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Multisegment Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry: A High-Throughput Platform In Metabolomics For Assessment Of Lifestyle Interventions In Human Health, Naomi L. Kuehnbaum 2014 McMaster University

Multisegment Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry: A High-Throughput Platform In Metabolomics For Assessment Of Lifestyle Interventions In Human Health, Naomi L. Kuehnbaum

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Research in this thesis has focused on development and application of novel methodologies that enhance sample throughput and data fidelity when performing untargeted metabolome profiling by multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS). Metabolomics is a valuable tool in functional genomics research to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms associated with human health since metabolites are “real-world” end-products of gene expression. CE-MS is well-suited for metabolomics because it is a high efficiency microseparation technique that can be used to resolve complex mixtures of polar metabolites in human biofluids without complicated sample workup. In this thesis, a novel CE-MS assay for estrogens and their intact ...


Evaluating Contaminants Of Emerging Concern In Commercial Biosolid-Based Fertilizers, John Hemmerling, Michael L. Mashtare, Linda S. Lee 2014 Purdue University

Evaluating Contaminants Of Emerging Concern In Commercial Biosolid-Based Fertilizers, John Hemmerling, Michael L. Mashtare, Linda S. Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The production and popularity of commercially available biosolid-based fertilizers are increasing because of their economic, environmental, and plant nutrition benefits, particularly in urban and suburban areas. Because biosolid-based fertilizers are derived from waste water treatment plant residuals, we hypothesized that there is the potential for micropollutants to persist in these products. Their presence would be of particular concern due to their potential impact on human and ecological health and risk of bioaccumulation. This study involves quantifying contaminants of emerging concern in three biosolid-based fertilizers, and 2 non-biosolid-based fertilizers, a composted animal manure and an organic compost. Our extraction method employed ...


Using Stable Isotopes To Quantify Nitrogen Fates In Container Plants, Sam Raimann, Greg Michalski, Michael V. Mickelbart 2014 Purdue University

Using Stable Isotopes To Quantify Nitrogen Fates In Container Plants, Sam Raimann, Greg Michalski, Michael V. Mickelbart

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, in the agriculture field, it is not yet known the accurate amount of Nitrogen in fertilizer that plants take up. This statistic, known as the Nitrogen Use Efficiency is currently known to be within the 30-50% range (Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001). This is very important figure to know and it is a figure that can be improved, and therefore much time, energy, and resources can be saved. This research project will use concepts involving stable isotopes to examine red maple plant material and the soilless media that the plants were grown in. Three different isotope-labelled fertilizer treatments will be ...


Surgical Adhesive From Mussel Mimetic Polymer, Jenna DeSousa, Cori Jenkins, Jonathan Wilker 2014 Purdue University

Surgical Adhesive From Mussel Mimetic Polymer, Jenna Desousa, Cori Jenkins, Jonathan Wilker

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Injuries involving damaged tissues are currently repaired through an invasive technique involving the use of screws, plates and sutures as support, which can damage these tissues. The biomedical field currently lacks an adhesive that can replace harmful implants. A surgical adhesive can provide a quick and easy alternative, which will minimize the risk of damaging healthy tissue in surgery. Inspiration for such materials can be found by looking at marine mussels as they are able to stick to nearly any surface, even in wet environments. Marine mussels affix themselves to different surfaces using adhesive plaques consisting of various proteins. Polymer ...


2014 Scas Annual Meeting Program, 2014 University of South Carolina

2014 Scas Annual Meeting Program

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Genotypic And Phenotypic Characterization Of Aerosolized Bacteria Collected From African Dust Events, Christina A. Wilson, Robin L. Brigmon, Chris Yeager, Garriet W. Smith, Shawn W. Polson 2014 University of South Carolina

Genotypic And Phenotypic Characterization Of Aerosolized Bacteria Collected From African Dust Events, Christina A. Wilson, Robin L. Brigmon, Chris Yeager, Garriet W. Smith, Shawn W. Polson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and characterized from air samples collected in Africa and the Caribbean by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Isolates were selected based on preliminary characterization as possible pathogens. Identification of the bacterial isolates was achieved using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profiling, the BIOLOG Microlog® System (carbon substrate assay), and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR analysis. The majority of isolates (18/21) were identified as species of the genus Bacillus. Three isolates were classified within the Bacillus cereus senso lato group, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus cereus strains ...


Scas Officers And Council Members 2014-2015, 2014 University of South Carolina

Scas Officers And Council Members 2014-2015

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, 2014 University of South Carolina

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Development Of Metal-Organic Compounds For Use As Molecular Imaging Agents, Emily J. Simpson 2014 Western University

The Development Of Metal-Organic Compounds For Use As Molecular Imaging Agents, Emily J. Simpson

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Molecular imaging probes allow for the non-invasive diagnosis of many diseases through the use of a targeting entity for site specific delivery, as well as a signal for external visualization of probe accumulation in the body. This thesis will focus on the development of new approaches to synthesize targeting peptides and chelators for radionuclide incorporation towards the design of novel molecular imaging probes.

Histidine is a tridentate chelator that can be attached in a pendant fashion to a biomolecule in order to coordinate technetium-99m. Once coordinated, it forms a neutral complex that is capable of forming diastereomers with inverted stereochemistry ...


Measuring Activity Of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase And Nanodisc Complex Through Nitrate Production, Christopher Verdi, Ghaith Altawallbeh, Mekki Bayachou 2014 Cleveland State University

Measuring Activity Of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase And Nanodisc Complex Through Nitrate Production, Christopher Verdi, Ghaith Altawallbeh, Mekki Bayachou

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

Nitric oxide is an important bioregulator generated in various regions throughout the body by a family of isozymes referred to as Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS). Within vascular endothelial cells, nitric oxide is generated from oxygen and arginine (amino acid) by endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS). Within this environment nitric oxide plays a critical paracrine role, mainly anithrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic. This is accomplished by vessel dilation and prevention of platelet and leukocyte aggregation and adherence to the vessel wall. The activity of the eNOS enzyme has been studied within solution and is well understood. However, the impact that the lipid bilayer ...


Gamma-Radiolysis Kinetics Of Liquid, Vapour And Supercritical Water, Nastaran Yousefi 2014 Western University

Gamma-Radiolysis Kinetics Of Liquid, Vapour And Supercritical Water, Nastaran Yousefi

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Inadequate understanding of radiation-induced water chemistry under supercritical conditions has been identified as one of the important obstacles in the development of a supercritical water-cooled reactor. Radiolysis of supercritical water generates a variety of redox reactive species, but their persistence in supercritical water is not well understood. This thesis describes the work performed towards addressing this deficiency: (1) the development of a reliable experimental method to determine the concentrations of water radiolysis products, primarily H2, O2 and H2O2, formed under g-irradiation of sub- and supercritical water (SCW), (2) the expansion of the application ranges of ...


Optimization Of P-Type Czts Nanocrystal Thin Film Layers For Applications In Low Cost Photovoltaic Devices, Kyle S.B. Jeffs 2014 Western University

Optimization Of P-Type Czts Nanocrystal Thin Film Layers For Applications In Low Cost Photovoltaic Devices, Kyle S.B. Jeffs

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal synthesis was optimized by way of photoelectrochemical measurements through tuning the stoichiometry. Formation of a Cu2ZnSnS4 light-absorbing layer was studied using multiple depositions methods. These included dropcasting, electrophoretic deposition, and use of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane as a chemical linker. Dropcasting samples were compared according to the solvents used to suspend the nanocrystals. Photoelectrochemical measurements were used to compare dropcasting with electrophoretic deposition and use of 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane as a chemical linker. Dropcasting was shown to be the least effective method of depositing the light-absorbing layer. Samples prepared by electrophoretic deposition were optimized according to a number ...


Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain 2014 Western University

Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbohydrates are implicated in a large number of biological processes ranging from cell-cell interactions to bacterial and viral infection. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are generally specific for certain sugars. However, typical carbohydrate–lectin interactions tend to have very low monomeric binding affinities. In many cases, the binding of saccharide ligands by protein receptors can be improved significantly through the attachment of multiple saccharide residues to a common support. Dendronized polymers constitute a class of macromolecules whose nanoscale size, rigidity, and functionality can be controlled with precision by tuning their molecular architecture. It is hypothesized that due to their large ...


Technology-Assisted Methodology In The Synthesis Of Medicinally Relevant N-Heterocycles, Nadeesha Ranasinghe 2014 Northeastern University

Technology-Assisted Methodology In The Synthesis Of Medicinally Relevant N-Heterocycles, Nadeesha Ranasinghe

Chemistry Dissertations

In recent years, modern technology such as microwave irradiation and continuous flow processes have emerged as valuable tools in chemical and pharmaceutical industry, facilitating the ever increasing demand for faster, greener and reproducible chemistry. This dissertation will discuss three projects that used technology platforms to synthesize medicinally relevant heterocycles. The first is the microwave and flow assisted synthesis of substituted indoles, aza-indoles and indole-2-carboxamides using the Hemetsberger-Knittel (HK) reaction. The indole ring is one of the most abundant heterocyclic scaffolds found in nature and forms an essential component of the framework of higher order protein structures. The HK indole synthesis ...


The Application Of Novel Donor Acceptor Cyclopropanes In The Synthesis Of Linearly Fused Tricyclic Triazoles, Michelle E. Flisar 2014 Western University

The Application Of Novel Donor Acceptor Cyclopropanes In The Synthesis Of Linearly Fused Tricyclic Triazoles, Michelle E. Flisar

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous work in the Kerr group has shown the success of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes as substrates in a variety of synthetic reactions; this document will apply the use of donor acceptor cyclopropanes in various synthetic reactions. This was done using a 2-substituted 1,1-cyclopropanediester, in the Overman Rearrangement, which has yet to be explored using DA cyclopropanes. Another useful DA cyclopropane is the novel acetylene-bearing donor acceptor diester cyclopropanes which would be synthetically useful in a wide variety of reactions. In particular, the Conia-ene cyclization occurred intramolecularly with this alkyne DA cyclopropane with a large library of nucleophiles. Finally, taking this ...


The Synthesis And Reactivity Of Novel Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes And Progress Towards Pyrrolidine Alkaloids, Michael R. Emmett 2014 Western University

The Synthesis And Reactivity Of Novel Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes And Progress Towards Pyrrolidine Alkaloids, Michael R. Emmett

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The first chapter of this thesis focuses on the synthesis and reactivity of cyclopropane hemimalonates. The cyclopropane hemimalonates can easily be synthesized from 1,1-cyclopropanediesters. The reactivity of cyclopropane hemimalonates with indole under ultra-high pressure conditions leads to ring opened adducts that are complementary to previous research in the Kerr group. The tandem ring opening decarboxylation reaction of cyclopropane hemimalonates led to the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid analogues. When an external nucleophile was not present, the cyclopropane hemimalonates could rearrange to form butyrolactones in good to excellent yields. The stereochemical integrity of the cyclopropane hemimalonate is retained through this process ...


The Design And Synthesis Of Pyrazolopyridazine Replacements For The Investigation Of Novel Treatment Of Human African Trypanosomiasis, Elizabeth Jones 2014 Northeastern University

The Design And Synthesis Of Pyrazolopyridazine Replacements For The Investigation Of Novel Treatment Of Human African Trypanosomiasis, Elizabeth Jones

Chemistry Master's Theses

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is one of 17 diseases deemed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be "neglected". Affecting approximately one seventh of the global population, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a healthcare predicament that needs increased multidisciplinary efforts. These diseases affect some of the poorest populations of the world, making financial investment from pharmaceutical companies unprofitable, leading to a severe lack of funding for, and scientific interest in NTDs. This places the burden of efforts primarily on not-for-profit or academic laboratories like the Pollastri laboratory at Northeastern University.

The Pollastri lab used a target-repurposing approach to begin research ...


Application Of Mn(Iii) Oxidative Cyclizations To Natural Product Synthesis, Bryan Landschoot 2014 Western University

Application Of Mn(Iii) Oxidative Cyclizations To Natural Product Synthesis, Bryan Landschoot

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This work begins with a brief review of manganese(III) acetate free radical oxidative cyclization chemistry and its application toward functionalizing nitrogen containing heterocycles. Exploration of a cyclopropane ring opening reaction using indoline, and subsequent manganese(III) cyclization chemistry will be presented as a possible route towards a family of natural products called the flinderoles. Work on the construction of the core of several indole alkaloids from the genus Tabernaemontana, including tronocarpine, chippiine, and dippinine B, will be explored with utilization of manganese(III) cyclizations. Hopes of accessing an advanced common intermediate for each of these natural products will be ...


Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Of Gold Nanoclusters, Mahdi Hesari 2014 Western University

Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Of Gold Nanoclusters, Mahdi Hesari

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A series of monodispersed AuNCs including Au144(SR)60, Au38(SR)24 and Au25(SR)18z (z =1-, 0 and 1+, SR=2-phenylethanethiol) were prepared. All these nanoclusters showed molecule-like optical and electrochemical properties. These two features are essential for an electrogenerated chemiluminescence or electrochemiluminescence (ECL) study. The Au144(SR)60 showed a small HOMO-LUMO gap determined by electrochemistry. No ECL light was seen in the annihilation process, while NIR ECL was observed with tri-n- propylamine (TPrA) (Chapter 2). ECL was highly efficient in the Au38(SR)24/TPrA co- reactant system. This nanocluster also showed ECL emission with benzoyl ...


Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Ethanol is becoming increasingly popular as a fossil fuel additive or substitute. However, current production of ethanol from corn impacts food prices and appears to have an overall low net yield. New sources need to be identified and new processes developed for ethanol production. Cellulosic ethanol is one such new source. Plant material contains a large amount of cellulose and other polysaccharides which are potential feed stocks for ethanol production. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the polysaccharide, lignin, and ash content of fall leaves to estimate their potential for ethanol production. A slight modification of the NREL ...


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