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Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett 2017 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are a group of naturally occurring compounds that were discovered in the cultures of Streptomyces in the 1960s. Some natural PBDs discovered in these cultures, such as anthramycin and sibiromycin, were shown to possess a broad spectrum of anti-tumor activity. Since cancer is still a leading cause of death globally, the development of novel anti-proliferative derivatives of PBDs is essential for human welfare worldwide. Further synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the parent natural products and their tetracyclic analogs will lead to the discovery of drug candidates. In this work, thirteen PBD analogues were synthesized using no ...


Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Nitric Oxide, Wenjia Zhai 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Nitric Oxide, Wenjia Zhai

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule in living cells for signaling, thus a specific sensor to detect its level in live cells is needed. Currently there are a few small molecule probes for the detection of NO. A common shortcoming of these probes is their unavoidable leakage from the target cells. In this project, I seek to develop a novel green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensor to detect cellular NO. This GFP-based sensor is genetically encodable and can potentially avoid the possible false positive result due to the leakage. I synthesized an unnatural amino acid (unAA) and examined its ...


Inheritance Of Carbohydrates And Fat In Crosses Of Dent And Sweet Corn, E. W. Lindstrom, Fisk Gerhardt 2017 Iowa State College

Inheritance Of Carbohydrates And Fat In Crosses Of Dent And Sweet Corn, E. W. Lindstrom, Fisk Gerhardt

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Dent and sweet varieties of corn (maize) are sharply differentiated in the chemical constitution of their seed, especially in relative amounts of sugars, dextrins, starches and fat. This fact, together with our knowledge of the mechanism of heredity in this species, provides an excellent background for an exact. determination of the mode of inheritance of these chemical characters. Another advantage in the genetic analysis, lies in the precise, cellular mechanism of double fertilization in the embryo sac whereby the endosperm tissue is developed as the result of a triple fushion of nuclei, two from the female and one from the ...


Synthesis Of Cyanine Dyes And Their Use As Duplex Dna Photocleavage Agents, Hector Argueta-Gonzalez 2017 Georgia State University

Synthesis Of Cyanine Dyes And Their Use As Duplex Dna Photocleavage Agents, Hector Argueta-Gonzalez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Synthesis Of 1-Phenyl-3,5-Diaryl-4-Bromopyrazoles, 1-Phenyl-3-T-Butyl-5-Aryl-4-Bromopyrazoles, And 1-Phenyl-3-T-Butyl-5-Aryl-4-Bromoisoxazoles., Keren Antoine, Anne K. Jean, Roseleen Almenord, Sierra A. Fleming, Titilope Akinwe, Paula Garzon, Julio C. Falcon 2017 Georgia State University

Synthesis Of 1-Phenyl-3,5-Diaryl-4-Bromopyrazoles, 1-Phenyl-3-T-Butyl-5-Aryl-4-Bromopyrazoles, And 1-Phenyl-3-T-Butyl-5-Aryl-4-Bromoisoxazoles., Keren Antoine, Anne K. Jean, Roseleen Almenord, Sierra A. Fleming, Titilope Akinwe, Paula Garzon, Julio C. Falcon

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Spectrofluorometric Analysis Of Bisphenol-A In Drinking Water Bottles, Jeff Brochetti 2017 Lynchburg College

Spectrofluorometric Analysis Of Bisphenol-A In Drinking Water Bottles, Jeff Brochetti

Student Scholar Showcase

Spectrofluorometric Analysis of Bisphenol-A in Drinking Water Bottles

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is of environmental concern due to its ability to act as an endocrine disruptor in humans and many other animals. In the food industry, BPA is widely used in the production of plastic bottles and plastic liners in aluminum cans. Over time, trace amounts of BPA can leach from the container and into the contents inside. A new method of testing for trace amount of BPA involved the formation of an inclusion complex with ß-Cyclodextrin. With the formation of the inclusion complex, it becomes much easier to analyze low concentrations ...


An Expedited, Regiospecific Para-Bromination Of Activated Aryls, Kathryn E. Dudley 2017 Western Kentucky University

An Expedited, Regiospecific Para-Bromination Of Activated Aryls, Kathryn E. Dudley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) is one of the most frequently used aryl substitution methods. Aside from the fact that most EAS reactions require an acid and an oxidizer to proceed, the reactions involving activated aryls typically produce a mixture of ortho- and para- products as well as an ortho-/para- disubstituted product. Regiospecificity in aromatic substitution is key in the production of many compounds in a variety of disciplines. Since EAS is one of the most often used substitution methods, it is extremely important to develop an efficient method for regiospecific substitutions. Previous research developed a method of ortho-substitution by ...


Regiospecific P-Bromination Of Activated Aromatic Systems – Greener Approach, Elnaz Jalali 2017 Western Kentucky University

Regiospecific P-Bromination Of Activated Aromatic Systems – Greener Approach, Elnaz Jalali

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The halogenated derivatives of heterocyclic compounds (haloarenes) are highly utilized in many fields of chemistry, including drug discovery, medicinal, and material chemistry. There are a variety of ways to functionalize an aromatic system and introduce halogen substituent into the ring. However, electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) has been the focus of growing attention, particularly for electronrich substrates.

Electrophilic aromatic bromination protocols are one of the most important electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. However, preparation of bromoarenes classically recommends the use of highly oxidative agents along with utilizing various metal catalysts in a halogenated solvent. The corrosive and toxic nature of these reagents ...


Stable Isotope Chemistry In Titan Haze Aerosol, Allison Wold 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Stable Isotope Chemistry In Titan Haze Aerosol, Allison Wold

Research in the Capitol

Titan, a moon of Saturn, has a thick atmosphere made up of nitrogen and a few percent methane, with a surface pressure of 1.5x that of Earth. Titan’s atmosphere is believed to be that similar to that of early Earth before the rise of O2. One significant source of information on the history and evolution of the atmosphere is the measurement of stable isotopes of elements in the molecules of major gases such as nitrogen, methane, and higher order hydrocarbons. The fractionation associated with the formation of Titan aerosol analogs are explored in the laboratory as a function ...


One-Pot Dialkylation Of Cycloalkanones And Their Ring-Closing Metathesis To Make Bridged Bicyclic Compounds, Dylan Sacenti, Ashley Yoon, Nathan Behrens 2017 Pepperdine University

One-Pot Dialkylation Of Cycloalkanones And Their Ring-Closing Metathesis To Make Bridged Bicyclic Compounds, Dylan Sacenti, Ashley Yoon, Nathan Behrens

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

No abstract provided.


The Relative Influence Of Microorganisms And Plant Enzyms On Corn Silage Fermentation, Alvin R. Lamb 2017 Iowa State College

The Relative Influence Of Microorganisms And Plant Enzyms On Corn Silage Fermentation, Alvin R. Lamb

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Ever since the fermentation of silage has been studied and discussed the question of the agent causing the fermentation has been ill controversy. Some investigators have made the statement, based on evidence more or less incomplete, that microorganisms are solely responsible for the changes undergone by the ensiled forage. Other workers, who have based their conclusions on equally incomplete data, have held that in silage produced under proper conditions bacteria and yeasts do not figure to any appreciable extent, but that the plant cell itself is the cause of the chemical changes which take place in its constituents. Still other ...


Could O-Aminoquinones Of Estrogen Metabolites Serve As Platforms For Redox Cycling?, Rachel Miller 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Could O-Aminoquinones Of Estrogen Metabolites Serve As Platforms For Redox Cycling?, Rachel Miller

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The metabolism of estrogen can lead to the formation of two isomeric o-quinones, estrogen-2,3-quinone (E-2,3-Q) and estrogen-3,4-Q (E-3,4-Q). The more reactive E-3,4-Q is genotoxic and can damage DNA by forming apurinic sites; whereas, E-2,3-Q does not form apurinic sites. Estrogen quinones may also be involved in redox cycling to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is another genotoxic pathway. What is not yet clear, is why E-3,4-Q would undergo redox cycling while the non-carcinogenic E-2,3-Q would not. Nitrogen nucleophiles react with the E-3,4-Q at the 1-position. With DNA bases as the ...


Synthesis Of Small Molecule Anti-Trypanosomal Drugs, Samuel Anderson 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Synthesis Of Small Molecule Anti-Trypanosomal Drugs, Samuel Anderson

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Demand for novel chemotherapeutic agents that treat Human African Trypanosomaiasis (HAT) persists. A series of compounds sharing a 3,4’diphephyl ether skeleton were prepared for a structure activity relationship (SAR) study evaluating antitrypansomal drug candidates. Trypanocidal assays performed in vitro by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute identified a lead with an IC50 of 1.35 μg/mL analogous to a compound previously made in our laboratory. A slight improvement in activity (10%) was observed when changing the molecular substitution pattern from 4,4’ to 3,3’; however, the result is equivocal. Furthermore, in vitro test results demonstrated ...


Docking Studies Of Isoform-Selectivity Of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3k) Inhibitors, Kaitlin Goettsch 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Docking Studies Of Isoform-Selectivity Of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3k) Inhibitors, Kaitlin Goettsch

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and their related pathways are reputed targets for drug-based anticancer therapies. Mutations in PI3K genes, expression, and pathways are frequent among multiple cancer types. Four isoforms of PI3Ks exist: α, β, γ, & δ and studies have identified several ligands for each isoform which are capable of serving as inhibitory therapeutic compounds. However, the biochemical efficacy of these molecules varies and the isoform selectivity is not well understood. In this study, we applied in silico docking methods and free energy calculation methods to estimate the binding of reported PI3K ligands against 5 PI3K structures: PI3Kα (PBD ID: 2RD0 ...


Β-Sih-Containing Tris(Silazido) Rare-Earth Complexes As Homogeneous And Grafted Single-Site Catalyst Precursors For Hydroamination, Naresh Eedugurala, Zhuoran Wang, KaKing Yan, Kasuni Boteju, Umesh Chaudhary, Takeshi Kobayashi, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Marek Pruski, Aaron D. Sadow 2017 Iowa State University

Β-Sih-Containing Tris(Silazido) Rare-Earth Complexes As Homogeneous And Grafted Single-Site Catalyst Precursors For Hydroamination, Naresh Eedugurala, Zhuoran Wang, Kaking Yan, Kasuni Boteju, Umesh Chaudhary, Takeshi Kobayashi, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Marek Pruski, Aaron D. Sadow

Chemistry Publications

A series of homoleptic rare-earth silazido compounds and their silica-grafted derivatives were prepared to compare spectroscopic and catalytic features under homogeneous and interfacial conditions. Trivalent tris(silazido) compounds Ln{N(SiHMe2)tBu}3 (Ln = Sc (1), Y (2), Lu (3)) are prepared in high yield by salt metathesis reactions. Solution-phase and solid-state characterization of 13 by NMR and IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction reveals Ln↼H–Si interactions. These features are retained in solvent-coordinated 2·Et2O, 2·THF, and 3·THF. The change in spectroscopic features characterizing the secondary interactions (νSiH, 1JSiH) from the ...


Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling: Synthesis Of Fused Imidazo[1,2‑A]Pyrimidines And Pyrazolo[1,5‑A]Pyrimidines, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Jaya Kishore Vandavasi, Jeh-Jeh Wang, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari 2017 Chapman University

Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling: Synthesis Of Fused Imidazo[1,2‑A]Pyrimidines And Pyrazolo[1,5‑A]Pyrimidines, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Jaya Kishore Vandavasi, Jeh-Jeh Wang, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A palladium-catalyzed intramolecular dehydrogenative coupling reaction was developed for the synthesis of fused imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines and pyrazolo[1,5-a]- pyrimidines. The developed protocol provides a practical approach for the synthesis of biologically important substituted pyrimidines from easily available substrates, with a broad substrate scope under mild reaction conditions.


Synthesis And Fluorescent Properties Of A New Flavonoid Compound, Ashley L. Ingle 2017 The University of Akron

Synthesis And Fluorescent Properties Of A New Flavonoid Compound, Ashley L. Ingle

Honors Research Projects

Flavonoids are highly luminescent compounds that are used in diagnosing and treating certain diseases.They are composed of two aromatic rings (ring A and ring B) and a six-membered heterocyclic pyran ring (ring C) that contains a carbonyl and hydroxyl group, which are responsible for unique photophysical characteristics associated with flavonoids. The target flavonoids (compound 1, or 1, and compound 2 or 2) were synthesized, purified and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The photophysical properties of the flavonoid were investigated in varying solvents by using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Such properties include Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT), Intramolecular Charge Transfer ...


A 4-Step Symmetric Synthesis Of Monomorine, Thomas Van Horn, Vladimir B. Birman 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

A 4-Step Symmetric Synthesis Of Monomorine, Thomas Van Horn, Vladimir B. Birman

Thomas Van Horn

I present progress made during the Fall 2016 semester toward synthesizing monomorine (3R,5S,8aS)-3-Butyl-5-methyloctahydroindolizine), a trail pheromone of the pharaoh ant based on the simple synthesis from 2,6-lutidine described by Oliver and Sonnet in 1974. This synthesis is attractive due to its simplicity, however there are few experimental details in the original paper, which also does not present data that the synthesis was successful. Synthesis following the Oliver and Sonnet scheme was largely unsuccessful due to difficulties with the prescribed Ph3P•Br2 cyclization step. An alternative cyclization scheme using mesylation of the alcohol produced significant quantities of ...


Synthesis Of Metal-Containing Polymers And Stable Organic Radical-Containing Polymers And Their Use As Advanced Functional Materials, Joseph A. Paquette 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Synthesis Of Metal-Containing Polymers And Stable Organic Radical-Containing Polymers And Their Use As Advanced Functional Materials, Joseph A. Paquette

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The work presented in this thesis details the synthesis and characterization of two different families of multifunctional polymers. The first family involved the incorporation of stable 6-oxoverdazyl radicals into polymer scaffolds. This was originally achieved by the polymerization of the radical precursors, phenyl- and isopropyl-6-oxotetrazanes, followed by post-polymerization oxidation to afford the phenyl- and isopropyl-6-oxoverdazyl polymers. A second methodology involved the direct polymerization of isopropyl-6-oxoverdazyl radicals using ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) to afford polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. The polymers were characterized by the close comparison of the physical and spectroscopic properties ...


Diazonium 4-(Trifluorovinyloxy) Perfluorobutanesulfonyl Benzenesulfonimide Zwitterionic Monomer Synthesis, Isaac D. Addo 2016 East Tennessee State University

Diazonium 4-(Trifluorovinyloxy) Perfluorobutanesulfonyl Benzenesulfonimide Zwitterionic Monomer Synthesis, Isaac D. Addo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

3-Diazonium- 4-(trifluorovinyloxy) - perfluorobutanesulfonyl benzenesulfonimide zwitterionic monomer (see figure 1) is proposed to be polymerized and further act as a new electrolyte for Polymer exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). One reason is that, the aromatic trifluorovinyl aryl ether (TFVE) group can easily be homopolymerized to aromatic perfluorocyclobutane (PFCB) polymer. Furthermore, the diazonium moiety in the monomer is expected to covalently attach the electrolyte to the carbon electrodes support. The perfluoroalkyl(aryl) sulfonimide (PFSI) pendant provides good chemical and mechanical stability as well as better proton conductivity. Several multi-step synthetic schemes are designed to obtain such monomer from perfluoroalkyl(aryl) sulfonimide ...


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