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Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla DeMark 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla Demark

Apparel Merchandising and Product Development Undergraduate Honors Theses

Azo dyes are the most used type of dye in the textile industry. Some of these dyes have the potential to be extremely toxic to both human health and the environment. While regulations of these dyes vary across the world, it is suggested that not enough is being done to protect consumers and the environment from potentially harmful azo dyes (Rawat et al., 2016). It is the responsibility of apparel companies to ensure that their products that contain azo dyes are safe for consumers.

The purpose of this study was to understand how azo dyes and their by-products are restricted ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Reactivity Of Organometallic Complexes For Catalytic Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Activation, Sophia Neglia 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Synthesis, Characterization, And Reactivity Of Organometallic Complexes For Catalytic Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Activation, Sophia Neglia

Honors Theses

Styrene can be produced directly from benzene and ethylene through an atom economical oxidative hydroarylation process. In this process, an electrophilic homogeneous transition metal catalyst activates the C-H bond in benzene. I propose to explore this reaction in two fronts: 1) the synthesis of electron-poor trans-spanning bidentate pyridine ligands and 2) the computational study of pyridine-functionalized bidentate diimines. The trans-spanning ligand will utilize either a Ru(II) or Co(III) metallohinge with cis-coordinated 2-ethynylpyridine ligands. The complex [(p-cym)Ru(PMe3)(C2-2-py)2] (1) where (p-cym = para-cymene and C2-2-py = 2-ethynylpyridine) can be prepared from (p-cym)Ru(PMe3)(Cl)2 and HC2-2-py ...


Thermal, Mechanical, And Rehealing Properties Of Cross-Linked Ionene Networks, Katelyn Lindenmeyer 2021 Murray State University

Thermal, Mechanical, And Rehealing Properties Of Cross-Linked Ionene Networks, Katelyn Lindenmeyer

Honors College Theses

Polymers which contain ionic liquid groups have numerous applications in a wide variety of fields. Past research from our group has shown that IL-containing polymers which exist in covalently crosslinked networks can exhibit good ionic conductivities despite the hindrance in polymer chain mobility and relaxation. In part one of this thesis, efforts to create ionic networks which have the capability of being rehealed after exposure to an external stimulus are discussed. Thermoreversible maleimide-furan chemistry was incorporated into an imidazolium-containing ionene network. Maleimide-terminated, imidazolium-containing monomers were coupled with furan-functionalized monomers, prepared from commercially available multifunctional acrylates. Thermal, mechanical and rheological characterization ...


041— Fiber Decomposition And Pretreatment Analysis Of Cannabis Sativa L.: Hemp, Dina Bu, Jessica Roggie, Sarah Schmidlin, Barnabas Gikonyo 2021 SUNY Geneseo

041— Fiber Decomposition And Pretreatment Analysis Of Cannabis Sativa L.: Hemp, Dina Bu, Jessica Roggie, Sarah Schmidlin, Barnabas Gikonyo

GREAT Day

Hemp is a subspecies of Cannabis sativa L. along with marijuana, yet the two differ in chemical constituent levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Hemp contains 0.3% THC, compared to marijuana 17.1%, allowing it to be a safe and compelling biomass for investigation. The refined products of hemp are vast due to its fast-growing properties; therefore various commercial industries have included refined hemp in biofuels, biodegradable plastics, textiles, dietary supplements, paper, clothing, and much more. Construction and manufacturing applications have also been seen to include hemp to strengthen their composite products. The high-yielding, sustainable, and environmentally friendly ...


006— Pretreatment And Fiber Content Analysis Of Cannabis Sativa, Dina Bu, Jessica Roggie, Sarah Schmidlin, Barnabas Gikonyo 2021 SUNY Geneseo

006— Pretreatment And Fiber Content Analysis Of Cannabis Sativa, Dina Bu, Jessica Roggie, Sarah Schmidlin, Barnabas Gikonyo

GREAT Day

Cannabis sativa commonly known as hemp is one of the fastest-growing plants whose refined products have immense commercial value. Various products include refined hemp such as: biofuels, biodegradable plastics, textiles, dietary supplements, paper, clothing, and much more. Hemp fibers are also used in construction and manufacturing applications by strengthening their composite products. Hemp is a high yielding, sustainable, and environmentally friendly crop due to its various qualities, and has the potential to yield valuable raw materials for a great number of applications. Our research evaluates the pretreatment of hemp as well as the comparative analysis of the fiber content thereof ...


Periodic Tabletalks: The Elements Never Go Out Of Style, Javier Vela, Emily A. Weiss 2021 Iowa State University

Periodic Tabletalks: The Elements Never Go Out Of Style, Javier Vela, Emily A. Weiss

Chemistry Publications

With the cancelation of the Spring ACS National meeting in 2020—and subsequent in-person meetings—because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Division of Inorganic Chemistry (DIC) sought new ways to connect with its membership and continue to showcase the fantastic research carried out by inorganic chemists. The DIC executive committee thus initiated monthly Zoom webinars with two speakers each, typically one junior investigator and one more-established researcher, selected with input from each of the DIC subdivisions: Bioinorganic, Coordination, Solid-State, Organometallic, Nanoscience, and Sustainable Energy & Environment.


Surface Functionalization Of Elastomers For Tunable Crystal Growth And Smart Adhesives, John Kapitan 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Surface Functionalization Of Elastomers For Tunable Crystal Growth And Smart Adhesives, John Kapitan

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Silicone rubbers have seen extensive work on modulation of their surface environments for use in microfluidics, cell adhesion, and sensing. Most surface procedures utilize a common initial step of oxidation of the surface to increase the number of active surface functional groups. Following oxidation more permanent functionalities can be imparted on the surface using silanization, grafting polymer brushes, or creating ionic bonds to the surface. Of these three, silanization proves to be the most pervasive due to the range of procedures available and how easy the procedures prove to be. However, the mechanism by which silanization is performed heavily involves ...


Protein-Assisted Scalable Mechanochemical Exfoliation Of Few-Layer Biocompatible Graphene Nanosheets, Deepak-George Thomas, Steven De-Alwis, Shalabh Gupta, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Reza Montazami, Emily A. Smith, Nicole N. Hashemi 2021 Iowa State University

Protein-Assisted Scalable Mechanochemical Exfoliation Of Few-Layer Biocompatible Graphene Nanosheets, Deepak-George Thomas, Steven De-Alwis, Shalabh Gupta, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Reza Montazami, Emily A. Smith, Nicole N. Hashemi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A facile method to produce few-layer graphene (FLG) nanosheets is developed using protein-assisted mechanical exfoliation. The predominant shear forces that are generated in a planetary ball mill facilitate the exfoliation of graphene layers from graphite flakes. The process employs a commonly known protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), which not only acts as an effective exfoliation agent but also provides stability by preventing restacking of the graphene layers. The latter is demonstrated by the excellent long-term dispersibility of exfoliated graphene in an aqueous BSA solution, which exemplifies a common biological medium. The development of such potentially scalable and toxin-free methods is ...


Carrier-Free Chemo-Ptt/Pdt Ionic Nanomaterials For Combination Cancer Therapy, Samantha Macchi 2021 Ouachita Baptist University

Carrier-Free Chemo-Ptt/Pdt Ionic Nanomaterials For Combination Cancer Therapy, Samantha Macchi

Arkansas Women in STEM Conference

Herein, we describe a carrier-free combination nanodrug for treatment of cancer. In this work, we combined a photothermal compound and a chemotherapeutic drug using ionic liquid chemistry. We utilized a facile, one-step metathesis approach to replace the counter cation of a near infra-red (NIR) dye (photothermal agent) with a chemotherapeutic cation to synthesize an ionic material-based combination cancer therapy drug to deliver multiple mechanisms simultaneously. The nanodrugs were developed by using a reprecipitation method. The detailed photophysical properties of this new combination therapy molecule was investigated in ethanol solution as well as in nanoparticles forms in aqueous media. The singlet ...


Indolizine Donor-Based Dyes For Applications In Fluorescence Biological Imaging, William Meador 2021 University of Mississippi

Indolizine Donor-Based Dyes For Applications In Fluorescence Biological Imaging, William Meador

Honors Theses

NIR emissive fluorophores are intensely researched due to their potential to replace modern imaging procedures. Many molecular strategies have been employed in the literature to optimize fluorophores for deeper NIR absorption and emission, biocompatibility, and higher fluorescence quantum yields. Amongst the fluorophores studied to date, proaromatic indolizine donors are attractive alternatives to traditional alkyl amine and indoline based donors due to their 1) lower energy absorption and emission facilitated by proaromaticity, 2) large Stokes shifts due to increased dihedral angles about the π-system, 3) ease of functionalization and capacity for bioconjugation at the phenyl ring, and 4) potential for further ...


Energy Spotlight: Advances In Lib Electrolyte, Stabilizing Cspbbr3 In Mesoporous Silica, And Halide Segregation In Mixed Halide Perovskites, Nam-Soon Choi, Javier Vela, Jeffrey DuBose, Prashant V. Kamat 2021 Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology

Energy Spotlight: Advances In Lib Electrolyte, Stabilizing Cspbbr3 In Mesoporous Silica, And Halide Segregation In Mixed Halide Perovskites, Nam-Soon Choi, Javier Vela, Jeffrey Dubose, Prashant V. Kamat

Chemistry Publications

One of the biggest developments of the past decade in the field of colloidal semiconductors is the introduction of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. Because of their low cost, ease of synthesis, and near ideal optical properties, these materials are versatile building blocks for light-emitting displays, solar cells, environmental sensors, and radiation detectors.


Galvanic Corrosion Of Carbon Steel Coupled To Copper In Used Nuclear Fuel Containers, Lindsay J. Braithwaite 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Galvanic Corrosion Of Carbon Steel Coupled To Copper In Used Nuclear Fuel Containers, Lindsay J. Braithwaite

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Deep geological containment of used nuclear fuel will rely on multiple engineered and natural barriers, two of which are the copper-coated used fuel containers and the compacted bentonite clay buffer boxes in which the containers will rest. This work focused on possible galvanic interactions between the copper coating and the steel substrate of the container, which may occur at a hypothetical through-coating defect. In the presence of various amounts of chloride, bentonite, and oxygen, corrosion of the copper/carbon steel couple was studied using electrochemical tests complemented by surface characterization and 3D X-ray imaging. We investigated the effects of copper-to-steel ...


Noncentrosymmetric Tetrel Pnictides Rusi4p4 And Irsi3p3: Nonlinear Optical Materials With Outstanding Laser Damage Threshold, Shannon Lee, Scott L. Carnahan, Georgiy Akopov, Philip Yox, Lin-Lin Wang, Aaron J. Rossini, Kui Wu, Kirill Kovnir 2021 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Noncentrosymmetric Tetrel Pnictides Rusi4p4 And Irsi3p3: Nonlinear Optical Materials With Outstanding Laser Damage Threshold, Shannon Lee, Scott L. Carnahan, Georgiy Akopov, Philip Yox, Lin-Lin Wang, Aaron J. Rossini, Kui Wu, Kirill Kovnir

Chemistry Publications

Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) tetrel pnictides have recently generated interest as nonlinear optical (NLO) materials due to their second harmonic generation (SHG) activity and large laser damage threshold (LDT). Herein nonmetal‐rich silicon phosphides RuSi4P4 and IrSi3P3 are synthesized and characterized. Their crystal structures are reinvestigated using single crystal X‐ray diffraction and 29Si and 31P magic angle spinning NMR. In agreement with previous report RuSi4P4 crystallizes in NCS space group P1, while IrSi3P3 is found to crystallize in NCS space group Cm, in contrast with the previously reported space group C2. A combination of DFT calculations and diffuse reflectance ...


Piezomagnetic Switching And Complex Phase Equilibria In Uranium Dioxide, Daniel J. Antonio, Joel T. Weiss, Katherine S. Shanks, Jacob P.C. Ruff, Marcelo Jaime, Andres Saul, Thomas Swinburne, Myron Salamon, Keshav Shrestha, Barbara Lavina, Daniel Koury, Sol M. Gruner, David A. Andersson, Christopher R. Stanek, Tomasz Durakiewicz, James L. Smith, Zahirul Islam, Krzysztof Gofryk 2021 Idaho National Laboratory

Piezomagnetic Switching And Complex Phase Equilibria In Uranium Dioxide, Daniel J. Antonio, Joel T. Weiss, Katherine S. Shanks, Jacob P.C. Ruff, Marcelo Jaime, Andres Saul, Thomas Swinburne, Myron Salamon, Keshav Shrestha, Barbara Lavina, Daniel Koury, Sol M. Gruner, David A. Andersson, Christopher R. Stanek, Tomasz Durakiewicz, James L. Smith, Zahirul Islam, Krzysztof Gofryk

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Actinide materials exhibit strong spin-lattice coupling and electronic correlations, and are predicted to host new emerging ground states. One example is piezomagnetism and magneto-elastic memory effect in the antiferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulator uranium dioxide, though its microscopic nature is under debate. Here, we report X-ray diffraction studies of oriented uranium dioxide crystals under strong pulsed magnetic fields. In the antiferromagnetic state a [888] Bragg diffraction peak follows the bulk magnetostriction that expands under magnetic fields. Upon reversal of the field the expansion turns to contraction, before the [888] peak follows the switching effect and piezomagnetic 'butterfly' behaviour, characteristic of two structures ...


The Surface Chemistry And Structure Of Colloidal Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals, Sara R. Smock, Yunhua Chen, Aaron J. Rossini, Richard L. Brutchey 2021 University of Southern California

The Surface Chemistry And Structure Of Colloidal Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals, Sara R. Smock, Yunhua Chen, Aaron J. Rossini, Richard L. Brutchey

Chemistry Publications

Since the initial discovery of colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals, there has been significant interest placed on these semiconductors because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties, including very high photoluminescence quantum yields, narrow size- and composition-tunable emission over a wide color gamut, defect tolerance, and suppressed blinking. These material attributes have made them attractive components for next-generation solar cells, light emitting diodes, low-threshold lasers, single photon emitters, and X-ray scintillators. While a great deal of research has gone into the various applications of colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals, comparatively little work has focused on the fundamental surface chemistry of these materials ...


Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It is common knowledge that metals, alloys and pure elements alike, are lustrous and reflective, the more so when a metal surface is flat, polished, and free from oxidation and surface fouling. However, some metals reflect visible light, in the 380 nm to 740 nm range of wavelengths, much more strongly than others. In particular, some metals reflect wavelengths in certain portions of the ultraviolet (UV), visible, and near-infrared (NIR) regime, let us say 200 nm to 2000 nm, while absorbing light strongly in other segments of this range. There are several factors that account for this difference between various ...


Elucidating The Location Of Cd2+ In Post-Synthetically Treated Inp Quantum Dots Using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization 31p And 113cd Solid-State Nmr Spectroscopy, Michael P. Hanrahan, Jennifer L. Stein, Nayon Park, Brandi M. Cossairt, Aaron J. Rossini 2021 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Elucidating The Location Of Cd2+ In Post-Synthetically Treated Inp Quantum Dots Using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization 31p And 113cd Solid-State Nmr Spectroscopy, Michael P. Hanrahan, Jennifer L. Stein, Nayon Park, Brandi M. Cossairt, Aaron J. Rossini

Chemistry Publications

Indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QD) are a promising alternative to traditional QD materials that contain toxic heavy elements such as lead and cadmium. However, InP QD obtained from colloidal synthesis are often plagued by poor photoluminescence quantum yields (PL-QYs). In order to improve the PL-QY of InP QD, a number of post-synthetic treatments have been devised. Recently, it has been shown that InP post-synthetically treated with Lewis acid metal divalent cations (M-InP) exhibit enhanced PL-QY; however, the molecular structure and mechanism behind the improved PL-QY are not fully understood. To determine the surface structure of M-InP QD, dynamic nuclear ...


Direct Determination Of Cellulosic Glucan Content In Starch-Containing Samples, Justin B. Sluiter, Katie P. Michel, Bennett Addison, Yining Zeng, William Michener, Alexander L. Paterson, Frédéric A. Perras, Edward J. Wolfrum 2021 National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Direct Determination Of Cellulosic Glucan Content In Starch-Containing Samples, Justin B. Sluiter, Katie P. Michel, Bennett Addison, Yining Zeng, William Michener, Alexander L. Paterson, Frédéric A. Perras, Edward J. Wolfrum

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

A simple and highly selective analytical procedure is presented for the determination of cellulosic glucan content in samples that contain both cellulose and starch. This method eliminates the unacceptably large compounding errors of current two-measurement methods. If both starch and cellulose are present before analytical hydrolysis, both will be hydrolyzed to glucose causing bias and inaccuracy in the method. To prevent this interference, the removal of starch prior to cellulosic quantification is crucial. The method presented here is a concise in-series procedure with minimal measurements, eliminating large compounding errors. Sample preparation consists of a starch extraction employing enzymatic hydrolysis followed ...


Recently Developed Carbohydrate Based Gelators And Their Applications, Joedian Morris, Jonathan Bietsch, Kristen Bashaw, Guijun Wang 2021 Old Dominion University

Recently Developed Carbohydrate Based Gelators And Their Applications, Joedian Morris, Jonathan Bietsch, Kristen Bashaw, Guijun Wang

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Carbohydrate based low molecular weight gelators have been an intense subject of study over the past decade. The self-assembling systems built from natural products have high significance as biocompatible materials and renewable resources. The versatile structures available from naturally existing monosaccharides have enriched the molecular libraries that can be used for the construction of gelators. The bottom-up strategy in designing low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) for a variety of applications has been adopted by many researchers. Rational design, along with some serendipitous discoveries, has resulted in multiple classes of molecular gelators. This review covers the literature from 2017-2020 on monosaccharide ...


Fabrication Of Metal-Silicon Nanostructures By Reactive Laser Ablation In Liquid, Eric J. Broadhead 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Fabrication Of Metal-Silicon Nanostructures By Reactive Laser Ablation In Liquid, Eric J. Broadhead

Theses and Dissertations

Metal-silicon nanostructures are a growing area of research due to their applications in multiple fields such as biosensing and catalysis. In addition, silicon can provide strong support effects to metal nanoparticles while being more cost effective than traditionally used supports, like titania. Traditional wet-chemical methods are capable of synthesizing metal-silicon nanostructures with a variety of composition and nanoparticle shapes, but they often require high temperatures, toxic solvents, strong reducing agents, or need capping agents added to stabilize the nanoparticles. Laser processing is an emerging technique capable of synthesizing metal-silicon composite surfaces that offers a faster, simpler, and greener synthesis route ...


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