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The Reveal: A Technical Study And Conservation Treatment Of An Overpaint Portrait, Camille Ferrer 2024 SUNY University at Buffalo

The Reveal: A Technical Study And Conservation Treatment Of An Overpaint Portrait, Camille Ferrer

Art Conservation Master's Projects

A severely damaged 19th-century oil painting depicting a portrait of a woman was treated at Patricia H. and E. Garman Art Conservation Department. A typed letter provided by the owner mentioned that it has been previously restored yet returned with unsatisfactory results. After further examination, the painting appeared to have been previously treated multiple times by different people. There was overpaint distinctly present on the face and later discovered to be present overall. The full state of condition of the painting was initially unknown due to the sum of the surface being overpainted. However, there were evidence of paint loss …


De Novo Drug Design Using Transformer-Based Machine Translation And Reinforcement Learning Of An Adaptive Monte Carlo Tree Search, Dony Ang, Cyril Rakovski, Hagop S. Atamian 2024 Chapman University

De Novo Drug Design Using Transformer-Based Machine Translation And Reinforcement Learning Of An Adaptive Monte Carlo Tree Search, Dony Ang, Cyril Rakovski, Hagop S. Atamian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The discovery of novel therapeutic compounds through de novo drug design represents a critical challenge in the field of pharmaceutical research. Traditional drug discovery approaches are often resource intensive and time consuming, leading researchers to explore innovative methods that harness the power of deep learning and reinforcement learning techniques. Here, we introduce a novel drug design approach called drugAI that leverages the Encoder–Decoder Transformer architecture in tandem with Reinforcement Learning via a Monte Carlo Tree Search (RL-MCTS) to expedite the process of drug discovery while ensuring the production of valid small molecules with drug-like characteristics and strong binding affinities towards …


Variables Affecting The Extraction Of Antioxidants In Cold And Hot Brew Coffee: A Review, Brian Yust, Frank Wilkinson, Niny Rao 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Variables Affecting The Extraction Of Antioxidants In Cold And Hot Brew Coffee: A Review, Brian Yust, Frank Wilkinson, Niny Rao

College of Life Sciences Faculty Papers

Coffee beans are a readily available, abundant source of antioxidants used worldwide. With the increasing interest in and consumption of coffee beverages globally, research into the production, preparation, and chemical profile of coffee has also increased in recent years. A wide range of variables such as roasting temperature, coffee grind size, brewing temperature, and brewing duration can have a significant impact on the extractable antioxidant content of coffee products. While there is no single standard method for measuring all of the antioxidants found in coffee, multiple methods which introduce the coffee product to a target molecule or reagent can be …


Mutational Analysis Of The Nitrogenase Carbon Monoxide Protective Protein Cown Reveals That A Conserved C‑Terminal Glutamic Acid Residue Is Necessary For Its Activity, Dustin L. Willard, Joshuah J. Arellano, Mitch Underdahl, Terrence M. Lee, Avinash S. Ramaswamy, Gabriella Fumes, Agatha Kliman, Emily Y. Wong, Cedric P. Owens 2023 Chapman University

Mutational Analysis Of The Nitrogenase Carbon Monoxide Protective Protein Cown Reveals That A Conserved C‑Terminal Glutamic Acid Residue Is Necessary For Its Activity, Dustin L. Willard, Joshuah J. Arellano, Mitch Underdahl, Terrence M. Lee, Avinash S. Ramaswamy, Gabriella Fumes, Agatha Kliman, Emily Y. Wong, Cedric P. Owens

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Nitrogenase is the only enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of nitrogen gas into ammonia. Nitrogenase is tightly inhibited by the environmental gas carbon monoxide (CO). Many nitrogen fixing bacteria protect nitrogenase from CO inhibition using the protective protein CowN. This work demonstrates that a conserved glutamic acid residue near the C-terminus of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus CowN is necessary for its function. Mutation of the glutamic acid residue abolishes both CowN’s protection against CO inhibition and the ability of CowN to bind to nitrogenase. In contrast, a conserved C-terminal cysteine residue is not important for CO protection by CowN. Overall, this work …


Differentiation Of Human, Dog, And Cat Hair Fibers Using Dart Tofms And Machine Learning, Laura Ahumada, Erin R. McClure-Price, Chad Kwong, Edgard O. Espinoza, John Santerre 2023 Southern Methodist University

Differentiation Of Human, Dog, And Cat Hair Fibers Using Dart Tofms And Machine Learning, Laura Ahumada, Erin R. Mcclure-Price, Chad Kwong, Edgard O. Espinoza, John Santerre

SMU Data Science Review

Hair is found in over 90% of crime scenes and has long been analyzed as trace evidence. However, recent reviews of traditional hair fiber analysis techniques, primarily morphological examination, have cast doubt on its reliability. To address these concerns, this study employed machine learning algorithms, specifically Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Random Forest, on Direct Analysis in Real Time time-of-flight mass spectra collected from human, cat, and dog hair samples. The objective was to develop a chemistry- and statistics-based classification method for unbiased taxonomic identification of hair. The results of the study showed that LDA and Random Forest were highly …


Development Of A Methodology For The Quantification Of Reaerosolization Of A Biological Contaminate Surrogate Particle From A Military Uniform Fabric, George Cooksey, Jeremy M. Slagley, Casey W. Cooper, Douglas Lewis, Alisha Helm 2023 Air Force Institute of Technology

Development Of A Methodology For The Quantification Of Reaerosolization Of A Biological Contaminate Surrogate Particle From A Military Uniform Fabric, George Cooksey, Jeremy M. Slagley, Casey W. Cooper, Douglas Lewis, Alisha Helm

Faculty Publications

In a mass casualty medical evacuation after a bioaerosol (BA) dispersal event, a decontamination (DC) method is needed that can both decontaminate and prevent biological particle (BP) re-aerosolization (RA) of contaminated clothes. However, neither the efficacy of current DC methods nor the risk of BP RA is greatly explored in the existing literature. The goals of this study were to develop a repeatable method to quantify the RA of a biological contaminant off military uniform fabric swatches and to test the efficacy of one DC protocol (high-volume, low-pressure water) using 1 µm polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres as a surrogate. A …


Postsynthetic Modification Of The Nonanuclear Node In A Zirconium Metal−Organic Framework For Photocatalytic Oxidation Of Hydrocarbons, Rebecca Shu Hui Khoo, Christian Fiankor, Sizhuo Yang, Wenhui Hu, Chongqing Yang, Jingzhi Lu, Martha D. Morton, Xu Zhang, Yi Liu, Jier Huang, Jian Zhang 2023 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Postsynthetic Modification Of The Nonanuclear Node In A Zirconium Metal−Organic Framework For Photocatalytic Oxidation Of Hydrocarbons, Rebecca Shu Hui Khoo, Christian Fiankor, Sizhuo Yang, Wenhui Hu, Chongqing Yang, Jingzhi Lu, Martha D. Morton, Xu Zhang, Yi Liu, Jier Huang, Jian Zhang

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Heterogeneous catalysis plays an indispensable role in chemical production and energy conversion. Incorporation of transition metals into metal oxides and zeolites is a common strategy to fine-tune the activity and selectivity of the resulting solid catalysts, as either the active center or promotor. Studying the underlying mechanism is however challenging. Decorating the metal-oxo clusters with transition metals in metal−organic frameworks (MOFs) via postsynthetic modification offers a rational approach to construct well-defined structural models for better understanding of the reaction mechanism. Therefore, it is important to expand the materials scope beyond the currently widely studied zirconium MOFs consisting of Zr6 …


Carbodiimide And Isocyanate Hydroboration By A Cyclic Carbodiphosphorane Catalyst, Ben A. Janda, Julie A. Tran, Daniel K. Chang, Gabriela C. Nerhood, O. Maduka Ogba, Allegra L. Liberman-Martin 2023 Chapman University

Carbodiimide And Isocyanate Hydroboration By A Cyclic Carbodiphosphorane Catalyst, Ben A. Janda, Julie A. Tran, Daniel K. Chang, Gabriela C. Nerhood, O. Maduka Ogba, Allegra L. Liberman-Martin

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We report hydroboration of carbodiimide and isocyanate substrates catalyzed by a cyclic carbodiphosphorane catalyst. The cyclic carbodiphosphorane outperformed the other Lewis basic carbon species tested, including other zerovalent carbon compounds, phosphorus ylides, an N-heterocyclic carbene, and an N-heterocyclic olefin. Hydroborations of seven carbodiimides and nine isocyanates were performed at room temperature to form N-boryl formamidine and N-boryl formamide products. Intermolecular competition experiments demonstrated the selective hydroboration of alkyl isocyanates over carbodiimide and ketone substrates. DFT calculations support a proposed mechanism involving activation of pinacolborane by the carbodiphosphorane catalyst, followed by hydride transfer and B−N bond formation.


Machine Learning‑Assisted Low‑Dimensional Electrocatalysts Design For Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, Jin Li, Naiteng Wu, Jian Zhang, Hong‑Hui Wu, Kunming Pan, Yingxue Wang, Guilong Liu, Xianming Liu, Zhenpeng Yao, Qiaobao Zhang 2023 Luoyang Normal University

Machine Learning‑Assisted Low‑Dimensional Electrocatalysts Design For Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, Jin Li, Naiteng Wu, Jian Zhang, Hong‑Hui Wu, Kunming Pan, Yingxue Wang, Guilong Liu, Xianming Liu, Zhenpeng Yao, Qiaobao Zhang

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Efficient electrocatalysts are crucial for hydrogen generation from electrolyzing water. Nevertheless, the conventional "trial and error" method for producing advanced electrocatalysts is not only cost-ineffective but also time-consuming and labor-intensive. Fortunately, the advancement of machine learning brings new opportunities for electrocatalysts discovery and design. By analyzing experimental and theoretical data, machine learning can effectively predict their hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance. This review summarizes recent developments in machine learning for low-dimensional electrocatalysts, including zero-dimension nanoparticles and nanoclusters, one-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires, two-dimensional nanosheets, as well as other electrocatalysts. In particular, the effects of descriptors and algorithms on screening low-dimensional electrocatalysts …


Phytochemical Constituent And Antioxidant Activity Evaluation Of Red Seaweed Eucheuma Sp., Ade Arsianti 2023 Universitas Indonesia

Phytochemical Constituent And Antioxidant Activity Evaluation Of Red Seaweed Eucheuma Sp., Ade Arsianti

Indonesian Journal of Medical Chemistry and Bioinformatics

Oxidative stress is a condition in which there is an imbalance between production of free radicals and protective response via antioxidant system. There are endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, however as age increases, there is a reduction in endogenous antioxidant, thus the search for potential exogenous antioxidants which could be derived from natural resources are needed. Indonesia is a megabiodiversity country which has more than 30,000 species of plants and animals. Red seaweed Eucheuma sp. is one of marine macroalgae species which shows potent biological activities. This study aims to determine the phytochemical constituent and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of …


Synergistic Effect Of Nanoclay And Barium Sulfate Fillers On The Corrosion Resistance Of Polyester Powder Coatings, Jinbao Huang, Marshall Shuai Yang, Chengqian Xian, James Joseph Noel, Yolanda S. Hedberg, Jian Chen, Ubong Eduok, Ivan Barker, Jeffrey Daniel Henderson, Haiping Zhang, Liqin Wang, Hui Zhang, Jesse Zhu 2023 Western University

Synergistic Effect Of Nanoclay And Barium Sulfate Fillers On The Corrosion Resistance Of Polyester Powder Coatings, Jinbao Huang, Marshall Shuai Yang, Chengqian Xian, James Joseph Noel, Yolanda S. Hedberg, Jian Chen, Ubong Eduok, Ivan Barker, Jeffrey Daniel Henderson, Haiping Zhang, Liqin Wang, Hui Zhang, Jesse Zhu

Chemistry Publications

No abstract provided.


Strengthening Brain Research In Africa, Abdullahi Tunde Aborode, Nike Jesutofunmi Idowu, Samuel Tundealao, Joseph Jaiyeola, Ogunware Adedayo Emmanuel 2023 Healthy Africans Platform

Strengthening Brain Research In Africa, Abdullahi Tunde Aborode, Nike Jesutofunmi Idowu, Samuel Tundealao, Joseph Jaiyeola, Ogunware Adedayo Emmanuel

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

This paper explores the emerging field of neuroscience in Africa, considering the unique genetic diversity, sociocultural determinants, and health inequalities in the continent. It presents numerous brain research initiatives, such as ABDRN, AMARI, APCDR, and H3Africa, aimed at understanding genetic and environmental factors influencing brain disorders in Africa. Despite numerous challenges like the brain drain phenomenon, inadequate infrastructure, and scarce research expertise, significant progress has been achieved. The paper proposes solutions, including international collaboration, capacity-building efforts, and policies to promote neuroscience research, to enhance the understanding of brain function and address brain-related health issues within the African context.


Introducing High School Biology Students To Biochemistry With A Short, Content-Oriented Module, Archer Harrold, Allison Cruikshank, Bryan Penas, Rebecca Roston 2023 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Introducing High School Biology Students To Biochemistry With A Short, Content-Oriented Module, Archer Harrold, Allison Cruikshank, Bryan Penas, Rebecca Roston

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Many STEM disciplines are underrepresented to High School students. This is problematic as many students' decisions for college are shaped by their experiences and achievements in high school. Short content-oriented modules have been shown to encourage science identity and otherwise benefit the students' learning. Following the ASBMB's outreach protocol, we developed a short content-oriented module aimed at a high school biology classroom. Students interacted with 3D models of DNA and transcription factors while exploring structure–function relationships and introductory biochemistry topics. The high school teacher was impressed with the students' response to the module, specifically the ease with which students learned, …


Changes In An Enzyme Ensemble During Catalysis Observed By High Resolution Xfel Crystallography, Nathan J. Smith, Medhanjali Dasgupta, David C. Wych, Cole Dolamore, Raymond G. Sierra, Stella Lisova, Darya Marchany-Rivera, Aina E. Cohen, Sébastien Boutet, Mark S. Hunter, Christopher Kupitz, Frédéric Poitevin, Frank R. Moss III, Aaron S. Brewster, Nicholas K. Sauter, Iris D. Young, Alexander M. Wolff, Virendra K. Tiwari, Nivesh Kumar, David B. Berkowitz, Ryan G. Hadt, Michael C. Thompson, Alec H. Follmer, Mark A. Wilson 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Changes In An Enzyme Ensemble During Catalysis Observed By High Resolution Xfel Crystallography, Nathan J. Smith, Medhanjali Dasgupta, David C. Wych, Cole Dolamore, Raymond G. Sierra, Stella Lisova, Darya Marchany-Rivera, Aina E. Cohen, Sébastien Boutet, Mark S. Hunter, Christopher Kupitz, Frédéric Poitevin, Frank R. Moss Iii, Aaron S. Brewster, Nicholas K. Sauter, Iris D. Young, Alexander M. Wolff, Virendra K. Tiwari, Nivesh Kumar, David B. Berkowitz, Ryan G. Hadt, Michael C. Thompson, Alec H. Follmer, Mark A. Wilson

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Enzymes populate ensembles of structures with intrinsically different catalytic proficiencies that are difficult to experimentally characterize. We use time-resolved mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) at an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) to observe catalysis in a designed mutant (G150T) isocyanide hydratase (ICH) enzyme that enhances sampling of important minor conformations. The active site exists in a mixture of conformations and formation of the thioimidate catalytic intermediate selects for catalytically competent substates. A prior proposal for active site cysteine charge-coupled conformational changes in ICH is validated by determining structures of the enzyme over a range of pH values. A combination of large …


On The Boundary Of The Cosmos, Daniel Linford 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

On The Boundary Of The Cosmos, Daniel Linford

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Intuitively, the totality of physical reality – the Cosmos – has a beginning only if (i) all parts of the Cosmos agree on the direction of time (the Direction Condition) and (ii) there is a boundary to the past of all non-initial spacetime points such that there are no spacetime points to the past of the boundary (the Boundary Condition). Following a distinction previously introduced by J. Brian Pitts, the Boundary Condition can be conceived of in two distinct ways: either topologically, i.e., in terms of a closed boundary, or metrically, i.e., in terms of the Cosmos having a finite …


Differential Membrane Binding Of Α/Β-Peptide Foldamers: Implications For Cellular Delivery And Mitochondrial Targeting, Tzong-Hsien Lee, James W. Checco, Tess Malcolm, Chelcie H. Eller, Ronald T. Raines, Samuel H. Gellman, Erinna F. Lee, W. Douglas Fairlie, Marie-Isabel Aguilar 2023 Monash University

Differential Membrane Binding Of Α/Β-Peptide Foldamers: Implications For Cellular Delivery And Mitochondrial Targeting, Tzong-Hsien Lee, James W. Checco, Tess Malcolm, Chelcie H. Eller, Ronald T. Raines, Samuel H. Gellman, Erinna F. Lee, W. Douglas Fairlie, Marie-Isabel Aguilar

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Inhibition of the anti-apoptotic members represents a strategy to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. We have measured the membrane binding properties of a series of peptides, including modified α/β-peptides, designed to exhibit enhanced membrane permeability to allow cell entry and improved access for engagement of Bcl-2 family members. The peptide cargo is based on the pro-apoptotic protein Bim, which interacts with all anti-apoptotic proteins to initiate apoptosis. The α/β-peptides contained cyclic β-amino acid residues designed to increase their stability and membrane-permeability. Dual polarisation interferometry was …


From Waste To Energy: The Electrochemical Reduction Of Co2 Using Recycled Nanostructured Catalysts, Ibrahim Badawy 2023 American University in Cairo

From Waste To Energy: The Electrochemical Reduction Of Co2 Using Recycled Nanostructured Catalysts, Ibrahim Badawy

Theses and Dissertations

The reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2RR) using electrochemistry is a promising solution for the burgeoning global energy crisis. The overall vision of its implementation relies on renewable energy sources to power the reaction creating carbon neutral products and effectively closing the carbon cycle. Research in this field has come a long way since its inception in the mid-1900s. However, there remain significant hurdles and important considerations to overcome in order to reach full commercialization. Most electrocatalysts tested for CO2RR have been designed solely for maximum performance while ignoring the environmental consequences if such a material were …


Temperature-Pressure Phase Diagram Of Confined Monolayer Water/Ice At First-Principles Accuracy With A Machine-Learning Force Field, Bo Lin, Jian Jiang, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Lei Li 2023 Southern University of Science and Technology

Temperature-Pressure Phase Diagram Of Confined Monolayer Water/Ice At First-Principles Accuracy With A Machine-Learning Force Field, Bo Lin, Jian Jiang, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Lei Li

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Understanding the phase behaviour of nanoconfined water films is of fundamental importance in broad fields of science and engineering. However, the phase behaviour of the thinnest water film – monolayer water – is still incompletely known. Here, we developed a machine-learning force field (MLFF) at first-principles accuracy to determine the phase diagram of monolayer water/ice in nanoconfinement with hydrophobic walls. We observed the spontaneous formation of two previously unreported high-density ices, namely, zigzag quasi-bilayer ice (ZZ-qBI) and branched-zigzag quasi-bilayer ice (bZZ-qBI). Unlike conventional bilayer ices, few inter-layer hydrogen bonds were observed in both quasi-bilayer ices. Notably, the bZZ-qBI entails a …


Stepwise Assembly Of Quinary Multivariate Metal−Organic Frameworks Via Diversified Linker Exchange And Installation, Yuchen Hu, Xin Zhang, Rebecca Shu Hui Khoo, Christian Fiankor, Xu Zhang, Jian Zhang 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stepwise Assembly Of Quinary Multivariate Metal−Organic Frameworks Via Diversified Linker Exchange And Installation, Yuchen Hu, Xin Zhang, Rebecca Shu Hui Khoo, Christian Fiankor, Xu Zhang, Jian Zhang

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Multivariate MOFs (MTV-MOFs) constructed from multiple components with atomistic precision hold the promise for many fascinating developments in both fundamental sciences and applications. Sequential linker installation can be an effective method to introduce different functional linkers into an MOF that contains coordinatively unsaturated metal sites. However, in many cases, these linkers must be installed according to a specific sequence and the complete synthetic flexibility and freedom is yet to be realized. Here, we rationally decreased the size of the primary ligand used in NPF-300, a Zr-MOF with scu topology (NPF = Nebraska Porous Framework), and synthesized its isostructure, NPF-320. NPF-320 …


Long-Term Degradation Mechanisms In Application-Implemented Radical Thin Films, Ewa Malgorzata Nowik-Boltyk, Tobias Junghoefer, Mathias Glaser, Erika Giangrisostomi, Ruslan Ovsyannikov, Shuyang Zhang, Chan Shu, Andrzej Rajca, Arrigo Calzolari, M. Benedetta Casu 2023 University of Tübingen

Long-Term Degradation Mechanisms In Application-Implemented Radical Thin Films, Ewa Malgorzata Nowik-Boltyk, Tobias Junghoefer, Mathias Glaser, Erika Giangrisostomi, Ruslan Ovsyannikov, Shuyang Zhang, Chan Shu, Andrzej Rajca, Arrigo Calzolari, M. Benedetta Casu

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Blatter radical derivatives are very attractive due to their potential applications, ranging from batteries to quantum technologies. In this work, we focus on the latest insights regarding the fundamental mechanisms of radical thin film (long-term) degradation, by comparing two Blatter radical derivatives. We find that the interaction with different contaminants (such as atomic H, Ar, N, and O and molecular H2, N2, O2, H2O, and NH2) affects the chemical and magnetic properties of the thin films upon air exposure. Also, the radical-specific site, where the contaminant interaction takes place, plays …


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