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Isolation And Purification Of Lignin In Willow Wood, Nathaniel Dietlin 2020 Grand Valley State University

Isolation And Purification Of Lignin In Willow Wood, Nathaniel Dietlin

Student Scholars Day Posters

Currently increasing amounts of time and energy are spent in search for renewable resources with increasing focus on biomass. Of particular interest is the extraction and chemical ‘reforming’ of the lignin, a naturally occurring abundant organic polymer. If separated from cellulose and depolymerized, lignin could become a rich resource of chemicals. This project focuses on lignin separation from willow wood collected form GVSU agricultural project lot, and its purification. The lignin extracted from wood was analyzed via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. By comparing the IR results from four different willow wood to available literature data, it was confirmed that lignin was ...


Structure-Activity Relationship Of Novel Diphenyl Ureas Targeting Mycobacterium, Piper Burghduf 2020 Grand Valley State University

Structure-Activity Relationship Of Novel Diphenyl Ureas Targeting Mycobacterium, Piper Burghduf

Student Scholars Day Posters

In 2017, the World Health Organization reported that 10 million people were infected with tuberculosis, 1.6 million of whom died. Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which primarily infects an individual’s lungs. Unfortunately, failure to adhere to the long and arduous drug regimen has contributed to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, the need for novel antibiotics is imperative to saving millions of lives. Our lab has recently developed a family of diphenyl ureas that exhibited increased antimicrobial activity toward Mycobacterium. Reported herein is the continuation of our previous research involving the ...


Synthesis Of Β-C-Glycosidic Ketones From Unprotected Sugars And Their Use In Aldol Condensations With Hydroxymethylfurfural, Jon Chiaramonte 2020 Grand Valley State University

Synthesis Of Β-C-Glycosidic Ketones From Unprotected Sugars And Their Use In Aldol Condensations With Hydroxymethylfurfural, Jon Chiaramonte

Student Scholars Day Posters

C-glycosides are a growing interest in synthetic chemistry for their use in the pharmaceutical industry as important drug pharmacophores and their potential use in chemical industry as surfactants. Previous literature describes the synthesis of C-glycosides using many steps and toxic reagents, often involving the use of protecting groups. The extra steps result in lower yields, require more reagents and produce more waste, which limits the environmental sustainability of the overall synthesis. This study aimed to reproduce the literature synthesis of β-C-glycosidic ketones from acetylacetone and monosaccharides without the use of protecting groups. These ketones were further reacted in aldol condensations ...


Structural And Functional Characterization Of New Clinically Relevant Enzymes Involved In Antibiotic Resistance, Violet Ruiz 2020 Grand Valley State University

Structural And Functional Characterization Of New Clinically Relevant Enzymes Involved In Antibiotic Resistance, Violet Ruiz

Student Scholars Day Posters

The rise of antibiotic resistance is a global health threat requiring development of novel treatments. β-lactamase enzymes found in many multi-drug resistant bacteria contribute to resistance of β-lactam antibiotics. The enzyme cleaves the β-lactam ring, preventing the drug from reaching its cellular target. A class of β-lactamases, Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases (ADCs) are found in the multi-drug resistant bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii. Specific ADCs were selected from a group of antibiotic-resistant infections. With no known structures of these newly identified ADCs, it is key to discern how minor differences in sequences between ADCs contribute to drug resistance. In this project, structural and ...


Structural And Functional Characterization Of New Clinically Relevant Enzymes Involved In Antibiotic Resistance, Micah Fernando 2020 Grand Valley State University

Structural And Functional Characterization Of New Clinically Relevant Enzymes Involved In Antibiotic Resistance, Micah Fernando

Student Scholars Day Posters

Resistance to β-lactam drugs such as penicillins and cephalosporins has become a worldwide health problem. The World Health Organization has listed multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as requiring “top priority for new antibiotic development.” Such antibiotic resistance derives primarily from β-lactamases, including Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase (ADC), which bind and destroy antibiotics. A recent study of clinical A. baumannii infections identified the most prevalent ADC β-lactamases conveying antibiotic resistance. This research study seeks to determine the structure and function of two clinical ADC variants: ADC-30 and ADC-162. Using X-ray crystallography and enzyme kinetics, we aim to relate the small changes in structure to ...


Testing The Ancestral Function Of Divergent Candida Albicans Virulence-Associated Proteins Via Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mutants, Curtis Mack 2020 Grand Valley State University

Testing The Ancestral Function Of Divergent Candida Albicans Virulence-Associated Proteins Via Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mutants, Curtis Mack

Student Scholars Day Posters

Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a member of the normal human microbiota. It is closely related to the harmless fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some genes associated with the virulent nature of C. albicans are similar to genes in S. cerevisiae. Three of these genes, PHO13, NRG1, and TUP1 are known to repress the change from yeast to filamentous growth in C. albicans, an important virulence trait. However, similar genes in S. cerevisiae are known to have functional differences. Our goal was to see if the ancestral function of these genes have drifted apart by examining the expression of ...


Direct Arylation Polymerization Of Indophenine-Based Monomers, Sarah Severson 2020 University of Minnesota, Morris

Direct Arylation Polymerization Of Indophenine-Based Monomers, Sarah Severson

Student Research, Papers, and Creative Works

Indophenine, a deep blue dye and a quinoidal compound, has shown potential as a monomer in donor-acceptor copolymer formation for use in energy and device applications. Despite the barrier of low solubility, we previously polymerized an indophenine-based monomer IQ to form PolyIQ-co-thiophene (PIQ) in a 95% yield using Stille coupling. Although PIQ has desirable electronic properties, Stille coupling is a particularly unsustainable method. In contrast, direct arylation polymerization (DArP) is a more sustainable polymerization method that reduces synthetic steps and toxic byproducts. Therefore, we now report the DArP of IQ to form PolyIQ-co-ProDOT (ProPIQ) in a 96% yield. ProPIQ boasts ...


Using Electrocoagulation To Remove Perfluoroalkyl And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) From Contaminated Water, Amy Yanagida 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using Electrocoagulation To Remove Perfluoroalkyl And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) From Contaminated Water, Amy Yanagida

UCARE Research Products

Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a family of manmade chemicals that are used to improve the quality of several commercial products by making them resistant to heat, oil, stains, grease and water. Unfortunately, the chemical properties that make PFAS useful from an industrial perspective also make them mobile and recalcitrant once released into the environment. We used electrocoagulation to run a direct current through contaminated water to generate a zinc floc to precipiate PFAS out of water.


Periodic Table Club, Makayla Gill, Kailynn Jensen 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Periodic Table Club, Makayla Gill, Kailynn Jensen

Honors Expanded Learning Clubs

This club is dedicated to teaching the generation of future scientists the periodic table. This is designed to be a unique take on a STEM club that uses the periodic table as a backbone for a solid foundation in chemistry.


Sulfur Dioxide From The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Satellite, Doug Cameron 2020 Old Dominion University

Sulfur Dioxide From The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Satellite, Doug Cameron

College of Sciences Posters

The version 4.0 dataset from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on SCISAT, released in March of 2019, has sulfur dioxide (SO2) volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles as a routine data product. From this dataset, global SO2 distributions between the altitudes of 10.5 km and 23.5 km are analyzed. The global distribution of all SO2 VMR data by altitude is broken down into 30° and 5° latitude zones. Seasonality of the global SO2 distribution is explored. Volcanic SO2 plumes are isolated in the dataset and compared with extinction data from ...


Thiol-Ene Click Chemistry For Solid State Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Upconversion And Parts-Per-Billion Pyrophosphate Sensing In Artificial Seawater, Abagail K. Williams 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Thiol-Ene Click Chemistry For Solid State Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Upconversion And Parts-Per-Billion Pyrophosphate Sensing In Artificial Seawater, Abagail K. Williams

Master's Theses

Thiol-ene click chemistry is a robust approach to molecularly engineering polymers for many applications. Within this work, thiol-ene click chemistry is used to fabricate thiol-ene networks for TTA-UC and to synthesize a conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) used as a pyrophosphate (PPi) sensor in complex aqueous media. Chapter I focuses on the synthesis and upconversion performance of rubbery networks fabricated using thiol-ene click photopolymerization. The advancement of triplet-triplet annihilation based upconversion (TTA-UC) in emerging technologies necessitates the development of solid-state systems that are readily accessible and broadly applicable. We demonstrate that thiol-ene click chemistry can be used as a facile cure-on-demand synthetic ...


Heavy-Atom Tunneling, Samuel Powell 2020 Ohio Northern University

Heavy-Atom Tunneling, Samuel Powell

Honors Capstone Enhancement Presentations

No abstract provided.


Investigation On The Morphology Of Charge-Transfer Complexes In Low Density Polyethylene, Wade Korf 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Investigation On The Morphology Of Charge-Transfer Complexes In Low Density Polyethylene, Wade Korf

Master's Theses

Fillers are used ubiquitously throughout the fields of polymer and material science to overcome many inherent limitations to polymeric materials (i.e. poor stiffness or strength) and to expand their potential applications. There is a need to develop controllable particle architectures to better understand fundamental structure-property relationships in particle reinforced polymer composites. Charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) can assemble in situ into various needle and dendritic shapes via simple fabrication processes and at low loading levels. In this study, the effect of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) CTC crystallites of various shapes and sizes on composite mechanical properties was ...


Huisgen 1,3-Dipolar Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition “Click” Reaction In Polymer Synthesis And Curing, Jie Wu 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Huisgen 1,3-Dipolar Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition “Click” Reaction In Polymer Synthesis And Curing, Jie Wu

Dissertations

This dissertation’s key focus is on utilizing Huisgen 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition (AAC) reaction in copolymer synthesis and modification, including thermoplastic block copolymer and commercially available two-component polyurethane system. It can be divided into two major projects, introduced as follows.

The first project involves the development of a modular synthetic approach toward polyisobutylene (PIB)-based triphasic pentablock thermoplastic elastomer with enhanced moisture permeability. This terpolymer consists of a poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) core and appended hydrophilic polymer blocks (HBs). The SIBS core was synthesized via living cationic polymerization (LCP) of isobutylene followed by sequential addition of ...


Geochemical Tracers Of Arctic Ocean Processes: A Study Of Gallium, Barium, And Vanadium, Laura M. Whitmore 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

Geochemical Tracers Of Arctic Ocean Processes: A Study Of Gallium, Barium, And Vanadium, Laura M. Whitmore

Dissertations

The Arctic Ocean is linked to the global oceans and climate through its connectivity with the North Atlantic Ocean and the regional thermohaline deep water formation sites. It’s also a region undergoing rapid environmental change. To inform the community of potential changes in geochemical and biogeochemical cycles, this dissertation addresses three dissolved geochemical tracers (gallium, barium, and vanadium) as indicators of Arctic Ocean processes. Gallium is tested as a replacement for nutrient-type tracers in an effort to deconvolve Pacific and Atlantic derived waters in the Arctic Ocean basins. These water masses carry different heat and salt content and can ...


Mathematical And Physical Description Of Conical Intersections, Nicholas Dewey 2020 Grand Valley State University

Mathematical And Physical Description Of Conical Intersections, Nicholas Dewey

Honors Projects

Conical intersections (CIs) are points of degeneracy between two or more potential energy surfaces. Due to the intersection point, it is much easier for molecules to transition their electronic, vibrational, and rotational energies between surfaces. Therefore, CIs are critical to the study of excited states, particularly in the context of photochemistry. However, they are difficult to study because they interfere with traditional thermodynamics and deviate from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The purpose of this review is to explain why that is the case by exploring the foundation for the mathematics and physics behind CIs. Also included is an application of how ...


Current And Future Applications Of 3d Printing Using Custom-Made Materials, Bridger T. Irons 2020 University of South Dakota

Current And Future Applications Of 3d Printing Using Custom-Made Materials, Bridger T. Irons

Honors Thesis

The use of 3D printers has increased exponentially from its inception in the 1980s. Recently, the ability to design and create detailed objects has drawn the attention of many who wish to capitalize on this highly customizable process. With much of the focus in this industry being placed on finding new printable materials, many are overlooking the possibility of modifying existing materials. The aim of our research was to modify the materials already being used by 3D printers to alter their properties and explore future possible applications. We examined the addition of graphene powder, carbon microfibers, and other nanoparticles to ...


Hybrid Metal/Covalent Organic Frameworks For Solar Fuel Conversion, sizhuo yang 2020 Marquette University

Hybrid Metal/Covalent Organic Frameworks For Solar Fuel Conversion, Sizhuo Yang

Dissertations (2009 -)

Due to the harsh environment issues such as air pollution and global warming and global energy crisis raised by using fossil fuels, it is urgent to find an alternative sustainable energy source. How to utilize solar energy-the most clean and abundant energy source on earth is challenging. Convert solar energy to clean fuel energy like H2 or hydrocarbons is ideal energy conversion strategy. Thus, design new materials for hydrogen generation or CO2 reduction have attract researcher’s attention.The present study focuses on two types of materials of interest, the first of which is Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), including enhancing ...


Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Non-Covalent Interactions In S-Nitrosothiols And Thio-Carboxylic Acids, Niloufar Hendinejad 2020 Marquette University

Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Non-Covalent Interactions In S-Nitrosothiols And Thio-Carboxylic Acids, Niloufar Hendinejad

Dissertations (2009 -)

S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are ubiquitous biomolecules whose chemistry is tightly controlled in unknown. In this work, we demonstrate, using high-level ab initio and DFT calculations, the ability of RSNOs to participate in intermolecular interactions with electron pair donors/Lewis bases (LBs) via a σ-hole, a region of positive electrostatic potential on the molecular surface at the extension of the N–S bond. Analysis of the nature of the intermolecular interactions in σ-hole bound RSNO-LB complexes shows the dominant role of electrostatic and dispersion interactions. Importantly, σ-hole binding is able to modulate the properties of RSNOs by changing the balance between two ...


Developing A New Water-Soluble Porphyrin As A Potential Photodynamic Cancer Therapy Agent, Catherine Shirley 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

Developing A New Water-Soluble Porphyrin As A Potential Photodynamic Cancer Therapy Agent, Catherine Shirley

Honors Theses

Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) is a type of treatment involving the use of light in conjunction with a photosensitive agent- a chemical or series of chemicals designed for activation when exposed to light. This research project investigated the synthesis and identification of the novel photosensitive agent, H2TPP-Pro-OH. To create the water-soluble porphyrin, (S)-(+)-prolinol was reacted with the tetra-carboxyl porphyrin, H2TPPC, to form the final H2TPP-Pro-OH product. This compound was then purified using syringe filtration and column chromatography, and subsequently characterized using infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies, as well as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC ...


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