions to be able to deal with impacts of climate variability and change.


Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha 2016 First Solar

Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

The environmental sciences have been critical to identifying global environmental challenges such as climate change, but they have been less extensively utilized in deploying solutions to those challenges, such as solar energy. Environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, aerosols, clouds, soiling, and snowfall have important effects on solar PV performance, and these effects can vary regionally. The current status of large-scale solar PV deployment will be discussed along with the role of environmental variables on PV performance.


Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar 2016 Hydro Tasmania Consulting

Prevailing Weather Conditions During Summer Seasons Around Gangotri Glacier, Pratap Singh, Umesh K. Haritashya, K. S. Ramasastri, Naresh Kumar

Umesh K. Haritashya

Meteorological data collected near the snout of the Gangotri Glacier suggest that the study area receives less rainfall. The average seasonal rainfall is observed to be about 260 mm. The rainfall distribution does not show any monsoon impact. Amount of seasonal rainfall is highly variable (131.4-368.8 mm) from year to year, but, in general, August had the maximum rainfall. A verage daily maximum and minimum temperatures were 14.7 and 4.1°C respectively, whereas average mean temperature was 9.4°C. July was recorded as the warmest month. During daytime, wind speed was four times higher than ...


Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe 2016 University of Colorado

Multispectral Image Analysis Of Glaciers And Glacier Lakes In The Chugach Mountains, Alaska, Jeffrey Kargel, Matthew Beedle, Andrew Bush, Francisco Carreño, Elena Castellanos, Umesh Haritashya, Gregory Leonard, Javier Lillo, Ivan Lopez, Mark Pleasants, Edward Pollock, David Wolfe

Umesh Haritashya

The Chugach Mountains contain the largest nonpolar alpine glaciers in the world and include a wide variety of glacier types: some are land terminating; some calve variously into tidewater, lakes, and rivers; some are heavily debris covered; some are surge-type, whereas others are neither debris covered nor surge type. Nearly all are retreating, thinning, or both, though some rare ones are advancing, and some are thickening at high elevations. To assist the further documentation of changes, we establish an inventory of glaciers in the eastern Chugach Mountains. Several case studies of diverse glacier types showcase remotesensing applications and are used ...


Cruising The Canal: A Methodological Approach To Assessing Trail Conditions Along The Hennepin Canal Parkway, Alyssa Clarida 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Cruising The Canal: A Methodological Approach To Assessing Trail Conditions Along The Hennepin Canal Parkway, Alyssa Clarida

Geography: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Trail conditions in the United States are degrading and trail systems do not receive enough funding to repair them in a timely manner. Park managers often conduct trail assessments to collect trail condition data. They use this data to make timely and judicious decisions regarding trail repairs. However, many trail assessments are time consuming, costly, and require high levels of expertise. This project creates a trail assessment methodology that can be applied to a trail with limited funds. The final methodology was efficient, succinct, accurate, and simple to conduct. It uses a problem based methodology where every instance of degradation ...


The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert Brecha 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent ...


Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler

Robert J. Brecha

We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs of resource extraction and commodity prices on international markets. We explain this observation in terms of (a) the intertemporal scarcity rent, (b) regional price differentials arising from trade and transport costs, (c) heterogeneity and inertia in the extraction sector. These effects are captured by the REMIND model. We use the model to explore economic effects of changes ...


Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input-output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can ...


Comparison Of Terrain Indices And Landform Classification Procedures In Low-Relief Agricultural Fields, Derek A. Evans, Karl W. J. Williard, Jon E. Schoonover 2016 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Comparison Of Terrain Indices And Landform Classification Procedures In Low-Relief Agricultural Fields, Derek A. Evans, Karl W. J. Williard, Jon E. Schoonover

Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources

Landforms control the spatial distribution of numerous factors associated with agronomy and water quality. Although curvature and slope are the fundamental surface derivatives used in landform classification procedures, methodologies for landform classifications have been performed with other terrain indices including the topographic position index (TPI) and the convergence index (CI). The objectives of this study are to compare plan curvature, the convergence index, profile curvature, and the topographic position index at various scales to determine which better identifies the spatial variability of soil phosphorus (P) within three low relief agricultural fields in central Illinois and to compare how two methods ...


Spatial Analysis Of Forest Crimes In Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri, Karun Pandit, Eddie Bevilacqua, Giorgos Mountrakis, Robert W. Malmsheimer 2016 SUNY ESF

Spatial Analysis Of Forest Crimes In Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri, Karun Pandit, Eddie Bevilacqua, Giorgos Mountrakis, Robert W. Malmsheimer

Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources

Forest crime mitigation has been identified as a challenging issue in forest management in the United States. Knowledge of the spatial pattern of forest crimes would help in wisely allocating limited enforcement resources to curb forest crimes. This study explores the spatial pattern of three different types of forest crimes: fire crime, illegal timber logging crime, and occupancy use crime in the Salem-Patosi Ranger District of Mark Twain National Forest. Univariate and bivariate Ripley’s K-functions were applied to explore the spatial patterns in crime events, like clustering and attraction among forest crime types. Results reveal significant clustering for each ...


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