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Extraction Of Indicator Dyes Into Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids, Sarah Oplawski 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Extraction Of Indicator Dyes Into Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids, Sarah Oplawski

Theses and Dissertations

Among the major classes of water pollutants, dyestuffs have proven to be particularly problematic, both in terms of the quantities released to the environment and the difficulties involved in their recovery from aqueous solution. Each year, textile mills worldwide discharge millions of gallons of dye-laden effluents, leading to significant adverse environmental impact as a consequence of the high chemical oxygen demand and toxicity of these effluent streams. For this reason, there has been considerable interest in the development of a means by which to remove dyes from aqueous waste streams. To accomplish this, textile mills generally employ a combination of ...


Crown Ether Stereoisomerism: Implications In Metal Ion Extraction And Ionic Liquid Design, Alan Pawlak 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Crown Ether Stereoisomerism: Implications In Metal Ion Extraction And Ionic Liquid Design, Alan Pawlak

Theses and Dissertations

Since their discovery more than four decades ago, crown ethers (CEs) have been the subject of intense investigation in a number of fields. Although many of the structural features that govern the behavior of these compounds have been thoroughly explored, the effect of their stereochemistry has received relatively little attention. In the present work, crown ether stereochemistry is shown to have important implications in both the design of ternary (i.e., three-component) ionic liquids (TILs) and metal ion extraction. Specifically, as a first step toward the development of guidelines for the rational design of ternary ionic liquids employing crown ethers ...


Multisegment Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry: A High-Throughput Platform In Metabolomics For Assessment Of Lifestyle Interventions In Human Health, Naomi L. Kuehnbaum 2014 McMaster University

Multisegment Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry: A High-Throughput Platform In Metabolomics For Assessment Of Lifestyle Interventions In Human Health, Naomi L. Kuehnbaum

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Research in this thesis has focused on development and application of novel methodologies that enhance sample throughput and data fidelity when performing untargeted metabolome profiling by multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS). Metabolomics is a valuable tool in functional genomics research to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms associated with human health since metabolites are “real-world” end-products of gene expression. CE-MS is well-suited for metabolomics because it is a high efficiency microseparation technique that can be used to resolve complex mixtures of polar metabolites in human biofluids without complicated sample workup. In this thesis, a novel CE-MS assay for estrogens and their intact ...


Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Ethanol is becoming increasingly popular as a fossil fuel additive or substitute. However, current production of ethanol from corn impacts food prices and appears to have an overall low net yield. New sources need to be identified and new processes developed for ethanol production. Cellulosic ethanol is one such new source. Plant material contains a large amount of cellulose and other polysaccharides which are potential feed stocks for ethanol production. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the polysaccharide, lignin, and ash content of fall leaves to estimate their potential for ethanol production. A slight modification of the NREL ...


Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Normal abundant dietary sugars such as fructose and sucrose can contribute to hypertension and other health issues. To avoid these health complications, many individuals use artificial sweeteners. An equivalent intake of some artificial sweeteners also can lead to hypertension. However, Stevia, a sweetener that is isolated from a Paraguayan plant, was shown in relevant literature to decrease blood pressure in both rat specimens and humans. The general purpose of this research project was to study the effect of Stevia, saccharin, and sucrose on the expression of two key components of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS): prorenin receptor (PRR) and angiotensin ...


Repurposing Of Human Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors For Neglected Diseases: Lead Discovery For Chagas Disease, Uma Swaminathan 2014 Northeastern University

Repurposing Of Human Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors For Neglected Diseases: Lead Discovery For Chagas Disease, Uma Swaminathan

Chemistry Master's Theses

Chapter 1: Neglected tropical disease, Chagas disease and target repurposing approach

The term "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) most commonly refers to a group of parasitic and bacterial infectious disease affecting more than one billion people globally. There are 13 core diseases in the NTD group that are widespread across the countries from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and to Latin America. These diseases primarily occur in rural areas, urban slums or conflict zones and affect 2.7 billion people who live on less than $2 per day, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. NTDs cause severe impact on physical and cognitive development, long-term ...


Au@Tio2 Nanocomposites For The Catalytic Degradation Of Methyl Orange And Methylene Blue: An Electron Relay Effect, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, J. Lee, M. H. Cho 2014 SelectedWorks

Au@Tio2 Nanocomposites For The Catalytic Degradation Of Methyl Orange And Methylene Blue: An Electron Relay Effect, Mohammad Mansoob Khan Dr, J. Lee, M. H. Cho

Dr. Mohammad Mansoob Khan

Au@TiO2 nanocomposites were used for the catalytic degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue by NaBH4. A detail pathway for step by step reduction, oxidation and complete mineralization of intermediates into the respective end-products was established by UV-vis spectroscopy, chemical oxygen demand, ion chromatography and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV studies confirmed that the dyes were reduced and oxidized to the end-products by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@TiO2 nanocomposites and O2•, •OH and HO2• radicals generated in-situ. Results suggest that Au@TiO2 nanocomposites not only assist in the decolorization of dyes, but also promote their complete mineralization into ...


Exploring Soil Moisture Protocol Alternatives For The Classroom Setting, Garrett Smith 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Exploring Soil Moisture Protocol Alternatives For The Classroom Setting, Garrett Smith

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Climate change poses a direct threat to future water resources but current climate models suffer from uncertainties regarding the availability of regional water. SMAP or the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission seeks to make improvements to climate models by taking highly accurate, high resolution measurements of global soil moisture. To engage students around the world in a collection of meaningful data that may support the SMAP satellite mission, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment program or GLOBE, has forged a partnership with NASA and JPL. GLOBE brings the power of citizen science to the SMAP mission, empowering ...


Does A Plastron Improve Heat Transfer?, Madani A. Khan, Jeffrey Alston, Andrew Guenthner 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Does A Plastron Improve Heat Transfer?, Madani A. Khan, Jeffrey Alston, Andrew Guenthner

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Superamphiphobic surfaces strongly repel both water and oils. In this work, aluminum coupons are processed by sanding with various grit of sand paper to impart microscale roughness. Subsequent submersion of the aluminum substrate in boiling water grows nanoscale grass-like structures. The oxide layer of Al is slightly soluble in water. During a fast diffusion/equilibrium, Al2O3 nanograss grows on the surface. A low energy coating is then deposited on the surface. The micro and nanoscale features create re-entrant structures that trap air enabling contact liquid to be in a Cassie-Baxter state. Superamphiphobicity of the samples were confirmed ...


Determining Force Field Parameters Involved With Metal Organic Framework Synthesis, Marcus A. Tubbs, David Cantu, Vanda Glezakou 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Determining Force Field Parameters Involved With Metal Organic Framework Synthesis, Marcus A. Tubbs, David Cantu, Vanda Glezakou

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are synthetic materials made of a cage-like lattice with consistently spaced pores. The size of these pores are the defining characteristic of a MOF, as it determines which gases are allowed to pass through and which can be trapped. Examples of their potential use can be greenhouse gas sequestration or storage. Currently, the synthesis of MOFs is based on trial-and-error, and the successes are not well understood. We are working on building the theoretical framework that describes how a particular MOF, MIL-101, comes together during synthesis. Our initial approach was to simulate the possible reactions with ...


Laboratory Evaluation Of Black Carbon Deposition Onto Snow And Transport Via Snowmelt, Larry D. Hermanson, Joshua P. Schwarz 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Laboratory Evaluation Of Black Carbon Deposition Onto Snow And Transport Via Snowmelt, Larry D. Hermanson, Joshua P. Schwarz

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Black carbon (BC) is an aerosol material produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. BC has been shown to be the second most important anthropogenic climate warming agent after carbon dioxide due to its ability to absorb solar radiation, influence cloud behavior, and accelerate snow melt. BC in otherwise clean snow can significantly reduce its reflectivity. In order to learn about the significance of BC contamination in snow, we explored the deposition of BC onto snow and the transport of BC in snow during snowmelt. A Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), was used to measure the concentration and ...


Characterization Of Organic Carbon In Sediments From Old Rifle, Co, A Former Uranium Mill, Francis Michael Tee, Morris Jones, Sharon Bone, Michael Schaefer, Scott Fendorf, John Bargar 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Characterization Of Organic Carbon In Sediments From Old Rifle, Co, A Former Uranium Mill, Francis Michael Tee, Morris Jones, Sharon Bone, Michael Schaefer, Scott Fendorf, John Bargar

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Characterization of sediments from Old Rifle, CO, a former uranium mill

More than 34 million gallons (~129 million liters) of groundwater are contaminated with uranium at Old Rifle, Colorado – a former uranium-processing site that operated until 1958. The original Department of Energy strategy for remediation, involving natural flushing of U from the groundwater through mixing with surface water, has not been as successful as predicted. The uranium plume is replenished when insoluble U(IV) is oxidized to the more mobile U(VI). Relatively thin pockets of silt-, clay-, and organic-rich sediments contain reduced uranium, iron and sulfur and are referred ...


Detecting Non-Seismic Precursor Earthquake Signals Using Tree Antennas, Jaqueline O. Lopez 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Detecting Non-Seismic Precursor Earthquake Signals Using Tree Antennas, Jaqueline O. Lopez

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Forecasting earthquakes has yet to be achieved. However, there are numerous non-seismic precursor signals, which become detectable weeks to days before major events – for instance changes in Earth’s electrical surface potential. These changes are due to the arrival of positive electronic charge carriers, known as positive holes, stress-activated deep in the Earth’s crust, in the hypocenter of the future earthquake. Trees can be used as antennas for detecting the surface potential changes due to these mobile charges. This configuration allows for the detection of diurnal variations of the ground potential. Although we only had 105 days worth of ...


Optical Injection Unlocking For Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy, Gregory A. Bostrom, Andrew L. Rice, Dean B. Atkinson 2014 Portland State University

Optical Injection Unlocking For Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy, Gregory A. Bostrom, Andrew L. Rice, Dean B. Atkinson

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy requires a rapid termination of the injection of light into the cavity to initiate the decay (i.e., ringdown) event. We demonstrate a technique that accomplishes this through pulsed optical injection of a second laser into the main laser, resulting in 20-100 MHz frequency shifts in the otherwise cavity-locked main laser sufficient to create ringdown events at 3.5 kHz. Data on the frequency shift as a function of both main laser current and relative wavelength are presented, 88 well 88 a demonstration that single exponential decays are maintained in the process.


The Influence Of Microstructure On The Corrosion Of Magnesium Alloys, Robert M. Asmussen 2014 Western University

The Influence Of Microstructure On The Corrosion Of Magnesium Alloys, Robert M. Asmussen

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis reports a series of investigations into the influence of microstructure on the corrosion of Mg alloys. Mg alloys are prime candidates for the light-weighting of automobiles however any extensive applications are limited by their high corrosion rates. The corrosion resistance is further hindered by the susceptibility of Mg alloys to microgalvanic coupling occurring between the Mg matrix and the secondary microstructures in the alloys. This process and the individual contributions to it must be understood to improve Mg alloy design for automotive applications, develop methods for extending the lifetime of Mg alloys and developing models to successfully predict ...


Interaction Of Metal Oxides With Biomolecules, Amandine Barbara Ipaud 2014 Atlanta University Center

Interaction Of Metal Oxides With Biomolecules, Amandine Barbara Ipaud

ETD Collection for Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center

Current methods utilized for the cleanup of drinking water primarily involve the use of chemical oxidants (e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone) to remove harmful bacteria and other pathogens. These processes create a number of disinfection by products (DBPs) that are potent toxins including halonitro-methanes and halo-acetic acids. In our research, we sought to examine the ability of supported metal oxides to accomplish disinfection without the production of toxic DBPs. In an effort to examine the interaction of bio-molecules with metal oxides surfaces, our group used Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) spectroscopy as well as Raman spectroscopy ...


Application Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics To Study The Central Metabolism Of Staphylococci, Bo Zhang 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Application Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics To Study The Central Metabolism Of Staphylococci, Bo Zhang

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Metabolomics studies the collection of small molecules (metabolites) involved in enzymatically catalyzed reactions, cell signaling and cellular structure. Perturbations in metabolite concentrations have been used to reflect the activity of corresponding enzymes or proteins. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-known approach for the structure determination of biological macromolecules. Alternatively, NMR has recently been established as a valuable tool of metabolomics, in which NMR spectral signals correlate small molecules with cellular activities. This has been accomplished through the chemometric analysis of high-throughput one dimensional 1H spectra (metabolic fingerprinting) and quantitative metabolite identification based on two dimensional 1H ...


Application Of Asymmetric Catalysis For The Synthesis And Medicinal Chemistry Study Of Polyketide Natural Products, Yanping Wang 2014 Northeastern University

Application Of Asymmetric Catalysis For The Synthesis And Medicinal Chemistry Study Of Polyketide Natural Products, Yanping Wang

Chemistry Dissertations

Most polyketide natural products are chiral and exist in enantiomerically pure form, often containing more than one stereogenic centers. During synthesis of the polyketide natural products, these centers can be either derived from nature's chiral pools or from resolution of racemic mixtures. Alternatively, the chiral center can be installed using asymmetric catalysis. The asymmetric catalysis approach has the potential to be the most efficient strategy for the construction of libraries of stereochemical polyketide natural products by the installation stereochemistry into the achiral starting materials.

Asymmetric catalysis was used to synthesize two categories of polyketide natural products, cryptocaryols and tetrahydrolipstatin ...


Generation Of Chimeric Antibody Light Chain Plasmid, Lily Arendt 2014 DePaul University

Generation Of Chimeric Antibody Light Chain Plasmid, Lily Arendt

DePaul Discoveries

In order to determine the distance between the antigen-binding site and the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of an antibody using single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, dyes must be attached to these locations. To accomplish this, the variable regions of the light and heavy chains of an antibody can be modified and a dye-reactive amino acid introduced into the Fc region. Initial attempts to alter the variable light chain (VL) gene included trying to ligate a 350bp variable gene into an 11,000bp plasmid. When these attempts were unsuccessful, the variable light chain gene was ligated into a commercially available ...


Interactions Of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors And 3' Untranslated Region Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Mrna During Protein Synthesis: A Study Of Equilibrium Binding, Kinetics And Thermodynamics, Bidisha Banerjee 2014 The Graduate Center, CUNY

Interactions Of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors And 3' Untranslated Region Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Mrna During Protein Synthesis: A Study Of Equilibrium Binding, Kinetics And Thermodynamics, Bidisha Banerjee

Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present

Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F binding to mRNA is the first committed step in cap-dependent protein synthesis. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) employs a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation which is mediated by a structural element BTE (BYDV translation element) located in the 3’ UTR of its mRNA. eIF4F bound the BTE and a translational inactive mutant with high affinity; thus questioning the role of eIF4F in translation of BYDV. To examine the effects of eIF4F in BYDV translation initiation, BTE mutants with widely different in vitro translation efficiencies ranging from 5-164% compared to WT were studied. Using fluorescence anisotropy ...


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