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Modeling Effective Albedo As A Function Of Land Cover Type And Snow Type, Martin Ytre-EIde, Terje Christensen, Tore Sivert Johnsen Istad, Lill Tove Nilsen, Bjørn Johnsen 2017 NRPA

Modeling Effective Albedo As A Function Of Land Cover Type And Snow Type, Martin Ytre-Eide, Terje Christensen, Tore Sivert Johnsen Istad, Lill Tove Nilsen, Bjørn Johnsen

Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings

The Center for Environmental Radioactivity (CERAD) project "UV-maps" aims to obtain geographically distributed time-series of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in Norway. Since UV-measurements are limited to a few monitoring stations, a full representation of the spatial and temporal distribution needs to be based on a ra-diative transfer model (RTM). A key parameter is the regional albedo distribution. The albedo model developed here apply a gridded set of local albedo values to derive the regional, effective albedo at any given point. In Norway there is a UV-monitoring network that has been operating since 1996, delivering almost continual 20-years time series of ...


Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On The Adult Butterfly Assemblage Of A Coastal Grassland, J. Nicole DeSha, Joseph Colbert, Kimberly M. Andrews, Scott Coleman, C. Tate Holbrook 2017 College of Coastal Georgia

Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On The Adult Butterfly Assemblage Of A Coastal Grassland, J. Nicole Desha, Joseph Colbert, Kimberly M. Andrews, Scott Coleman, C. Tate Holbrook

Georgia Journal of Science

Coastal grasslands are globally threatened by development and natural succession. In the southeastern United States, these increasingly rare ecosystems are being managed using prescribed fire, but ecological responses to fire management are largely unknown, particularly among nontargeted species. We tested for short-term effects of controlled burning on the abundance and species richness of adult butterflies, which utilize coastal grasslands for nectaring resources and as migratory stopover sites. In February 2015, four plots of coastal grassland on Little St. Simons Island, GA were burned and paired with unburned (control) plots of equal size. Throughout the following summer-fall flight season, we conducted ...


Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee 2017 Chapman University

Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the productivity and resilience of agroecosystems in the Korean Peninsula. Having learned valuable lessons from a Chapman University project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture which concentrated on the semi-arid region of southwestern United States, our joint Korea—Chapman University team has applied similar methodologies to the Korean Peninsula, which is itself an interesting study case in the mid-latitude region. In particular, the Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environments due to differences in political and socioeconomic systems between South Korea and North Korea. Specifically, North Korea has been suffering from food shortages due to natural ...


Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On Public Beaches: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Georgia, Maranda R. Miller 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On Public Beaches: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Georgia, Maranda R. Miller

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The world’s natural environment is degrading, and human behavior is a leading cause. Therefore, in order to address environmental problems it is important to understand the factors driving environmentally degrading behaviors and subsequently design behavioral interventions to alter undesirable behaviors.

One environmental issue of particular concern is toxins leeching from trash. Specifically, cigarette butts are of concern due to their prevalence in the environment. Cigarette butt discarding behavior is affected by personal attributes, but data regarding which personal attributes and how these affect discarding behavior is lacking. This thesis seeks to understand cigarette butt disposal on public beaches by ...


Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Hunting regulations are assumed to moderate the effects of hunting consistently across a game population. A growing body of evidence suggests that hunter effort varies temporally and spatially, and that variation in effort at multiple spatial scales can affect game populations in unexpected ways. We set out to determine the causes of variation in hunting effort among ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hunters at four spatial scales: among regions within the state of Nebraska, among sites within a given region, among access points at a given site, and among habitat patches within a site. At each scale, pheasant hunters used direct ...


Soil Ecosystem Service Tradeoffs And Social-Ecological Resilience In The North Central Great Plains, Hannah E. Birge 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soil Ecosystem Service Tradeoffs And Social-Ecological Resilience In The North Central Great Plains, Hannah E. Birge

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans seek to improve their wellbeing by altering ecological processes to maximize the output of specific ecosystem services, which often leave the system vulnerable to unintended and undesirable side effects. Ecosystem services emerge from complex interactions among ecological structures and processes occurring at multiple scales. The degree to which an ecosystem maintains a predictable range of structures and processes in the face of disturbance can be described as its resilience. The 1930s Dust Bowl of the North American Great Plains is an example of a system reconfiguration and loss of resilience that was ultimately driven by human optimization for a ...


Estimation Of The Virtual Water Content Of Main Crops On The Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models And Evapotranspiration Methods, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Yuyoung Choi, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee 2017 Chapman University

Estimation Of The Virtual Water Content Of Main Crops On The Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models And Evapotranspiration Methods, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Yuyoung Choi, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Sustainable agriculture in the era of climate change needs to find solutions for the retention and proper utilization of water. This study proposes an ensemble approach for identifying the virtual water content (VWC) of main crops on the Korean Peninsula in past and future climates. Ensemble results with low uncertainty were obtained using three regional climate models, five potential evapotranspiration methods, and the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The productivity results of major crops (rice and maize) under climate change are likely to increase more than in the past based on the ensemble results. The ensemble VWC is ...


Environmental Impacts Of Holiday Gift Giving Of Books And Movies, Benjamin Shaffer 2017 DePaul University

Environmental Impacts Of Holiday Gift Giving Of Books And Movies, Benjamin Shaffer

DePaul Discoveries

This project examines the relationship between gift giving deadweight loss (when the cost of a gift exceeds it value to the recipient) or welfare gain (when the value of a gift to a recipient exceeds the cost of a gift), and the environmental impact of gifts. Surveys of American adults were used to determine the economic welfare losses or gains created by holiday gift giving, comparing gifts of traditional (paper) books and DVD or Blu-ray format movies. Both products showed overall welfare gains as gifts, with books averaging a larger welfare gain than movies. An ANOVA was done to determine ...


Trophic Dynamics Of Flathead Catfish In The Missouri River Bordering Nebraska, Dylan R. Turner 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Trophic Dynamics Of Flathead Catfish In The Missouri River Bordering Nebraska, Dylan R. Turner

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Understanding the trophic dynamics of large, riverine ecosystems is complex and requires knowledge from several inputs and outputs of the ecosystem. Most riverine ecosystems have been altered in some way whether through damming, channelizing, or diverting water. The Missouri River is not immune to these anthropogenic alterations. The river has dams throughout its middle portion and is channelized from Sioux City, Iowa to its confluence with the Mississippi River. Flathead Catfish pylodictus olivarius are one of the most ecologically harmful introduced species but little research has looked at the influence native populations of Flathead Catfish have on native prey populations ...


Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby

Adam Liska Papers

Many people tend to think that the outcome of any nuclear weapons use today will result in an escalatory situation with apocalyptic outcomes for the countries involved. Yet many factors are increasing the probability of the limited use of nuclear weapons (e.g., 1 to 20 warheads) in a range of conflict scenarios. Previous atmospheric model simulations of regional nuclear conflicts employing many relatively small bombs have been estimated to cause a global “nuclear autumn,” with great reductions in agricultural productivity, stratospheric ozone loss, and spread of hazardous radioactive fallout. The totality of these effects would result in widespread ...


Fish And Macroinvertebrate Response To Restored Off Channel Habitats On The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Caleb Uerling 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fish And Macroinvertebrate Response To Restored Off Channel Habitats On The Lower Platte River, Nebraska, Caleb Uerling

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Anthropogenic alterations to large rivers ranging from impoundments to levees have caused many rivers to no longer access the floodplain. The ecological integrity of floodplain rivers depends on the interaction between main-channel and floodplain habitats. Fish communities inhabiting floodplain habitats are often dictated by the type of habitat and conditions within that habitat. As restoration projects are undertaken it is imperative that managers understand how fish and macroinvertebrates respond to these events. We collected fish, macroinvertebrates, and habitat parameters on two restored floodplain habitats on the lower Platte River, Nebraska to answer questions about aquatic community response to floodplain restoration ...


The Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Air Pollutants And Their Relationship With Land-Use Patterns In Hangzhou City, China, Sheng Zheng, Xueyuan Zhou, Ramesh Singh, Yuzhe Wu, Yanmei Ye, Cifang Wu 2017 Zheijiang University

The Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Air Pollutants And Their Relationship With Land-Use Patterns In Hangzhou City, China, Sheng Zheng, Xueyuan Zhou, Ramesh Singh, Yuzhe Wu, Yanmei Ye, Cifang Wu

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Air pollution contributes to a large fraction of the total mortality estimated under the global burden of disease project (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper discusses an integrated study to obtain the spatiotemporal characteristics of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and trace gases (O3, SO2, NO2, and CO) pollutants in Hangzhou City (China) for the years 2014–2016. Our detailed analysis shows a relationship between air pollutants and land-use/land-cover change. Air quality parameters (PM2.5 and PM10) and trace gases (SO2, NO2, and CO) show strong monthly variations in the months of January (higher values ...


Reversing Inequality, Combatting Climate Change: A Climate Jobs Program For New York State, J. Mijin Cha, Lara Skinner 2017 Occidental College

Reversing Inequality, Combatting Climate Change: A Climate Jobs Program For New York State, J. Mijin Cha, Lara Skinner

Research Studies and Reports

[Excerpt] Economic inequality in New York is rising. Currently, the state has the second highest level of economic inequality in the country. Unequal job growth across the state and stagnant wages in several sectors are two of the main contributors to rising inequality. While the state overall has seen several years of employment growth, there are stronger employment gains in New York City than in other parts of the state still suffering from job losses and stagnant employment levels. Additionally, in many sectors, such as construction and manufacturing, wages are not increasing at the same pace as inflation, leaving many ...


The Effect Of Watershed Runoff And Sediment Resuspension On Turbidity And Sediment Deposition In St. John, Us Virgin Islands: Implications For Watershed And Marine Development And Restoration In Bays With Coral Reefs, Stephen E. Campbell 2017 University of San Diego

The Effect Of Watershed Runoff And Sediment Resuspension On Turbidity And Sediment Deposition In St. John, Us Virgin Islands: Implications For Watershed And Marine Development And Restoration In Bays With Coral Reefs, Stephen E. Campbell

Theses

In the US Virgin Islands (USVI), land-based (terrigenous) sedimentation has been identified as a major cause of coral stress. Development, such as the building of unpaved roads in steep coastal watersheds, has increased sediment yields and marine terrigenous sedimentation by up to an order of magnitude above background levels. When activated during storm events, ephemeral streams transport sediment from the watershed to coastal waters. Once deposited on the seafloor, resuspension of benthic sediments can further increase turbidity and deposition. However, isolating the relative contributions of runoff and resuspension to turbidity and deposition using conventional sediment trap monitoring has been challenging ...


The Relationship Between Carbon Emissions, Land Use Change And The Oil Palm Industry Within Southeast Asia, Savanna L. Booth 2017 University of San Francisco

The Relationship Between Carbon Emissions, Land Use Change And The Oil Palm Industry Within Southeast Asia, Savanna L. Booth

Master's Projects and Capstones

Tropical forests store the largest amount of carbon globally by sequestering up to 2.7 Gt of carbon every year in soils and vegetation. Deforestation and the conversion of tropical peatland soil have contributed to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, as well as significantly hindering tropical ecosystems and the natural carbon sequestration potential that could potentially help mitigate atmospheric CO2 levels. Deforestation has increased rapidly since the 1970’s across Southeast Asia with oil palm contributing to 61% of deforestation between 2010 and 2015 with emissions reaching 22.1 million tons CO2-eq during that time. The conversions ...


Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment For Nitrate Pollution In The Salinas Valley Using A Modified Drastic Model, Bernadette Boyle 2017 The University of San Francisco

Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment For Nitrate Pollution In The Salinas Valley Using A Modified Drastic Model, Bernadette Boyle

Master's Projects and Capstones

Groundwater is an integral piece of California’s groundwater resources. One of the most common contaminants present in groundwater is nitrate. Nitrate contamination is often a result of agricultural land use activities on the ground surface. The study area for this analysis is the Salinas Valley Groundwater Basin, an agriculturally dominated basin in coastal California. The Salinas Valley Basin is both one of the most agriculturally productive areas of the state, as well as one of the most nitrate-contaminated basins in the state. The purpose of this research was to develop a groundwater vulnerability map for nitrate pollution in the ...


Embodied Carbon: A Framework For Prioritizing And Reducing Emissions In The Building Industry, Natalie C. Wheating 2017 The University of San Francisco

Embodied Carbon: A Framework For Prioritizing And Reducing Emissions In The Building Industry, Natalie C. Wheating

Master's Projects and Capstones

Global climate change is one of the most impactful environmental issues in modern times, and the construction industry is known to be one of the largest contributors to carbon emissions—one of the key causes of climate change. Embodied carbon emissions of buildings are an often overlooked, but significant, influencer of a building’s overall carbon footprint. This gives rise to the need for improved life cycle analysis of buildings and identification of opportunities to reduce the total carbon footprint of a building throughout its life cycle. This paper analyzes the current state of the building industry that limits the ...


Environmental Health, Tessa Oliaro 2017 Chapman University

Environmental Health, Tessa Oliaro

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

There is a very important intersection between the environment, public health, and socioeconomic factors (Braveman, 2014). These include waste disposal, water use and quality, road safety, ecosystem services, and many more. Environmental health stresses, “the health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological agents in the environment and workplace, and learns to develop strategies to measure and control major environmental health problems both locally…and in settings around the globe” (UC Berkeley School of Public Health, 2017). This overarching umbrella can have emphases in environmental epidemiology, exposure science, climate change, ergonomics, home and industrial hygiene, and molecular epidemiology. Exploring each of ...


Summer Precipitation Occurrence Effect On Two Passerine Species In Thule, Greenland, Sara E. Baugh 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Summer Precipitation Occurrence Effect On Two Passerine Species In Thule, Greenland, Sara E. Baugh

Celebration of Learning

Climate change is occurring at a faster rate in the Arctic than the rest of the globe, causing temperature rises at twice the rate of the global average and increased summer precipitation in the form of rain. These precipitation events are predicted to affect migratory bird species that breed throughout the Arctic. Increased occurrence of heavy rainstorms indirectly affect bird populations by impacting distribution and abundance of food supply, and directly by increasing mortality rates of juveniles. Studies conducted on bird species throughout the low Arctic regions; have shown that it is not the total precipitation of a breeding season ...


Integration Of Hydrogeophysical Datasets For Improved Water Resource Management In Irrigated Systems, Catherine E. Finkenbiner 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Integration Of Hydrogeophysical Datasets For Improved Water Resource Management In Irrigated Systems, Catherine E. Finkenbiner

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Water scarcity is predicted to be the major limitation to increasing agronomic outputs to meet future food and fiber demands. With the agricultural sector accounting for 80 – 90% of all consumptive water use and an average water use efficiency (WUE) of less than 45%, major advances must be made in irrigation water management. Precision agriculture, specifically variable-rate irrigation (VRI) and variable-speed irrigation (VSI) systems, offers the technologies to address and manage for infield variability and incorporate that into management decisions. The major limitation to implementing this technology often lies in the management of spatial datasets and the development of irrigation ...


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