Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Chemistry Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

9,816 Full-Text Articles 13,939 Authors 1,579,782 Downloads 167 Institutions

All Articles in Chemistry

Faceted Search

9,816 full-text articles. Page 1 of 166.

Aggregation Properties Of Ionic Liquids In Low Polarity Solvents, Elise Cade 2015 The College at Brockport

Aggregation Properties Of Ionic Liquids In Low Polarity Solvents, Elise Cade

Senior Honors Theses

Ionic liquids are salts that are liquid below 100oC. Ionic liquids are of very low volatility and especially those ionic liquids with high conductivity and lower viscosities are used as medium for chemical synthesis and electrochemistry. Normally, salts do not dissolve in solvents of low polarity. However, many ionic liquids are very soluble or completely miscible in low polarity solvents and the physical chemistry of the resulting solutions is not well understood. The goal of our ongoing research is to elucidate the speciation (freely dissolved ions, ion pairs and aggregates) present for ionic liquids dissolved in solvents of low polarity ...


A Study Whether Humans Can Produce Free Fatty Acids For Tasting, Emily Bacher 2015 Wofford College

A Study Whether Humans Can Produce Free Fatty Acids For Tasting, Emily Bacher

Student Scholarship

A growing concern throughout the world, especially the United States, is the health of our population. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) performed in 2009-2010, approximately 35% of both men and women in the United States are obese (Flegal, 2012). In 2005, more than 300,000 deaths in the United States were attributed to obesity. However, the World Health Organization listed obesity as one of ten most preventable health risks (Wilborn, 2005).
Why, then, do we as a society struggle so much with our weight? Some, such as Swinburn, believe this trend of obesity can be ...


Biological Degredation Of Acetaldehyde In Southern California Wetlands, Anthony Castagnola, Brandon Lamb, Mary Senstad, Sovandara Hok 2015 Chapman University

Biological Degredation Of Acetaldehyde In Southern California Wetlands, Anthony Castagnola, Brandon Lamb, Mary Senstad, Sovandara Hok

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Oxygenated hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere with levels ranging from low ppt (acetaldehyde) to low ppb(methanol). As an OH sink and an atmospheric HOx source, oxygenated hydrocarbons have a direct impact on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. A better understanding of the processes that produce and destroy these species in natural water would improve our understanding of the role that these systems play in cycling these species into or out of the atmosphere. These species can be lost to chemical, photochemical, and partical mediated (abiotic and biotic) processes in natural waters. Chemical loss and photochemical loss are ...


Effects Of Ecologically Realistic Heating Profiles On Feeding In The Intertidal Hermit Crab, Pagurus Sameulis, Paige Davis 2015 Chapman University

Effects Of Ecologically Realistic Heating Profiles On Feeding In The Intertidal Hermit Crab, Pagurus Sameulis, Paige Davis

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The intertidal zone is an ideal habitat to investigate effects of global warming because species living in it are very close to their physiological limits. Initial studies of invertebrate physiological responses to heat stress have employed relatively abrupt increases in temperature. My research investigates effects of ecologically more realistic temperature profiles on feeding in the intertidal hermit crab, Pagurus sameulis. Recent work in the Wright lab showed that feeding in this species is inhibited by an abrupt increase in temperature. Because temperature change in the natural environment of Pagurus is much more gradual, I hypothesize that such a gradual temperature ...


Analysis Of Secondary Wastewater Treatment, Jennifer Magana 2015 Chapman University

Analysis Of Secondary Wastewater Treatment, Jennifer Magana

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

At the Irvine Ranch Water District, two types of secondary treatment are utilized: a sludge and Dual Media Filters (DMF) process and Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) process. This study was proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity (EC) of each secondary effluent and possible reasons for differences. After testing the two effluents using an electrical conductivity probe and ion chromatography, it was discovered that there is no significant difference between the two, though secondary treatment raises the nitrate levels in general.


Biological Degradation Of Acetaldehyde In Southern California Coastal Waters, Mary Senstad, Sovanndara Hok, Ori Barashy, Catherine D. Clark, Warren J. De Bruyn 2015 Chapman University

Biological Degradation Of Acetaldehyde In Southern California Coastal Waters, Mary Senstad, Sovanndara Hok, Ori Barashy, Catherine D. Clark, Warren J. De Bruyn

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Oxygenated hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere with levels ranging from low ppt (acetaldehyde) to low ppb (methanol). As an OH sink and an atmospheric HOx and ozone source, oxygenated hydrocarbons have a direct impact on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The oceans are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in current atmospheric budget estimates of these species. A better understanding of the processes that produce and destroy these species in seawater would improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in cycling these species into or out of the atmosphere. We have measured the degradation rate ...


Removal Of Pb And H2s From Acs Test Procedure For Meta-Phosphoric Acid, Christopher Atlas, Ron Lacock 2015 Chapman University

Removal Of Pb And H2s From Acs Test Procedure For Meta-Phosphoric Acid, Christopher Atlas, Ron Lacock

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

In the pursuit of green chemistry, adequate substitutes for lead acetate and hydrogen sulfide were investigated for use in the ACS test procedure for stabilizer in meta-phosphoric acid. In the current ACS procedure lead acetate is used to form insoluble lead phosphate. In order to remove lead from the solution lanthanum chloride was investigated with positive results. Hydrogen Sulfide is currently used to precipitate lead by forming insoluble lead sulfide. Several substitutes including oxalic acid and sulfuric acid were investigated. Preliminary testing showed that lanthanum chloride and oxalic acid are sufficient in precipitating phosphate and lead out of the sample ...


Synthesis And Application Of Pdib Nanostructures In Solar Cells, John T. Ferguson 2015 Western Kentucky University

Synthesis And Application Of Pdib Nanostructures In Solar Cells, John T. Ferguson

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Perylenediimide bridged silsesquioxane (PDIB) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel processes as described by the Stöber method. These particles were synthesized homogeneously from solution and with the use of silica nanoparticles and bipyridine iodide bridged silsesquioxane (BPIB) nanoparticles as nucleation sites. The morphology of the resulting particles was confirmed by TEM and the presence of PDI confirmed by UV spectroscopy. Although further research will test all of the particles across a range of concentrations and sizes, the silica nucleated PDIB nanoparticles were analyzed in the active layer of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices in conjunction with P3HT polymer. Devices with the ...


Mechanochemical Investigation Of A Glassy Epoxy-Amine Thermoset Subjected To Fatigue, Stephen F. Foster Mr. 2015 The University of Southern Mississippi

Mechanochemical Investigation Of A Glassy Epoxy-Amine Thermoset Subjected To Fatigue, Stephen F. Foster Mr.

Dissertations

Covalent bonds in organic molecules can be produced, altered, and broken through various sources of energy and processes. These include photochemical, thermochemical, chemical, and mechanochemical processes. Polymeric materials derive their physical properties from the time scale of motion, summation of intermolecular forces, and number of chain entanglements and crosslinks. Glassy thermoset polymers experience mechanical fatigue during dynamic stress loading and properties diminish with inevitable material failure at stress levels below the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Damage modeling has been successful in predicting the number of cycles required to induce failure in a specimen due to stress. However, it does not ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Five New Tetrakis(N-Phenylacetamidato) Dirhodium(Ii) Amine Complexes And One Molybdenum Cofactor Described Crystallographically, Cragin K. Harris 2015 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Five New Tetrakis(N-Phenylacetamidato) Dirhodium(Ii) Amine Complexes And One Molybdenum Cofactor Described Crystallographically, Cragin K. Harris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Six new crystal structures were determined using a Rigaku Mercurcy 375/MCCD(XtaLab mini) diffractometer. The structure of a molybdenum cofactor was solved resulting in an R1 (R1 = Σ ||Fo| - |Fc|| / Σ |Fo|) of 3.61% despite the presence of a disordered DMSO molecule. New Tetrakis(N-phenylacetamidato) Dirhodium(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized. Two 2,2-cis-[Rh2(NPhCOCH3)4]•(C3H4N2)x where x= 1 or 2 were successfully crystallized and solved with R1 values below 5%. Additional studies were conducted via NMR to observe formation of both products. Three potential catalysts were synthesized starting with 3,1-[Rh2 ...


Investigations Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Bacterial Pathogen-Host Interactions: Construction Of A Dual Plasmid System For Incorporation Of Unnatural Amino Acids Into Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Tomato Dc3000, Scotty D. Raber 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigations Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Bacterial Pathogen-Host Interactions: Construction Of A Dual Plasmid System For Incorporation Of Unnatural Amino Acids Into Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Tomato Dc3000, Scotty D. Raber

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

A dual plasmid system for the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, has been designed. This invention is expected to allow (a) mutations of proteins synthesized by the bacterium, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, that can capture molecular targets, especially for such modified proteins secreted by the phytopathogen into the host plant cells of A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, (b) expression of biological probes in the bacterial species to monitor changes in redox, nutritional, and other small molecule states over pre-, post- and in situ disease stages, and (c) secretion of such biological ...


Investigating The Effects That Dipole Moments, Atomic Partial Charges, Vibrational Coupling, And The Potential Energy Function Have On The Hno Molecule (Nitroxyl), James Roger Smith 2015 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating The Effects That Dipole Moments, Atomic Partial Charges, Vibrational Coupling, And The Potential Energy Function Have On The Hno Molecule (Nitroxyl), James Roger Smith

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Chemically Accurate Calculations Of Rate Constants Of Spin Trap-Hydroxyl Radical Addition Reactions, Hayden B. Short 2015 East Tennessee State University

Chemically Accurate Calculations Of Rate Constants Of Spin Trap-Hydroxyl Radical Addition Reactions, Hayden B. Short

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The DMPO type spin trap 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and the exceptionally similar spin trap 2-ethoxycarbonyl-2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole-l-oxide (EMPO) are widely studied in computational and theoretical works. This particular study examines the addition reactions that both these molecules undergo with the carcinogenic hydroxyl radical. This work used a relatively new approximation method, called the correlation consistent composite approach or ccCA, for carrying out quantum mechanical calculations to give the free energies of the products and reactants of the reactions. The free energies are to be used to extrapolate the rate constants of the reactions from the Arrhenius equation. Though both the ...


Thiophene And Derivatives For Use In Pyridazines And Thiapentalenes, Benjamin Tyree Cannon 2015 Western Kentucky University

Thiophene And Derivatives For Use In Pyridazines And Thiapentalenes, Benjamin Tyree Cannon

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This thesis introduces the idea of Band Theory and how it can be used to describe a solid-state materials ability to carry an electrical charge. Next, this thesis defines what makes a material a conductor, semiconductor, or insulator. Semiconductors are attracting interest in chemistry, as well as in the manufacturing of consumer electronics, because of their ability to carry a charge, without the risk of short-circuiting like traditional conductors.1,4 Organic semiconductors, which behave differently than traditional semiconductors, are of particular interest because they offer mechanical flexibility, lowcost, simplicity, and the ability to be manufactures at low temperatures.6 ...


Syntheses, Structures And Properties Of Metal-Organic Frameworks, Xin Liu 2015 Western Kentucky University

Syntheses, Structures And Properties Of Metal-Organic Frameworks, Xin Liu

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mercury is one of the most serious heavy metal pollution sources that threaten people’s health. For decades, people have developed many technologies and materials to capture mercury from flue gas of coal-fired plant. Currently, the most effective material for mercury absorption is powdered activated carbon, which shows increased efficiency when modified with halogen functional groups such as bromine. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have potential applications in mercury capture due to their fantastic properties such as high porosity and high thermal stability. More important, their pore sizes and topology structures can be controlled through choosing different organic ligands in the syntheses ...


Investigations Of The Photocatalytic Activity And Self- Cleaning Properties Of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (Poss) Containing Titania Thiol-Ene Films, LaCrissia U. Jefferson 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigations Of The Photocatalytic Activity And Self- Cleaning Properties Of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (Poss) Containing Titania Thiol-Ene Films, Lacrissia U. Jefferson

Dissertations

In this document the film composition, self-cleaning aspect, photocatalytic efficiency, and methods employed to analyze a novel photocatalytic titania-containing thin film was evaluated. A primary objective of this research project was to assess the conditions required to achieve a stable titania dispersion for the photocatalytic coating and to determine the extent to which the presence of additives contributes to this process. Modified titania dispersions were prepared and characterized via dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Characterization details of the previous focus on the influence of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS ...


The Rational Design Of Selective Electrocatalysts For Renewable Energy Devices, Daniel F. Abbott 2015 Northeastern University

The Rational Design Of Selective Electrocatalysts For Renewable Energy Devices, Daniel F. Abbott

Chemistry Dissertations

The rational design of electrocatalysts is paramount to the development of electrochemical devices. In particular, modifications to the structure and electronic properties of a particular catalyst can have a strong influence on the activity and selectivity towards various electrochemical reactions or pathways. In many cases this can lead to a particular reaction pathway being opened or closed, the formation of intermediates being stabilized or inhibited, the adsorption of poisonous species being mitigated, or the removal of poisonous species being promoted. In the this dissertation the design and characterization of catalysts for electrochemical devices (fuel cells, electrolyzers, and hydrogen pumps) will ...


Corrosion Behaviors Of Coated Aluminum Alloys In Simulated Corrosive Environment, Jingyi Yue 2015 Western Kentucky University

Corrosion Behaviors Of Coated Aluminum Alloys In Simulated Corrosive Environment, Jingyi Yue

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study investigated the corrosion of an aluminum alloy with and without coatings under simulated corrosive environments. Coatings were selected and applied from commercial materials and techniques, consisting of microceramic, epoxy primer, and topcoat. The experiments for coated specimens were carried out under various corrosive conditions, specifically, hydrodynamic flow, immersion in salt water and DI water, varying temperatures, and simulated sun light. The hydrodynamic conditions were simulated using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) with rotational speeds of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 rpm. The immersion in saltwater and sunlight illumination tests were applied for 8 hours, and the simulated ...


Investigation Of The Alkaline Electrochemical Interface And Development Of Composite Metal/Metal-Oxides For Hydrogen And Oxygen Electrodes, Michael Kenneth Bates 2015 Northeastern University

Investigation Of The Alkaline Electrochemical Interface And Development Of Composite Metal/Metal-Oxides For Hydrogen And Oxygen Electrodes, Michael Kenneth Bates

Chemistry Dissertations

Understanding the fundamentals of electrochemical interfaces will undoubtedly reveal a path forward towards a society based on clean and renewable energy. In particular, it has been proposed that hydrogen can play a major role as an energy carrier of the future. To fully utilize the clean energy potential of a hydrogen economy, it is vital to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis, thus avoiding co-production of CO2 inherent to reformate hydrogen. While significant research efforts elsewhere are focused on photo-chemical hydrogen production from water, the inherent low efficiency of this method would require a massive land-use footprint to achieve sufficient ...


Analysis Of Free Solute Fractions And Solute-Protein Interactions Using Ultrafast Affinity Extraction And Affinity Microcolumns, Xiwei Zheng 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Analysis Of Free Solute Fractions And Solute-Protein Interactions Using Ultrafast Affinity Extraction And Affinity Microcolumns, Xiwei Zheng

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

This dissertation describes the use of a high-performance affinity chromatography method based on ultrafast affinity extraction and microcolumns to study biological interactions.

In the first project, a new method was created and based on ultrafast affinity extraction to determine both the dissociation rate constants (kd) and association equilibrium constants (Ka) for drug-protein interactions in solution. Various conditions to optimize the use of ultrafast affinity extraction for equilibrium and kinetic studies were considered.

The objective of the next portion of this dissertation was to develop a chromatographic approach to measure free drug fractions in more complex samples. This was ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress