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Suzuki Coupling Catalyzed By (8-(Dimesitylboryl)Quinoline)Palladium(0) Species: A Theoretical Analysis, Haley S. Rust 2021 University of South Dakota

Suzuki Coupling Catalyzed By (8-(Dimesitylboryl)Quinoline)Palladium(0) Species: A Theoretical Analysis, Haley S. Rust

Honors Thesis

The Suzuki reaction is a catalyzed cross-coupling reaction which is of upmost importance in the formation of carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds in modern organic synthesis. Recently a new catalyst including an 8-(dimesitylboryl)quinoline for the coupling of aryl halides with phenylboronic acids was synthetized. We synthesized ligand that includes a frustrated Lewis pair, (quinolin-8-yl)dimesitylborane (DMBQ), complexed it with group X metals (nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt)), and studied the process of oxidative addition with carbon-fluorine (C-F) bonds and activation towards Suzuki coupling. Mayer bond analysis and electron localization function maps showed a bond between the boron center ...


Investigations Into Effects Of Modified Prolines On Cis-Trans Isomers And Polypeptide Secondary Structure & Prediction Of Spectroscopic Properties Of Phthalonitriles For Characterization, Jeffrey Raab 2021 Seton Hall University

Investigations Into Effects Of Modified Prolines On Cis-Trans Isomers And Polypeptide Secondary Structure & Prediction Of Spectroscopic Properties Of Phthalonitriles For Characterization, Jeffrey Raab

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Proline is a unique amino acid because it is the only amino acid whose side chain wraps around and bonds back to the peptide backbone. This ring shape helps proteins form conformations which would otherwise not be possible such as hairpin turns. The cis/trans isomerization of the peptide bond between the preceding amino acid (Xaa) and Proline is important in determining how the secondary structure folds. Thus, being able to control the cis/trans isomerization is important when a specific conformation is desired; Proline can be modified to get make the equilibrium shift whichever way is needed. The ...


Computational Investigation Of Stellar Cooling, Noble Gas Nucleation, And Organic Molecular Spectra, Jax Dallas 2021 University of Mississippi

Computational Investigation Of Stellar Cooling, Noble Gas Nucleation, And Organic Molecular Spectra, Jax Dallas

Honors Theses

Since the advent and optimization of the Hartree-Fock method, quantum chemistry has been utilized to investigate systems operating on timeframes and environments traditionally unavailable to bench-top chemistry. As computational methods have grown more robust and less time consuming, quantum chemistry has been utilized to investigate a range of fields, including the steadily growing discipline of computational astrochemistry. Through the lens of computational astrochemistry, chemistry that occurred billions of years ago can be explored with equal clarity to that which is currently happening in the cosmos. The work presented throughout this thesis is a series of investigations into different timeframes of ...


The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian

Honors Theses

Healthy levels of potassium chloride (KCl) can significantly affect the workings of the cholesterol level of the human body and how they pertain to an individual person. The search for a better salt additive for the human diet can provide a better option for people who experience high cholesterol levels and heart disease. The study focuses on the experimental design of the Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) in the potassium ion solution environment to determine the stability and folding of the protein. The study also compares its data to the previous experimental design of chloride ions ...


Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg

Honors Theses

Apopliprotein or ApoA-1 is a complex lipoprotein that functions in the removal of cholesterol from the blood, removing cholesterol from the area around white blood cells and promoting the excretion of lipids through the lymphatic system. Previous research has found that ApoA-1 shows both folded and unfolded conformations depending on the concentration of NaCl in solution in the water around it. The protein was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Once this state of equilibrium was reached, various structural properties of the protein were measured including the radius of gyration and the radial distribution function. The goal of the project was ...


Understanding Shear Thinning Using Brownian Dynamics Simulation, Mackenzie Nicole Wall 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Understanding Shear Thinning Using Brownian Dynamics Simulation, Mackenzie Nicole Wall

Honors Theses

In this work, we study the changes in structure during the shear thinning regime using Brownian Dynamics with a simple steady-state shear flow of binary charged colloidal suspension. Previous research has analyzed the viscosity, radial distribution, elasticity and plasticity of materials with rheo-SANS experimentation; however, less research has been conducted to replicate the experiment through computer simulations. With Brownian Dynamic Simulation, this study was able to reproduce the results obtained in a recent rheo-SANS experiment and it also explored the viscosity, radial distribution, elastic and plastic behavior of a system under different parameters. The comparison of simulated data with experimental ...


Spectroscopic Analysis Of Potential Astromolecules Via Quantum Chemical Quartic Force Fields, Mason Gardner 2021 University of Mississippi

Spectroscopic Analysis Of Potential Astromolecules Via Quantum Chemical Quartic Force Fields, Mason Gardner

Honors Theses

Astrochemistry has been substantially aided by computational techniques, particularly through the use of Quartic Force Field (QFF) analysis. Several methods have proven useful at correlating computed spectroscopic data with experimental observations. The F12-TZ QFF correlated well with experimental data for silicon oxide compounds, particularly those potentially involved in development from rocky bodies to planetary masses [27]. Compared to argon matrix experimental data, the vibrational frequencies for the molecules SiO2, SiO3, Si2O3, and Si2O4 become less accurate as the complexity of the molecules increases but should still be predictive of infrared characteristics of silicon oxides as they form clusters in space ...


062— Nano-Size Dependence In Aggregation Process Of Beta 2 Microglobulin Coated Gold Colloids, Kaylee A. Hausrath 2021 SUNY Geneseo

062— Nano-Size Dependence In Aggregation Process Of Beta 2 Microglobulin Coated Gold Colloids, Kaylee A. Hausrath

GREAT Day

The formation of the aggregates of the beta 2 microglobulin (b2m) coated nano-gold colloids were investigated for various nanogold colloid sizes ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm. The aggregation process was considered to be initiated by the selfassembly of b2m by transforming the folded to the unfolded structure under highly acidic condition (pH < 4). The formation of the aggregates were monitored by a peak shift of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band as a function of number of free b2m available. As for relatively smaller size of gold colloid diameter a gradual aggregation process was observed. The size of the aggregates was considered to increase monotonically as the b2m was added. On the other hand, as for relatively larger diameter of gold colloid, stepwise aggregation process was observed. So that the aggregates of a particular size was formed at a certain threshold of the concentration of available free b2m. The majority of the gold surface of the smaller gold size was easily covered and support the aggregation even at the lower concentration of b2m.


Direct Detection Of 5-Mev Protons By Flexible Organic Thin-Film Devices, Ilaria Fratelli, Andrea Ciavatti, Enrico Zanazzi, Laura Basiricò, Massimo Chiari, Laura Fabbri, John E. Anthony, Alberto Quaranta, Beatrice Fraboni 2021 University of Bologna, Italy

Direct Detection Of 5-Mev Protons By Flexible Organic Thin-Film Devices, Ilaria Fratelli, Andrea Ciavatti, Enrico Zanazzi, Laura Basiricò, Massimo Chiari, Laura Fabbri, John E. Anthony, Alberto Quaranta, Beatrice Fraboni

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The direct detection of 5-MeV protons by flexible organic detectors based on thin films is here demonstrated. The organic devices act as a solid-state detector, in which the energy released by the protons within the active layer of the sensor is converted into an electrical current. These sensors can quantitatively and reliably measure the dose of protons impinging on the sensor both in real time and in integration mode. This study shows how to detect and exploit the energy absorbed both by the organic semiconducting layer and by the plastic substrate, allowing to extrapolate information on the present and past ...


Acid Catalyzed Small Ring Alcohols And Alkenes: An Artistic Approach To Visualizing Relationships Between Features Produced By Uv-Visible Spectra, Madeleine Ware 2021 Southern Adventist University

Acid Catalyzed Small Ring Alcohols And Alkenes: An Artistic Approach To Visualizing Relationships Between Features Produced By Uv-Visible Spectra, Madeleine Ware

Campus Research Day

Madeleine Ware

Research Description

Campus Research Day

My physical organic chemistry research was supervised by Dr. Mitch Menzmer who studies the formation of carbocation intermediates in acid-catalyzed reactions of alkylated and non-alkylated small ring alcohols. The goal of my work was to compile data and develop methods to search for relationships between the initial structures of molecules analyzed and the wavelengths of maximum absorbance for features observed within a given spectrum. In addition, my advisor from the School of Visual Art and Design, Associate Professor Marc Boyson, contributed to this process by providing insights about the way information could be ...


Nitro Group Reduction For Use In Organic, Cathodic Materials, Brock G. Goeden 2021 University of South Dakota

Nitro Group Reduction For Use In Organic, Cathodic Materials, Brock G. Goeden

Honors Thesis

The industrial demand for higher capacity, light-weight battery materials has skyrocketed in recent years due to heavy investments in portable electronics, electronic vehicles, and renewable energy sources. However, rechargeable battery technology has seen little improvement since the invention of the Lithium-Ion battery in the 1980s. The low energy density of the traditionally utilized LiCoO2 cathodic material (specific capacity: 272 mAh g-1), has limited its potential to meet these increasing demands. To solve this problem, our research group is investigating new types of lightweight, organic, polymeric materials with conductive backbones as a possible replacement for the cathodic materials in Lithium-Ion batteries ...


A Spectroscopic And Computational Study Of Diacetyl And Water Clusters, Margaret Baldwin 2021 University of Mississippi

A Spectroscopic And Computational Study Of Diacetyl And Water Clusters, Margaret Baldwin

Honors Theses

Diacetyl, otherwise known as 1,2-butadione or biacetyl, is a flavor additive used in microwave popcorn, and more importantly as of late, e-cigarettes. The compound is known to cause lung disease for those who have been exposed to a large quantity of the buttery smelling molecule. As such, the characterization of diacetyl’s vibrational modes when it interacts with water are pivotal to understanding the effects it has on human lung tissue. In this research, the intermolecular interactions between water and diacetyl and the effects they have on one another’s vibrational modes are explored. While some experimental data is ...


Products Of An Acid-Catalyzed 1-Methylcyclopentene Reaction, Erin Burke 2021 Southern Adventist University

Products Of An Acid-Catalyzed 1-Methylcyclopentene Reaction, Erin Burke

Campus Research Day

The poster presents research on the alternate products produced from 1-methylcyclopentene across different concentrations of sulfuric acid catalyst.


Non-Linear Effects Of Solution Parameters And Gamma Radiation On Nickel Oxidation Dynamics, Razieh Karimihaghighi 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Non-Linear Effects Of Solution Parameters And Gamma Radiation On Nickel Oxidation Dynamics, Razieh Karimihaghighi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nickel is the main component in nickel-based superalloys which are known for their superior corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. These alloys are used in nuclear power plants, mainly for thin-walled heat exchanger tubing where these materials are exposed to a continuous flux of ionizing radiation. The long-term corrosion behaviour of these alloys at high temperatures and in the presence of gamma-radiation is not well understood. Moreover, the mechanism by which nickel improves the corrosion resistance of these alloys is also not known. Therefore, a mechanistic understanding of the nickel oxidation process is required to develop a predictive corrosion model for ...


Localization Of Nonblinking Point Sources Using Higher-Order-Mode Detection And Optical Heterodyning: Developing A Strategy For Extending The Scope Of Molecular, Super-Resolution Imaging, Kaylan Santra, Viet Nguyen, Emily A. Smith, Jacob W. Petrich, Xueyu Song 2021 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Localization Of Nonblinking Point Sources Using Higher-Order-Mode Detection And Optical Heterodyning: Developing A Strategy For Extending The Scope Of Molecular, Super-Resolution Imaging, Kaylan Santra, Viet Nguyen, Emily A. Smith, Jacob W. Petrich, Xueyu Song

Chemistry Publications

While the stochastic, “blinking” nature of fluorescent systems has enabled the super-resolution of their localization by the fitting of their point-spread functions (PSFs), this strategy cannot be exploited for similar resolution of “nonblinking” systems, such as those that might be encountered in a coherent Raman experiment. An alternative method for subdiffraction-limited imaging lies in the exploitation of optical heterodyning. For example, if a Gaussian PSF (a TEM00 mode) of a point emitter is displaced with respect to the origin of the optical system, photons in the higher-order TEM modes carry information about that displacement. Information concerning the displacement can be ...


A Systematic Way To Extend The Debye–Hückel Theory Beyond Dilute Electrolyte Solutions, Tiejun Xiao, Xueyu Song 2021 Guizhou Education University

A Systematic Way To Extend The Debye–Hückel Theory Beyond Dilute Electrolyte Solutions, Tiejun Xiao, Xueyu Song

Chemistry Publications

An extended Debye–Hückel theory with fourth order gradient term is developed for electrolyte solutions; namely, the electric potential φ(r) of the bulk electrolyte solution can be described by ∇2φ(r) = κ2φ(r) + LQ2∇4φ(r), where the parameters κ and LQ are chosen to reproduce the first two roots of the dielectric response function of the bulk solution. Three boundary conditions for solving the electric potential problem are proposed based upon the continuity conditions of involving functions at the dielectric boundary, with which a boundary element method for the electric potential of a solute with ...


Indolizine Donor-Based Dyes For Applications In Fluorescence Biological Imaging, William Meador 2021 University of Mississippi

Indolizine Donor-Based Dyes For Applications In Fluorescence Biological Imaging, William Meador

Honors Theses

NIR emissive fluorophores are intensely researched due to their potential to replace modern imaging procedures. Many molecular strategies have been employed in the literature to optimize fluorophores for deeper NIR absorption and emission, biocompatibility, and higher fluorescence quantum yields. Amongst the fluorophores studied to date, proaromatic indolizine donors are attractive alternatives to traditional alkyl amine and indoline based donors due to their 1) lower energy absorption and emission facilitated by proaromaticity, 2) large Stokes shifts due to increased dihedral angles about the π-system, 3) ease of functionalization and capacity for bioconjugation at the phenyl ring, and 4) potential for further ...


Investigation Of Co3o4 And Lacoo3 Interaction By Performing N2o Decomposition Tests Under Co3o4-Coo Transition Temperature, Ewa M. Iwanek (nee Wilczkowska), Leonarda F. Liotta, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Krzysztof Krawczyk, Ewa Gdyra, Jan Petryk, Janusz W. Sobczak, Zbigniew Kaszkur 2021 Sheridan College

Investigation Of Co3o4 And Lacoo3 Interaction By Performing N2o Decomposition Tests Under Co3o4-Coo Transition Temperature, Ewa M. Iwanek (Nee Wilczkowska), Leonarda F. Liotta, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Krzysztof Krawczyk, Ewa Gdyra, Jan Petryk, Janusz W. Sobczak, Zbigniew Kaszkur

Publications and Scholarship

The research presented in this paper addresses the question: How does the addition of a small amount of LaCoO3 impact the activity of a Co3O4 catalyst? By testing such a catalyst in N2O decomposition under conditions at which the thermal decomposition of Co3O4 to CoO is possible, one gains unique insight into how the two phases interact. The activity of such a catalyst increases in the entire studied temperature range, unlike the activity of the undoped cobalt catalyst which is lower at 850 °C than at 800 °C due to the ...


Galvanic Corrosion Of Carbon Steel Coupled To Copper In Used Nuclear Fuel Containers, Lindsay J. Braithwaite 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Galvanic Corrosion Of Carbon Steel Coupled To Copper In Used Nuclear Fuel Containers, Lindsay J. Braithwaite

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Deep geological containment of used nuclear fuel will rely on multiple engineered and natural barriers, two of which are the copper-coated used fuel containers and the compacted bentonite clay buffer boxes in which the containers will rest. This work focused on possible galvanic interactions between the copper coating and the steel substrate of the container, which may occur at a hypothetical through-coating defect. In the presence of various amounts of chloride, bentonite, and oxygen, corrosion of the copper/carbon steel couple was studied using electrochemical tests complemented by surface characterization and 3D X-ray imaging. We investigated the effects of copper-to-steel ...


Oxygen Binding Thermodynamics Of Human Hemoglobin In The Red Blood Cell, Kyle K. Hill 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Oxygen Binding Thermodynamics Of Human Hemoglobin In The Red Blood Cell, Kyle K. Hill

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

We report for the first time the binding constants and Hill numbers for oxygen in the red blood cell under physiological conditions. When compared to our results for hemoglobin in solution, our results show conclusively that hemoglobin binds oxygen more tightly and with lower co-operativity when packed in the red blood cell. At 18°C, these differences are striking: the respective half-saturation values are 15.57 µM (in red blood cells) and 18.83 µM (in solution), with corresponding Hill numbers of 2.475 (in red blood cells) and 2.949 (in solution). The optical complications that arise from high ...


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