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Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hypersurface Photolithography (HP) is a printing method for fabricating structures and patterns composed of soft materials bound to solid surfaces and with ~1 micrometer resolution in the x, y, and z dimensions. This platform leverages benign, low intensity light to perform photochemical surface reactions with spatial and temporal control of irradiation, and, as a result, is particularly useful for patterning delicate organic and biological material. In particular, surface- initiated controlled radical polymerizations can be leveraged to create arbitrary polymer and block- copolymer brush patterns. Chapter 1 will review the advances in instrumentation architectures from our group that have made these ...


Immobilized-Enzyme Reactors Integrated Into Analytical Platforms: Recent Advances And Challenges, Bert Wouters Dr, Sinead Currivan, Noor Abdulhussain, T. Hankemeier, Peter J. Schoenmakers 2021 Leiden University

Immobilized-Enzyme Reactors Integrated Into Analytical Platforms: Recent Advances And Challenges, Bert Wouters Dr, Sinead Currivan, Noor Abdulhussain, T. Hankemeier, Peter J. Schoenmakers

Articles

Immobilized-enzyme reactors (IMERs) are flow-through devices containing enzymes that are physically confined or localized with retention of their catalytic activities. IMERs can be used repeatedly and continuously and have been applied for (bio)polymer degradation, proteomics, biomarker discovery, inhibitor screening, and detection. Online integration of IMERs with analytical instrumentation, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems, reduces the time needed for multi-step workflows, reduces the need for sample handling, and enables automation. However, online integration can also be challenging, as reaching its full potential requires complex instrumental setups and experienced users. This review aims to provide an assessment of recent ...


Characterization Techniques And Cation Exchange Membrane For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery, Kun Lou 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Techniques And Cation Exchange Membrane For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery, Kun Lou

Doctoral Dissertations

The motivation of this work comes from one of the major problems of emerging non-aqueous flow battery (NAFB) that a separator or membrane which facilitates conductivity and blocks redox species crossover does not exist. Although many aspects of principles can be mirrored from mature fuel cell and aqueous flow battery, it is found that some well-defined membrane properties in aqueous systems such as swelling, transport and interactions are different in non-aqueous solvents to some extent. However, the approach of this work does follow the way perfluorosulfonate ion exchange membrane (PFSA) facilitated development of fuel cell and aqueous flow battery in ...


Synthesis Of The Diazonium Zwitterionic Polymer/Monomer For Use As The Electrolyte In Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (Pem) Fuel Cells, Josiah Marshall 2021 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis Of The Diazonium Zwitterionic Polymer/Monomer For Use As The Electrolyte In Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (Pem) Fuel Cells, Josiah Marshall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

My research goals are to synthesize new zwitterionic perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) monomer/polymers. They are expected to replace traditionally used perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymers as the electrolyte in PEM fuel cells. For the PFSI monomer preparation, we designed a nine-step synthesis route. Thus far, I have successfully completed the synthesis of 4- (2-bromotetrafluoroethoxy)-benzenesulfonyl amide, 4-acetoxybenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt, and 4-chlorosulfonyl phenyl acetate. The coupling reaction of 4-(2-bromotetrafluoroethoxy)- benzenesulfonyl amide with 4-chlorosulfonyl phenyl acetate, was troublesome due to slow reaction kinetics and byproducts. Additionally, I did a methodology study for the homopolymerziation of the perfluoro 3(oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride monomer ...


Stimuli Responsive Dye-Containing Peg-Pla Block Copolymer Micelles And Computationally Assisted Design Of A Stapled Peptide Bundle, Tyler L. Odom 2021 Missouri State University

Stimuli Responsive Dye-Containing Peg-Pla Block Copolymer Micelles And Computationally Assisted Design Of A Stapled Peptide Bundle, Tyler L. Odom

MSU Graduate Theses

In this thesis, I report the preparation and characterization of dye-containing PEG-b-PLA block copolymer micelles and the computational design of a novel coiled-coil peptide bundle. The PEG-b-PLA micelles encapsulate hydrophobic molecules into their core and have strong potential as nanocontainers or delivery vesicles. In theory, these internalized molecules can be released upon exposure to mechanical forces that disrupt the micellar structures. This force-responsive nature is one of the inherent properties of micellar systems. However, there is a stark lack of research that utilize this property in applications. Along those lines, I have studied the behavior of ...


Degumming Of Hemp Fibers Using Combined Microwave Energy And Deep Eutectic Solvent, Bulbul Ahmed 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Degumming Of Hemp Fibers Using Combined Microwave Energy And Deep Eutectic Solvent, Bulbul Ahmed

LSU Master's Theses

Hemp is considered as one of the sustainable agricultural fiber materials. Degumming or surface modification of hemp bast is needed to produce single fibers for ensuing textile and industrial applications. The traditional degumming process necessitates a high amount of alkali, which causes detrimental environmental pollution. This study offers a new method to degum hemp fibers with reduced use of harmful alkali and precious water resources. In this work, hemp bast fibers were degummed by using combined microwave energy and deep eutectic solvent (DES). The properties of hemp fibers manufactured by this method were investigated and compared with the traditional alkali ...


Glycerol Ketals As Building Blocks For A New Class Of Biobased (Meth)Acrylate Polymers, Shailja Goyal, Fang-Yi Lin, Michael Forrester, William P. Henrichsen, Grace Murphy, Liyang Shen, Tung-Ping Wang, Eric W. Cochran 2021 Iowa State University

Glycerol Ketals As Building Blocks For A New Class Of Biobased (Meth)Acrylate Polymers, Shailja Goyal, Fang-Yi Lin, Michael Forrester, William P. Henrichsen, Grace Murphy, Liyang Shen, Tung-Ping Wang, Eric W. Cochran

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Here, we present an approach for developing the next generation of bio(meth)acrylates using glycerol ketals as a platform for property differentiation. Crude glycerol, a biodiesel byproduct, and ketones, derived from biomass valorization, are the building blocks for these polymeric materials. Biobased materials are witnessing a prominent boom in research and commercialization due to increased awareness about the carbon footprint and depletion of petroleum resources. Biodiesel and biopolymers are major linchpins to improve sustainable energy and material needs of the world in the coming years. Glycerol ketal (meth)acrylate monomers synthesized by the reaction of glycerol and various ketones ...


Designing Stimuli-Responsive Nanocomposites To Investigate Interface Dynamics, Huyen Vu 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Designing Stimuli-Responsive Nanocomposites To Investigate Interface Dynamics, Huyen Vu

Doctoral Dissertations

Inspired by nature, this research focuses on designing multifunctional renewable nanocomposites with high toughness and stimuli-responsiveness. In recent years, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have been explored due to their abundance, renewable resource, and unique mechanical strength and structural coloration. CNCs naturally self-assemble into the helicoidal (Bouligand) structure that effectively endure high impacts but is brittle without an attendant soft phase. A thermoresponsive polymer, poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PMEO2MA), was incorporated into CNCs via evaporation-induced self-assembly to improve toughness of the resulting nanocomposites and to study responses in polymer dynamics under varying temperature and humidity conditions.

To study ...


Thermoelectric Transport In Disordered Organic And Inorganic Semiconductors, Meenakshi Upadhyaya 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Thermoelectric Transport In Disordered Organic And Inorganic Semiconductors, Meenakshi Upadhyaya

Doctoral Dissertations

The need for alternative energy sources has led to extensive research on optimizing the conversion efficiency of thermoelectric (TE) materials. TE efficiency is governed by figure-of-merit (ZT) and it has been an enormously challenging task to increase ZT > 1 despite decades of research due to the interdependence of material properties. Most doped inorganic semiconductors have a high electrical conductivity and moderate Seebeck coefficient, but ZT is still limited by their high lattice thermal conductivity. One approach to address this problem is to decrease thermal conductivity by means of alloying and nanostructuring, another is to consider materials with an inherently low ...


Harnessing Surface Chemistry And Instabilities In Silicone Elastomers To Synthesize Adaptive Systems With Mechanically Tunable Surface Properties And Functionality, Ali Jamal Mazaltarim 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Harnessing Surface Chemistry And Instabilities In Silicone Elastomers To Synthesize Adaptive Systems With Mechanically Tunable Surface Properties And Functionality, Ali Jamal Mazaltarim

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Material interfaces are of critical importance to numerous fields, including nanomaterials, electronics, microfluidics, synthesis, bioanalysis, pharmaceuticals, and catalysis, and they have been extensively researched. The materials used in these fields are often rigid/hard (such as silicon wafers) resulting in static surface properties. Consequently, the chemical/morphological properties of a surface may be modified using synthetic or mechanical means to tailor the interfacial properties of a material (i.e., surface energy, adhesion, topography, and reactivity). Recently, emphasis has been placed on designing dynamic materials with adaptive interfacial properties that respond to a variety of environmental stimuli. To this end, the ...


Design Of Antioxidant Monomer, Augustine Osilamah Yusuf 2021 Western Kentucky University

Design Of Antioxidant Monomer, Augustine Osilamah Yusuf

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide are present at the sites of inflammation in the body. Degradable polymeric nanoparticles have shown great promise in a range of biomedical applications which include preferential delivery of therapeutics to such inflamed sites. We are working towards a new class of materials expected to have tunable degradation rates in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These new materials consist of three parts: degradable linkages, antioxidant groups, and unreactive filler monomers such as methylmethacrylate. We have synthesized a polymerization initiator with a degradable linkage, and we have shown that using this initiator to synthesize another ...


Pressure Driven Desalination Membranes: Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Single Walled Carbon, Matteo A. Del Giudice, Samantha Castillo Merigold 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Pressure Driven Desalination Membranes: Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Single Walled Carbon, Matteo A. Del Giudice, Samantha Castillo Merigold

Materials Engineering

This project presents a potential alternative desalination technique that utilizes the ion rejection properties of single walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) matrix. Previous research has pointed to the polymerizable surfactant methacryloxy ethyl hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (C16MA) having capabilities of filtering molecular components smaller than a nanometer, when oriented in cylindrical micelles. SWCNTs were dispersed in deionized water by probe sonication and addition of surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) due to SWCNTs’ hydrophobic properties. Membranes were produced containing 55wt% C16MA, 37wt% DI water, 0.1wt% with respect to the monomer (WRM) SWCNTs, 1.9 wt% WRM ...


Elucidation Of Optoelectronic Properties Of Pyrrolo[3,2-B]Pyrrole Chromophores, Ryan Faddis 2021 Kennesaw State University

Elucidation Of Optoelectronic Properties Of Pyrrolo[3,2-B]Pyrrole Chromophores, Ryan Faddis

Symposium of Student Scholars

Ryan Faddis Abstract

Elucidation of Optoelectric Properties of Pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole Chromophores

Ryan Faddis and Graham S. Collier

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Kennesaw State University

Derivatives of phenyl substituted pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrroles have shown promise of being useful organic opto-electric compounds due to their advantageous tunability through careful synthetic design. Furthermore, one pot synthesis and readily accessible commercial reactants such as, aromatic amines and aldehydes, makes these molecules more favorable than other, more complex syntheses traditionally required for optically active organic molecules. Although relatively simple synthesize, more information from experimentation is needed to understand the optical properties ...


Environment-Friendly Flame Retardants For Bio-Based Polyurethanes, Felipe Martins de Souza 2021 Pittsburg State University

Environment-Friendly Flame Retardants For Bio-Based Polyurethanes, Felipe Martins De Souza

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Finding alternative ways to decrease the large consumption of non-renewable resources has been one of the greatest challenges faced by the industry and academia. The trend of using bio-renewable-based materials is an interesting alternative to tackle environmental issues as well as provide economically viable materials. In this work, carvone, an essential oil, was used to synthesize a bio-based polyol through a thiol-ene reaction. The chemical functions were analyzed through Fourier transformed infrared spectrum (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), viscosity, and hydroxyl number, which confirmed the synthesis of carvone-based polyol. The latter was then physically blended with three different flame-retardants separately ...


Stretching The Applications Of Biomass: Development Of Lignin Based Thermoplastic Elastomers And Composite Materials, Anthony Stephen Bova 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Stretching The Applications Of Biomass: Development Of Lignin Based Thermoplastic Elastomers And Composite Materials, Anthony Stephen Bova

Doctoral Dissertations

Bio-based plastics and composites have seen increased industry adoption in recent years due to growing demand for materials with a low carbon footprint. The use of lignin as a feedstock for polymers has seen growing interest as the concept of an integrated cellulosic biorefinery gains traction and advances the need to use all components of separated biomass for value-added applications. Historically, use of lignin in thermoplastic and elastomeric copolymers and blends has been bottlenecked by the inability to introduce lignin content above 30 weight percent due to difficulties with interfacial adhesion of lignin with other soft segments. Efforts to overcome ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Applications Of Nucleobase-Functionalized Conjugated Polymers, Sina Sabury 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Synthesis, Characterization, And Applications Of Nucleobase-Functionalized Conjugated Polymers, Sina Sabury

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the effect of the functional groups at the terminus of the side chains is important for developing conjugated polymers through side chain engineering. Nucleobases, which are known for their multi-functionality, have not been deeply studied as functionality in conjugated polymers due to synthetic challenges. The overarching goal of my dissertation is to design, synthesize, characterize conjugated polymers bearing nucleobase functionality in their side chains and demonstrate their utility in various applications. Stille cross-coupling and direct arylation polymerization are used to synthesize adenine- and thymine-containing conjugated polymers. Monomer design requirements for successful polymerization are studied and conditions that optimize polymerization ...


Development Of Biomaterials For Drug Delivery, Raquel De Castro 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of Biomaterials For Drug Delivery, Raquel De Castro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Drug delivery systems (DDS) have highly evolved in the last decades with the development of hydrogels and nanoparticles. However, high systemic uptake, side effects, low bioavailability, and encapsulation efficiency continue to be a major hurdle faced by such DDSs.

Nanoparticles and hydrogels can be specifically designed for targeted DDSs to mitigate some of the problems. This dissertation aimed to design two DDSs for ocular drug delivery and one for cancer treatment. The first project sought to develop chitosan nanoparticles (Cs-NP) using PEGDA as a copolymer to encapsulate gentamicin (GtS) for ocular drug delivery. Cs-NPs contain positive charges that can interact ...


Synthesis And Conductivity Analysis Of A Methyl (Polyethylene Glycol) Comb Polymer, Olivia Fox 2021 University of Mississippi

Synthesis And Conductivity Analysis Of A Methyl (Polyethylene Glycol) Comb Polymer, Olivia Fox

Honors Theses

The overall goal of work in this field is to improve materials for use in a variety of applications in fuel cell and battery production. This thesis specifically investigates the synthesis of two variations of a methyl (polyethylene glycol) comb polymer electrolyte (MePEGnwhere n=7) to understand how the molecular structure of an ion-conducting polymer affects its electrochemical properties. The MePEG used in this synthesis contains seven ethylene glycol groups and was added to a poly (methylhydrosiloxane) comb polymer backbone. In the first sample, the polymer contained only the MePEG sidechain, and in the second sample, the polymer ...


Thermal, Mechanical, And Rehealing Properties Of Cross-Linked Ionene Networks, Katelyn Lindenmeyer 2021 Murray State University

Thermal, Mechanical, And Rehealing Properties Of Cross-Linked Ionene Networks, Katelyn Lindenmeyer

Honors College Theses

Polymers which contain ionic liquid groups have numerous applications in a wide variety of fields. Past research from our group has shown that IL-containing polymers which exist in covalently crosslinked networks can exhibit good ionic conductivities despite the hindrance in polymer chain mobility and relaxation. In part one of this thesis, efforts to create ionic networks which have the capability of being rehealed after exposure to an external stimulus are discussed. Thermoreversible maleimide-furan chemistry was incorporated into an imidazolium-containing ionene network. Maleimide-terminated, imidazolium-containing monomers were coupled with furan-functionalized monomers, prepared from commercially available multifunctional acrylates. Thermal, mechanical and rheological characterization ...


Effect Of Precise Control Of Crosslink Density On The Thermal, Mechanical, And Conductive Properties Of Covalently Crosslinked Ionene Networks, Alexander Thome 2021 Murray State University

Effect Of Precise Control Of Crosslink Density On The Thermal, Mechanical, And Conductive Properties Of Covalently Crosslinked Ionene Networks, Alexander Thome

Honors College Theses

Ionic liquids (ILs), besides being well known as environmentally friendly solvents, have attracted attention for a wide variety of other applications, including gas separation, 3D-printing and electrochemical actuators. However, for many such applications, incorporation of the IL moiety into a polymeric material eliminates the use of mechanically unstable free ILs while maintaining many of their electrochemical benefits. Such polymers can take two basic forms: poly(ionic liquid)s are ion-containing polymers in which the IL group is attached pendant to the polymeric backbone, while ionenes are ion-containing polymers in which the IL group is anchored directly into the backbone of ...


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