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Sensitized Photooxidation Of Prenylated Compounds: Mechanisms Of Downstream Dark Effects And Phototoxicity Priming, Shakeela Jabeen 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Sensitized Photooxidation Of Prenylated Compounds: Mechanisms Of Downstream Dark Effects And Phototoxicity Priming, Shakeela Jabeen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis consists of four chapters as detailed below.

Chapter 1 discusses a singlet oxygen priming mechanism. Airborne singlet oxygen derived from photosensitization of triplet dioxygen is shown to react with an alkene surfactant (8-methylnon-7-ene-1 sulfonate) leading to ‘ene’ hydroperoxides that in the dark inactivate planktonic E. coli. The ‘ene’ hydroperoxide photoproducts are not toxic on their own, but they become toxic after the bacteria are pretreated with singlet oxygen. The total quenching rate constant (kT) of singlet oxygen of the alkene surfactant was measured to be 1.1 × 106 M1 s1 at the air/liquid ...


Visible Light Photocatalysis Of Organic Reactions In H2o, Sankarsan Biswas 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Visible Light Photocatalysis Of Organic Reactions In H2o, Sankarsan Biswas

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Visible-light photocatalysis in H2O provides an attractive, green alternative to typical organic synthesis, which often involves toxic solvents, metal catalysts, and large energy demands. Hence, there is a growing need for an efficient photocatalytic methods that use either aqueous media as a solvent or can proceed solvent-free. However, commercially available photocatalysts do not work well for aqueous photocatalysis. Supramolecular systems in particular have been explored recently to address these issues associated with aqueous photocatalysis. Chapter 1 will review recent advances in aqueous supramolecular photocatalysis with examples of different supramolecular systems and how they have addressed some of the ...


Stereoselective Synthesis Of Pseudosaccharide Derivative And Bisphosphoramidate Core Of Em2487, Saad Z. Mohammed Ali 2022 University of Maine

Stereoselective Synthesis Of Pseudosaccharide Derivative And Bisphosphoramidate Core Of Em2487, Saad Z. Mohammed Ali

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

HIV is among the leading causes of death worldwide resulting in over 1 million deaths annually according to the World Health Organization. Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, eradicating this pathogen remains a top priority in the medical and scientific communities. EM2487 is a natural product produced by Streptomyces sp. Mer-2487 that possesses promising activity against HIV. Specifically, EM2487 is a potent and selective inhibitor of HIV replication in both acutely and chronically infected cells. The observed HIV activity is hypothesized to be the result of targeting the Tat-TAR (trans-activation response) element which activates RNA polymerase II at the ...


Modified Synthesis Of A Photoswitchable Aa-Dd Hemthioindigo-Based Hydrogen Bond Complex, Victoria Chou, Paul Winiarz, James Wisner, Fereshteh Davoud, 2022 Western University

Modified Synthesis Of A Photoswitchable Aa-Dd Hemthioindigo-Based Hydrogen Bond Complex, Victoria Chou, Paul Winiarz, James Wisner, Fereshteh Davoud,

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Polychlorinated Organic Contaminants In Baleen From North Pacific Ocean Whales, Briana R. Coulter 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Polychlorinated Organic Contaminants In Baleen From North Pacific Ocean Whales, Briana R. Coulter

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Persistent organic pollutants (POP) have been detected and analyzed in various baleen whale tissues (blubber, muscles, liver, etc.) This study concentrated on detecting 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 14 organochlorine pesticides from baleen, a baleen whale tissue never before analyzed for POPs. These data were used to investigate temporal and geographic trends by sampling at every 1 cm interval along the length of the baleen plate. Four species of baleen whales stranded in the North Pacific Ocean were included in this study: gray (n=2), humpback (n=2), minke (n=1), and blue (n=1) whales. Organic contaminant concentrations were ...


The Synthesis Of Deuterated Isohumulones For Use As Internal Standards In Lc-Ms Stable Isotope Dilution Assays, Patrick Gleason, Bruce Hamper Dr. 2022 University of Missouri - St. Louis

The Synthesis Of Deuterated Isohumulones For Use As Internal Standards In Lc-Ms Stable Isotope Dilution Assays, Patrick Gleason, Bruce Hamper Dr.

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Humulones are compounds that are prevalent in the hops flowers (Humulus Lupulus) used in beer brewing. These compounds undergo isomerization during the brewing process, and the resulting isohumulones are considered to be the primary contributors to the bitter flavors present in beer. As such, quantifying their presence, and the relative presence of their homologs(n-, co-, ad-), is of great importance in the characterization of beer. In this effort, one of the homologs of humulone (co) was isolated before being subsequently isomerized and deuterated for the purpose of analyzing beer by stable isotope dilution assay mass spectrometry(SIDA-MS). The addition ...


Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour 2022 Portland State University

Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour

University Honors Theses

Methane (CH4) is the second most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas within the atmosphere, comprising ~16% of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas composition on Earth. It has an ~12-year lifetime relative to its eventual oxidation via reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH), and has a 100-year indirect global warming potential (GWP) approximately ranging between 28-36 [Environmental Protection Agency, 2021]. In recent years, the observed average global concentration of atmospheric CH4 has increased by ~11.0% from 2020 (~15.3 ppb) to 2021 (~17.0 ppb) [Dlugokencky et al., 1994; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2022]. With the specter of ...


Synthesis Of Diaryl And Alkyl-Aryl Ethers Via Diaryl Iodonium Reagents, Rory Tennessee Gallagher 2022 Portland State University

Synthesis Of Diaryl And Alkyl-Aryl Ethers Via Diaryl Iodonium Reagents, Rory Tennessee Gallagher

Dissertations and Theses

Substituted benzenoid rings are a prevalent motif in many industries including high tech, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. As a result, the arylation of chemical compounds is a highly sought-after chemical transformation. There are many literature methods to achieve this chemical transformation, nucleophilic aromatic substitution and transition metal catalysis are both widely used and studied. Diaryliodonium salt mediated chemistry is an attractive alternative to these methods as it does not require the expensive toxic metals and designer ligands of transition metal catalysis and is not restricted to electron deficient aryl rings with specific substitution patterns like nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

Many diaryliodonium salt ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Bioactivity Of 3-Substituted Coumarins As An Undergraduate Project, Karsen King, Nicholas Campbell, Ronald Okoth, Wathsala Medawala 2022 Georgia College and State University

Synthesis, Characterization, And Bioactivity Of 3-Substituted Coumarins As An Undergraduate Project, Karsen King, Nicholas Campbell, Ronald Okoth, Wathsala Medawala

Georgia Journal of Science

Coumarins are an important class of phytochemicals, a chemical defense presumed to be secreted by plants. More recently, Coumarins have gathered popularity for their basis in anti-cancer agents. This paper dives into the organic synthesis of two 3-substituted coumarins from o-vanillin using the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The 3-substituted coumarin were characterized using melting point analysis, 1H-NMR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, the anticancer activity of synthesized 3-substituted coumarin compounds were assayed against topoisomeraseIIα, which is the target enzyme of FDA approved anti-cancer drug etoposide since it is an active enzyme in cancer cell replication. The demonstrated procedures can be ...


3,4-Annulated Indoles Via Tandem Cyclopropane Ring-Opening/Conia-Ene And Michael Addition/Conia-Ene Reactions, Shane R. Cochrane 2022 The University of Western Ontario

3,4-Annulated Indoles Via Tandem Cyclopropane Ring-Opening/Conia-Ene And Michael Addition/Conia-Ene Reactions, Shane R. Cochrane

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The indole moiety is ubiquitous in natural products, and as such their reactions and syntheses are a high priority for organic chemists. The use of tandem reactions is an excellent strategy to optimize the efficiency of chemical processes. This thesis details the process of designing and implementing of strategies for the syntheses of 3,4-annulated indoles from 4-ethynylindoles via tandem cyclopropane ring-opening/Conia-ene and Michael addition/Conia-ene reactions. It was discovered through optimization experiments that the reactions are highest yielding using superstoichiometric amounts of Lewis acidic zinc halides. The cyclopropane variant of the reaction was applied to successfully synthesize 23 ...


Prediction And Confirmation Of A Switch-Like Region Within The N-Terminal Domain Of Hsirt1, Angelina T. Huynh, Thi-Tina N. Nguyen, Carina A. Villegas, Saira Montemorso, Benjamin Strauss, Richard A. Pearson, Jason G. Graham, Jonathan Oribello, Rohit Suresh, Brooke Lustig, Ningkun Wang 2022 San Jose State University

Prediction And Confirmation Of A Switch-Like Region Within The N-Terminal Domain Of Hsirt1, Angelina T. Huynh, Thi-Tina N. Nguyen, Carina A. Villegas, Saira Montemorso, Benjamin Strauss, Richard A. Pearson, Jason G. Graham, Jonathan Oribello, Rohit Suresh, Brooke Lustig, Ningkun Wang

Faculty Research, Scholarly, and Creative Activity

Many proteins display conformational changes resulting from allosteric regulation. Often only a few residues are crucial in conveying these structural and functional allosteric changes. These regions that undergo a significant change in structure upon receiving an input signal, such as molecular recognition, are defined as switch- like regions. Identifying these key residues within switch-like regions can help elucidate the mechanism of allosteric regulation and provide guidance for synthetic regulation. In this study, we combine a novel computational workflow with biochemical methods to identify a switch-like region in the N-terminal domain of human SIRT1 (hSIRT1), a lysine deacetylase that plays important ...


Influence Of Citrate And Phosphate On The Adsorption Of Adenosine-5′-Monophosphate At The Hematite Water Interface, Sudipta Rakshit, Avedananda Ray, Ali Taheri, Michael E. Essington 2022 Tennessee State University

Influence Of Citrate And Phosphate On The Adsorption Of Adenosine-5′-Monophosphate At The Hematite Water Interface, Sudipta Rakshit, Avedananda Ray, Ali Taheri, Michael E. Essington

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Nucleic acid derived organic phosphorus (Po) is an important source of plant available P when degraded to inorganic phosphate (P(V)i). It is known that when nucleic acids or components are adsorbed on mineral surfaces, the enzymatic degradation is hindered or delayed. Thus, understanding adsorption/desorption mechanisms of nucleic acids and their derivatives are key to assess the biogeochemical pathways of Po cycling. Here we report adsorption mechanisms of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) on hematite, a common iron oxide mineral, under various solution properties using macroscopic and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic probes. The effects ...


Nitro-Aromatic Polymers For Conversion-Style Battery Cathodic Materials, Brady P. Samuelson 2022 University of South Dakota

Nitro-Aromatic Polymers For Conversion-Style Battery Cathodic Materials, Brady P. Samuelson

Honors Thesis

The development of organic electrode materials in rechargeable batteries has seen a resurgence in recent decades. This spike in interest is mostly due to the increased investments in renewable energy sources, grid-scale energy storage, and the rapid transition to electric vehicles. Current lithium battery cathode materials typically use some form of lithium metal oxide (specific capacity: 272 mAh g-1 which has problems with limited capacity, thermal runaway, and an unreliable supply chain. Our research group’s solution involves investigating new lightweight, organic redox groups combined with a conductive polymer backbone to serve as a possible replacement for the cathode ...


Synthesis And Transition Metal-Catalyzed Coupling Of A-Chloro-B-Lactones, Tyler Lynn 2022 Bridgewater College

Synthesis And Transition Metal-Catalyzed Coupling Of A-Chloro-B-Lactones, Tyler Lynn

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Of Benzene With A Superacid Catalyst, Josh T. Cutright 2022 East Tennessee State University

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Of Benzene With A Superacid Catalyst, Josh T. Cutright

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Long-chain alkylbenzenes are industrially synthesized precursors to commercial surfactants such as laundry detergent. The currently used catalysts in the processes of their synthesis are corrosive and harmful to the environment. These problems can be avoided utilizing heterogeneous highly acidic catalysts. Solid catalysts do not corrode equipment and are relatively simple to remove from the post-reaction mixture. Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on silica gel could be a possible catalyst due to its high acidity with an estimated pKa ≈ -13. The catalyst PTA-SiO2 was prepared via the sol-gel method to covalently embed it in a silica support. The catalyst was granulated ...


Influence Of Tethered, Axially Coordinated Ligands On Rh(Ii,Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Cristian E. Zavala 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Influence Of Tethered, Axially Coordinated Ligands On Rh(Ii,Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Cristian E. Zavala

Doctoral Dissertations

Dirhodium (II,II) paddlewheel complexes have become ubiquitous in diazo-mediated carbene transfer reactions. The Rh(II,II)-carbene intermediate is capable of a large variety of transformations such as cyclopropanation, C-H and X-H (O, N, S, Si, B) insertion reactions, cyclopropenations, and ylide transformations. Cyclopropanation reactions resulting in the formation of functionalized cyclopropane structures has always been a major focus in Rh(II,II)-carbene chemistry. Improvements on catalytic performance in cyclopropanations has largely focused on the modification of the bridging ligands and has resulted in Rh(II,II) catalysts that exhibit high reactivity and selectivity in cyclopropanation reactions. However ...


Understanding Interfacial Reactions Initiating On Electrode Materials For Energy Storage Technologies, Jingnan Li 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Understanding Interfacial Reactions Initiating On Electrode Materials For Energy Storage Technologies, Jingnan Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the first generation of lithium-ion batteries featured lithium cobalt oxide cathode and carbon anode commercialized in the 1990s, the high-capacity materials with lower cost are in demand to further increase the battery energy density. Lithium metal and silicon anode are promising high-capacity anode materials to achieve next-generation lithium batteries. However, both the materials actively react in electrolytes and suffer from dramatic volume change. Therefore, a reliable passivation layer at the electrolyte/electrode interphase (i.e., solid electrolyte interphase, or “SEI”) is required to support the long-term cycling of both materials. Cetrimonium hydro fluoride (CTAHF2) has been proposed and synthesized ...


Introduction Of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Fgf1) Variant With Increased Stability And Bioactivity, Azadeh Tavousi Tabatabaei 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Introduction Of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Fgf1) Variant With Increased Stability And Bioactivity, Azadeh Tavousi Tabatabaei

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF-1) involves in a broad spectrum of biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, wound healing, and embryonic development. hFGF1 non-selectively binds to cell surface hFGF receptor isoforms to elicit these cell-signaling processes. Since hFGF1 plays a significant role in tissue repair activity, that is a prime candidate for novel wound healing therapeutics. However, hFGF1 has been found to unfold near physiological temperature due to a strong electrostatic repulsion created by a dense cluster of positively charged amino acids near the c-terminus. The problem not only leads to proteolytic degradation of the ...


Fabrication Of Mof Films Of Uio Or Pcn Type Through Layer-By-Layer Molecular Deposition As Well As Bulk Deposition For Catalytic Applications, John Ozdemir 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fabrication Of Mof Films Of Uio Or Pcn Type Through Layer-By-Layer Molecular Deposition As Well As Bulk Deposition For Catalytic Applications, John Ozdemir

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline, porous materials comprised of symmetric organic linkers coordinated to positively charged metal atoms or metal oxide nodes. This dissertation uses strategies in crystal engineering to advance the study of functional MOFs with emphasis on thin film deposition. The first chapter of this dissertation will introduce the field of reticular chemistry to the reader and describe synthetic efforts to develop useful building blocks for MOF materials: namely porphyrin macrocycles and carboxylate capped zirconium-oxo and hafnium-oxo clusters. The building blocks for MOFs developed in the first chapter will be employed in the second and third chapters through ...


Surface-Functionalized Chemiresistive Films That Exploit H-Bonding, Cation-Pi, And Metal-Halide Interactions., Prasadanie Karunarathna Adhihetty 2022 University of Louisville

Surface-Functionalized Chemiresistive Films That Exploit H-Bonding, Cation-Pi, And Metal-Halide Interactions., Prasadanie Karunarathna Adhihetty

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The development of gas sensors for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been of interest in the sensing field for decades. To date, the use of metal nanoparticle-based chemiresistors for trace VOC detection, particularly gold nanoparticle-based sensors, is of great interest due to their high chemical stability, ease of synthesis, unique optical properties, large surface to volume ratio, and high level of conductivity. Much effort has been devoted towards gold monolayer protected clusters (Au MPCs) as chemiresistors to detect harmful VOCs. The present thesis documents the results of our efforts to exploit the advantages of functionalized Au MPCs chemiresistors ...


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