Silver-Catalyzed Synthesis Of Disubstituted Fluorinated Isoxazoles, 2020 University of Mississippi
Silver-Catalyzed Synthesis Of Disubstituted Fluorinated Isoxazoles, Micah Stewart
The presence of fluorine can provide organic compounds with useful biological properties, such as increased metabolic stability and drug uptake. Because of these advantages, fluorinated compounds make up about 30% of the drug industry. However, fluorination of complex molecules is difficult due to fluorine’s high electronegativity.
Fluorinated isoxazoles are of particular interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Isoxazoles are five-membered heterocycles with oxygen and nitrogen in the 1, 2 positions that are able to engage in interactions unavailable to other ring structures, conferring advantageous biological properties upon compounds containing them. However, there are limited synthetic routes for fluorinated isoxazoles, and ...
Phenolic Phytochemicals And Their Antioxidant Activities In Maine-Grown Asian, American-Hybrid, And European Plums, Hye Weon Hwang
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Plum fruits of 16 plum cultivars derived from three species, Asian, American-hybrid, and European plums, and one cultivar of an interspecific hybrid between Asian plum and apricot were investigated to identify and quantify two major groups of phenolic phytochemicals, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) by HPLC–DAD/MS. The plums were harvested from 2014 to 2017. Some cultivars were analyzed through consecutive years to determine year-to-year differences and to evaluate the maturity impacts on the concentration of anthocyanins and HCAs from the partial-ripe stage and tree-ripe stage. Anthocyanins were present in red−purple colored plums, but their profiles varied among ...
N-Terminal Imine Derivatization For Enhanced De Novo Peptide Sequencing: A Study Of The Fragmentation Pattern Generated From Cid Of Peptide-Imines, Khiry L. Patterson
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
In this work, the fragmentation pattern derived from model peptides derivatized to create N-terminal imines (Schiff bases) were evaluated. Collision-induced dissociation of the protonated peptide-imines ([M+H]+) generally produced complete series of the sequence informative an and bn ions, now undoubtedly characteristic of the peptide ion species. A novel product ion was also observed, denoted the yǂ ion, determined by IRMPD spectroscopy and density functional theory to be generated from the elimination of the N-terminal amino acid residue despite the N-terminal modification. It was concluded the pathway involved a nucleophilic attack by an amide nitrogen and the ...
Mesoporous Adsorbents For Perfluorinated Compounds, 2020 East Tennessee State University
Mesoporous Adsorbents For Perfluorinated Compounds, Bertha Lotsi
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Effective adsorbents for polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were successfully prepared. And they were tested in the adsorption of perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctanesulfonic acids. Bridged silsesquioxanes containing secondary and tertiary amino groups were synthesized by sol-gel condensation of bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine and bis[3-(methylamino)propyl]-trimethoxysilane in acidic media with surfactants. Obtained materials are mesoporous with a high BET surface area. They combine high structural stability with a high concentration of surface amino groups serving as adsorption sites. Batch adsorption tests demonstrated their extremely high adsorption capacity on PFCs: in some experiments, it reached up to 88% of the adsorbent ...
Immobilization Of Phosphotungstic Acid On Silica Surface For Catalytic Alkylation Of Aromatic Compounds, 2020 East Tennessee State University
Immobilization Of Phosphotungstic Acid On Silica Surface For Catalytic Alkylation Of Aromatic Compounds, Anastasia Kuvayskaya
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Superacidic mesoporous materials containing covalently embedded PTA were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were used as precursors in the synthesis, ionic and nonionic surfactants were used as pore-forming agents, the reaction proceeded in acidic media. TEM images revealed mesoporous structure with embedded PTA clusters. FT-IR spectra of obtained materials contained characteristic bands of PTA at 957 cm-1. Synthesized catalysts had high BET surface area and high concentration of acidic sites. Alkylation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene by 1-decene demonstrated high catalytic activity. The catalyst obtained with Pluronic P123 as a template was the most effective ...
Surface Chemistry And Surface Properties Of Energetic Nitrocellulose (Nc), 2020 Seton Hall University
Surface Chemistry And Surface Properties Of Energetic Nitrocellulose (Nc), Henry Grau
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
This research describes an investigation into the wettability of nitrocellulose (NC), most importantly to nitroglycerin (NG), which are key components of formulations used to propel military ammunition. NG demonstrates complete wetting of NC and, overtime, NG sweats on the NC surface and leaks out. The leaking out of NG from the solid formulation is a known cause of fires and explosions resulting from storage. The origin of this research is inspired by the need to engineer a solution to leakage problems of energetic plasticizer in NC based propellant. While searching for a viable material for a specific application, we journeyed ...
Synthesis And Radical Scavenging Activity Of Chromene-Hydrazone Hybrids, 2020 Susquehanna University
Synthesis And Radical Scavenging Activity Of Chromene-Hydrazone Hybrids, Andrew Ressler
Senior Scholars Day
Oxidative stress results from an overabundance of reactive oxygen species in the body, including free radicals, that can damage cells and DNA. Due to the increasing prevalence of oxidative stress-based diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation, dermatitis, and cancer, there is a growing need for the development of new antioxidants. In this study, sixteen hybrid molecules containing two known antioxidant moieties, hydroxy chromene and hydrazone, were synthesized and evaluated for free radical scavenging activity. Synthesis of the chromene hydrazones was achieved in two steps: 1) base-promoted chromenylation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde with 3-methylbutenal to yield 2H-2,2-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-6-formylchromene, and 2) condensation of ...
Synthesis And Characterization Of Bay-Annulated Indigo Derivatives As Ligands For Photoactive Metal Complexes, Jacob Mayer, Denise Femia
Synthesis and Characterization of Bay-Annulated Indigo Derivatives as Ligands for Photoactive Metal Complexes
Jacob Mayer1, Denise Femia1
1. La Salle University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Indigo-based chromophores are of interest for organic photovoltaics due to their light absorption properties and tunability. Indigo exhibits a high molar extinction coefficient which allows for a small amount of material to absorb a large amount of energy. Research in organic photovoltaics is important for the development of alternative sources of energy. Unlike traditional silicon photovoltaics, synthetic modifications can be made to indigo to alter its excited state lifetime, absorption, and energy ...
174— Developing Oxidation Of Alcohols In Sand, 2020 SUNY Geneseo
174— Developing Oxidation Of Alcohols In Sand, John Lepore, Stephanie Alvarez Merlos, Katelynn Dux, Theresa Lam
We present the oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones using (NH4)2Cr2O7 in sand. Several alcohols undergo oxidation using an appropriate solvent to afford aldehyde and ketones in good yields. The reactions were analyzed by TLC, 1H and 13C-NMR. The developed reaction is also compared to reactions done using silica gel.
Identification Of Histone H4-Based Peptoids As Inhibitors Of Prmt1, 2020 University of North Florida
Identification Of Histone H4-Based Peptoids As Inhibitors Of Prmt1, Megan Demart, Molly Dubose, Sarah Mann, Corey Causey Ph.D.
Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)
Protein Arginine Methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of 11 mammalian enzymes characterized by the post-translational methylation of arginine residues in the histone tail. The majority of the 11 members of the PRMT family are divided into two main types, Type I and Type II. PRMT1, the major Type I isozyme, catalyzes the formation of asymmetrically dimethylated arginine (ADMA). PRMT1 activates transcription of cancer genes. Peptoids, or poly-N-substituted glycine’s are a class of oligomers whose side chains are appended to the nitrogen atom of the peptide backbone rather than the alpha carbon. Kinetic parameters were conducted for both peptide and ...
Monitoring And Identifying The Rhodamine 6g-Hydroxide Ion Reaction Using In-Situ, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, 2020 Western Kentucky University
Monitoring And Identifying The Rhodamine 6g-Hydroxide Ion Reaction Using In-Situ, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Ryan Lamb
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
An effective method for monitoring chemical reactions is necessary to better understand their mechanisms and kinetics. Effective reaction monitoring requires a spectroscopy technique with fast data acquisition, high sensitivity, structure-to-spectrum correlation, and low solvent interference. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides these features, which makes it a valuable tool for monitoring reactions. To obtain the Raman enhancement, metallic nanostructures typically made of silver or gold are aggregated using a salt. The nanoparticles aggregates must then be stabilized using a surfactant to use this method in situ due to eventual nanoparticle precipitation. In this study, gold nanoparticles stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate ...
Direct Photorelease Of Alcohols From Boron-Alkylated Bodipy Photocages, 2020 Iowa State University
Direct Photorelease Of Alcohols From Boron-Alkylated Bodipy Photocages, Julie A. Peterson, Logan J. Fischer, Elizabeth J. Gehrmann, Pradeep Shrestha, Ding Yuan, Chamari S. Wijesooriya, Emily A. Smith, Arthur H. Winter
BODIPY photocages allow release of substrates us-ing visible light irradiation. They have the drawback of requiring reasonably good leaving groups for photorelease. Photorelease of alcohols is often accomplished by attachment with carbonate linkages, which upon photorelease liberate CO2 and gen-erate the alcohol. Here, we show that boron-alkylated BODIPY photocages are capable of directly photoreleasing both aliphatic alcohols and phenols upon irradiation via photocleavage of ether linkages. Direct photorelease of a hydroxycoumarin dye was demonstrated in living HeLa cells.
Assessing The Correlation Of Microscopy-Based And Volumetry-Based Measurements For Resin Swelling In A Range Of Potential Greener Solvents For Spps, 2020 Technological University Dublin
Assessing The Correlation Of Microscopy-Based And Volumetry-Based Measurements For Resin Swelling In A Range Of Potential Greener Solvents For Spps, Jordan K. Magtaan, Marc Devocelle, Fintan Kelleher
The degree of resin swelling in a particular solvent system is one of the critical parameters for SPPS, and for solid phase synthesis, in general. Methods used for measuring the degree of resin swelling include microscopy-based and volumetry-based methods. This study describes, and compares, the use of both methods for a number of commercially available resins commonly used in SPPS, with a range of solvents which have been identified in the literature as “greener” than DCM, DMF and NMP. The results were analysed by statistical methods and a significant correlation between the two distinct methods has been demonstrated for the ...
Modulating Nanoparticle-Protein Interactions Through Covalent Or Noncovalent Approach For Biomedical Applications, 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Modulating Nanoparticle-Protein Interactions Through Covalent Or Noncovalent Approach For Biomedical Applications, Jingjing Gao
Discoveries at the interface of chemistry, biology, and materials science have emerged as a powerful route to impact life science in this century. My research in the Thayumanavan group is focused on problems at this interface. A common theme of all the six projects is the use of modern synthetic organic chemistry to build interesting, novel macromolecules which are chemically rich, to study the molecular self-assembly behavior in solution and then translate to solve problems in the biomedical area. By addressing the design challenge to prepare novel amphiphiles with desired functional groups, controlled molecular weight and the ability to respond ...
Anomalous Electronic Properties Of Iodous Materials: Application To High-Spin Reactive Intermediates And Conjugated Polymers, Yunfan Qiu, Arthur Winter
Manipulating frontier orbital energies of aromatic molecules with substituents is key to a variety of chemical and material applications. Here, we investigate a simple strategy for achieving high-energy in-plane orbitals for aromatics simply by positioning iodine atoms next to each other. The lone pair orbitals on the iodines mix to give a high-energy in-plane σ-antibonding orbital as the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). We show that this effect can be used to manipulate orbital gaps, the symmetry of the highest occupied orbital, and the adopted electronic state for reactive intermediates. This electronic effect is not limited to reactive intermediates, and ...
Synthesis And Antitumor Activity Of Potentially Tumor Targeting Analogues Of The Tetrahydrofuran Containing Acetogenins, 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Synthesis And Antitumor Activity Of Potentially Tumor Targeting Analogues Of The Tetrahydrofuran Containing Acetogenins, Patricia Gonzalez Periche
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The tetrahydrofuran containing acetogenins (THF-ACGs) are a naturally occurring class of compounds with potent toxicity against a broad range of tumors, including multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. However, the equally high toxicity to normal cells presents a hurdle for their clinical advancement. This study entails synthetic and tumor targeting strategies that are relevant to their therapeutic development.
Chapter 1 presents a review of the synthesis and biological activity of the THF-ACGs. Chapter 2 covers a modular approach for the synthesis of libraries of THF-ACGs. This strategy is illustrated in the synthesis of C-10 epimers of 4-deoxyannonomontacin (4-DAN), one of the more ...
Modeling Iron And Light Controls On The Summer Phaeocystis Antarctica Bloom In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, 2020 Old Dominion University
Modeling Iron And Light Controls On The Summer Phaeocystis Antarctica Bloom In The Amundsen Sea Polynya, Hilde Oliver, Pierre St-Laurent, Robert M. Sherrell, Patricia L. Yaeger
Of all the Antarctic coastal polynyas, the Amundsen Sea Polynya is the most productive per unit area. Observations from the 2010-2011 Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) revealed that both light and iron can limit the growth of phytoplankton (Phaeocystis antarctica), but how these controls manifest over the bloom season is poorly understood, especially with respect to their climate sensitivity. Using a 1-D biogeochemical model, we examine the influence of light and iron limitation on the phytoplankton bloom and vertical carbon flux at 12 stations representing different bloom stages within the polynya. Model parameters are determined by Bayesian optimization ...
Synthesis Of Unsymmetrical Bidentate Ligands From Secondary Phosphine Oxides, 2020 University of Minnesota - Morris
Synthesis Of Unsymmetrical Bidentate Ligands From Secondary Phosphine Oxides, Malachy J. Brink, Ryan Anderson
Student Research, Papers, and Creative Works
Stereochemistry is a key component in the field of asymmetric catalysis. The properties of a molecule can be drastically changed with the change of one stereocenter. Typically, chirality is imparted to a metal by the ligand. "Chiral-at-metal" compounds are unique because the metal complex is chiral, but the ligands are not. Phosphine ligands are notoriously difficult to work with (pyrophoric, toxic, prone to oxidation). The goal of this research was to prepare unsymmetrical bidentate ligands using secondary phosphine oxides, which are air-stable and easy to handle on the benchtop.
Synthesis, Characterization, And Biological Activity Of Imidazolium Salts, 2020 The University of Akron
Synthesis, Characterization, And Biological Activity Of Imidazolium Salts, David Weader
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) inflicts thousands of Americans annually, and is typically treated with the immunotherapy BCG. However, due to a BCG shortage, there is a new need for novel treatments of NMIBC. Addressing this issue, several imidazolium salt derivatives were synthesized and characterized with the intent of treatment within the bladder. These imidazolium salts were tested against different human bladder cancer cell lines in vitro to determine their reactivity and cytotoxicity. Among these results are GI50 concentrations for each drug, which is the concentration of drug needed to see growth inhibition in 50% of treated cells. Previous published ...
Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, 2020 University of Akron
Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, Alec Jerger
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
It can be difficult to separate water and oil emulsions through traditional filtration. Therefore, investigations of filtering using thermo-responsive (TR) polymers, in this case poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), was conducted. It’s hypothesized that below its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), PVME has an affinity for water while oil substances do not. Above the LCST the opposite will be true. To verify this hypothesis, iterations of filtration designs were created to provide optimum control over the parameters to measure flow. The final optimized experimental apparatus was a Chromaflex glass column which was air tight and controlled all parameters besides ...