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Validation Of A Method For Pantoprazole And Its Sulfone Metabolite In Goat Plasma Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Sherry Cox, Lainey Harvill, Sarah Bullock, Joseph Smith, Joan Bergman 2022 UTK

Validation Of A Method For Pantoprazole And Its Sulfone Metabolite In Goat Plasma Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Sherry Cox, Lainey Harvill, Sarah Bullock, Joseph Smith, Joan Bergman

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Concentration Of Heavy Metals In Three Distinct Algae Families From Humboldt County, California, Kodiak E. Miller, Caleb J. Strait, Jacob I. Begorre, Brittney L. Mitchell, Claire P. Till 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt

Concentration Of Heavy Metals In Three Distinct Algae Families From Humboldt County, California, Kodiak E. Miller, Caleb J. Strait, Jacob I. Begorre, Brittney L. Mitchell, Claire P. Till

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Cal Poly Humboldt

Anthropogenic impacts on marine environments can impact metal fluxes and concentrations available to marine species. Monitoring these impacts is necessary to better understand the interactions between the biotic and abiotic components of these ecosystems and mitigate the risk posed by harmful toxins introduced by human activities. Biomoniters, like macroscopic algae, are useful indicators that illuminate the bioaccumulation of toxins commonly introduced from anthropogenic activity. With this in mind, the concentrations of heavy metals zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu) were analyzed via the assessment of algae (Representatives from Ulva, Mastocarpus, Fucus) in two sites in Humboldt County: Samoa ...


Conformational Dynamics And Aggregation Of Thermally Stressed Proteins Studied By Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, Nastaran Nosrat Tajoddin 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Conformational Dynamics And Aggregation Of Thermally Stressed Proteins Studied By Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, Nastaran Nosrat Tajoddin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Proteins perform various biological functions, e.g., as enzymes or transporters. In addition to naturally occurring proteins, the use of protein therapeutic drugs for treating cancer and other diseases is a rapidly growing area. A thorough biophysical characterization of proteins and protein therapeutics opens the door to a more comprehensive understanding of their role in health and disease. This dissertation aims to expand the capabilities of an existing technique (Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, HDX-MS), which is widely used for probing protein structure and dynamics. Conventionally, HDX-MS experiments are performed as a function of labelling time. Here we aim to ...


Intracellular Delivery Of Therapeutic Biomolecules Through Versatile Polymer Nanotechnology, David C. Luther 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Intracellular Delivery Of Therapeutic Biomolecules Through Versatile Polymer Nanotechnology, David C. Luther

Doctoral Dissertations

Advancing pharmaceutical technology has made it possible to treat diseases once considered ‘undruggable.’ Access to these new pharmaceutical targets is possible thanks to the advent of protein and nucleic acid therapeutics. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as cutting-edge treatments for cancer and multiple sclerosis have centered on these biologic therapies, promising even greater value in the future. However, their utility is limited at a cellular level by inability to cross the plasma membrane. Nanocarrier technologies encapsulate therapeutics and facilitate uptake into the cell but are often trapped and degraded in endosomes. Arginine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Arg-NPs) provide efficient, direct ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Protein And Peptide Electrospray Ionization, Elnaz Aliyari 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Mechanism Of Protein And Peptide Electrospray Ionization, Elnaz Aliyari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for the detection and characterization of various analytes. However, many fundamental aspects of the ESI process remain poorly understood. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, MS, and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), this thesis sheds light on the mechanisms whereby gaseous analyte ions are formed from highly charged ESI nanodroplets. After a general introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 focuses on the ion evaporation mechanism (IEM), i.e., the ejection of analyte ions from the droplet surface. The IEM is well established for low MW compounds, but it has remained contentious whether this pathway ...


Natural Product Discovery And Mycotoxin Analysis Of Agricultural Endophytes And Pathogens, Jacob P. Walsh 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Natural Product Discovery And Mycotoxin Analysis Of Agricultural Endophytes And Pathogens, Jacob P. Walsh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis focuses on the application of fungal natural product chemistry for the use of agriculture fungal pathogenesis research. The research in this work uses many analytical chemistry techniques and instruments such as HPLC, LC-MS/MS and NMR. In Chapter 2, a diagnostic fragmentation module was developed for the identification of compound classes in crude fungal extracts. This module identified the classes cytochalasins and chaetoglobosins from extracts of Penicillium, Chaetomium, and Xylaria. From these extracts a new chaetoglobosin was discovered and the module was implemented into the open-source software package MZmine 2.0. Chapter 3 discusses analytical chemistry techniques with ...


Sensitized Photooxidation Of Prenylated Compounds: Mechanisms Of Downstream Dark Effects And Phototoxicity Priming, Shakeela Jabeen 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Sensitized Photooxidation Of Prenylated Compounds: Mechanisms Of Downstream Dark Effects And Phototoxicity Priming, Shakeela Jabeen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis consists of four chapters as detailed below.

Chapter 1 discusses a singlet oxygen priming mechanism. Airborne singlet oxygen derived from photosensitization of triplet dioxygen is shown to react with an alkene surfactant (8-methylnon-7-ene-1 sulfonate) leading to ‘ene’ hydroperoxides that in the dark inactivate planktonic E. coli. The ‘ene’ hydroperoxide photoproducts are not toxic on their own, but they become toxic after the bacteria are pretreated with singlet oxygen. The total quenching rate constant (kT) of singlet oxygen of the alkene surfactant was measured to be 1.1 × 106 M1 s1 at the air/liquid ...


Analyzing Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence Of Novel Materials, Liuqing Yang 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Analyzing Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence Of Novel Materials, Liuqing Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As a powerful analytical technique, electrochemiluminescence (ECL) has found wide applications in the fields of bioanalysis and light-emitting devices. However, many ECL materials sustain the shortcomings of low ECL efficiencies. To better design novel materials with ECL enhancement, it is essential to investigate and the enhanced ECL mechanisms. In this thesis, ECL enhancements of various novel materials were analyzed utilizing ECL-voltage curves, potential pulsing experiments, ECL and photoluminescence spectroscopies, and other characterization methods. Specifically, two graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with different heteroatom doping were designed and synthesized. Structural characterizations and spectroscopies demonstrated that the heteroatom doping could change the surface ...


Meta-Analysis Reveals Both The Promises And The Challenges Of Clinical Metabolomics, Heidi E. Roth, Robert Powers 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Meta-Analysis Reveals Both The Promises And The Challenges Of Clinical Metabolomics, Heidi E. Roth, Robert Powers

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Clinical metabolomics is a rapidly expanding field focused on identifying molecular biomarkers to aid in the efficient diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. Variations in study design, metabolomics methodologies, and investigator protocols raise serious concerns about the accuracy and reproducibility of these potential biomarkers. The explosive growth of the field has led to the recent availability of numerous replicate clinical studies, which permits an evaluation of the consistency of biomarkers identified across multiple metabolomics projects. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third-leading cause of cancer-related death and has the lowest five-year survival rate primarily due to the lack of an ...


Contact Angle & Electrochemical Measurements Of Metallic Atmospheric Corrosion On Copper And Carbon Steel, Jacob J.M. Bunting, Jiju M. Joseph, Heng-Yong Nie, Samantha M. Gateman 2022 Western University

Contact Angle & Electrochemical Measurements Of Metallic Atmospheric Corrosion On Copper And Carbon Steel, Jacob J.M. Bunting, Jiju M. Joseph, Heng-Yong Nie, Samantha M. Gateman

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Understanding atmospheric corrosion has been incredibly challenging due to the complex interplay between surface microstructures, environmental variables, and electrochemical processes. The methodology presented is being developed to apply to atmospheric corrosion models of metals and other advanced materials by observing the change in contact angle in situ as a function of corrosion parameters. Performed contact angle measurements on two industrially relevant metals (copper and carbon steel) over a 1 min to 30-day time span to track the change in wettability due to the formation of an air-formed oxide layer (aged) as a function of surface roughness.


Simple And Fast Fabrication Methodology For Platinum And Carbon Ultramicroelectrodes (Ume) In Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (Secm), Emma Mae Lord, Jiju Joseph, Samantha M. Gateman, Zhifeng Ding 2022 Western University

Simple And Fast Fabrication Methodology For Platinum And Carbon Ultramicroelectrodes (Ume) In Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (Secm), Emma Mae Lord, Jiju Joseph, Samantha M. Gateman, Zhifeng Ding

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a highly versatile method for measuring and imaging a wide range of systems. When paired with an intricately made ultramicroelectrode (UME) probe, SECM becomes an even more powerful tool for imaging microscale features in a system. However, purchasing these UME’s comes at a high cost with less ability for modification. Having high quality UME’s expands the ability of SECM and enables precise measuring and imaging in a wide range of applications such as solar cells in Dr. Ding’s lab, and corroding metals in Dr. Gateman’s lab. To combat this issue of ...


Development And Characterization Of A Peanut-Shell Based Activated Carbon And The Outcomes Of A Hands-On Approach To Chemical Education, Danielle Pitre 2022 Mississippi State University

Development And Characterization Of A Peanut-Shell Based Activated Carbon And The Outcomes Of A Hands-On Approach To Chemical Education, Danielle Pitre

Theses and Dissertations

Heavy metals are a recognized toxic environmental contaminant, even at very low concentrations. There have been well-known events in the last decade within the US of high amounts of lead in the drinking water supplies of cities, leading to detrimental effects within its population. Ways have been found to remove this metal, and others, from water with expensive adsorbents. The aim of the first part of this research was to create an inexpensive adsorbent from a waste material and modify it in such a way that it would be adept at removing heavy metals from water.

In Chapter I, we ...


Editorial: Expansion Of The Genetic Code: Unnatural Amino Acids And Their Applications, Subhendu Sekhar Bag, Ishu Saraogi, Jiantao Guo 2022 Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Editorial: Expansion Of The Genetic Code: Unnatural Amino Acids And Their Applications, Subhendu Sekhar Bag, Ishu Saraogi, Jiantao Guo

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

No abstract provided.


Intersections Of Environmentalism, Chemistry, And Racism: An Experimental Study Of Halobenzene Hydrogenolysis And Critical Communication Studies Of Equitable Learning Practices Rooted In Black Feminism, Lauren O. Babb 2022 The University of Maine

Intersections Of Environmentalism, Chemistry, And Racism: An Experimental Study Of Halobenzene Hydrogenolysis And Critical Communication Studies Of Equitable Learning Practices Rooted In Black Feminism, Lauren O. Babb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increasing concentrations of fluorinated aromatic compounds in surface water, groundwater, and soil pose threats to the environment. Fundamental studies that elucidate mechanisms of dehalogenation for C-X compounds (where X represents a halide) are required to develop effective remediation strategies. For halogenated benzenes, previously published research has suggested that the strength of the C-X bond is not rate-determining in the overall rate of dehalogenation. Instead, the rate-determining step has been hypothesized to be adsorption of the C-X compound onto the surface of a catalyst. Building on this hypothesis, in this work, we examine the reaction kinetics of fluorobenzene conversion to benzene ...


Variations In Copper Form Exposure Differentially Modulate Zea Mays (Corn) Physiological Responses, Carolina Valdes Bracamontes 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Variations In Copper Form Exposure Differentially Modulate Zea Mays (Corn) Physiological Responses, Carolina Valdes Bracamontes

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In the present study, Zea mays seedlings grown under nano Cu(OH)2 (nCu), bulk Cu(OH)2 (bCu), and ionic CuSO4 (iCu) compound exposure were harvested after six days. The nutritional profile was determined to be significantly disrupted in the roots by 1000 ppm bCu treatment, resulting in a 58.7% reduction in potassium compared to the control. In the shoots, a significant decrease of manganese was observed for 10 and 1000 ppm iCu treatments with 55.7% and 64.2% reductions, respectively. The overall protein content and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activity, however, remained unaffected in either roots or ...


Exposure Of Candyland Red Tomatoes (¬Solanum Lycopersicum L.) To Various Metal Oxide Nanomaterials: Full Life Cycle And Assessment Of Fruit Quality, Jesus Manuel Cantu 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Exposure Of Candyland Red Tomatoes (¬Solanum Lycopersicum L.) To Various Metal Oxide Nanomaterials: Full Life Cycle And Assessment Of Fruit Quality, Jesus Manuel Cantu

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The use of nanotechnology in agriculture has attained high interest to enhance crop production due to their unique properties. Moreover, metal oxide nanomaterials can potentially supplement nutrients, enhance plant growth, and crop production. When investigating fruits' nutritional quality, carbohydrates and phytonutrients (bioactive compounds) play important roles. Therefore, it is important to understand how nanomaterials will affect the quality of tomato fruits. In this dissertation, various metal oxides were synthesized and applied to Candyland Red tomato seedlings to assess the plant growth and tomato production. In the first investigation, Candyland Red tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) were exposed to synthesized pristine CuO and ...


Isolation Of Proteins And Extracellular Vesicles Via Capillary-Channeled Polymer Fiber Stationary Phases, Lacey Billotto 2022 Clemson University

Isolation Of Proteins And Extracellular Vesicles Via Capillary-Channeled Polymer Fiber Stationary Phases, Lacey Billotto

All Theses

Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber stationary phases have been developed by the Marcus lab as an alternative approach to traditional, commercially-available silica-based supports for biomacromolecule separations. C-CP columns are created with natural and synthetic base polymers in a variety of chemistries and shapes, allowing for customization of separations, while providing low material costs and ease of construction. The stationary phase is virtually nonporous with respect to the size of proteins and can operate under high linear velocities (~100 mm s-1) while maintaining relatively low backpressures. As a result of these hydrodynamic benefits, low flow resistance at high volume flow rates ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles From Various Biological Matrices Using Capillary-Channeled Polymer (C-Cp) Fiber Solid-Phase Extraction Spin-Down Tips, Kaylan Jackson 2022 Clemson University

Isolation And Characterization Of Extracellular Vesicles From Various Biological Matrices Using Capillary-Channeled Polymer (C-Cp) Fiber Solid-Phase Extraction Spin-Down Tips, Kaylan Jackson

All Dissertations

A number of recent works have emphasized the need to isolate nanometer-scale analytes, like extracellular vesicles (EVs), from various biologically-relevant fluids. Exosomes are a subset of small EVs that range from 30-200 nm in diameter that serve as biomolecular snapshots of their cell of origin containing mother cell-specific DNA, miRNA, mRNA, and proteins. As critical components of intercellular communication, exosomes and other EVs play significant roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Diverse populations of these vesicles can be collected from biofluids, including blood, saliva, and urine, from cell culture conditioned media and primary cells, and even from plant fluid ...


Radioluminescence Based Biochemical Sensing And Imaging Strategies To Measure Local Drug Release And Ph, Gretchen B. Schober 2022 Clemson University

Radioluminescence Based Biochemical Sensing And Imaging Strategies To Measure Local Drug Release And Ph, Gretchen B. Schober

All Dissertations

In this dissertation we describe methods for measuring infection relevant biochemical analytes using radioluminescent and ultrasound luminescent materials. Films and nanoparticles fabricated with europium doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Eu3+) are used to quantitatively measure radiolabeled pharmaceutical concentration, specifically tritium labeled vancomycin (3H-vancomycin). Europium and dysprosium doped strontium aluminate is used to fabricate an ultrasound modulated, pH sensing film. These methods are indicated for theranostic evaluation of implant associated infection. Bacterial biofilms are inherently resistant to traditional antibiotic treatment and can coat biomedical implants. These biofilm related infections are difficult or impossible to eradicate non-invasively ...


Development Of Plasmonic And X-Ray Luminescence Nanoparticles For Bioimaging And Sensing Applications, Meenakshi Ranasinghe 2022 Clemson University

Development Of Plasmonic And X-Ray Luminescence Nanoparticles For Bioimaging And Sensing Applications, Meenakshi Ranasinghe

All Dissertations

This dissertation discusses the development of plasmonic and X-ray luminescence nanoparticles (~100 nm) to use in bioimaging and sensing applications. The nanoparticles have interesting optical properties compared to their atomic levels and bulk materials. The optical properties of nanomaterials can be controlled by changing size, shape, crystal structure, etc. Also, they have a large surface area that can be functionalized with biomolecules. Therefore, the optical properties and biofunctionalized nanomaterials are useful in biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery, bioimaging, and sensing. The overall theme is to use nanoparticles with interesting optical properties compared to their atomic levels and bulk ...


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