Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Chemistry Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

26,462 Full-Text Articles 39,963 Authors 4,946,942 Downloads 282 Institutions

All Articles in Chemistry

Faceted Search

26,462 full-text articles. Page 3 of 721.

Exploring The Effect Of Tris Buffer Concentration On Electrochemical Biosensors, Lucas Galante 2020 University of San Francisco

Exploring The Effect Of Tris Buffer Concentration On Electrochemical Biosensors, Lucas Galante

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Electrochemical biosensors show promise in the medical field for detection of genetic mutations and could translate well into point-of-care devices. Mutations of DNA can be sensitively and accurately detected through a series of electrochemical melts in which the less stable mutated DNA melts faster than the unmutated DNA. In previous work in our laboratory, we measured the extent of this melting by using square wave voltammetry and comparing peak heights. In this work we explored the effects of varied Tris buffer concentrations (5 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM, 30 mM, 40mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM) on cyclic and square ...


Optimizing The Synthesis Of A Theranostic Rhodamine, Alessandra Maisielou Rivera, Jonathan Alexander, Nathaniel Garrison 2020 University of San Francisco

Optimizing The Synthesis Of A Theranostic Rhodamine, Alessandra Maisielou Rivera, Jonathan Alexander, Nathaniel Garrison

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Current designs for small molecule theranostics, which serve both a diagnostic and therapeutic role, often involve dyes linked to therapeutic agents through a cleavable, traceless linker. In order to facilitate the separation of the dye from the therapeutic in response to a biological or chemical stimulus, linkers must incorporate elements of molecular logic, increasing their complexity and the overall bulk of the small molecule theranostic. By combining the self-immolative molecular logic of the linker into the structure of the dye itself, we hope to create a series of smaller, more atom-economical theranostics. Rhodamine dyes, which naturally possess aromatic rings with ...


Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Cocaine Detection, Kiersten Jo Mead 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Cocaine Detection, Kiersten Jo Mead

Chemistry

The detection of drugs of abuse using Raman spectroscopy is of particular interest to forensic researchers at the moment. Raman spectroscopy is highly specific, fast, non-destructive, and can be adapted for in-situ measurements, making it the ideal forensic technique. Researchers working under the guidance of Doctor Igor Lednev have been able to use UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect cocaine in oral fluid without the need for sample pretreatment. They were however unable to detect the cocaine at forensically relevant levels. To overcome this limitation, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used in this proof of concept study for the detection ...


Resolution Of Portable Raman Spectrometers And Its Effect On The Analysis Of Biological Specimens, Jalissa Thomas 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Resolution Of Portable Raman Spectrometers And Its Effect On The Analysis Of Biological Specimens, Jalissa Thomas

Chemistry

Body fluid traces are a common and a major form of evidence that can be found at a crime scene, as it is a good source of DNA. As such, it is vital that body fluid evidence is properly detected and identified. Issues with the current methods of identifying body fluids and the large backlog of evidence in most forensic labs call for more accurate on-scene (in situ) body fluid identification. Past research has demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is an advantageous tool for accurately and quickly identifying body fluids, namely in the laboratory. Portable Raman instruments have been created to ...


Investigating The Presence Of Bpa In Infant Oral Hygiene Products Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Kaleigh Casada, Sara Hubbard 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

Investigating The Presence Of Bpa In Infant Oral Hygiene Products Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Kaleigh Casada, Sara Hubbard

Scholars Day Conference

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a chemical found in hard plastics. BPA is an endocrine disruptor as it binds to estrogen receptors. This is linked to negative health effects such as cardiovascular disease and developmental issues. Infants and young children are more at risk of these effects because their endocrine systems are not fully developed. For this project, toothbrushes were investigated to determine if they contained BPA. BPA is a fluorescent compound with an excitation wavelength of 278 nm and an emission wavelength of 304 nm, so an FS-5 spectrofluorometer from Edinburgh Instruments was used to determine the presence of BPA in ...


Effects Of Friction On Bpa Leaching In Infant Toothbrushes, Jordan R. Gills, Sara Hubbard 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

Effects Of Friction On Bpa Leaching In Infant Toothbrushes, Jordan R. Gills, Sara Hubbard

Scholars Day Conference

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound that mimics estrogen. This allows BPA to bind to estrogen receptors in the body in place of estrogen. This mistaken binding results in BPA acting as an agonist and antagonist for certain mechanisms in the body. This can result in early development, reproductive issues, and cancer. This project focused on the effects of brushing on the level of BPA by adding friction and movement to the toothbrush while it was soaking in the solution. The solution was used to draw the BPA out of the toothbrushes into the solution to make the levels testable ...


The Photodynamic Therapy Potential Of A Novel Water Soluble Gallium Porphyrin, Tiffany Koba, Cammie York 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

The Photodynamic Therapy Potential Of A Novel Water Soluble Gallium Porphyrin, Tiffany Koba, Cammie York

Scholars Day Conference

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has potential use in the treatment of cancer and other health disorders. PDT utilizes light and a photosensitive agent that once activated by light generates singlet oxygen that affects surrounding cells. Metalloporphyrins have been shown to accumulate in tumors as the result of preferential binding to low-density lipoproteins. Additionally, gallium(III) porphyrins have been shown to be effective potential photosensitizers for PDT. The goal of this research was to synthesize and characterize the novel photosensitive agent, GaTPP-DIPA, as a PDT agent. The GaTPP-DIPA was purified using column chromatography and characterized using IR, UV-Vis, and NMR spectroscopies, purity ...


Developing A New Water-Soluble Porphyrin As A Potential Photodynamic Cancer Therapy Agent, Catherine Shirley 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

Developing A New Water-Soluble Porphyrin As A Potential Photodynamic Cancer Therapy Agent, Catherine Shirley

Scholars Day Conference

Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) is a type of treatment involving the use of light in conjunction with a photosensitive agent- a chemical or series of chemicals designed for activation when exposed to light. This research project investigated the synthesis and identification of the novel photosensitive agent, H2TPP-Pro-OH. To create the water-soluble porphyrin, (S)-(+)-prolinol was reacted with the tetra-carboxyl porphyrin, H2TPPC, to form the final H2TPP-Pro-OH product. This compound was then purified using syringe filtration and column chromatography, and subsequently characterized using infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies, as well as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC ...


Adaptation Of A Low-Cost Hyperpolarization Technique For Use With Single-Sided Nmr, Ruth A. Beaver 2020 William & Mary

Adaptation Of A Low-Cost Hyperpolarization Technique For Use With Single-Sided Nmr, Ruth A. Beaver

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) suffers from inherent signal problems due to low levels of nuclear polarization at room temperature. These problems are especially prevalent in single-sided NMR, which allows for a more flexible measurement geometry and simpler, cheaper instrumentation than traditional NMR. Hyperpolarization techniques can remedy this by providing artificially high levels of polarization for a single measurement. Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) hyperpolarization is particularly advantageous, since it can be produced quickly using relatively cheap and simple instrumentation. While SABRE hyperpolarization has been successfully demonstrated with traditional NMR, it has not yet been adapted for single-sided NMR. Here ...


Determination Of Thermodynamic Properties Of Non-Protein Amino Acids And Characterization Of Multimers Of Carbamazepine, Gwendylan Turner 2020 William & Mary

Determination Of Thermodynamic Properties Of Non-Protein Amino Acids And Characterization Of Multimers Of Carbamazepine, Gwendylan Turner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study has two seemingly unrelated parts that come together remarkably in displaying the comprehensive interplay between chemical structure and properties as well as the variety of analytical applications of mass spectrometry.

The first part of this study describes the determination of thermodynamic properties of several non-protein amino acids using the extended kinetic method. This is a continuation of work started in the Poutsma lab in Spring of 2017. The non-protein amino acids (NPA) studied here hold notable relevance in their unique ability to be mis-incorporated into peptide chains, as shown by the Hartman group at Virginia Commonwealth University.[1 ...


Materials Design For High-Performance Organic Redox Flow Batteries And Electrocatalytic Carbon Dioxide And Nitrogen Reduction, Bo Hu 2020 Utah State University

Materials Design For High-Performance Organic Redox Flow Batteries And Electrocatalytic Carbon Dioxide And Nitrogen Reduction, Bo Hu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nowadays, the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energy has been realized to be a sustainable and environmentally benign strategy to alleviate the world’s severe dependency on traditional fossil fuels, and thus enables the environmental recovery and sustainable development of the economy. The massive commercialization of solar and wind energy raises the demands for advanced energy storage technologies, among which the redox flow battery has been recognized as a promising solution due to it is low cost, safe, environmentally benign, and easy to be scaled up. All vanadium redox flow battery stands for the most ...


Hot Electron Chemistry On Bimetallic Plasmonic Nanoparticles, Bryn E. Merrill, Bingjie Zhang, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Hot Electron Chemistry On Bimetallic Plasmonic Nanoparticles, Bryn E. Merrill, Bingjie Zhang, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Catalysis provides pathways for efficient and selective chemical reactions through the lowering of energy barriers for desired products. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) show excellent promise as plasmonic catalysts. Localized surface plasmon resonances are oscillations of the electron bath at the surface of a nanoparticle that generate energetically intense electric fields and rapidly decay into energetically excited electrons. The excited electrons have the potential to destabilize strongly bound oxygen atoms through occupation of accessible anti-bonding orbitals. Tuning the anti-bonding orbitals to make them accessible for occupancy will be achieved by coating the AuNP in a thin layer of another transition metal, such ...


X-Panding Halogen Bonding Interactions: Hybrid Cocrystals Composed Of Ionic Halides, Iodine And Organoiodines, Khadijatul Kobra 2020 Clemson University

X-Panding Halogen Bonding Interactions: Hybrid Cocrystals Composed Of Ionic Halides, Iodine And Organoiodines, Khadijatul Kobra

All Dissertations

Halogen bonding referred to as an attractive, noncovalent interaction between an electrophilic region of a halogen atom X (acts as Lewis acid) and a nucleophilic region of a molecule Y (acts as Lewis base). Such interactions and the resulting polymeric networks play an important role in many fields related to crystal engineering, including for example, the fabrication of liquid crystals and novel drug design. The application of halogen bonding has particular promise in biological systems by increasing the lipophilicity of drugs to improve penetration through lipid membranes and tissues, enabling better intracellular delivery.

Based on this concept, my research at ...


Mesoporous Adsorbents For Perfluorinated Compounds, Bertha Lotsi 2020 East Tennessee State University

Mesoporous Adsorbents For Perfluorinated Compounds, Bertha Lotsi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Effective adsorbents for polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were successfully prepared. And they were tested in the adsorption of perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctanesulfonic acids. Bridged silsesquioxanes containing secondary and tertiary amino groups were synthesized by sol-gel condensation of bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine and bis[3-(methylamino)propyl]-trimethoxysilane in acidic media with surfactants. Obtained materials are mesoporous with a high BET surface area. They combine high structural stability with a high concentration of surface amino groups serving as adsorption sites. Batch adsorption tests demonstrated their extremely high adsorption capacity on PFCs: in some experiments, it reached up to 88% of the adsorbent ...


Photocatalytic Carbon Dioxide Reduction With Zinc(Ii) Dipyrrin Photosensitizers And Iron Catalyst, Senan Rasheed 2020 East Tennessee State University

Photocatalytic Carbon Dioxide Reduction With Zinc(Ii) Dipyrrin Photosensitizers And Iron Catalyst, Senan Rasheed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Much of the energy used in the United States and around the globe is obtained from petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction can be used to transform CO2 to useful fuels and making fossil fuels more renewable. Input of energy is required, and the sun can provide the required energy for this transformation. Photosensitizer, catalyst, and electron donor are required for photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

Due to lack of earth-abundant sensitizers, zinc dipyrrin complexes were synthesized by previous group members and have been used as photosensitizers in this research. The ground and excited state electrochemical properties ...


Immobilization Of Phosphotungstic Acid On Silica Surface For Catalytic Alkylation Of Aromatic Compounds, Anastasia Kuvayskaya 2020 East Tennessee State University

Immobilization Of Phosphotungstic Acid On Silica Surface For Catalytic Alkylation Of Aromatic Compounds, Anastasia Kuvayskaya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Superacidic mesoporous materials containing covalently embedded PTA were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were used as precursors in the synthesis, ionic and nonionic surfactants were used as pore-forming agents, the reaction proceeded in acidic media. TEM images revealed mesoporous structure with embedded PTA clusters. FT-IR spectra of obtained materials contained characteristic bands of PTA at 957 cm-1. Synthesized catalysts had high BET surface area and high concentration of acidic sites. Alkylation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene by 1-decene demonstrated high catalytic activity. The catalyst obtained with Pluronic P123 as a template was the most effective ...


Chemical Transformation Of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosols Due To Photolytic Aging, Hongmin Yu 2020 William & Mary

Chemical Transformation Of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosols Due To Photolytic Aging, Hongmin Yu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), organic aerosol that derived from burning of biomass fuels, has been a major research focus because of its special role in the global budget of atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing. Due to its chemical complexity, there are gaps in our knowledge about the chemical aging processes of BBOA in the atmosphere. Since many photochemical aging experiments on BBOA are usually conducted for only a few hours, less is known about the photo-aging pathways of the system over an extended timescale. This study presents the analyses of three BBOA filter samples derived from three types of ...


A Study And Synthesis : Bronze Compounds, Patricia Rose Olsen 2020 Montclair State University

A Study And Synthesis : Bronze Compounds, Patricia Rose Olsen

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

The focus of this thesis is the investigation of ternary and quaternary reduced metal oxide compounds termed “bronzes.” The name bronze originally arose from the metallic-like luster of these compounds. Examples of these compounds range from sodium tungsten oxides to the more complex potassium cesium molybdenum oxides. These compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature.

The “bronzes” are compounds that have been studied since their initial synthesis by Wohler in 1824. These compounds belong to a class of compounds that are known as “nonstoichiometric” compounds. The general formula for reduced ternary transition metal oxides is AxMyOz. In this general formula ...


Raman Spectroscopic And Quantum Chemical Investigation Of The Effects Of Tri-Methylamine N-Oxide (Tmao) On Hydrated Urea, Hydrated Guanidinium, And Hydrogen Bonded Networks, Genevieve Verville 2020 University of Mississippi

Raman Spectroscopic And Quantum Chemical Investigation Of The Effects Of Tri-Methylamine N-Oxide (Tmao) On Hydrated Urea, Hydrated Guanidinium, And Hydrogen Bonded Networks, Genevieve Verville

Honors Theses

Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO), guanidinium, and urea are three important

osmolytes with their main significance to the biophysical field being in how they

uniquely interact with proteins. TMAO is known to stabilize and counteract the

destabilizing effects of both urea and guanidinium. The exact mechanisms by which

TMAO stabilizes and both guanidinium and urea destabilize folded proteins continue

to be debated in the literature. Some studies suggest that solvent interactions do not

play a large role in TMAO’s stabilizing effects and therefore advocate direct

stabilization, whereas others suggest that TMAO counteracts denaturation primarily

through an indirect effect of strong solvent ...


Synthesis Of Amide And Sulfonamides As Pde11 Inhibitors, Noor Abouchakra 2020 Montclair State University

Synthesis Of Amide And Sulfonamides As Pde11 Inhibitors, Noor Abouchakra

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

With increasing age, individuals begin to experience cognitive decline, especially memory deficits. Given the lack of effective treatments for memory loss, a new promising approach includes targeting second messenger systems that play a critical role in cognitive processes by inhibiting phosphodiesterases (PDEs), specifically PDE11A since its expression is restricted to the brain. PDE11A is responsible for regulating levels of second messengers, such as cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which participate in several biochemical processes relating to long term memory function. Since these signaling cascades are controlled by PDEs that result in turning off the signaling pathway, inhibiting phosphodiesterases will lead ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress