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Evaluation Of A Filtration Sorbent For Remediation Of Arsenic In Groundwater, Clement Do 2017 California State University - San Bernardino

Evaluation Of A Filtration Sorbent For Remediation Of Arsenic In Groundwater, Clement Do

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

A commercially available product, PURA PhosLock, was identified and evaluated for use as a sorbent to remove dissolved arsenic (As) from drinking water. Although marketed as a product to remove phosphate in aquaria, it is composed of iron oxide hydroxide (i.e., FeO(OH)), which is also known to adsorb dissolved As species from water. Arsenic was measured using standard methods and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. A first rough filtration test was performed to see if the PhosLock adsorbed As well. About 50 g of PhosLock was used to filter 10 L of tap water containing 100 ppb As ...


Functionalized Silica Gel For Adsorption Of Cesium From Solution, Kenneth Marshall Seaton III 2017 East Tennessee State University

Functionalized Silica Gel For Adsorption Of Cesium From Solution, Kenneth Marshall Seaton Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mesoporous silica gel containing embedded phosphotungstic acid (PTA) was synthesized by sol-gel co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate with PTA in acidic media. The obtained material had high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Theory (BET) surface area and pore volume. A characteristic band of the Keggin structure of PTA was present in its FT-IR spectrum while its X-ray diffraction patterns were absent. This proved the embedding of PTA on a sub-molecular level and not as a second phase. Acidic sites were determined by neutralization with base in aprotic solvent, followed by titration of the remaining base with an acid. The material demonstrated high adsorption capacity of ...


Pine Needle Pyrolysis: Bio-Waste Into Biofuel, Alexandra Fuentes 2017 Dominican University of California

Pine Needle Pyrolysis: Bio-Waste Into Biofuel, Alexandra Fuentes

Honors Theses and Capstone Projects

This project explores the alternate uses of biomass. In particular it focuses on pine needles as a source for biofuels. Pine needles are of interest because in certain Mountain communities they are collected and removed from residential properties. By removing the pine needles, communities create a “defensible space” to prevent wild fires from destroying homes and property. These needles are often placed in regional landfills. The South Tahoe Refuse and Recycling Services alone has more than 4,340 tons of pine needles dumped at their facility annually. This large amount of biomass can be a potential energy source.

The focus ...


Influence Of Histidine Residues, Ph And Charge Interactions On Membrane-Spanning Peptides, Ashley N. Henderson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Influence Of Histidine Residues, Ph And Charge Interactions On Membrane-Spanning Peptides, Ashley N. Henderson

Theses and Dissertations

Designed transmembrane peptides were employed for investigations of histidine residues within the hydrophobic environment of the lipid bilayer by means of oriented solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy. Using the model peptide GWALP23 sequence (GGALW(LA)6LWLAGA) as a host framework, the effects of single and double histidine mutations were explored. Replacement of leucine residue 12 to polar neutral histidine had little influence on the peptide average orientation, however under strongly acidic pH conditions in DOPC bilayers, the histidine becomes positively charged (pKa 2.5) and the GWALP23-H12 peptide exits the membrane and adopts a surface-bound orientation. Conversely, mutation of leucine 14 ...


Spectrofluorometric Analysis Of Bisphenol-A In Drinking Water Bottles, Jeff Brochetti 2017 Lynchburg College

Spectrofluorometric Analysis Of Bisphenol-A In Drinking Water Bottles, Jeff Brochetti

Student Scholar Showcase

Spectrofluorometric Analysis of Bisphenol-A in Drinking Water Bottles

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is of environmental concern due to its ability to act as an endocrine disruptor in humans and many other animals. In the food industry, BPA is widely used in the production of plastic bottles and plastic liners in aluminum cans. Over time, trace amounts of BPA can leach from the container and into the contents inside. A new method of testing for trace amount of BPA involved the formation of an inclusion complex with ß-Cyclodextrin. With the formation of the inclusion complex, it becomes much easier to analyze low concentrations ...


Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman 2017 University of Kentucky

Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence ...


Detection And Quantitation Of Tetracycline Antibiotics In Agricultural Swine Wastes, Ali Jamal Abdulrheem 2017 wku

Detection And Quantitation Of Tetracycline Antibiotics In Agricultural Swine Wastes, Ali Jamal Abdulrheem

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The spread of tetracyclines through agricultural systems is causing the present bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance. The spread of this bacteria, as well as the tetracycline antibiotics in the environment is dangerous because these antibiotics pose health hazards for humans. The overuse of antibiotics, which are added to livestock feed, results in the antibiotics being released into the environment via animal feces. In this research, we have attempted to design an analytical method to isolate antibiotics from agricultural wastes with subsequent detection using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The antibiotics investigated in this study were tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline ...


Multi-Scaled Approaches For Protecting Montana's Watersheds And Water Resources, Elizabeth Yoder 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Multi-Scaled Approaches For Protecting Montana's Watersheds And Water Resources, Elizabeth Yoder

Graduate Student Portfolios

The central theme carried among my four portfolio pieces is: using scientific and governmental approaches to conserve watershed health. For the purposes of this portfolio, I define watershed health as a very general term that describes the state of water quantity and quality that is available for human and ecosystem needs in a watershed. I see each of my portfolio pieces focusing on a different scale and method (i.e., science or government, including different levels of government, local, state and federal) for conserving watershed health. My first portfolio piece reviews water quality degradation caused by pharmaceuticals and personal care ...


Determination Of Optical Properties Of Secondary Organic Aerosols Using Uv-Vis Spectroscopy, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew E. Wise, John Shilling 2017 Concordia University - Portland

Determination Of Optical Properties Of Secondary Organic Aerosols Using Uv-Vis Spectroscopy, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew E. Wise, John Shilling

Matthew E. Wise

  • Aerosols interact differently with the atmosphere depending on:
    • Composition
    • Size
    • Phase
    • Reactivity
    • Optical Properties
  • Reactivity with atmosphere determines impact on Earth’s radiative budget

[excerpt]


Digital Fabrication Of An Atmospheric Aerosol Impactor, Stefan J. Vincent, Shawn Daley, Matthew E. Wise 2017 Concordia University - Portland

Digital Fabrication Of An Atmospheric Aerosol Impactor, Stefan J. Vincent, Shawn Daley, Matthew E. Wise

Matthew E. Wise

Atmospheric aerosol (AA) particles are defined as solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. AA particles smaller than 10 μm (1x10-5 meters) in diameter are small enough to bypass the upper respiratory system which functions as a filter for harmful substances entering the lungs. AA particles can be collected using a device called an aerosol impactor. After collection, the particles can be analyzed offline for chemical composition using a variety of analytical techniques. The weight of a commercially manufactured AA particle impactor poses an issue if it is attached to a mobile AA particle sampling platform such as ...


Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel 2017 Iowa State University

Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel

Steven J. Hall

The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical soils drive reductive Fe dissolution and precipitation, facilitating multiple types of Fe-lignin interactions that could variably decompose or protect lignin. We tested impacts of Fe addition on 13C methoxyl-labeled lignin mineralization in soils that were exposed to static or fluctuating O2. Iron addition suppressed lignin mineralization to 21% of controls, regardless ...


Nitrate Radicals And Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds: Oxidation, Mechanisms And Organic Aerosol, Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Hermann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, Rahul A. Zaveri 2017 Georgia Institute of Technology

Nitrate Radicals And Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds: Oxidation, Mechanisms And Organic Aerosol, Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Hermann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert Mclaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, Rahul A. Zaveri

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Compounds That Affect Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatch, George A. Kraus, Beth Johnston, Azis Kongsjahju, Gregory L. Tylka 2017 Iowa State University

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Compounds That Affect Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatch, George A. Kraus, Beth Johnston, Azis Kongsjahju, Gregory L. Tylka

Gregory Tylka

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, has been a serious national problem for over three decades. Although a number of strategies for the management of SCN have been tried, a solution that is consistent with both economics and sustainable agriculture has not yet been found (Niblack et al., 1992).


Management Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode By Using A Biorational Strategy, George A. Kraus, Gregory L. Tylka, Steve Van der Louw, Prabir K. Choudhury 2017 Iowa State University

Management Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode By Using A Biorational Strategy, George A. Kraus, Gregory L. Tylka, Steve Van Der Louw, Prabir K. Choudhury

Gregory Tylka

Analogs of glycinoclepin A have been shown to affect hatching of soybean cyst nematode cysts in laboratory conditions. Most analogs are hatch inhibitors. More complex bicyclic compounds may be hatch accelerators.


A Biorational Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Management In Iowa, George A. Kraus, Gregory L. Tylka 2017 Iowa State University

A Biorational Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Management In Iowa, George A. Kraus, Gregory L. Tylka

Gregory Tylka

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) first appeared in the United States in North Carolina during the 1950s. In Iowa it was first discovered in Winnebago County in 1978. SCN is spreading rapidly; it has since been identified in over half of the counties in the state (see Fig. 1). In Winnebago County alone, soybean yield losses from SCN have cost growers nearly $2 million per year. Of the more than 2,000 soil samples from around the state that were tested for SCN by the Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service in 1988, more than 75% were found to be ...


Synthesis And Natural Distribution Of Anti-Inflammatory Alkamides From Echinacea, George A. Kraus, Jaehoon Bae, Lankun Wu, Evve S. Wurtele 2017 Iowa State University

Synthesis And Natural Distribution Of Anti-Inflammatory Alkamides From Echinacea, George A. Kraus, Jaehoon Bae, Lankun Wu, Evve S. Wurtele

Eve Wurtele

The synthesis of the alkamides 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (1) and 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (5) was accomplished by organometallic coupling followed by introduction of the doubly unsaturated amide moiety. The distribution of these two amides in accessions of the nine species of Echinacea was determined.


A Realistic Meteorological Assessment Of Perennial Biofuel Crop Deployment: A Southern Great Plains Perspective, Melissa Wagner, Meng Wang, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Jesse Miller, Andy VanLoocke, Justin E. Bagley, Carl J. Bernacchi, Matei Georgescu 2017 Arizona State University

A Realistic Meteorological Assessment Of Perennial Biofuel Crop Deployment: A Southern Great Plains Perspective, Melissa Wagner, Meng Wang, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Jesse Miller, Andy Vanloocke, Justin E. Bagley, Carl J. Bernacchi, Matei Georgescu

Andy VanLoocke

Utility of perennial bioenergy crops (e.g., switchgrass and miscanthus) offers unique opportunities to transition toward a more sustainable energy pathway due to their reduced carbon footprint, averted competition with food crops, and ability to grow on abandoned and degraded farmlands. Studies that have examined biogeophysical impacts of these crops noted a positive feedback between near-surface cooling and enhanced evapotranspiration (ET), but also potential unintended consequences of soil moisture and groundwater depletion. To better understand hydrometeorological effects of perennial bioenergy crop expansion, this study conducted high-resolution (2-km grid spacing) simulations with a state-of-the-art atmospheric model (Weather Research and Forecasting system ...


Digital Fabrication Of An Atmospheric Aerosol Impactor, Stefan J. Vincent, Shawn Daley, Matthew E. Wise 2017 Concordia University - Portland

Digital Fabrication Of An Atmospheric Aerosol Impactor, Stefan J. Vincent, Shawn Daley, Matthew E. Wise

Math & Science Department (SURI)

Atmospheric aerosol (AA) particles are defined as solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. AA particles smaller than 10 μm (1x10-5 meters) in diameter are small enough to bypass the upper respiratory system which functions as a filter for harmful substances entering the lungs. AA particles can be collected using a device called an aerosol impactor. After collection, the particles can be analyzed offline for chemical composition using a variety of analytical techniques. The weight of a commercially manufactured AA particle impactor poses an issue if it is attached to a mobile AA particle sampling platform such as ...


Quantifying Carbonyl Sulfide And Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds Over The Santa Barbara Channel, Julia Black 2017 Scripps College

Quantifying Carbonyl Sulfide And Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds Over The Santa Barbara Channel, Julia Black

Scripps Senior Theses

Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is emitted to the atmosphere through the outgassing of ocean surface waters. OCS is also the primary source of sulfur-containing compounds in the stratosphere and contributes to the formation of the stratospheric sulfate layer, an essential controller of the radiative balance of the atmosphere. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), 15 whole air samples were collected on the NASA DC-8 aircraft over the Santa Barbara Channel. Five additional surface samples were taken at various locations along the Santa Barbara Channel. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography in the Rowland-Blake lab at UC Irvine, and ...


Macroporous Carbon Supported Zerovalent Iron For Remediation Of Trichloroethylene, Michael Lawrinenko, Zhuangji Wang, Robert Horton, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Emily A. Smith, Terry E. Webster, David A. Laird, Johannes van Leeuwen 2017 Iowa State University

Macroporous Carbon Supported Zerovalent Iron For Remediation Of Trichloroethylene, Michael Lawrinenko, Zhuangji Wang, Robert Horton, Deyny Mendivelso-Perez, Emily A. Smith, Terry E. Webster, David A. Laird, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Groundwater contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons has become a widespread problem that threatens water quality and human health. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), which employ zerovalent iron, are effective for remediation; however, a need exists to reduce the economic and environmental costs associated with constructing PRBs. We present a method to produce zerovalent iron supported on macroporous carbon using only lignin and magnetite. Biochar-ZVI (BC-ZVI) produced by this method exhibits a broad pore size distribution with micrometer sized ZVI phases dispersed throughout a carbon matrix. X-ray diffraction revealed that pyrolysis at 900 °C of a 50/50 lignin–magnetite mixture resulted in ...


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