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Investigating Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Methylene Blue And Eriochrome Black-T Adsorption On Activated Carbon Prepared From Coconut Husk, Abdul Rahman Wahoud, Lotfi Abdul Samed Bawazer 2021 College of Science, Hadhramout University

Investigating Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Methylene Blue And Eriochrome Black-T Adsorption On Activated Carbon Prepared From Coconut Husk, Abdul Rahman Wahoud, Lotfi Abdul Samed Bawazer

Hadhramout University Journal of Natural & Applied Sciences

In this research, the adsorption process was studied for methylene blue eriochrome black-T from aqueous solutions on the surface of activated carbon prepared from coconut husk by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. The results show that the adsorption isotherm for methylene blue follows the Langmuir model while it follows the Freundlich model and the maximum adsorption capacity was 909 mg/g for methylene blue and 262 mg/g for eriochrome black-T. The equilibrium contact time reached in about 90 minutes at lower concentrations and 120 minutes at higher concentrations. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations were selected ...


Structural Tuning And Spectroscopic Characterizations Of Polysulfide As Battery Materials, Daiqiang Liu 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Structural Tuning And Spectroscopic Characterizations Of Polysulfide As Battery Materials, Daiqiang Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Polysulfide materials have drawn extensive attention for next-generation battery development since the current lithium-ion battery has almost reached its limit regarding energy density and safety issues. Many phosphorus and sodium sulfide materials have been used in different battery types, such as solid-state and sodium-sulfur batteries. However, there are still issues that prevent these techniques from applications. In recent years, there has been increasing attention on investigations of the structural and phase transformations of electrode and electrolyte materials under high pressure. Many studies have shown that external pressure can affect structural properties and influence electrical properties. In this study, three battery-related ...


National Chemistry Week: From Irl To The Web, Ilayda Kelley, Daniela Mesa Sanchez 2021 Purdue University

National Chemistry Week: From Irl To The Web, Ilayda Kelley, Daniela Mesa Sanchez

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

National Chemistry Week, an outreach program initiated by the American Chemical Society (ACS), encourages scientists to bring their love of chemistry to their community. Celebrated nationwide, ACS invites businesses, schools, and individuals to organize and participate in community events to promote the value of chemistry in everyday life. The Purdue graduate student chapter of Iota Sigma Pi, a national honor society for women in chemistry, annually organizes one such celebration. On a normal year, this event is a large logistical undertaking in which 100+ volunteers go directly to over 70 local elementary school classrooms and perform a series of activities ...


Developing Covalent-Organic Frameworks For Protecting Against Radiation, Megan J. Francis 2021 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Developing Covalent-Organic Frameworks For Protecting Against Radiation, Megan J. Francis

Senior Theses

This research focuses on the development of lightweight, thermostable dual-function materials for secondary radiation protection and sensing by the integration of hydrogen-rich aliphatic chains inside the porous matrix of covalent-organic frameworks (COFs). The main aims of this project are the synthesis of organic linkers for forming a robust porous COF, synthesizing the porous COF through a condensation reaction, the development of hydrogen-rich aliphatic chains, and integration of aliphatic chains into COFs through click chemistry. This manuscript outlines the methodology and development of a novel self-assembled crystalline, porous material engineered to combine the functions of a shield and sensitive dosimeter. The ...


Hemoglobin-Modified Core–Shell Fe3o4@Au Nanostructures For The Electrochemical Detection Of Acrylamide, Endang Saepudin, Tri Yuliani, Mochammad Arfin Fardiansyah Nasution, Munawar Khalil, Jong Wook Hong, Tribidasari Anggraningrum Ivandini 2021 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia

Hemoglobin-Modified Core–Shell Fe3o4@Au Nanostructures For The Electrochemical Detection Of Acrylamide, Endang Saepudin, Tri Yuliani, Mochammad Arfin Fardiansyah Nasution, Munawar Khalil, Jong Wook Hong, Tribidasari Anggraningrum Ivandini

Makara Journal of Science

In this study, electrochemical detection of acrylamide using hemoglobin (Hb)-modified core–shell Fe3O4@Au nanostructures was conducted. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (~4.9 nm) and core–shell Fe3O4@Au (5.0–6.4 nm) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. Electrochemical investigation revealed that the optimum amount of Hb of 2 mg/mL could be immobilized in 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (pH = 6). Moreover, the detection of acrylamide using Fe3O4@Au/Hb was evaluated by the cyclic voltammetry technique. A linear calibration curve (R ...


Effects Of Different Extraction Solvents On The Extractive Removal And Properties Of Oil Palm Empty-Fruit Bunch Cellulosic Nanofibers, Achmad Solikhin, Yusuf Sudo Hadi, Muh Yusram Massijaya, Siti Nikmatin 2021 Department of Forest Products, Faculty of Forestry, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Effects Of Different Extraction Solvents On The Extractive Removal And Properties Of Oil Palm Empty-Fruit Bunch Cellulosic Nanofibers, Achmad Solikhin, Yusuf Sudo Hadi, Muh Yusram Massijaya, Siti Nikmatin

Makara Journal of Science

In this study, the effect of different extraction solvents on the isolation and properties of cellulosic nanofibers (CNFs) were investigated. The unextracted and different solvent-extracted CNFs formed horn-like features and irregularly aggregated nanofibers after oven drying. Scanning electron microscopy at 10000× magnification revealed the smooth external surfaces of all extracted CNFs; this finding is attributed to the limited deposition of amorphous lignocellulosic components on the fibers. All resultant CNF solutions revealed aggregation, with a particle size distribution and zeta average of 21.39–513.00 nm and 162.26–342.13 nm, respectively. Extraction with different solvents and chemical treatment ...


Two-Dimensional Monolayer Salt Nanostructures Can Spontaneously Aggregate Rather Than Dissolve In Dilute Aqueous Solutions, Wenhui Zhao, Yunxiang Sun, Weiduo Zhu, Jian Jiang, Xiaorong Zhao, Dongdong Lin, Wenwu Xu, Xiangmei Duan, Joseph S. Francisco, Xiao Cheng Zeng 2021 Ningbo University

Two-Dimensional Monolayer Salt Nanostructures Can Spontaneously Aggregate Rather Than Dissolve In Dilute Aqueous Solutions, Wenhui Zhao, Yunxiang Sun, Weiduo Zhu, Jian Jiang, Xiaorong Zhao, Dongdong Lin, Wenwu Xu, Xiangmei Duan, Joseph S. Francisco, Xiao Cheng Zeng

Xiao Cheng Zeng Publications

It is well known that NaCl salt crystals can easily dissolve in dilute aqueous solutions at room temperature. Herein, we reported the first computational evidence of a novel salt nucleation behavior at room temperature, i.e., the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional (2D) alkali chloride crystalline/non-crystalline nanostructures in dilute aqueous solution under nanoscale confinement. Microsecond-scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that NaCl or LiCl, initially fully dissolved in confined water, can spontaneously nucleate into 2D monolayer nanostructures with either ordered or disordered morphologies. Notably, the NaCl nanostructures exhibited a 2D crystalline square-unit pattern, whereas the LiCl nanostructures adopted non-crystalline ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Applications Of Europium Based Perovskite Oxide Nanoparticles, Nasim Farahmand 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Synthesis, Characterization And Applications Of Europium Based Perovskite Oxide Nanoparticles, Nasim Farahmand

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline transition and rare-earth metal oxides have been studied widely over the past years. These materials possess unique physical, chemical, magnetic and dielectric properties which make them potential candidates for a wide range of applications such as electronics, energy storage and photocatalysis. There are a number of synthesis methods for preparing these materials, where most of them require stringent conditions such as high pressure and high temperature. However, in this study, a modified sol-gel synthesis has been used with a lower calcination temperature to make uniform nanocrystals of the transition/rare-earth metal oxide family. The ...


Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hypersurface Photolithography (HP) is a printing method for fabricating structures and patterns composed of soft materials bound to solid surfaces and with ~1 micrometer resolution in the x, y, and z dimensions. This platform leverages benign, low intensity light to perform photochemical surface reactions with spatial and temporal control of irradiation, and, as a result, is particularly useful for patterning delicate organic and biological material. In particular, surface- initiated controlled radical polymerizations can be leveraged to create arbitrary polymer and block- copolymer brush patterns. Chapter 1 will review the advances in instrumentation architectures from our group that have made these ...


Enhanced Platinum (Ii) Drug Delivery For Anti-Cancer Therapy, Marek T. Wlodarczyk 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Enhanced Platinum (Ii) Drug Delivery For Anti-Cancer Therapy, Marek T. Wlodarczyk

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Over the years, anti-cancer therapies have improved the overall survival rate of patients. Nevertheless, the traditional free drug therapies still suffer from side effects and systemic toxicity, resulting in low drug dosages in the clinic. This often leads to suboptimal drug concentrations reaching cancer cells, contributing to treatment failure and drug resistance. Among available anti-cancer therapies, metallodrugs are of great interest. Platinum (II)-based agents are highly potent and are used to treat many cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II)) is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved metallodrug for treatment of solid tumors, and its ...


Modeling Vitexin And Isovitexin Flavones As Corrosion Inhibitors For Aluminium Metal, Abdullahi Muhammad Ayuba, Umaru Umar 2021 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Modeling Vitexin And Isovitexin Flavones As Corrosion Inhibitors For Aluminium Metal, Abdullahi Muhammad Ayuba, Umaru Umar

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Theoretically, the aluminium corrosion inhibitive performance of vitexin (VTX) and isovitexin (SVT) were evaluated with a view of establishing the mechanism of the inhibition process. Calculations which include the consideration of several global descriptors were studied to describe and correlate the reactivity of the molecules with the computed descriptors. First and second-order condensed Fukui functions were employed to analyze local reactivity parameters, while simulations involving the adsorbed molecules on Al (1 1 0) surface were conducted through quench dynamic simulations and the mechanism of physical adsorption was established with SVT relatively been a better inhibitor on Al surface than VTX.


High Speed Impact On Graphene Composites, Giovanny A. Espitia 2021 Kennesaw State University

High Speed Impact On Graphene Composites, Giovanny A. Espitia

Symposium of Student Scholars

Since the isolation of Graphene occurred in 2004, numerous studies attempting to exploit the properties of this carbon allotrope have been conducted. Graphene exists in a 2-D manner with sp2 bonds, which provides the allotrope with great electrical, conductive, and mechanical properties. In this paper however, we will focus on the latter in order to examine the feasibility of graphene composites for bulletproof material in the military. Pure graphene sheets count with high porosity density that leads to structural defects as well as poor mechanical properties due to physical contact being sole retainer. For this reason, the selected composite is ...


Activated Carbon Pore Expansion Using Acidic Hydrothermal Method, Max Thompson 2021 Kennesaw State University

Activated Carbon Pore Expansion Using Acidic Hydrothermal Method, Max Thompson

Symposium of Student Scholars

Petroleum Coke is a widely abundant, high carbon content material produced as a byproduct of the oil refining process. Its abundance makes the price per ton low and it is produced in almost all regions of the world. Due to the low price and high carbon percentage, commercial companies make large amounts of activated carbon using petroleum coke as a precursor. These activated carbons are characterized by their high surface area and can achieve widely varying pore morphology with different activation processes. The goal of this work is to achieve a homologous mesopore activated carbon material for use in super ...


Solid-State Redox Synthesis Of Layered Birnessite-Type Manganese Dioxide (Δ-Mno2) As Aqueous Supercapacitor Electrodes, Armando Rodriguez Campos 2021 Kennesaw State University

Solid-State Redox Synthesis Of Layered Birnessite-Type Manganese Dioxide (Δ-Mno2) As Aqueous Supercapacitor Electrodes, Armando Rodriguez Campos

Symposium of Student Scholars

Nanostructured manganese dioxides are attractive cathode materials in aqueous supercapacitors due to their low cost, environmental benign nature, high theoretical gravimetric capacitance, and power in neutral aqueous electrolytes. In this work, a layered birnessite-type manganese dioxide (δ-MnO2) is synthesized utilizing solid-state redox method with superoxide. The effects of temperature and oxidant amount on the physicochemical properties of δ-MnO2 are characterized using Elemental Dispersion X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-sorption, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The physiochemical properties that are specifically analyzed by varying synthesis conditions pertain to the chemical composition, morphology, and surface area of ...


Structural Tuning Of Two-Dimensional Perovskites At High Pressure, Lauren A. DiLoreto 2021 Western University

Structural Tuning Of Two-Dimensional Perovskites At High Pressure, Lauren A. Diloreto

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Two-Dimensional Perovskites are semiconductors and are of interest to researchers as the class of materials show great promise for innovating improvements to solar cells. The purpose of this experiment is to determine if a metastable change will occur in the materials: DPDAPbI4 and CMA2PbI4 upon compression to approximately 9 GPa. The experiment was conducted using diamond anvil cells (DAC) to apply static pressure to the materials. The pressure of the sample was then measured using ruby fluorescence. Then, FTIR or Raman spectroscopy acquisitions were obtained at various pressures. Subsequently, the data suggests that a metastable change did not occur. Additionally ...


Synchrotron X-Ray Characterizations Of Black Phosphorus: Preparation, Doping And Applications In Energy Storage, Minsi Li 2021 The Univesity of Western Ontario

Synchrotron X-Ray Characterizations Of Black Phosphorus: Preparation, Doping And Applications In Energy Storage, Minsi Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Black phosphorus (BP), as a two-dimensional material, has attracted interest in recent decades due to its unique properties—tunable band gap and high carrier mobility. Specifically, BP shows ultra-high theoretical capacity of 2595 mA h g-1, resulting in high potential practical applications in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, several challenges limit the development of BP in the energy storage field and LIBs: 1) The cost of the current synthesis methods of BP is too high to support extensive research studies and practical applications; 2) The electrical conductivity of BP is insufficient in LIBs; 3) The huge volume change of BP ...


Characterization Techniques And Cation Exchange Membrane For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery, Kun Lou 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Techniques And Cation Exchange Membrane For Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery, Kun Lou

Doctoral Dissertations

The motivation of this work comes from one of the major problems of emerging non-aqueous flow battery (NAFB) that a separator or membrane which facilitates conductivity and blocks redox species crossover does not exist. Although many aspects of principles can be mirrored from mature fuel cell and aqueous flow battery, it is found that some well-defined membrane properties in aqueous systems such as swelling, transport and interactions are different in non-aqueous solvents to some extent. However, the approach of this work does follow the way perfluorosulfonate ion exchange membrane (PFSA) facilitated development of fuel cell and aqueous flow battery in ...


Using Applied Field, Pressure, And Light To Control Magnetic States Of Materials, Amanda J. Clune 2021 University of Tennessee

Using Applied Field, Pressure, And Light To Control Magnetic States Of Materials, Amanda J. Clune

Doctoral Dissertations

Due to their low energy scales, flexible architectures, and unique exchange pathways, molecule-based multiferroics host a number of unique properties and phase transitions under external stimuli. In this dissertation, we reveal the magnetic- and pressure-driven transitions in [(CH3)2NH2]Mn(HCOO)3 and (NH4)2[FeCl5(H2O)], present a detailed investigation of these materials away from standard equilibrium phases, and develop rich two- and three-dimensional phase diagrams.

The first platform for exploring phase transitions is [(CH3)2NH2]Mn(HCOO)3. This type-I multiferroic contains Mn centers linked by formate ligands ...


Synthesis Of The Diazonium Zwitterionic Polymer/Monomer For Use As The Electrolyte In Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (Pem) Fuel Cells, Josiah Marshall 2021 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis Of The Diazonium Zwitterionic Polymer/Monomer For Use As The Electrolyte In Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (Pem) Fuel Cells, Josiah Marshall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

My research goals are to synthesize new zwitterionic perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) monomer/polymers. They are expected to replace traditionally used perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymers as the electrolyte in PEM fuel cells. For the PFSI monomer preparation, we designed a nine-step synthesis route. Thus far, I have successfully completed the synthesis of 4- (2-bromotetrafluoroethoxy)-benzenesulfonyl amide, 4-acetoxybenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt, and 4-chlorosulfonyl phenyl acetate. The coupling reaction of 4-(2-bromotetrafluoroethoxy)- benzenesulfonyl amide with 4-chlorosulfonyl phenyl acetate, was troublesome due to slow reaction kinetics and byproducts. Additionally, I did a methodology study for the homopolymerziation of the perfluoro 3(oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride monomer ...


Characterization Of Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsifiers In Topical Creams Containing A Novel Solvent, Melinda Joanna Sutton 2021 Missouri State University

Characterization Of Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsifiers In Topical Creams Containing A Novel Solvent, Melinda Joanna Sutton

MSU Graduate Theses

Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE) is a promising solvent component in topical cream formulations due to its superior solubilizing abilities with certain active pharmaceutical ingredients. One of the goals of this study is to characterize the effects of pH on the physical and chemical stabilities of topical cream formulations containing particularly high concentrations of DEGEE by characterizing a full topical pH profile of 3.5 – 9.0. The second goal is to evaluate the presence, amount, and characteristics of lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), molecularly structured in a lamellar phase, in a model cream emulsion utilizing polarized light microscopy (PLM). The ...


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