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Functionalized Silica Gel For Adsorption Of Cesium From Solution, Kenneth Marshall Seaton III 2017 East Tennessee State University

Functionalized Silica Gel For Adsorption Of Cesium From Solution, Kenneth Marshall Seaton Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mesoporous silica gel containing embedded phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was synthesized by sol-gel co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate with PTA in acidic media. The obtained material had high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Theory (BET) surface area and pore volume. A characteristic band of the Keggin structure of PTA was present in its FT-IR spectrum while its X-ray diffraction patterns were absent. This proved the embedding of PTA on a sub-molecular level and not as a second phase. Acidic sites were determined by neutralization with base in aprotic solvent, followed by titration of the remaining base with an acid. The material demonstrated high adsorption capacity of ...


Effect Of Chain Rigidity On Network Architecture And Deformation Behavior Of Glassy Polymer Networks, Kyler Reser Knowles 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Effect Of Chain Rigidity On Network Architecture And Deformation Behavior Of Glassy Polymer Networks, Kyler Reser Knowles

Dissertations

Processing carbon fiber composite laminates creates molecular-level strains in the thermoset matrix upon curing and cooling which can lead to failures such as geometry deformations, micro-cracking, and other issues. It is known strain creation is attributed to the significant volume and physical state changes undergone by the polymer matrix throughout the curing process, though storage and relaxation of cure-induced strains remain poorly understood. This dissertation establishes two approaches to address the issue. The first establishes testing methods to simultaneously measure key volumetric properties of a carbon fiber composite laminate and its polymer matrix. The second approach considers the rigidity of ...


An Investigation Of The Use Of Cerium And Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes For The Protection Of Polymeric Epoxy Compounds In The Low Earth Orbit Environment, Jessica Miriam Piness 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

An Investigation Of The Use Of Cerium And Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes For The Protection Of Polymeric Epoxy Compounds In The Low Earth Orbit Environment, Jessica Miriam Piness

Dissertations

Low Earth orbit presents many hazards for composites including atomic oxygen, UV radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroids, and high energy protons. Atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation are of concern for space-bound polymeric materials as they degrade the polymers used as matrices for carbon fiber composites, which are used in satellites and space vehicles due to their high strength to weight ratios. Epoxy-amine thermosets comprise a common class of matrix due to processability and good thermal attributes. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) have shown the ability to reduce erosion in polyimides, polyurethanes, and other polymers when exposed to atomic oxygen. The POSS ...


Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman 2017 University of Kentucky

Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence ...


Where Do New Materials Come From? Neither The Stork Nor The Birds And The Bees! In Search Of The Next “First Material”, Gregory Morrison, Dileka Abeysinghe, Justin B. Felder, Shani Egodawatte, Timothy Ferreira, Hans Conrad zur Loye 2017 University of South Carolina

Where Do New Materials Come From? Neither The Stork Nor The Birds And The Bees! In Search Of The Next “First Material”, Gregory Morrison, Dileka Abeysinghe, Justin B. Felder, Shani Egodawatte, Timothy Ferreira, Hans Conrad Zur Loye

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Materials discovery and optimization has driven the rapid technological advancements that have been observed in our lifetimes. For this advancement to continue, solid-state chemists must continue to develop new materials. Where do these new materials come from? In this review, we discuss the approaches used by the zur Loye group to discover the next “First Material”, a new material exhibiting a desired or not previously observed property that can be optimized for use in the technologies of tomorrow. Specifically, we discuss several crystal growth techniques that we have used with great success to synthesize new materials: the flux growth method ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Properties Of Graphene-Based Hybrids With Cobalt Oxides For Electrochemical Energy Storage And Electrocatalytic Glucose Sensing, Sara C. Botero Carrizosa 2017 Western Kentucky University

Synthesis, Characterization, And Properties Of Graphene-Based Hybrids With Cobalt Oxides For Electrochemical Energy Storage And Electrocatalytic Glucose Sensing, Sara C. Botero Carrizosa

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A library of graphene-based hybrid materials was synthesized as novel hybrid electrochemical electrodes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices and electrocatalytical sensing namely enzymeless glucose sensing. The materials used were supercapacitive graphene-family nanomaterials (multilayer graphene-MLG; graphene oxide-GO, chemically reduced GO-rGO and electrochemical reduced GOErGO) and pseudocapacitive nanostructured transition metal oxides including cobalt oxide polymorphs (CoO and Co3O4) and cobalt nanoparticles (CoNP). These were combined through physisorption, electrodeposition, and hydrothermal syntheses approaches. This project was carried out to enhance electrochemical performance and to develop electrocatalytic platforms by tailoring structural properties and desired interfaces. Particularly, electrodeposition and hydrothermal synthesis facilitate chemically-bridged ...


Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer McDonough, Robert Clements 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer Mcdonough, Robert Clements

Undergraduate Research Symposium

In order to effectively study the interactions that occur between neurons found in the brain, spatially and after an extended period of time, it is necessary to have reliable, repeatable studies. This is difficult to accomplish through conventional two-dimensional cell culture techniques, but three dimensional (3D) elastomer foams satisfy these criteria. Here we present a platform to study complex neuronal networks for extended periods in vitro. Elastomer foams were constructed with pore sizes ranging from 150μm to 400μm with 40μm secondary pores which allowed human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) to adhere and interact with the foam and be sustained for long ...


Cytotoxic And Antimicrobial Effects Of Silver-Containing Surfaces, Sarah Goderecci 2017 Rowan University

Cytotoxic And Antimicrobial Effects Of Silver-Containing Surfaces, Sarah Goderecci

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines applications of sputtered silver coatings as alternatives to traditional antibiotic treatments. Given the increase in reports of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, new treatments and coatings for in-dwelling medical devices such as catheters and orthopedic implants are necessary. Silver oxide films were deposited onto Ti surfaces to examine the efficacy of such coatings against a variety of bacterial species both in vitro and in vivo. Bacterial growth studies showed that coatings exhibited antimicrobial activity against a range of bacterial species acting either in a bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism, depending on the target. Limited toxicity to in vitro mammalian cells was ...


Electrochemical And Modelling Studies On Simulated Spent Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Waste Disposal Conditions, Nazhen Liu 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Electrochemical And Modelling Studies On Simulated Spent Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Waste Disposal Conditions, Nazhen Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The safety assessment models for the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel require a fundamental understanding of the corrosion of spent fuel in a failed waste container. The overall research goal of this project is to investigate the corrosion of simulated spent fuel under permanent disposal conditions, using both model simulations and experimental investigations. A model for fuel corrosion has been expanded to determine the relative importance of radiolytic hydrogen and hydrogen from corrosion of the steel vessel in suppressing fuel corrosion. It was shown that, for CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuel with moderate in-reactor burnup, only micromolar concentrations ...


Modeling And Design Of Polythiophene Gate Electrode Chemfets For Environmental Pollutant Sensing, T. V. Krishna, Jeffrey R. Jessing, Dale D. Russell, Jonathan Scaggs, Lisa R. Warner, Joe A. Hartman 2017 Boise State University

Modeling And Design Of Polythiophene Gate Electrode Chemfets For Environmental Pollutant Sensing, T. V. Krishna, Jeffrey R. Jessing, Dale D. Russell, Jonathan Scaggs, Lisa R. Warner, Joe A. Hartman

Lisa R. Warner

Water-borne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds are a serious environmental concern, which has increased the demand for chemical sensing elements. Solidstate sensors based on catalytic gate devices are a subject of current research, however they are restricted in practical applications because of their inability to operate at room temperature. Conducting polymer FETs, which employ a conducting gate polymer, have received much attention due to their unique electronic and optical properties. Polythiophene is chosen as the semi-conductive gate polymer in this work. A functional group attached to the polythiophene is used to detect analytes (i.e., mercury in this work ...


Two Homologous Intermetallic Phases In The Na–Au–Zn System With Sodium Bound In Unusual Paired Sites Within 1d Tunnels, Saroj L. Samal, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 Iowa State University

Two Homologous Intermetallic Phases In The Na–Au–Zn System With Sodium Bound In Unusual Paired Sites Within 1d Tunnels, Saroj L. Samal, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

The Na–Au–Zn system contains the two intermetallic phases Na0.97(4)Au2Zn4 (I) and Na0.72(4)Au2Zn2 (II) that are commensurately and incommensurately modulated derivatives of K0.37Cd2, respectively. Compound I crystallizes in tetragonal space group P4/mbm (No. 127), a = 7.986(1) Å, c = 7.971(1) Å, Z = 4, as a 1 × 1 × 3 superstructure derivative of K0.37Cd2 (I4/mcm). Compound II is a weakly incommensurate derivative of K0.37Cd2 with a modulation vector q = 0.189(1) along c. Its structure was solved in superspace group P4/mbm(00g)00ss, a = 7 ...


Superconducting Properties Of Rh 9 In 4 S 4 Single Crystals, Udhara S. Kaluarachchi, Qisheng Lin, Weiwei Xie, Valentin Taufour, S. L. Bud’ko, Gordon J. Miller, Paul C. Canfield 2017 Iowa State University

Superconducting Properties Of Rh 9 In 4 S 4 Single Crystals, Udhara S. Kaluarachchi, Qisheng Lin, Weiwei Xie, Valentin Taufour, S. L. Bud’Ko, Gordon J. Miller, Paul C. Canfield

Qisheng Lin

The synthesis and crystallographic, thermodynamic, and transport properties of single crystalline Rh9In4S4 were studied. The resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat measurements all clearly indicate bulk superconductivity with a critical temperature, Tc∼2.25 K. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ and the Debye temperature (ΘD) were found to be 34 mJ mol−1 K−2 and 217 K, respectively. The observed specific heat jump, ΔC/γTc=1.66, is larger than the expected BCS weak coupling value of 1.43. Ginzburg-Landau (GL) ratio of the low-temperature GL-penetration depth, λGL≈5750 Å, to the GL-coherence length, ξGL≈94 Å, is large: κ ∼60 ...


Synthesis, Structure, And Bonding Of Sc4mgxcu15-Xga~7.5 (X = 0, 0.5): Two Incommensurately Modulated Scandium Substitution Derivatives Of Cubic Mg2cu6ga5, Qisheng Lin, Sven Lidin, John D. Corbett 2017 The Ames Laboratory

Synthesis, Structure, And Bonding Of Sc4mgxcu15-Xga~7.5 (X = 0, 0.5): Two Incommensurately Modulated Scandium Substitution Derivatives Of Cubic Mg2cu6ga5, Qisheng Lin, Sven Lidin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

The substitution of scandium for magnesium in Mg2Cu6Ga5 (Mg2Zn11-type) yields an irrational superstructure phase that includes the refined compositions, Sc4Mg0.50(2)Cu14.50(2)Ga7.61(2) and Sc4Cu14.76(2)Ga7.51(2). These crystallize in Cmmm, a = ∼8.31 Å, b = ∼21.72 Å, c = ∼8.30 Å. The structures feature Sc2 dimers, Cu6 octahedra, a 3D CuGa (Cu12Ga2) framework, and arachno gallium-centered Cu4Ga6 icosahedra that are condensed into zigzag chains. The arrangement of these building blocks exhibits a topologic relationship to Mg2Cu6Ga5. Further studies reveal that the quaternary compound exhibits incommensurate modulations along a, with q ...


M3(Au,Ge)19 And M3.25(Au,Ge)18 (M = Ca, Yb): Distinctive Phase Separations Driven By Configurational Disorder In Cubic Ycd6-Type Derivatives, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 The Ames Laboratory

M3(Au,Ge)19 And M3.25(Au,Ge)18 (M = Ca, Yb): Distinctive Phase Separations Driven By Configurational Disorder In Cubic Ycd6-Type Derivatives, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

Exploratory syntheses in the M−Au−Ge (M = Ca, Yb) systems have led to the discovery of two cleanly separated non-stoichiometric phases M3Au∼14.4Ge∼4.6 (I) and M3.25Au∼12.7Ge∼5.3 (II). Single crystal X-ray studies reveal that both (space group Im3̅) feature body-centered-cubic packing of five-shell multiply endohedral clusters that resemble those in the parent YCd6 (= Y3Cd18) and are akin to approximate phases in other quasicrystal systems. However, differences resulting from various disorders in these are distinctive. The innermost cluster in the M3Au∼14.4Ge∼4.6 phase (I) remains a disordered tetrahedron, as ...


Li14.7mg36.8cu21.5ga66: An Intermetallic Representative Of A Type Iv Clathrate, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 The Ames Laboratory

Li14.7mg36.8cu21.5ga66: An Intermetallic Representative Of A Type Iv Clathrate, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

Synthetic explorations in the quaternary Li−Mg−Cu−Ga system yield the novel intermetallic Li14.7(8)Mg36.8(13)Cu21.5(5)Ga66 [P6̅m2, Z = 1, a = 14.0803(4) Å, c = 13.6252 (8) Å] from within a limited composition range. This contains a unique three-dimensional anionic framework consisting of distinct interbonded Ga12 icosahedra, dimerized Li@(Cu,Mg)10Ga6 icosioctahedra, and 15-vertex Li@(Cu,Mg)9Ga6 and Li@Cu3Ga12 polyhedra. These polyhedral clusters are hosted by M20 (512), M24 (51262), and M26 (51263) (M = Li/Mg) cages, respectively. The geometries and arrangements of these cages follow those ...


Multiple Nonstoichiometric Phases With Discrete Composition Ranges In The Caau5-Caau4bi-Biau2 System. A Case Study Of The Chemistry Of Spinodal Decomposition, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 The Ames Laboratory

Multiple Nonstoichiometric Phases With Discrete Composition Ranges In The Caau5-Caau4bi-Biau2 System. A Case Study Of The Chemistry Of Spinodal Decomposition, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

Synthetic explorations in the CaAu5−CaAu4Bi−BiAu2 system at 400 °C reveal five separate solid solution regions that show three distinct substitution patterns in the CaAu5 parent: (I) CaAu4(Au1−mBim) with 0 ≤ m ≤ 0.15(1), (II) 0.33(1) ≤ m ≤ 0.64(1), (III) 0.85(4) ≤ m ≤ 0.90(2); (IV) (Ca1−rAur)Au4(Bi1−sAus) with 0 ≤ r ≤ 0.39(1) and 0 ≤ s ≤ 0.12(2); (V) (Ca1−p−qAupBiq)Au4Bi with 0.09(2) ≤ p ≤ 0.13(1) and 0.31(2) ≤ q ≤ 0.72(4). Single crystal X-ray studies establish that all of ...


Formation Of Nets Of Corner-Shared Bicapped Gold Squares In Srau3ge: How A Baal4-Type Derivative Reconciles Fewer Valence Electrons And The Origin Of Its Uniaxial Negative Thermal Expansion, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 The Ames Laboratory

Formation Of Nets Of Corner-Shared Bicapped Gold Squares In Srau3ge: How A Baal4-Type Derivative Reconciles Fewer Valence Electrons And The Origin Of Its Uniaxial Negative Thermal Expansion, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

SrAu3Ge was synthesized by direct fusion of the mixed elements at high temperature followed by annealing treatments, and its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction means in space group (Pearson symbol: tP10) P4/nmm, a = 6.264(1) Å, c = 5.5082(9) Å, Z = 2 at room temperature. The structure of SrAu3Ge, a reapportioned √2 × √2 × 1 superstructure of CeMg2Si2(P4/mmm), exhibits checkerboard nets of corner-shared bicapped Au squares (or corner-shared Au(Au4/2)Ge octahedra), in which the apical Au–Ge pairs in adjoining nets are strongly interbonded in the c direction. This motif contrasts ...


Centric And Non-Centric Ca3au~7.5ge~3.5: Electron-Poor Derivatives Of La3al11. Syntheses, Structures, And Bonding Analyses, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 The Ames Laboratory

Centric And Non-Centric Ca3au~7.5ge~3.5: Electron-Poor Derivatives Of La3al11. Syntheses, Structures, And Bonding Analyses, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

Two La3Al11 type derivatives have been discovered in the Ca−Au−Ge system and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compositions Ca3Au7.16(6)Ge3.84(6) (1) and Ca3Au7.43(9)Ge3.57(9) (2) lie within a non-centric Imm2 phase region with a ≈ 4.40 Å, b ≈ 13.06 Å, c ≈ 9.60 Å. The Au-richer and electron-poorer Ca3Au7.50(1)Ge3.50(1) (3) and Ca3Au8.01(1)Ge2.99(1)(4) occur within a centric Pnnm phase region with a ≈ 9.50 Å, b ≈ 13.20 Å, c ≈ 4.43 Å. Both phases contain complex ...


Exploratory Syntheses And Structures Of Srau4.3in1.7 And Caag3.5in1.9: Electron-Poor Intermetallics With Diversified Polyanionic Frameworks That Are Related To Ycd6-Type Quasicrystal, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 The Ames Laboratory

Exploratory Syntheses And Structures Of Srau4.3in1.7 And Caag3.5in1.9: Electron-Poor Intermetallics With Diversified Polyanionic Frameworks That Are Related To Ycd6-Type Quasicrystal, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

The phase regions around quasicrystals and approximants (QC/ACs) are rich pools for electron-poor intermetallics with novel, complex structures, and bonding patterns. The present SrAu4.30(1)In1.70(1) (1) and CaAg3.54(1)In1.88(1) (2) were synthesized through chemical tunings of the model CaAu4In2 (YCd6-Type) AC. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveals that crystal 1 has Pnma (CeCu6-type) symmetry, with a = 9.102(1) Å, b = 5.6379(9) Å, and c = 11.515(2) Å. The building block in 1 is a 19-vertex cluster Sr@Au9In4M6 (M = Au/In), which vividly mimics Ca@(Au,In ...


Gold Network Structures In Rhombohedral And Monoclinic Sr2au6(Au,T)3 (T= Zn, Ga). A Transition Via Relaxation, Trinath Mishra, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett 2017 Iowa State University

Gold Network Structures In Rhombohedral And Monoclinic Sr2au6(Au,T)3 (T= Zn, Ga). A Transition Via Relaxation, Trinath Mishra, Qisheng Lin, John D. Corbett

Qisheng Lin

Quantitative syntheses, structure determinations and interpretations, and band calculations are reported for the nonstoichiometric rhombohedral (Rc) and monoclinic (C2/c) Sr2Au6(Au3–xTx) (T = Zn, Ga) compounds. Several different compositions of the two Sr phases were similarly refined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data as Rc: a ≈ 8.43 Å, c ≈ 21.85 Å, Z = 6 and C2/c: a ≈ 14.70 Å, b ≈ 8.47 Å, c ≈ 8.70 Å, β ≈ 123.2°, Z = 4. The Rc Zn phase is stable in the composition region x ∼ 2.5–2 ...


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