Mobility Characteristics Of Azithromycin In Soil, 2017 Purdue University
Mobility Characteristics Of Azithromycin In Soil, Ryan Minter, Jihyun Kim, Linda Lee
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
The presence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment has become a widespread problem in recent decades. Azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic commonly prescribed for infections in humans, has been detected in waste treatment plant discharge and surface waters across the world. Data on the mobility characteristics of azithromycin in soil is scarce, and further studies must be performed to explore the potential for azithromycin leaching to groundwater or becoming available for plant uptake. In this study, azithromycin sorption isotherms were measured on eight soils varying in pH, organic carbon content, and clay content. Soil was equilibrated with ...
Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, 2017 Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman
Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research
Simultaneous air–sea fluxes and concentration differences of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbon dioxide (CO2/ were measured during a summertime North Atlantic cruise in 2011. This data set reveals significant differences between the gas transfer velocities of these two gases (1kw/ over a range of wind speeds up to 21ms1. These differences occur at and above the approximate wind speed threshold when waves begin breaking. Whitecap fraction (a proxy for bubbles) was also measured and has a positive relationship with 1kw, consistent with enhanced bubble-mediated transfer of the less soluble CO2 relative to that of the more soluble DMS. However ...
Macroporous Carbon Supported Zerovalent Iron For Remediation Of Trichloroethylene, 2017 Iowa State University
Macroporous Carbon Supported Zerovalent Iron For Remediation Of Trichloroethylene, Michael Lawrinenko, Zhuangji Wang, Robert Horton, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Emily A. Smith, Terry E. Webster, David A. Laird, Johannes Van Leeuwen
Groundwater contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons has become a widespread problem that threatens water quality and human health. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), which employ zerovalent iron, are effective for remediation; however, a need exists to reduce the economic and environmental costs associated with constructing PRBs. We present a method to produce zerovalent iron supported on macroporous carbon using only lignin and magnetite. Biochar-ZVI (BC-ZVI) produced by this method exhibits a broad pore size distribution with micrometer sized ZVI phases dispersed throughout a carbon matrix. X-ray diffraction revealed that pyrolysis at 900 °C of a 50/50 lignin–magnetite mixture resulted in ...
Evaluation Of A Filtration Sorbent For Remediation Of Arsenic In Groundwater, 2017 California State University - San Bernardino
Evaluation Of A Filtration Sorbent For Remediation Of Arsenic In Groundwater, Clement Do
Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations
A commercially available product, PURA PhosLock, was identified and evaluated for use as a sorbent to remove dissolved arsenic (As) from drinking water. Although marketed as a product to remove phosphate in aquaria, it is composed of iron oxide hydroxide (i.e., FeO(OH)), which is also known to adsorb dissolved As species from water. Arsenic was measured using standard methods and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. A first rough filtration test was performed to see if the PhosLock adsorbed As well. About 50 g of PhosLock was used to filter 10 L of tap water containing 100 ppb As ...
Functionalized Silica Gel For Adsorption Of Cesium From Solution, 2017 East Tennessee State University
Functionalized Silica Gel For Adsorption Of Cesium From Solution, Kenneth Marshall Seaton Iii
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Mesoporous silica gel containing embedded phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was synthesized by sol-gel co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate with PTA in acidic media. The obtained material had high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Theory (BET) surface area and pore volume. A characteristic band of the Keggin structure of PTA was present in its FT-IR spectrum while its X-ray diffraction patterns were absent. This proved the embedding of PTA on a sub-molecular level and not as a second phase. Acidic sites were determined by neutralization with base in aprotic solvent, followed by titration of the remaining base with an acid. The material demonstrated high adsorption capacity of ...
Phosphomolybdic Acid Catalysis Of Cellulose Hydrolysis, 2017 East Tennessee State University
Phosphomolybdic Acid Catalysis Of Cellulose Hydrolysis, Troy R. Dolmetsch
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Renewable sources such as cellulose derived biofuels are sought after in order to replace fossil fuel sources that are currently used to meet energy demands. Cellulose is a biological polymer composed of a chain of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulosic materials then has potential to serve as a source of renewable energy in the form of biofuels. The crystalline structure of cellulose is very stable, and current methods of catalyzed hydrolysis are inefficient for industrial application. This project explores the use of phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) in water to catalyze hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. Temperature of hydrolysis was varied from 40 ...
Pine Needle Pyrolysis: Bio-Waste Into Biofuel, 2017 Dominican University of California
Pine Needle Pyrolysis: Bio-Waste Into Biofuel, Alexandra Fuentes
Honors Theses and Capstone Projects
This project explores the alternate uses of biomass. In particular it focuses on pine needles as a source for biofuels. Pine needles are of interest because in certain Mountain communities they are collected and removed from residential properties. By removing the pine needles, communities create a “defensible space” to prevent wild fires from destroying homes and property. These needles are often placed in regional landfills. The South Tahoe Refuse and Recycling Services alone has more than 4,340 tons of pine needles dumped at their facility annually. This large amount of biomass can be a potential energy source.
The focus ...
Homogeneous Ligand-Centered Hydrogen Evolution And Hydrogen Oxidation : Exploiting Redox Non-Innocence To Drive Catalysis., 2017 University of Louisville
Homogeneous Ligand-Centered Hydrogen Evolution And Hydrogen Oxidation : Exploiting Redox Non-Innocence To Drive Catalysis., Andrew Z. Haddad
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Hydrogen is a promising carbon-free fuel / energy carrier and is an essential building block for many industrial and agricultural processes. Rising energy demands have ignited interest in the development of carbon-free and carbon neutral energy sources. In this context, hydrogen is an attractive candidate—being energy-dense, carbon-free—and easily accessible through a two-electron reduction of water. Accordingly, many electrochemical homogeneous catalyst systems have been studied, with a focus on understanding the mechanism of hydrogen evolution proceeding through metal-hydride intermediates. However, there has been a renaissance in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst design, with many groups implicating ligand redox non-innocence as ...
Influence Of Histidine Residues, Ph And Charge Interactions On Membrane-Spanning Peptides, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Influence Of Histidine Residues, Ph And Charge Interactions On Membrane-Spanning Peptides, Ashley N. Henderson
Theses and Dissertations
Designed transmembrane peptides were employed for investigations of histidine residues within the hydrophobic environment of the lipid bilayer by means of oriented solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy. Using the model peptide GWALP23 sequence (GGALW(LA)6LWLAGA) as a host framework, the effects of single and double histidine mutations were explored. Replacement of leucine residue 12 to polar neutral histidine had little influence on the peptide average orientation, however under strongly acidic pH conditions in DOPC bilayers, the histidine becomes positively charged (pKa 2.5) and the GWALP23-H12 peptide exits the membrane and adopts a surface-bound orientation. Conversely, mutation of leucine 14 ...
Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman
Chemistry Faculty Publications
Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their ...
Spectrofluorometric Analysis Of Bisphenol-A In Drinking Water Bottles, 2017 Lynchburg College
Spectrofluorometric Analysis Of Bisphenol-A In Drinking Water Bottles, Jeff Brochetti
Student Scholar Showcase
Spectrofluorometric Analysis of Bisphenol-A in Drinking Water Bottles
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is of environmental concern due to its ability to act as an endocrine disruptor in humans and many other animals. In the food industry, BPA is widely used in the production of plastic bottles and plastic liners in aluminum cans. Over time, trace amounts of BPA can leach from the container and into the contents inside. A new method of testing for trace amount of BPA involved the formation of an inclusion complex with ß-Cyclodextrin. With the formation of the inclusion complex, it becomes much easier to analyze low concentrations ...
Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, 2017 University of Kentucky
Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Marcelo I. Guzman, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali
Chemistry Faculty Publications
How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence ...
Multi-Scaled Approaches For Protecting Montana's Watersheds And Water Resources, 2017 University of Montana, Missoula
Multi-Scaled Approaches For Protecting Montana's Watersheds And Water Resources, Elizabeth Yoder
Graduate Student Portfolios
The central theme carried among my four portfolio pieces is: using scientific and governmental approaches to conserve watershed health. For the purposes of this portfolio, I define watershed health as a very general term that describes the state of water quantity and quality that is available for human and ecosystem needs in a watershed. I see each of my portfolio pieces focusing on a different scale and method (i.e., science or government, including different levels of government, local, state and federal) for conserving watershed health. My first portfolio piece reviews water quality degradation caused by pharmaceuticals and personal care ...
Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Biphenyls, Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins And Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, 2017 United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Biphenyls, Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins And Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, Prasada Rao S. Kodavanti, Joseph Valdez, Jae-Ho Yang, Margarita Curras Collazo, Bommanna G. Loganathan
Faculty & Staff Research and Creative Activity
Environmental contamination levels, human exposure, toxicokinetics, and health effects of PCBs, PBBs, PCDDs/PCDFs are discussed.
Detection And Quantitation Of Tetracycline Antibiotics In Agricultural Swine Wastes, Ali Jamal Abdulrheem
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
The spread of tetracyclines through agricultural systems is causing the present bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance. The spread of this bacteria, as well as the tetracycline antibiotics in the environment is dangerous because these antibiotics pose health hazards for humans. The overuse of antibiotics, which are added to livestock feed, results in the antibiotics being released into the environment via animal feces. In this research, we have attempted to design an analytical method to isolate antibiotics from agricultural wastes with subsequent detection using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The antibiotics investigated in this study were tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline ...
Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, 2017 University of Kentucky
Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman
Chemistry Faculty Publications
The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...
Determination Of Optical Properties Of Secondary Organic Aerosols Using Uv-Vis Spectroscopy, 2017 Concordia University - Portland
Determination Of Optical Properties Of Secondary Organic Aerosols Using Uv-Vis Spectroscopy, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew E. Wise, John Shilling
Matthew E. Wise
- Aerosols interact differently with the atmosphere depending on:
- Optical Properties
- Reactivity with atmosphere determines impact on Earth’s radiative budget
Digital Fabrication Of An Atmospheric Aerosol Impactor, 2017 Concordia University - Portland
Digital Fabrication Of An Atmospheric Aerosol Impactor, Stefan J. Vincent, Shawn Daley, Matthew E. Wise
Matthew E. Wise
Atmospheric aerosol (AA) particles are defined as solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. AA particles smaller than 10 μm (1x10-5 meters) in diameter are small enough to bypass the upper respiratory system which functions as a filter for harmful substances entering the lungs. AA particles can be collected using a device called an aerosol impactor. After collection, the particles can be analyzed offline for chemical composition using a variety of analytical techniques. The weight of a commercially manufactured AA particle impactor poses an issue if it is attached to a mobile AA particle sampling platform such as ...
Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, 2017 Iowa State University
Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel
Steven J. Hall
The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical soils drive reductive Fe dissolution and precipitation, facilitating multiple types of Fe-lignin interactions that could variably decompose or protect lignin. We tested impacts of Fe addition on 13C methoxyl-labeled lignin mineralization in soils that were exposed to static or fluctuating O2. Iron addition suppressed lignin mineralization to 21% of controls, regardless ...
Nitrate Radicals And Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds: Oxidation, Mechanisms And Organic Aerosol, 2017 Georgia Institute of Technology
Nitrate Radicals And Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds: Oxidation, Mechanisms And Organic Aerosol, Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Hermann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert Mclaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, Rahul A. Zaveri
Chemistry Faculty Publications
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of ...