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Archean Phosphorus Liberation Induced By Iron Redox Geochemistry, Barry Herschy, Sae Jung Chang, Ruth Blake, Aivo Lepland, Heather Abbott-Lyon, Jacqueline Sampson, Zachary Atlas, Terence P. Kee, Matthew A. Pasek 2018 University of South Florida

Archean Phosphorus Liberation Induced By Iron Redox Geochemistry, Barry Herschy, Sae Jung Chang, Ruth Blake, Aivo Lepland, Heather Abbott-Lyon, Jacqueline Sampson, Zachary Atlas, Terence P. Kee, Matthew A. Pasek

Faculty Publications

The element phosphorus (P) is central to ecosystem growth and is proposed to be a limiting nutrient for life. The Archean ocean may have been strongly phosphorus-limited due to the selective binding of phosphate to iron oxyhydroxide. Here we report a new route to solubilizing phosphorus in the ancient oceans: reduction of phosphate to phosphite by iron(II) at low (<200 >°C) diagenetic temperatures. Reduction of phosphate to phosphite was likely widespread in the Archean, as the reaction occurs rapidly and is demonstrated from thermochemical modeling, experimental analogs, and detection of phosphite in early Archean rocks. We further demonstrate that the ...


Rearrangements Of Fluorinated Cyclopropylamines As A Novel Approach Toward Fluoroalkene-Based Peptidomimetics, Igor Mezentsev, Vera Zaborova 2018 Moscow South-Eastern School named after V. I. Chuikov

Rearrangements Of Fluorinated Cyclopropylamines As A Novel Approach Toward Fluoroalkene-Based Peptidomimetics, Igor Mezentsev, Vera Zaborova

The International Student Science Fair 2018

"Organofluorine molecules have been widely applied in various research fields because of the unique properties of fluorine atoms. One type of fluorinated compounds is fluoroalkene-based peptidomimetics which are structurally similar to amide-containing compounds. They have been prepared to improve the pharmaceutical properties such as bioactivity, target specificity, and metabolic stability of the bioactive amides.

We suggested a new way of synthesizing fluoroalkene-based peptidomimetics through 2-fluoro-2-halocyclopropylamines, which provides an effective way toward fluoroalkene-based peptidomimetics with increased functional group tolerance and possibility of convergent synthesis."


Reduction Of Nitro-Compounds By Iron Pentacarbonyl - New Approach To Drug Precursors, Alexander Sharipov, Maria Vladimirovna Galkina 2018 Moscow South-Eastern School Named after V.I. Chuikov

Reduction Of Nitro-Compounds By Iron Pentacarbonyl - New Approach To Drug Precursors, Alexander Sharipov, Maria Vladimirovna Galkina

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Reduction of nitro compounds lies at the center of most of the major areas of modern chemical industry, such as pharmacy and dye manufacturing. The precursors in these industrial processes predominantly possess multiple functional groups, including those highly susceptible to reduction by most of the currently used reducing agents. Therefore, the non-selective methods of reduction of precursors result in the loss of such functional groups. Furthermore, common reducing agents can potentially trigger the undesired intramolecular interactions between the substrate molecules and in turn make it impossible to obtain the end product. The rising demand for a cheap and efficient approach ...


Rearrangements Of Fluorinated Cyclopropylamines As A Novel Approach Toward Fluoroalkene-Based Peptidomimetics, Igor Mezentsev, Vera Zaborova 2018 Moscow South-Eastern School named after V.I.Chiukov (former Moscow Chemical Lyceum)

Rearrangements Of Fluorinated Cyclopropylamines As A Novel Approach Toward Fluoroalkene-Based Peptidomimetics, Igor Mezentsev, Vera Zaborova

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Organofluorine molecules have been widely applied in various research fields because of the unique properties of fluorine atoms. One type of fluorinated compounds is fluoroalkene-based peptidomimetics which are structurally similar to amide-containing compounds. They have been prepared to improve the pharmaceutical properties such as bioactivity, target specificity, and metabolic stability of the bioactive amides.

We suggested a new way of synthesizing fluoroalkene-based peptidomimetics through 2-fluoro-2-halocyclopropylamines, which provides an effective way toward fluoroalkene-based peptidomimetics with increased functional group tolerance and possibility of convergent synthesis.


Total Synthesis Of (±)-Isodihydrokoumine, (±)-(19z)-Taberpsychine, And (±)-Isodihydroukoumine N4 Oxide, Jeff Kerkovius 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Total Synthesis Of (±)-Isodihydrokoumine, (±)-(19z)-Taberpsychine, And (±)-Isodihydroukoumine N4 Oxide, Jeff Kerkovius

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We report the total synthesis of the natural products (±)-isodihydrokoumine, and (±)-(19Z)-taberpsychine in 11 steps each, and (±)-isodihydrokoumine N4-oxide in 12 steps from commercially available starting materials. The key reactions include an intramolecular [3+2] nitrone cycloaddition, and Lewis acid mediated cyclizations of a common intermediate to provide the core structures of either (19Z)-taberpsychine or isodihydrokoumine. Both failed and successful routes will be discussed.


Synthesis And Characterization Of (Pyno−)2gacl: A Redox-Active Gallium Complex, Jacob M. Kirsh , '17, Audra J. Woodside , '19, B. C. Manor, P. J. Carroll, Paul R. Rablen, Christopher R. Graves 2018 Swarthmore College

Synthesis And Characterization Of (Pyno−)2gacl: A Redox-Active Gallium Complex, Jacob M. Kirsh , '17, Audra J. Woodside , '19, B. C. Manor, P. J. Carroll, Paul R. Rablen, Christopher R. Graves

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Works

We report the synthesis of a gallium complex incorporating redox-active pyridyl nitroxide ligands. The (pyNO−)2GaCl complex was prepared in 85% yield via a salt metathesis route and was characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, and theory. UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and electrochemistry were used to access the optical and electrochemical properties of the complex, respectively. Our discussion focuses primarily on a comparison of the gallium complex to the corresponding aluminum derivative and shows that although the complexes are very similar, small differences in the electronic structure of the complexes can be correlated to the identity of ...


Synthesis Of A Bipyridine Ligand For Metal-Triggered Supramolecular Polymers, Andrew D. Gould 2018 DePaul University

Synthesis Of A Bipyridine Ligand For Metal-Triggered Supramolecular Polymers, Andrew D. Gould

DePaul Discoveries

Intermolecular forces, such as H-bonding, ionic interactions and metal chelation between small molecules, can lead to the assembly of higher-order supramolecular nanostructures. A metal chelator, 2-(Pyridin-2-yl) pyridine-5-carboxylic Acid (a bipyridine derivative), is expected to aid in the formation of supramolecular structures as part of amphiphilic molecules that self-assemble in solution in the presence of metal ions. The bipyridine ligand currently under synthesis can be prepared through a five-step synthesis scheme. The second reaction of this synthesis (the coupling of two pyridine rings) resulted in a combination of the desired 1,2,5-isomer, as well as an unforeseen 1,2 ...


Glycopolymer Functionalization Of Polymersomes, Josh Jadischke 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Glycopolymer Functionalization Of Polymersomes, Josh Jadischke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbohydrates are important to cellular communication, recognition, and pathogenesis, making them a useful synthetic target for application in therapeutics and diagnosis. Synthetic carbohydrate presenting scaffolds can replicate or interrupt the binding interactions that occur in nature. Due to the weak nature of the monosaccharide-protein bond, most carbohydrate presenting scaffolds display saccharides in a multivalent manner to improve binding. Recently there has been an effort to combine carbohydrate containing scaffolds with polymersomes (vesicles composed of polymers), due to the structural resemblance of polymersome membranes to biological membranes. This thesis describes the progress towards functionalizing polymersomes with linear glycopolymers as a potential ...


Polymeric Hairy Nanoparticles With Helical Hairs: Synthesis And Self-Assembly, MD Hanif Uddin 2018 Atlanta University Center

Polymeric Hairy Nanoparticles With Helical Hairs: Synthesis And Self-Assembly, Md Hanif Uddin

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Nanoscale particles based on the nature of building blocks often self-assemble into superstructures with distinctive spatial arrangements which can be used as functional materials for different application. Micro-phase separated hairy nanoparticle with helical hair can self-assemble to form supramolecular material which may mimic the properties and functions of the natural polymers such as protein and cellulose. Beside this hairy/core-shell nanoparticles also may find many applications such as in asymmetric catalysis, nano-fillers in tire and rubbers, model systems for biology, lithography and as sensors. In this work, we have successfully synthesized two hairy nanoparticles both of which has cross-linked polystyrene ...


Multi-Reference Systems In Chemistry; Unconventional Bonding In Organic Chemistry; Covalent Bonding In Transition Metal Clusters, Alan Wilfred Humason 2018 Southern Methodist University

Multi-Reference Systems In Chemistry; Unconventional Bonding In Organic Chemistry; Covalent Bonding In Transition Metal Clusters, Alan Wilfred Humason

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

The geometries, chemical properties, and reactivities of molecules are determined by their electronic structure. The field of ab initio computational chemistry works to calculate the kinetic and potential energies between the nuclei and electrons of a molecule. These calculations usually begin with the determination the electronic ground state.

Molecules that cannot be adequately described with a single, ground state configuration are called \textit{multi-reference systems}, which require the calculation of a linear combination of all pertinent electronic configurations, with a corresponding increase in computational cost. This is not `black box' methodology, because solving these systems requires a good understanding of ...


Tumor-Targeting Fluorinated Phthalocyanines For Theranostic Applications, Erik Nathaniel Carrión 2018 Seton Hall University

Tumor-Targeting Fluorinated Phthalocyanines For Theranostic Applications, Erik Nathaniel Carrión

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Hydrocarbon-based therapeutics and imaging agents are prone to chemical oxidation and degradation resulting in loss of activity and limited functional utility. Thus, more material is required to achieve long-lasting therapeutic effects. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) and their metal complexes (PcMs) can be utilized as prodrugs requiring only renewable energy resources namely, air and light, for cancer therapy and diagnostic (theranostic) applications related to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Replacement of labile C-H bonds in the Pc scaffold with a combination of fluoro and perfluoroisopropyl groups has resulted in a stable yet reactive oxidation catalyst of biological significance and importance. For example, F64PcZn ...


New Reactions Of Strained Allyl Silacycles, Elizabeth Cummins 2018 Western Washington University

New Reactions Of Strained Allyl Silacycles, Elizabeth Cummins

Graduate Student Symposium

Ring-strained allylsilanes exhibit both electrophilic and nucleophilic characteristics, allowing for simultaneous activation and allylation of carbonyl compounds. Results are presented describing an optimized synthesis of certain allylsilacyclobutanes and their use in several selective carbon-carbon bond forming reactions.


Synthesis And Characterization Of Biodiesel Fuels From Furfuryl Alcohol And Spent Coffee Grounds, Amanda Raley 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Biodiesel Fuels From Furfuryl Alcohol And Spent Coffee Grounds, Amanda Raley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Biodiesel can be synthesized using several different triacylglycerides, alcohols, and catalysts. In this study, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) were produced from their respective alcohols and coffee oil, using either a basic (K2CO3) catalyst or an acidic catalyst (H2SO4). Fatty acid furfuryl esters (FAFurEs) were produced using commercially-purchased cooking oils (canola, olive, corn, sunflower, and peanut) with furfuryl alcohol, a basic (K2CO3) catalyst, a co-solvent (THF), and an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate). All samples were produced using either conventional heating methods (CH) or microwave-assisted ...


Treating Breast Cancer With Light: The Creation Of Two Photodynamic Therapy Agents, Victoria Lackey 2018 Ouachita Baptist University

Treating Breast Cancer With Light: The Creation Of Two Photodynamic Therapy Agents, Victoria Lackey

Honors Theses

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment for a wide display of diseases, including cancer, that has become gradually widespread. The procedure requires the usage of photosynthesizing agents, which are activated in the presence of light. One quite successful photodynamic therapy agent is an aromatic structure made up of four pyrrole rings called a porphyrin. This research focused on producing the water-soluble porphyrins, H2TPP-3-PEG-OH and H2TPP-PiperMe-OH, through the attachment of the starting porphyrin, H2TPPC, with 3-polyethyleneglycol and 3-piperidinemethanol, respectively. The novel, water-soluble agent was purified and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Purity was ...


Size Exclusion Chromatography Based Liposomal Protein Extraction (Selpe), Carolyn Barnes 2018 University of Tennessee-Knoxville

Size Exclusion Chromatography Based Liposomal Protein Extraction (Selpe), Carolyn Barnes

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Investigations Into Ring-Opening Polymerization Of Functionalized Ε-Caprolactones, Danielle N. Coderre, Matthew K. Kiesewetter 2018 University of Rhode Island

Investigations Into Ring-Opening Polymerization Of Functionalized Ε-Caprolactones, Danielle N. Coderre, Matthew K. Kiesewetter

Senior Honors Projects

Polymers are defined as large molecules constructed from small, repeating units (monomers) which make up everyday items, such as: plastic bags and bottles, waterproof coatings, pipes, etc. H-bonding urea (U) or thiourea (TU) catalysts paired with base cocatalysts used for organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters have been shown to exhibit fast rates of polymerization and result in polymers with controlled molecular weights (Mn) and low polydispersity indexes (PDI). Additionally, organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) techniques have been shown to be tolerant of the incorporation of functional groups into the monomer feed, which is vital for the catalytic synthesis of ...


Long-Range Electrostatic Interactions In Gold Catalysis And Fluorinating Reagent Development., Zhichao Lu 2018 University of Louisville

Long-Range Electrostatic Interactions In Gold Catalysis And Fluorinating Reagent Development., Zhichao Lu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Our research focus is on applying two long range electrostatic interactions--coulombic interaction between ion pairs and hydrogen bonding—to two tasks: exploring counterion effects in gold catalysis and utilizing hydrogen bonding for fluorinating reagent development. Cationic gold catalysis is considered one of the most important breakthroughs in organic synthesis over the past two decades. A wealth of empirical information on counterion effects is now available regarding homogeneous gold catalysis. However, the rational understanding of the counterion effect on reactivity is still elusive. We proposed a widely applicable model to rationalize the kinetic effect in gold catalyzed reaction. We first solved ...


Imide Arylation With Aryl(Tmp)Iodonium Tosylates, Souradeep Basu, Alexander H. Sandtorv, David R. Stuart 2018 Portland State University

Imide Arylation With Aryl(Tmp)Iodonium Tosylates, Souradeep Basu, Alexander H. Sandtorv, David R. Stuart

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Herein, we describe the synthesis of N-aryl phthalimides by metal-free coupling of potassium phthalimide with unsymmetrical aryl(TMP)iodonium tosylate salts. The aryl transfer from the iodonium moiety occurs under electronic control with the electronrich trimethoxyphenyl group acting as a competent dummy ligand. The yields of N-aryl phthalimides are moderate to high and the coupling reaction is compatible with electron-deficient and sterically encumbered aryl groups.


Cationic Ruthenium Complexes In Catalysis: The Activation Of Propargylic Alcohols Through Electronically Tuned Complexes, Matthew James Stark 2018 University of Missouri - St. Louis

Cationic Ruthenium Complexes In Catalysis: The Activation Of Propargylic Alcohols Through Electronically Tuned Complexes, Matthew James Stark

Dissertations

With increasing complexity of metal complexes, it is of worthwhile interest to pursue systematic examinations of ligand modifications to study their impact on the reactivity of a catalyst. To that end, this study aimed to understand the effect electron-withdrawing ligands conveyed to catalytic activity in the etherification of propargylic alcohols and related reactions. A number of half-sandwich ruthenium complexes bearing ligands with varying electron–withdrawing properties were synthesized and structurally characterized. Their electronic and structural properties were investigated utilizing X-ray crystallography, revealing that the series of complexes did not vary significantly in structure. The complexes were studied electronically with cyclic ...


Intermolecular-Trapping Of 1,3-Dialkyl Diaziridines With Hdda-Derived Benzynes, Ramitha Rupasinghe 2018 University of Minnesota, Morris

Intermolecular-Trapping Of 1,3-Dialkyl Diaziridines With Hdda-Derived Benzynes, Ramitha Rupasinghe

Undergraduate Research Symposium 2018

The extent to which benzynes react with various trapping agents is an important question in synthetic chemistry due to its versatility to produce products that can be used as pharmaceuticals, dyes and other complex molecules. The hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction allows the generation of benzynes in situ which then can be efficiently trapped to synthesize complex products in one step with high yields. Reactions of HDDA - derived benzynes with trapping agents such as thioamides, alcohols, pyrroles, silyl ethers and multifunctional natural products have been studied in previous research. In this research, the reactions of HDDA-derived benzynes with diaziridines is explored because ...


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