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Diazonium 4-(Trifluorovinyloxy) Perfluorobutanesulfonyl Benzenesulfonimide Zwitterionic Monomer Synthesis, Isaac D. Addo 2016 East Tennessee State University

Diazonium 4-(Trifluorovinyloxy) Perfluorobutanesulfonyl Benzenesulfonimide Zwitterionic Monomer Synthesis, Isaac D. Addo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

3-Diazonium- 4-(trifluorovinyloxy) - perfluorobutanesulfonyl benzenesulfonimide zwitterionic monomer (see figure 1) is proposed to be polymerized and further act as a new electrolyte for Polymer exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). One reason is that, the aromatic trifluorovinyl aryl ether (TFVE) group can easily be homopolymerized to aromatic perfluorocyclobutane (PFCB) polymer. Furthermore, the diazonium moiety in the monomer is expected to covalently attach the electrolyte to the carbon electrodes support. The perfluoroalkyl(aryl) sulfonimide (PFSI) pendant provides good chemical and mechanical stability as well as better proton conductivity. Several multi-step synthetic schemes are designed to obtain such monomer from perfluoroalkyl(aryl) sulfonimide ...


Directed Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymer, No1, Hiromichi Yamamoto 2016 Singh Center

Directed Self-Assembly Of Block Copolymer, No1, Hiromichi Yamamoto

Protocols and Reports

The PS-rich and neutral PS-b-PMMA block copolymer (BCP) films were spin coated on the neutral random copolymer hydroxyl-terminated PS-r-PMMA layers grafted on the native oxide and 50 nm thick PECVD amorphous silicon oxide layers. Relationship between the grafting density of BCP and surface density of hydroxyl moiety on silicon oxide is discussed. Furthermore, optimization of annealing BCP films is reported, and wetted and de-wetted BCP films are shown in optical microscope images. In addition, finger print and nanopore structures of BCP films are also indicated in SEM images.


Correlation Of Polymer Performance And Hansen Solubility Parameters, Daniel Jobse Mania 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Correlation Of Polymer Performance And Hansen Solubility Parameters, Daniel Jobse Mania

Master's Theses

Ready-to-use (RTU) grout is becoming more important to the finish and remodeling construction industry. Market research shows it is a fast-growing product that not only is creating its own space, but is beginning to supplant existing technology.

The original intent of this research was to investigate formulation parameters and how they affect grout performance. It was learned that particle size and oil absorption (OA) value are important filler properties that affect performance as much as adequate packing density and optimal pigment volume concentration (PVC) without going beyond critical PVC (CPVC).

Polymer architecture was also determined to be extremely important, but ...


Electrospinning Of Polymeric Solutions Using Opuntia Ficus-Indica Mucilage And Iron Oxide For Nanofiber Membranes For Treating Arsenic Contaminated Water, Venkatesh Eppili 2016 University of South Florida

Electrospinning Of Polymeric Solutions Using Opuntia Ficus-Indica Mucilage And Iron Oxide For Nanofiber Membranes For Treating Arsenic Contaminated Water, Venkatesh Eppili

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water is the essential part of every organism and it is also a vital constituent of healthy living and diet. Unfortunately water contamination over the past decade has increased dramatically leading to various diseases. As technology advances, we are detecting many pollutants at smaller levels of concentrations. Arsenic (As) is one of those major pollutants, and Arsenic poisoning is a condition caused due to excess levels of arsenic in the body. The main basis for Arsenic poisoning is from ground water which naturally contains high concentrations of arsenic. A case study from 2007 states that over 137 million people in ...


Measuring Accuracy Of Two 3d Printing Materials, Mudassir Ali 2016 Bowling Green State University

Measuring Accuracy Of Two 3d Printing Materials, Mudassir Ali

Master of Technology Management Plan II Graduate Projects

Part accuracy is one of the important aspect in the manufacturing industry. The overall inaccuracy of the parts being built by RP technology has been one of the major challenges that need to be overcome. Though all the printing materials come with specifications, but the suppliers and manufactures does not specify the accuracy of the materials. In this study we established a study which compares the accuracy of the materials in consideration and performed an experiment to establish the superiority of a material in terms of accuracy over each other. The purpose of this project was to compare the dimensional ...


Synthesis Of Two Monomers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Abdulmajeed A. Alayyaf 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Synthesis Of Two Monomers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Abdulmajeed A. Alayyaf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this research is to synthesize two different monomers for proton exchange membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells. Such monomers are proposed to be polymerized to improve the efficiency and compatibility of electrodes and electrolytes in PEM fuel cells.

The first target is to synthesize 4-diazonium-3-fluoro PFSI zwitterionic monomer. Three steps were carried out in the lab. First one was the ammonolysis of 3-fluoro-4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride. Second reaction was the bromination of Nafion monomer. The next coupling reaction, between brominated Nafion monomer and the 3-fluoro-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, was failed. The obstacles involve the harsh reaction condition and troublesome purification procedure.

The second ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks For Applications In Extraterrestrial Radiation Shielding, Josiah Arevalo Hammack 2016 College of William and Mary

Synthesis And Characterization Of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks For Applications In Extraterrestrial Radiation Shielding, Josiah Arevalo Hammack

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

During interplanetary voyages spacecraft are exposed to a variety of ionizing radiations, including high intensity electromagnetic radiation and galactic cosmic rays, creating conditions that are harmful to both instrumentation and human passengers. Current shielding methods offer a degree of protection, but they are not suitable for long term missions or for habitation on extraterrestrial environments, and traditional terrestrial shields are too heavy to be carried on these missions. Organic polymers offer a versatile, lightweight solution to many of the difficulties in shielding, however they also present difficulties establishing a sufficiently high hydrogen content while maintaining high mechanical and thermal stability ...


The Effect Of Ethanol, Methanol, And Water On The Hydrolytic Degradation Of Polyamide-11, Patrick Smith 2016 College of William and Mary

The Effect Of Ethanol, Methanol, And Water On The Hydrolytic Degradation Of Polyamide-11, Patrick Smith

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyamide 11 (PA11) is commonly used in offshore oil pipelines due to its excellent mechanical properties and chemical resistance. However, PA11 is prone to hydrolysis which is known to significantly reduce the lifetime of these pipelines. This paper explores the effect of ethanol and methanol, two alcohols that are commonly used to prevent the formation of ice-like blockages in the pipeline, on the hydrolytic degradation of PA11. No significant differences in crystallinity were observed between the different test environments. However, PA11 aged in EtOH showed the lowest amount of hydrolytic degradation when compared to PA11 aged in MeOH or pure ...


The Effect Of Acrylic Acid On Ring Formation In Polyacrylonitrile, Elisha Cade Willis 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Acrylic Acid On Ring Formation In Polyacrylonitrile, Elisha Cade Willis

Honors Theses

The addition of comonomers into carbon fiber precursor, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), has shown to have effects on the extent of stabilization and thermal behavior.1 Acrylic Acid (AA) was added at varying initial apparent weight percent and added via semibatch reaction to copolymerize with acrylonitrile to form carbon fiber precursor. Accompanying batch reactions were synthesized for comparison. Degradation was found to be greater in the semibatch reactions although overall was comparable to the batch reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the addition of higher concentrations of AA into the reaction resulted in a less intense exotherm upon cyclization, along with a ...


Synthesis Of Acceptors For Use In Donor-Acceptor Copolymers And Characterization Of These Polymers, William D. Walker 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Synthesis Of Acceptors For Use In Donor-Acceptor Copolymers And Characterization Of These Polymers, William D. Walker

Honors Theses

In this thesis, a selenium-derivatized acceptor was synthesized to examine the heavy atom effects of selenium on the position of the frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO/LUMO band gap) as opposed to sulfur in a donor-acceptor copolymer for use in light harvesting and detection applications. Over the course of this research, standard operating protocols for ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV) characterization techniques were established. Once synthesized, the polymers were characterized through use of the established characterization protocols. The selenium-derivatized polymer exhibited a bathochromic shift compared to the sulfur analogue, with a solid-state ...


Synthesis Of Microgel Polymers As Catalysts, Hannah N. Miller 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Synthesis Of Microgel Polymers As Catalysts, Hannah N. Miller

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

New developments in organic synthesis show promise in achieving the best catalytic properties for the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds through microgel polymers and transition metal complexes. A monomer mix of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, butyl acrylate, and styrene form miniemulsion polymers after sonication and exposure to UV light. Gravimetrical analysis is used to determine the most suitable polymerization conditions by performing experiments at varying pH values, temperatures, monomer amounts, initiator amounts, and lamp heights. The final data show that the best polymerization conditions are a pH of 10.50 at 0°C with a high monomer ratio, 20% initiator amount, and ...


Using Intrinsic Properties Of Polyaniline To Sense Expression Of The Microrna Let-7, Jared N. Gloria 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Using Intrinsic Properties Of Polyaniline To Sense Expression Of The Microrna Let-7, Jared N. Gloria

Honors Theses

MicroRNAs are approximately 22-nucleotide long RNA molecules that function through decay and translational repression of messenger RNA. The microRNA let-7 is found to play a role in maintaining the fate of differentiated cells in humans. Thus, expression level of this microRNA is a reliable biomarker of tumor cell phenotype. However, there are significant limitations in the current profiling techniques of microRNA. The current methods like northern blotting, microarrays, RT-PCR, or using locked nucleic acid (LNA) for in-situ hybridization are either laborious, semi-quantitative, or expensive. In this research we try to address this issue by developing a fast, specific, and inexpensive ...


Functionalizing Β-Cyano Oligo(P-Phenylene Vinylene) Chromophores For Use In Mechanochromic Materials, Alexander J. Wink 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Functionalizing Β-Cyano Oligo(P-Phenylene Vinylene) Chromophores For Use In Mechanochromic Materials, Alexander J. Wink

Honors Theses

Mechanochromic materials are materials that change color upon mechanical deformation. This concept can be applied in areas of quality control, since the knowledge of damaged parts will easily be detected due to a color change in the material that has undergone deformation. Typically these types of materials are enabled by employing functional small molecules. Often, these are conjugated organic molecules or chromophores, which fluoresce different colors determined by the stimulus (or lack thereof) acting upon the material. In this work, we explore a new avenue to elicit color changes in polymeric materials based on the process of restriction of intramolecular ...


Synthesis And Performance Analysis Of Polyurethane Foam Nanocomposite For Arsenic Removal From Drinking Water, Faten Bakri Hussein 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Synthesis And Performance Analysis Of Polyurethane Foam Nanocomposite For Arsenic Removal From Drinking Water, Faten Bakri Hussein

Theses and Dissertations

Water contamination by various heavy metal pollutants such as, Lead, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury, have severe toxic effects on living organisms and humans. High concentrations of arsenic in drinking water cause serious damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as, the dermal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems. Arsenic contamination of ground water poses a substantial concern in many countries throughout the world, including the United States.

Considerable research work, aimed at finding and developing various separation and treatment techniques, has been conducted over the past few decades. The conventional treatment methods of arsenic involve coagulation with ferric ...


Development Of Functional Nanoceria For Targeted Imaging And Treatment Of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Shoukath Sulthana 2016 Pittsburg State University

Development Of Functional Nanoceria For Targeted Imaging And Treatment Of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Shoukath Sulthana

Electronic Thesis Collection

Significant progression of lung cancer towards death is a major concern in today’s world. Among all other lung cancers, K-RAS driven Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) represents major cause of death amongst smokers. However, absence of specificity, multi drug resistance (MDR) and severe side effects often impose serious limitations to the existing therapies. Therefore, development of new and more effective therapies remains essential and challenging. Recently, nanotechnology has introduced novel avenues for the diagnosis and personalized treatment options for cancer. Among many nanomaterials, cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria, NC) are considered as excellent material due to their unique redox property and ...


Improving And Understanding Inter-Filament Bonding In 3d-Printed Polymers, Madeline S. Stark 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improving And Understanding Inter-Filament Bonding In 3d-Printed Polymers, Madeline S. Stark

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Curing Of Polymer Thermosets Via Click Reactions, Mark Richard Brei 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Curing Of Polymer Thermosets Via Click Reactions, Mark Richard Brei

Dissertations

In the first project, an azide functional resin and tetra propargyl aromatic diamines were fabricated for use as a composite matrix. These systems take already established epoxy/amine matrices and functionalize them with click moieties. This allows lower temperatures to be used in the production of a thermoset part. These new systems yield many better mechanical properties than their epoxy/amine derivatives, but their Tgs are low in comparison.

The second project investigates the characterization of a linear system based off of the above azide functional resin and a difunctional alkyne. Through selectively choosing catalyst the linear system ...


Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes Into Carbon Fiber Via Surface Modification, Robert Benjamin Ripy 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes Into Carbon Fiber Via Surface Modification, Robert Benjamin Ripy

Masters Theses

Ever more advanced materials need to be designed to further the exploration of avenues of science and engineering. Metals and traditional composites are not meeting the needs of today’s stringent demands for lightweight and strong materials. There is a need for advanced materials that are lighter and stronger to replace conventional materials; carbon fiber composites became the obvious choice because of their outstanding mechanical properties. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based carbon fiber has reached its apex in terms of its strength to weight ratio. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a lightweight and potentially stronger alternative to PAN based fibers. However, it is ...


Energy Management Mechanisms Employed At The Human-Material Interface Of Traditional And Minimalist Shod Running, Nadine M. Lippa 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Energy Management Mechanisms Employed At The Human-Material Interface Of Traditional And Minimalist Shod Running, Nadine M. Lippa

Dissertations

From recreational to elite athletes, greater than 50% of runners sustain overuse injuries each year, prompting substantial research efforts to identify causes of—and solutions to—the high injury rate. Different shoe types and material property degradation have been related to injury. Two popular footwear types are traditional shoes with thick graded soles and minimalist running footwear with thinner foam and/or non-graded soles. Notwithstanding 45 years of significant modifications to shoe design features, gained knowledge in kinesiology, and advanced technologies in polymer science, runner injury rates have not decreased and EVA foam has remained the primary running shoe midsole ...


Novel Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Compounds, Austin Bailey, Charles J. Neef, Time Dawsey 2016 Pittsburg State University

Novel Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Compounds, Austin Bailey, Charles J. Neef, Time Dawsey

Poster Presentations

Two different boron compounds, bis(tetramethylammonium) decaborate, TMAD, and bis (tetrabutylammonium) decaborate, TBAD were studied as potential replacements for halogenated flame retardants. Current commercially available, halogenated flame retardants are not environmentally friendly and release strong acids upon burning. TMAD and TBAD were combined with triphenylphosphine oxide and cast in polyurethane films at varying levels. These samples were then cut into strips and burned in a UL-94 flame chamber. These samples were also tested via TGA for degradation temperature. These varying levels were tested via several Design of Experiments constructed within Minitab software. Results thus far have shown the potential for ...


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