Seasonal Evolution Of Active Layer Formation In Subarctic Peat Plateaux And Implications For Dissolved Organic Matter Composition And Transfer, Jennifer L. Hickman
Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)
Peat-accumulating wetlands are ecosystems whose rate of photosynthetic production of organic matter is greater than that of its decomposition, resulting in a build up of soil organic matter that may take centuries to fully decompose. Carbon (C) stocks within these ecosystems are a function of inputs from photosynthesis, and losses from heterotrophic decomposition. Due to the short growing season and overall cold climate of boreal and tundra regions, C has been accumulating within these landscapes, mostly in soil organic matter, since the last glaciation. Climate change, predicted to result in rising temperatures and increased precipitation, has begun to degrade the ...
The Origin Of Amino Acids In Lunar Regolith Samples, 2016 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
The Origin Of Amino Acids In Lunar Regolith Samples, Jamie E. Elsila, Michael P. Callahan, Jason P. Dworkin, Daniel P. Glavin, Hannah L. Mclain, Sarah K. Noble, Everett K. Gibson Jr.
We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5–651.1 ppb in 6 M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, d- ...
Molecular Interpretation Of A Trigger For Controlling An Amine Isocyanate Polyurethane Reaction, 2016 PSE graduate student
Molecular Interpretation Of A Trigger For Controlling An Amine Isocyanate Polyurethane Reaction, Katherine V. Carrasquillo
Masters Theses May 2014 - current
The temperature profile needed to complete the reaction between the sodium-diamine complex and the isocyanate terminated prepolymer has been established. The sodium diamine complex has the advantage of blocking the nearly instantaneous reaction between the diamine and isocyanate from taking place until it is released at elevated temperatures. Because of its low melting temperature (~40 °C) and its low molecular weight (low viscosity), this chain extension reaction is not dependent on the participation of the prepolymer. Instead, the rate of reaction is dependent on the dissolution of the 4,4’-methylenedianiline (MDA) complex into the system. The dissolution of the ...
Hybrid Aryl-Ether-Ketone And Hyperbranched Epoxy Networks, 2015 University of Southern Mississippi
Hybrid Aryl-Ether-Ketone And Hyperbranched Epoxy Networks, John Misasi
In this dissertation, relationships between chemical structures, cure kinetics and network architectures are correlated to bulk mechanical properties for novel, hybrid epoxy-amine networks. The work is split into two primary sections: the first is the synthesis and characterization of multifunctional glassy networks based on aryl-ether-ketone diamine curatives, while the second is based on the synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched epoxy polymers and their resulting networks.
Three aryl-ether-ketone (AEK) diamines of increasing molecular weights were synthesized and used to cure 4,4’-tetraglycidylether of diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM); the resulting networks were compared to 4,4’-diaminodiphenyl sulfone cured TGDDM. Architectural differences were ...
In Situ Measurements And Modeling Of Reactive Trace Gases In A Small Biomass Burning Plume, 2015 University of Innsbruck
In Situ Measurements And Modeling Of Reactive Trace Gases In A Small Biomass Burning Plume, M. Muller, B. Anderson, A. Beyersdorf, J. H. Crawford, G. Diskin, P. Eichler, A. Fried, F. N. Keutsch, T. Mikoviny, K. L. Thornhill, J. G. Walega, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Yang, Robert Yokelson, A. Wisthaler
Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications
An instrumented NASA P-3B aircraft was used for airborne sampling of trace gases in a plume that had emanated from a small forest understory fire in Georgia, USA. The plume was sampled at its origin for deriving emission factors and followed ~ 13.6 km downwind for observing chemical changes during the first hour of atmospheric aging. The P-3B payload included a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), which measured non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) at unprecidented spatio-temporal resolution (10m/0.1 s). Quantitative emission data are reported for CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3 and 16 NMOGs (formaldehyde, methanol ...
Peroxide Content Of Secondary Organic Aerosol, 2015 Concordia University - Portland
Peroxide Content Of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Ryan Caylor, Matthew E. Wise, John Shilling
Matthew E. Wise
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the oxidation of monoterpenes can impact the Earth’s radiation balance, act as cloud condensation nuclei and negatively affect human health. In the summer of 2015, the Secondary Organic Aerosol From Forest Emission Experiment (SOAFFEE) laboratory campaign was launched in order to study the physical properties of SOA generated from the oxidation of alpha pinene and delta carene. Both compounds are gas-phase monoterpenes emitted into the atmosphere via biogenic sources. In this study, the peroxide content of SOA was determined using an iodometric-spectrophotometric (IS) technique. It was found that the peroxide content of SOA ...
The Influence Of Alloying Elements On The Crevice Corrosion Behaviour Of Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys, 2015 The University of Western Ontario
The Influence Of Alloying Elements On The Crevice Corrosion Behaviour Of Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys, Nafiseh Ebrahimi
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
To enhance its corrosion resistance in aggressive media, Ni is alloyed with various amounts of Cr and Mo along with small amounts of other alloying elements such as W, Cu, and Fe. While the resulting alloys (known as Ni superalloys) show excellent passive behaviour, the function of individual alloying elements in resisting localized corrosion processes, in particular crevice corrosion is not fully understood. This study focuses on the electrochemistry and corrosion of a series of Ni-Cr-Mo (W) alloys with various Cr and Mo contents. Several electrochemical and surface characterization techniques were used to investigate the role of major alloying elements ...
The Rna World: 4,000,000,050 Years Old, 2015 Portland State University
The Rna World: 4,000,000,050 Years Old, Niles Lehman
Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations
The notion that molecular systems such as RNA can display a wide range of evolutionary processes in the absence of fully formed cellular life continues to gain support. Understanding how RNA can behave in an abiotic context is a key piece of our picture of how life developed and expanded on the Earth, and by proxy, elsewhere. We can study how RNA behaves in this regard through a combination of in vivo work (with small regulatory RNAs and larger catalytic RNAs alike), experimental work in the laboratory, and through powerful analytical and simulation studies. These efforts will not only grant ...
The Corrosion Behaviour Of Cu In Irradiated And Non-Irradiated Humid Air, 2015 The University of Western Ontario
The Corrosion Behaviour Of Cu In Irradiated And Non-Irradiated Humid Air, Balsam Ibrahim
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The present management scenario for the permanent disposal of high level nuclear waste in Canada is to seal it in metallic containers and bury it in a deep stable geologic repository. For thick-walled containers radiation fields on the outside of the container would have a negligible influence on container corrosion. However, to overcome fabrication issues and to reduce costs, steel containers with a thin outer copper coating are being designed making a reassessment of the influence of gamma radiation on container corrosion a potential licensing requirement.
The behaviour of Cu in an aerated vapour phase environment in equilibrium with condensed ...
Evaluation Of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals And Iodine For Use As A Groundwater Tracer In Hydrologic Investigation Of Contamination Related To Dairy Cattle Operations, Larry Boot Pierce, Honglin Shi
Sinkhole Conference 2015
Standard groundwater tracers such as Rhodamine WT, Fluorescein, Eosin and Tinopal CBX effectively provide a snapshot of hydrological conditions over a brief period of time and in a tightly controlled setting. However, in complex environmental situations with multiple potential sources, groundwater hydrologists are often seeking groundwater tracers that have extended longevity in the natural environment and the ability to directly pinpoint source locations. After reviewing operations of the nearby dairy it was determined that emerging contaminants, specifically two bovine veterinary pharmaceuticals (antibiotics), cephapirin sodium (CEPNa) and cephapirin benzathine (CEPB), and a sanitation agent, elemental Iodine (I) may have potential as ...
Using Nitrate, Chloride, Sodium, And Sulfate To Calculate Groundwater Age, 2015 Crawford Environmental Services
Using Nitrate, Chloride, Sodium, And Sulfate To Calculate Groundwater Age, Kimm Crawford, Terry Lee
Sinkhole Conference 2015
Regression analysis is used to identify monotonic trends to assign water age using ion data from two large well water databases from southeast Minnesota (SE MN). Nitrate (NO3-N), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) ions in the commonly used aquifers in SE MN can be used as groundwater tracers since they are either entirely or partly anthropogenic in their sources, their loading occurs on a regional scale, and they are almost entirely conserved. Ion concentrations over time are used to establish six trend patterns. Two patterns are unchanging (background and stable above background), and four are changing (linear up ...
Chemometric And Bioinformatic Analyses Of Cellular Biochemistry, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Chemometric And Bioinformatic Analyses Of Cellular Biochemistry, Bradley Worley
Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department
The amount of information collected and analyzed in biochemical and bioanalytical research has exploded over the last few decades, due in large part to the increasing availability of analytical instrumentation that yields information-rich spectra. Datasets from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry (MS), infrared (IR) or Raman spectroscopy may easily carry tens to hundreds of thousands of potentially correlated variables observed from only a few samples, making the application of classical statistical methods inappropriate, if not impossible. Drawing useful biochemical conclusions from these unique sources of data requires the use of specialized multivariate data handling techniques.
Unfortunately, proper implementation of ...
Bis(Spirolactam) 1,3-Double-Armed CalixArene Compounds And Their Application As Extractants For The Determination Of Heavy Metal Ions, 2015 Institute of Technology, Tallaght
Bis(Spirolactam) 1,3-Double-Armed CalixArene Compounds And Their Application As Extractants For The Determination Of Heavy Metal Ions, Fintan Kelleher, Mary Deasy, James Ward, Li Li, Fiona Regan
A number of double-armed calixarene compounds, with proline-derived spirolactam ligating groups on the lower rim, have been synthesised and investigated as extractants of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. Pedersen’s extraction technique was employed to determine the capability of these new 1,3-distal derived calixarene spiroalactams to extract selected heavy metal ions (e.g. Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+) from an aqueous phase into an organic phase. The percentage extraction was calculated using UV-vis spectroscopy. All of the compounds synthesised demonstrated good selectivity for the heavy metals ...
Tailoring The Pore Environment Of Metal-Organic And Molecular Materials Decorated With Inorganic Anions: Platforms For Highly Selective Carbon Capture, Patrick Stephen Nugent
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Due to their high surface areas and structural tunability, porous metal-organic materials, MOMs, have attracted wide research interest in areas such as carbon capture, as the judicious choice of molecular building block (MBB) and linker facilitates the design of MOMs with myriad topologies and allows for a systematic variation of the pore environment. Families of MOMs with modular components, i.e. MOM platforms, are eminently suitable for targeting the selective adsorption of guest molecules such as CO2 because their pore size and pore functionality can each be tailored independently. MOMs with saturated metal centers (SMCs) that promote strong yet ...
Small Molecule Inhibitor Design For Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition, 2015 Harvey Mudd College
Small Molecule Inhibitor Design For Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition, Theodore D. Hansel, David J. Grabovsky
Interface Compendium of Student Work
The Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) gene has been linked to tumorigenesis in a number of human cancers, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and neuroblastoma. While ALK mutations in ALCL and many other cancers occur as a result of gene fusions with wild type kinase domains, those in neuroblastoma stem from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kinase domain. These lead to autophosphorylation and constitutive signaling by ALK for cell growth and division, ultimately causing cancer. Crizotinib, an ATP-competitive ALK inhibitor, has proven to be an effective inhibitor of both ALKWT and ALKMutant kinase domains, and is in the middle ...
Synergistic Interaction Between Oxides Of Copper And Iron For Production Of Fatty Alcohols From Fatty Acids, 2015 Iowa State University
Synergistic Interaction Between Oxides Of Copper And Iron For Production Of Fatty Alcohols From Fatty Acids, Kapil Kandel, Umesh Chaudhary, Nicholas C. Nelson, Igor I. Slowing
Ames Laboratory Publications
The selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates ...
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Solid-State Nmr In Heterogeneous Catalysis Research, 2015 Iowa State University
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Solid-State Nmr In Heterogeneous Catalysis Research, Takeshi Kobayashi, Fréa.Déric A. Perras, Igor I. Slowing, Aaron D. Sadow, Marek Pruski
Ames Laboratory Publications
A revolution in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is taking place, attributable to the rapid development of high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), a technique yielding sensitivity improvements of 2–3 orders of magnitude. This higher sensitivity in SSNMR has already impacted materials research, and the implications of new methods on catalytic sciences are expected to be profound.
Molecular Targeting Of Protein Arginine Deiminases To Suppress Colitis And Prevent Colon Cancer, 2015 South Carolina College of Pharmacy
Molecular Targeting Of Protein Arginine Deiminases To Suppress Colitis And Prevent Colon Cancer, Erin E. Witalison, Xiangli Cui, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Lorne J. Hofseth
Thompson Lab Publications
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease, in which the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers leading to abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. The extent of these symptoms depends on disease severity. The protein arginine deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes converts peptidyl-Arginine to peptidyl-Citrulline through citrullination. PADs are dysregulated, with abnormal citrullination in many diseases, including UC and colorectal cancer (CRC). We have developed the small molecule, pan-PAD inhibitor, Chlor-amidine (Cl-amidine), with multiple goals, including treating UC and preventing CRC. Building off our recent results showing that: 1) Cl-amidine suppresses colitis in vivo in a dextran ...
Mass Spectrometric Analyses Of Surface Proteins From Candida Albicans After Treatment With Histatin 5, 2015 The University of Western Ontario
Mass Spectrometric Analyses Of Surface Proteins From Candida Albicans After Treatment With Histatin 5, Shirley Fan
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Current drug therapies have lost their effectiveness in controlling the fungal species known as C. albicans; therefore, the need for newer drugs becomes crucial. Histatin 5 (Hst 5), a naturally occurring peptide found in the oral cavity, has demonstrated strong effects on controlling candidiasis. Here, we have proposed that the adhesion of cells through surface proteins is an important process. To allow the analysis of surface proteins, the concept of on-whole cell tryptic digestions were developed. This on-target approach allows for isolation of the peptides of interest, while greatly reducing digestion times.
To study the effects of Histatin 5 on ...
Influence Of Ph And Bulk Density On Carbon Dioxide Efflux In Three Urban Wetland Types, 2015 Southern University
Influence Of Ph And Bulk Density On Carbon Dioxide Efflux In Three Urban Wetland Types, Christopher Chappell, Andra Johnson
Professional Agricultural Workers Journal
The aim of this study was to understand soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux of three different urban wetlands and how pH and bulk density relate to soil CO2 efflux of each wetland. The three wetlands were bottomland, upland, and shrub/scrub. The study was conducted over a twenty week period using the Li-Cor 8100 “closed chamber” method to measure soil CO2 efflux. The findings show that the bottomland wetland efflux was significantly higher than the shrub/scrub and upland wetland. The pH of shrub/scrub was significantly higher than the upland. The bulk density of the ...