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Dual Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulosic Materials: Thermal, Mechanical And Conductive Properties, Elizabeth McGrew, Kevin M. Miller PhD 2023 Murray State University

Dual Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulosic Materials: Thermal, Mechanical And Conductive Properties, Elizabeth Mcgrew, Kevin M. Miller Phd

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Cellulose, an inexpensive and renewable biomacromolecule, represents an intriguing synthetic foundation for new materials with task-specific properties. Here, we wish to report a synthetic route for functionalizing cellulose with a side chain containing two ionic liquid functional groups using azide-alkyne ‘click’ cyclization strategy, followed by quaternization of the two resulting heterocycles (1,2,3-triazole and imidazole). Through this functionalization strategy, the resulting cellulosic materials exhibited significant softening, with several glass transition (Tg) values observed below room temperature, indicating the amorphous nature of the materials, with the Tg dependent on both the length of the side chain and the …


Green And Non-Green Extraction Of Eugenol From Cloves Using Steam Distillation, Bek Yuldashbaev 2023 Belmont University

Green And Non-Green Extraction Of Eugenol From Cloves Using Steam Distillation, Bek Yuldashbaev

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Eugenol is commonly found in many plants such as cloves. It is one of the most used natural anesthetics in dentistry. Indonesia is one of the places indigenous to clove trees. Its people take advantage of the pain numbing properties in cloves to aid their tooth pain. The extraction of eugenol itself can be performed through steam distillation. With the process of distillation, the steam carries the oils extracted from the clove buds and recondenses into a cloudy distillate containing polar and non-polar molecules. To separate the eugenol from the distillate, green and non-green solvents were used. The green solvent …


Translating Chemistry, Structure, And Processing To The Solid-State Morphology And Function Of Organic Semiconductors Through Computational Modeling And Simulations, Chamikara D. Karunasena 2023 University of Kentucky

Translating Chemistry, Structure, And Processing To The Solid-State Morphology And Function Of Organic Semiconductors Through Computational Modeling And Simulations, Chamikara D. Karunasena

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

The immense synthetic design space and material versatility have driven the exploration and development of organic semiconductors (OSC) over several decades. While many OSC designs focus on the chemistries of the molecular or polymer building blocks, a priori, multiscale control over the solid-state morphology is required for effective application of the active layer in a given technology. However, molecular assembly during solid-state formation is a complex function interconnecting the building block chemistry and the processing environment. Insufficient knowledge as to how these aspects engage, especially at the atomistic and molecular scales, has so far limited the ability to predict …


Palladium (Ii)-Catalyzed Selective Reduction Of 4’-(Phenylethynl)Acetophenone In The Presence Of A Formic Acid-Triethylamine Mixture, Suzanne Chayya, Akram Hijazi, Anis Daou, Ali Alaaeddine, Mohamad Sakr, Ghassan Younes, Mohammad El-Dakdouki 2022 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University

Palladium (Ii)-Catalyzed Selective Reduction Of 4’-(Phenylethynl)Acetophenone In The Presence Of A Formic Acid-Triethylamine Mixture, Suzanne Chayya, Akram Hijazi, Anis Daou, Ali Alaaeddine, Mohamad Sakr, Ghassan Younes, Mohammad El-Dakdouki

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

An efficient and straightforward palladium acetylacetonate-catalyzed hydrogen transfer of 4'- (phenylethynyl)acetophenone was developed in this study. Formic Acid was found to be the best hydrogen source in this catalytic system in the presence of triethylamine. Excellent conversions and selectivity were obtained in reducing the starting internal aromatic alkyne to either (E)-1-(4- styrylphenyl)ethanone or an interesting cyclic product, 1-(phenanthrene-3-yl)ethenone, over the ketone functional group present. Over-reduction was rarely seen. The reaction conditions were optimized in terms of the choice of the palladium catalyst, temperature, solvent, and the H-donor/base combination. Using this catalytic system, a one-step synthetic pathway of the …


Investigating The Electrochemical Behavior Of Dihydropyrrolopyroles For Use As Anodically Coloring Electrochromes, Perry Skiouris, Ally Kisiel, Valentino Sorto, Julia Mauro, Graham Collier 2022 Kennesaw State University

Investigating The Electrochemical Behavior Of Dihydropyrrolopyroles For Use As Anodically Coloring Electrochromes, Perry Skiouris, Ally Kisiel, Valentino Sorto, Julia Mauro, Graham Collier

Symposium of Student Scholars

Electrochromic materials have found widespread use in consumer electronics, energy saving windows, and military applications. They contain unique electronic properties allowing them to undergo a color change in a redox reaction. One classification of these molecules is known as anodically coloring electrochromes (ACEs). When in solution, these compounds are transmissive in the neutral (ground) state and absorb visible light upon oxidation, by the formation of a radical cation, thus making them colored. The focus of this study is the electronic transitions of this radical cation and how chemical modifications to the structures produce a variable color profile. To design prospective …


Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore 2022 Kennesaw State University

Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool for developing anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Within this, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative approach to screening and validating weak and robust binders with targeted proteins, making NMR among the most attractive strategies in FBDD. Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivyp1) of P. aeruginosa serves as an excellent target because of its active cellular location and implications in clinical prognosis for cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. This study uses current NMR and biophysical techniques to develop a covalent, fragment-linked warhead inhibitor for Ivyp1 through synthetic methods, warhead linking, and …


Folic Acid – Carbon Dots – Doxorubicin Nanoparticles As Cancer Theranostic, Michael Tetteh 2022 East Tennessee State University

Folic Acid – Carbon Dots – Doxorubicin Nanoparticles As Cancer Theranostic, Michael Tetteh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work focused on engineering bi-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) based on carbon dots (CDs) to improve early cancer detection and treatment. Therefore, using folic acid (FA) as a targeting agent, the CDs were prepared to deliver high concentrations (HC) of doxorubicin (DOX) and gemcitabine (GEM) covalently and non-covalently to cancer cells. The prepared FA-CDs-DOX/GEM-HC NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Assessment of the drug loading capacity (DLC) and drug loading efficiency (DLE) indicated that the non-covalent NPs have low DLC but high DLE compared to the relatively low DLE and high DLC of covalent …


Tethered Axial Coordination As A Control Modality In Rhodium(Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Anthony Dean Abshire 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tethered Axial Coordination As A Control Modality In Rhodium(Ii)-Catalyzed Carbene Transfer Reactions, Anthony Dean Abshire

Doctoral Dissertations

Rhodium(II) paddlewheels are versatile carbene transfer catalyst that are broadly applied in insertion reactions, cycloadditions, and ylide transformations. The effects of axial coordination in rhodium(II)-catalyzed carbene transfer reactions are still little understood due to compounding factors that are difficult to isolate. Traditionally, researchers study axial coordination by addition of Lewis base additives. To ensure interaction between the Lewis base and catalyst, high molar equivalents are used. This can also have the undesired effect of hampering the activity of the catalyst and suppressing the yield of the reaction. We have developed ligands with a tethered Lewis base to overcome these issues. …


Synthesis And Characterization Of 2,6-Diisopropylphenoxy Tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines As Potential Molecular Qubits, Benjamin Marx 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Synthesis And Characterization Of 2,6-Diisopropylphenoxy Tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines As Potential Molecular Qubits, Benjamin Marx

Masters Theses

This thesis reports the synthesis of metal-free and metal-containing phthalocyanine derivatives using methods typical for that class of functional dyes. A mixture of the target compounds prepared here, one paramagnetic and one diamagnetic tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine, will be tested for their potential use in spintronics – the application of spin-active species in molecular electronics. Phthalocyanines and their derivatives are well-known for their ease of preparation and tunability; they have been utilized as sensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer and solar cells, as well as in catalysis and chemical sensing. Tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine complexes are compared with the parent phthalocyanine as their chemistry is similar …


Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter And Dissolved Organic Carbon In Lakes Across An Elevational Gradient From The Mountains To The Sea, Kyle Juetten, Angela L. Strecker, Aaron Harrison, Zachary Landram, Warren J. De Bruyn, Catherine D. Clark 2022 Western Washington University

Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter And Dissolved Organic Carbon In Lakes Across An Elevational Gradient From The Mountains To The Sea, Kyle Juetten, Angela L. Strecker, Aaron Harrison, Zachary Landram, Warren J. De Bruyn, Catherine D. Clark

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in lakes across elevation gradients is a complex function of topography, climate, vegetation coverage, land use, and lake properties. To examine sources and processing of DOM from sea level to mountain lakes (3–1,574 m), we measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) optical properties, lake characteristics, and water quality parameters in 62 freshwater lakes in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Higher elevation lakes had lower DOC concentrations and absorbance. These lakes had higher forest cover and minimal wetlands in their watershed, in addition to low nutrients, water temperatures, and chlorophyll a in …


Expanding The Scope Of Clickable Azide-Functionalized Nanoclusters To Include Au144, Johanna A. de Jong 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Expanding The Scope Of Clickable Azide-Functionalized Nanoclusters To Include Au144, Johanna A. De Jong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thiolate-protected Au144 nanoclusters (NCs) are an intriguing member of the gold NC family. Their geometric structure, distinct electrochemical features, and susceptibility to structural rearrangement under the duress of ligand exchange have been studied. However, there are currently no established protocols for surface modification or tuning of their ligand shells post synthesis. Here, the direct synthesis of three regioisomers of azide-modified Au144 NCs with 60 azide moieties, i.e., Au144(SC2H4C6H4-N3)60, is reported, in which the azide functionality is located at the ortho-, meta-, or …


Technical Note: On Uncertainties In Plant Water Isotopic Composition Following Extraction By Cryogenic Vacuum Distillation, Haoyu Diao, Philipp Schuler, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer, Marco M. Lehmann 2022 Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL

Technical Note: On Uncertainties In Plant Water Isotopic Composition Following Extraction By Cryogenic Vacuum Distillation, Haoyu Diao, Philipp Schuler, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer, Marco M. Lehmann

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Recent studies have challenged the interpretation of plant water isotopes obtained through cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD) based on observations of a large 2H fractionation. These studies have hypothesized the existence of an H-atom exchange between water and organic tissue during CVD extraction with the magnitude of H exchange related to relative water content of the sample; however, clear evidence is lacking. Here, we systematically tested the uncertainties in the isotopic composition of CVD-extracted water by conducting a series of incubation and rehydration experiments using isotopically depleted water, water at natural isotope abundance, woody materials with exchangeable H, and organic materials …


Synthesis And Characterization Of Unique Pyridazines, William Hobbs 2022 Liberty University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Unique Pyridazines, William Hobbs

Senior Honors Theses

The field of semiconductive organic chemistry is vast and expanding as numerous applications are being discovered for semiconductors. The research reported in this thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of three pyridazines. Pyridazines are organic heterocyclic aromatic semiconductors containing nitrogen and are planar in structure. The three pyridazine compounds were successfully isolated as evidenced by a high percent yield and then characterized by melting point and infrared spectroscopy. The research goal was achieved as a small library of pyridazines was compiled to be further analyzed concerning their potential within various applications in the electronic and industrial world.


Design Of Possible Organic Photovoltaic Compounds And Their Initial Computational Assessment, Albert Ochoa Castillo, Joshua Smith 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt

Design Of Possible Organic Photovoltaic Compounds And Their Initial Computational Assessment, Albert Ochoa Castillo, Joshua Smith

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Cal Poly Humboldt

The excessive use of fossil fuels has surged the need for alternative energy sources, such as solar energy. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells can potentially be an alternative to silicon solar cells. OPV compounds are carbon-based and use organic electronics as a semiconductor to produce electricity from the sun. There is a large interest in OPV cells because they are strong absorbers and come at a low cost of synthesis. Herein, possible OPV compounds were designed, and theoretical computations were done to assess their efficiency. Density Functional Theory was used to calculate the HOMO-LUMO gap of the compounds designed. Semiconductors such …


Visible Light Photocatalysis Of Organic Reactions In H2o, Sankarsan Biswas 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Visible Light Photocatalysis Of Organic Reactions In H2o, Sankarsan Biswas

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Visible-light photocatalysis in H2O provides an attractive, green alternative to typical organic synthesis, which often involves toxic solvents, metal catalysts, and large energy demands. Hence, there is a growing need for an efficient photocatalytic methods that use either aqueous media as a solvent or can proceed solvent-free. However, commercially available photocatalysts do not work well for aqueous photocatalysis. Supramolecular systems in particular have been explored recently to address these issues associated with aqueous photocatalysis. Chapter 1 will review recent advances in aqueous supramolecular photocatalysis with examples of different supramolecular systems and how they have addressed some of the …


Sensitized Photooxidation Of Prenylated Compounds: Mechanisms Of Downstream Dark Effects And Phototoxicity Priming, Shakeela Jabeen 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Sensitized Photooxidation Of Prenylated Compounds: Mechanisms Of Downstream Dark Effects And Phototoxicity Priming, Shakeela Jabeen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis consists of four chapters as detailed below.

Chapter 1 discusses a singlet oxygen priming mechanism. Airborne singlet oxygen derived from photosensitization of triplet dioxygen is shown to react with an alkene surfactant (8-methylnon-7-ene-1 sulfonate) leading to ‘ene’ hydroperoxides that in the dark inactivate planktonic E. coli. The ‘ene’ hydroperoxide photoproducts are not toxic on their own, but they become toxic after the bacteria are pretreated with singlet oxygen. The total quenching rate constant (kT) of singlet oxygen of the alkene surfactant was measured to be 1.1 × 106 M1 s− …


Stereoselective Synthesis Of Pseudosaccharide Derivative And Bisphosphoramidate Core Of Em2487, Saad Z. Mohammed Ali 2022 University of Maine

Stereoselective Synthesis Of Pseudosaccharide Derivative And Bisphosphoramidate Core Of Em2487, Saad Z. Mohammed Ali

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

HIV is among the leading causes of death worldwide resulting in over 1 million deaths annually according to the World Health Organization. Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, eradicating this pathogen remains a top priority in the medical and scientific communities. EM2487 is a natural product produced by Streptomyces sp. Mer-2487 that possesses promising activity against HIV. Specifically, EM2487 is a potent and selective inhibitor of HIV replication in both acutely and chronically infected cells. The observed HIV activity is hypothesized to be the result of targeting the Tat-TAR (trans-activation response) element which activates RNA polymerase II at the …


Modified Synthesis Of A Photoswitchable Aa-Dd Hemthioindigo-Based Hydrogen Bond Complex, Victoria Chou, Paul Winiarz, James Wisner, Fereshteh Davoud, 2022 Western University

Modified Synthesis Of A Photoswitchable Aa-Dd Hemthioindigo-Based Hydrogen Bond Complex, Victoria Chou, Paul Winiarz, James Wisner, Fereshteh Davoud,

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Lc-Ms/Tof Characterization And Stability Study Of Artesunate In Different Solvent Systems, Kogila Oke, Amos Mugweru 2022 Rowan University

Lc-Ms/Tof Characterization And Stability Study Of Artesunate In Different Solvent Systems, Kogila Oke, Amos Mugweru

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Artemisinin (ART) is a sesquiterpene lactone and a popular malaria drug used in many parts of the world. Artesunate (ARTS) is a semi-synthetic derivative of ART with improved pharmacokinetic properties. However, the half-life of ARTS is less than an hour in vivo. The analysis of this drug in vitro in different solvent systems using LC-MS/TOF showed a solvent-driven breakdown. ARTS breakdown formed several derivatives, including dihydroartemisinin (DHA), artemether (ARTM) and DHA-dimer among others, at different rates in different solvent composition systems. The change in temperature from room temperature to physiological temperature (37 °C) was found to enhance the rate of …


Neoglycoproteins As Potential Biomarkers And Vaccines For Chagas Disease, Elisa Garcia Carvajal 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Neoglycoproteins As Potential Biomarkers And Vaccines For Chagas Disease, Elisa Garcia Carvajal

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease (CD), currently affects 6-8 million people worldwide, predominantly in Latin America, where the parasite is endemic. The treatment of CD is based on two drugs, benznidazole (BZN) and nifurtimox (NFX). These drugs cause adverse effects and are more effective in the acute phase of the disease. Conventional serology assays can be used for diagnosis, but they are not suitable for determining chemotherapy effectiveness because patients take approximately 10-20 years to exhibit negative seroconversion. Although CD has become a global health problem, specific biomarkers are still needed for the follow-up of chemotherapy and …


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