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Diazonium 4-(Trifluorovinyloxy) Perfluorobutanesulfonyl Benzenesulfonimide Zwitterionic Monomer Synthesis, Isaac D. Addo 2016 East Tennessee State University

Diazonium 4-(Trifluorovinyloxy) Perfluorobutanesulfonyl Benzenesulfonimide Zwitterionic Monomer Synthesis, Isaac D. Addo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

3-Diazonium- 4-(trifluorovinyloxy) - perfluorobutanesulfonyl benzenesulfonimide zwitterionic monomer (see figure 1) is proposed to be polymerized and further act as a new electrolyte for Polymer exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). One reason is that, the aromatic trifluorovinyl aryl ether (TFVE) group can easily be homopolymerized to aromatic perfluorocyclobutane (PFCB) polymer. Furthermore, the diazonium moiety in the monomer is expected to covalently attach the electrolyte to the carbon electrodes support. The perfluoroalkyl(aryl) sulfonimide (PFSI) pendant provides good chemical and mechanical stability as well as better proton conductivity. Several multi-step synthetic schemes are designed to obtain such monomer from perfluoroalkyl(aryl) sulfonimide ...


Photo-Isomerizable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Iamnica Janic Linares Mendez 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Photo-Isomerizable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Iamnica Janic Linares Mendez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis exploits the use of a photochromic system in a self-complementary hydrogen bond array; i.e. the azo group, -N=N. The novelty of the approach described in this thesis resides in the double function of the azo group within the array: as a hydrogen bond acceptor site and as an element that promotes a structural change capable of disrupting the complexation equilibrium when irradiated with light.

The photo-isomerizable self-complementary hydrogen bond arrays presented are obtained by a general and practical synthetic method from inexpensive starting materials. Their self-complementary recognition was corroborated by 1H NMR dilution experiments and ...


Cobalt Mediated Oxidative Cyclizations: The Diastereoselective Synthesis Of Trans-Tetrahydrofuran Rings, Cory D.N. Palmer 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cobalt Mediated Oxidative Cyclizations: The Diastereoselective Synthesis Of Trans-Tetrahydrofuran Rings, Cory D.N. Palmer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Mukaiyama oxidative cyclization has been a major area of study within the Pagenkopf group and within the field of THF containing natural products. This document contains a brief discussion of the major divisions of THF synthesis; SN2, cycloadditions, and transition mediated strategies. The development of the Mukaiyama cyclization is described from the earliest applications of cobalt acac type ligand in Mukaiyama’s work to the initial discovery of the cyclization reactivity. Initial finding from the Mukaiyama group is shown, accompanied by its applications to the synthesis of mucosin, aplysiallene, and bullatacin. Previous attempts at improved catalyst design ...


New Chemistry Of Donor-Acceptor Cycloalkanes And Studies Towards The Synthesis Of Streptorubin B, Naresh Vemula 2016 The University of Western Ontario

New Chemistry Of Donor-Acceptor Cycloalkanes And Studies Towards The Synthesis Of Streptorubin B, Naresh Vemula

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation presents two separate chapters within the broad area of synthetic organic chemistry. The first chapter describes the annelation chemistry of donor-acceptor (DA) cyclopropanes and cyclobutanes for the synthesis of heterocycles. The Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition between DA cyclobutanes and nitrosoarenes facilitated the synthesis of tetrahydro-1,2-oxazines in good to excellent yields as single diastereomers. Additionally, an unexpected deoxygenation occurred with electron-rich nitrosoarenes under MgI2-catalysis that afforded pyrrolidine products. The GaCl3-catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition of DA cyclobutanes and cis-diazenes provided hexahydropyridazine derivatives in good to excellent yields as single diastereomers. Furthermore ...


Silver-Polymer Nanocomposites, Anita N. Paul 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Silver-Polymer Nanocomposites, Anita N. Paul

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research was the development of an efficient method for the preparation of silver-polymer nanocomposites containing finely dispersed silver nanoparticles. The surface of nanosilver was functionalized by thiolation with 2-aminoethanethiol. Amino-modified nanosilver was covalently bonded to polyacrylic acid, biodegradable polymers like acid terminated polylactic acid, ester terminated poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and acid terminated poly(DL lactide-co-glycolide) in the presence of diisopropylcarbodiimide by carbodiimide method. Esterification of the carboxyl groups of Ag-polyacrylic acid by hydrochloric acid in methanol resulted in the formation of a stable colloidal dispersion of Ag nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. It was observed that not ...


Selective Iodination Using Diaryliodonium Salts, William H. Miller IV 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Selective Iodination Using Diaryliodonium Salts, William H. Miller Iv

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Aryl iodides have become widely recognized as versatile synthetic intermediates, owing to aromatic iodine’s excellent ability to participate in oxidative addition reactions. Iodoarenes readily undergo a variety of synthetic transformations including metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, diaryliodonium chemistry, formation of organometallics through reduction or metal-halogen exchange, as well as classical SN2 type chemistry. Because a wide array of transformations are available for aryl iodides, organic molecules containing this moiety often serve as vital precursors to highly desirable pharmaceuticals.

This thesis describes a simple and selective two-step approach to the formation of aryl iodides. This method proceeds through an ...


Correlation Of Polymer Performance And Hansen Solubility Parameters, Daniel Jobse Mania 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Correlation Of Polymer Performance And Hansen Solubility Parameters, Daniel Jobse Mania

Master's Theses

Ready-to-use (RTU) grout is becoming more important to the finish and remodeling construction industry. Market research shows it is a fast-growing product that not only is creating its own space, but is beginning to supplant existing technology.

The original intent of this research was to investigate formulation parameters and how they affect grout performance. It was learned that particle size and oil absorption (OA) value are important filler properties that affect performance as much as adequate packing density and optimal pigment volume concentration (PVC) without going beyond critical PVC (CPVC).

Polymer architecture was also determined to be extremely important, but ...


A New Science, And A New Profession: Sugar Chemistry In Louisiana, 1885-1895, John Alfred Heitmann 2016 University of Dayton

A New Science, And A New Profession: Sugar Chemistry In Louisiana, 1885-1895, John Alfred Heitmann

John A. Heitmann

Between 1885 and 1895 the Louisiana sugar industry experienced a scientific and technological revolution in methods, process apparatus, and scale of operations. The animal-powered mills and open kettles characteristic of the antebellum period were supplanted by large, technically designed, and scientifically controlled central factories . In 1880 there were approximately 1,000 sugar houses in Louisiana with an average annual production of 110 long tons of sugar per house. By 1900 fewer than 300 factories constituted the state's sugar industry, but yearly production averaged over 980 long tons for each sugar house. One commentator of the period, Mark Twain, described ...


Synthesis Of A Small Molecule Nitrosocysteine Inhibitor To Reduce The Activity Of Caspase-1, Catherine A. Shamblen, Caitlin E. Karver 2016 DePaul University

Synthesis Of A Small Molecule Nitrosocysteine Inhibitor To Reduce The Activity Of Caspase-1, Catherine A. Shamblen, Caitlin E. Karver

DePaul Discoveries

Caspase-1 is an enzyme that is overactive in autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases cleaving pro-interleukin-1β to the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which leads to inflammatory symptoms. The inhibition of caspase-1 will cause a decrease in the concentration of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), resulting in the reduction of inflammatory symptoms. Recent research has revealed that the appending of a nitric oxide (NO) or nitroxyl (HNO) donating group to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduced, or avoided, the side effects caused by currently available treatments. A small molecule based on a known caspase-1 inhibitor with a nitrosocysteine appended on was synthesized to look at the effect of ...


Serendipitous Discovery Of A New Method For The Catalytic Synthesis Of Indole-Fused Benzazepanes, Edward Gluzman, Paul A. Vadola 2016 DePaul Department of Chemistry

Serendipitous Discovery Of A New Method For The Catalytic Synthesis Of Indole-Fused Benzazepanes, Edward Gluzman, Paul A. Vadola

DePaul Discoveries

We report here on our investigations into the application of 1,5-hydride transfer cyclization mechanisms to the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted benzofurans and indoles. We found that PtI4 in MeCN at 120 ºC was indeed capable of activating the alkyne, however, the expected 2,3-disubstituted indole product was not observed. Instead we isolated an indolyl-3-benzazepane via an unexpected intramolecular Steven’s rearrangement/ring expansion. While this transformation has been previously reported our method may prove to have increased substrate scope and more practical reaction conditions. Further studies are underway to optimize the reaction conditions and to fully explore the ...


Controlling Catalytic Properties Of Pd Nanoclusters Through Their Chemical Environment At The Atomic Level Using Isoreticular Metal–Organic Frameworks, Xinle Li, Tian Wei Goh, Lei Li, Zhiyong Guo, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Wenyu Huang 2016 Iowa State University

Controlling Catalytic Properties Of Pd Nanoclusters Through Their Chemical Environment At The Atomic Level Using Isoreticular Metal–Organic Frameworks, Xinle Li, Tian Wei Goh, Lei Li, Zhiyong Guo, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Wenyu Huang

Wenyu Huang

Control of heterogeneous catalytic sites through their surrounding chemical environment at an atomic level is crucial to catalyst design. We synthesize Pd nanoclusters (NCs) in an atomically tunable chemical environment using isoreticular metal–organic framework (MOF) supports (Pd@UiO-66-X, X = H, NH2, OMe). In an aerobic reaction between benzaldehyde and ethylene glycol, these catalysts show product distributions that are completely altered from the acetal to the ester when we change the functional groups on the MOF linkers from −NH2 to −H/–OMe. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) studies, along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, show ...


Synthesis And Biological Activity Of Novel Quorum Sensing Compounds, Joseph Nicholas Capilato 2016 Rowan University

Synthesis And Biological Activity Of Novel Quorum Sensing Compounds, Joseph Nicholas Capilato

Theses and Dissertations

Bacteria communicate with chemical signals in a process known as quorum sensing. This population density-dependent process involves the bacterial production, release and detection of structurally specific small molecules and enables the bacterial pathogen to regulate its virulence on a population-wide level. Using a variety of chemical and biological techniques, I have studied various quorum sensing systems in several bacteria, including Vibrio cholera and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A key principle of this research involves the design, synthesis and testing of novel compounds for their biological activity. These molecules are typically based off of an initial lead target, which is often identified from ...


Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman 2016 University of Kentucky

Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging ...


High-Valent Organometallic Palladium And Nickel Complexes And Their Roles In Carbon-Carbon And Carbon-Heteroatom Bond Formation Reactions, Jason Wesley Schultz 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

High-Valent Organometallic Palladium And Nickel Complexes And Their Roles In Carbon-Carbon And Carbon-Heteroatom Bond Formation Reactions, Jason Wesley Schultz

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The development of palladium catalysis has been influential in a wide range of organic transformations, in particular C-C coupling, C-Heteroatom coupling and C-H functionalization reactions. These catalytic transformations normally proceed through the Pd0/II catalytic cycle. These reactions are remarkably useful, however, they suffer from two major problems: -hydride elimination and palladium black deposition. To circumvent these problems, recent reports have been focused on developing novel organic transformations proceeding through high-valent palladium and nickel catalytic cycles.

To this point, we recently reported the isolation and characterization of various mononuclear PdIII complexes using the tetradentate ligands, N,N-di-alkyl-2,11-diaza[3.3 ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Biological Activity Of A Potential Immunomodulatory Zwitterionic Polysaccharide, Vikram Basava 2016 Seton Hall University

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Biological Activity Of A Potential Immunomodulatory Zwitterionic Polysaccharide, Vikram Basava

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis is an integral component of the normal gastrointestinal flora. The bacterium colonizes the intestinal tract of human beings as it has no reservoir other than mammals. An unprecedented proportion of the genomic DNA of B. fragilus is involved in the production of capsular polysaccharides. These capsular polysaccharides are important virulence factors in most extracellular bacterial pathogens. Eight of these polysaccharides have been identified thus far, out of which two were found to be zwitterionic polymers, PSA1 and PSA2. PSA1 was found to stimulate T-cell lineage of the immune system because of the dual charge ...


Synthesis Of Two Monomers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Abdulmajeed A. Alayyaf 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Synthesis Of Two Monomers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Abdulmajeed A. Alayyaf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this research is to synthesize two different monomers for proton exchange membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells. Such monomers are proposed to be polymerized to improve the efficiency and compatibility of electrodes and electrolytes in PEM fuel cells.

The first target is to synthesize 4-diazonium-3-fluoro PFSI zwitterionic monomer. Three steps were carried out in the lab. First one was the ammonolysis of 3-fluoro-4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride. Second reaction was the bromination of Nafion monomer. The next coupling reaction, between brominated Nafion monomer and the 3-fluoro-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, was failed. The obstacles involve the harsh reaction condition and troublesome purification procedure.

The second ...


Synthesis Of Diazonium (Perfluoroalkyl) Arylsulfonimide Monomers From Perfluoro (3-Oxapent-4-Ene) Sulfonyl Fluoride For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Faisal Ibrahim 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Synthesis Of Diazonium (Perfluoroalkyl) Arylsulfonimide Monomers From Perfluoro (3-Oxapent-4-Ene) Sulfonyl Fluoride For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Faisal Ibrahim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two diazonium perfluoroalkyl arylsulfonimide (PFSI) zwitterionic monomers, 4-diazonium perfluoro(3-oxapent-4-ene)benzenesulfonimide (I) and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-diazonium perfluoro(3-oxapent-4-ene)benzenesulfonimide (II) have been synthesized from perfluoro(3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride (POPF) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. PFSI polymers are proposed as new electrolytes due to their better thermal stability, inertness to electrochemical conditions, and lower susceptibility to oxidative degradation and dehydration. For a better integration between the electrode and the electrolyte, the PFSI polymers are expected to be grafted onto the carbon electrode via the diazonium moiety.

All the reaction intermediates and the final product were characterized with 1H NMR, 19F ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks For Applications In Extraterrestrial Radiation Shielding, Josiah Arevalo Hammack 2016 College of William and Mary

Synthesis And Characterization Of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks For Applications In Extraterrestrial Radiation Shielding, Josiah Arevalo Hammack

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

During interplanetary voyages spacecraft are exposed to a variety of ionizing radiations, including high intensity electromagnetic radiation and galactic cosmic rays, creating conditions that are harmful to both instrumentation and human passengers. Current shielding methods offer a degree of protection, but they are not suitable for long term missions or for habitation on extraterrestrial environments, and traditional terrestrial shields are too heavy to be carried on these missions. Organic polymers offer a versatile, lightweight solution to many of the difficulties in shielding, however they also present difficulties establishing a sufficiently high hydrogen content while maintaining high mechanical and thermal stability ...


Total Synthesis Of Peramine, A Defensive Alkaloid Produced By Endophytic Fungi Of Cool Season Grasses Possessing Anti-Insect Properties, Matthew Rolfe Nelli 2016 College of William and Mary

Total Synthesis Of Peramine, A Defensive Alkaloid Produced By Endophytic Fungi Of Cool Season Grasses Possessing Anti-Insect Properties, Matthew Rolfe Nelli

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

The total synthesis of peramine, a pyrrolopyrazine natural product containing a guanidine functionality, is described. Peramine is an anti-insect defensive alkaloid produced by fungi endophytic to cool season grasses. Peramine is one of four classes of alkaloid produced by these endophytic fungi and production of this compound is widespread across fungal-grass mutualisms. Unique to our synthesis of peramine is an enolate alkylation of a pyrrole-fuse diketopiperazine and an amenable route to derivatives of peramine. Our synthesis is comprised of seven steps and three chromatographic separations, making it as efficient as the previous two syntheses and better with respect to total ...


Pyrazole Pendant Tetraazamacrocyclic Ligands For Possible Medicinal Applications, Anjuli Bhandari 2016 Buffalo State College

Pyrazole Pendant Tetraazamacrocyclic Ligands For Possible Medicinal Applications, Anjuli Bhandari

Forensic Science Theses

Gadolinium is the element typically used for MRI contrast agents, which are sometimes injected prior to performing an MRI. The element accumulates in inflamed areas, which indicates where there may be an infection or a tumor. However, gadolinium is more toxic to the body than preferred and the potential long-term effects have been studied in individuals who experience health issues.

Complexes containing metal ions that are naturally occurring have been proposed to replace gadolinium use. Complexing a metal ion (i.e. copper(II) or iron(II)) to a macrocyclic ligand that has a high water exchange rate would potentially be ...


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