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Effect Of Gamma Radiation On The Interfacial Reactions And Transfer Processes Of Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids With Carbon Steel, Ryan P. Morco 2014 Western University

Effect Of Gamma Radiation On The Interfacial Reactions And Transfer Processes Of Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids With Carbon Steel, Ryan P. Morco

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis presents work on the effects of ionizing radiation on phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs). Ionic liquids are known for their tunable properties which make them attractive options for applications for the separation and sequestration of metal ions from spent nuclear fuels, and candidate lubricants for systems under severe conditions. The high radiation environment found in spent fuel processing may decompose the solvents (ILs) used in the process and affect their separation efficiency. The radiolytic decomposition products can also alter the physical and chemical properties of an IL in ways which can affect the potential corrosion of metal alloys in ...


The Development Of Metal-Organic Compounds For Use As Molecular Imaging Agents, Emily J. Simpson 2014 Western University

The Development Of Metal-Organic Compounds For Use As Molecular Imaging Agents, Emily J. Simpson

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Molecular imaging probes allow for the non-invasive diagnosis of many diseases through the use of a targeting entity for site specific delivery, as well as a signal for external visualization of probe accumulation in the body. This thesis will focus on the development of new approaches to synthesize targeting peptides and chelators for radionuclide incorporation towards the design of novel molecular imaging probes.

Histidine is a tridentate chelator that can be attached in a pendant fashion to a biomolecule in order to coordinate technetium-99m. Once coordinated, it forms a neutral complex that is capable of forming diastereomers with inverted stereochemistry ...


Development Of A Gallium-Containing One-Bead One-Compound Peptide Library For The Discovery Of New Molecular Imaging Probes, Fernanda C. Bononi 2014 Western University

Development Of A Gallium-Containing One-Bead One-Compound Peptide Library For The Discovery Of New Molecular Imaging Probes, Fernanda C. Bononi

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An eight amino acid one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide library, containing a gallium-DOTA complex, was developed in an attempt to overcome common issues associated with the later addition of radionuclides to peptide chains of imaging probes. The further addition of a radionuclide often changes the binding properties of a peptide, as it adds bulk, and possibly charges. MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) tandem mass spectrometry was determined to be the method of choice in order to deconvolute gallium-containing peptide sequences. The library obtained was screened against the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Positive beads were isolated and sequences were ...


Thin Films Cds/Cdte Diodes For Nuclear Radiation Detection, Julianna Calkins, John Murphy, Lindsey Smith, Israel Mejia, Bruce Gnade, Manuel Quevedo-Lopez 2014 Stephen F. Austin State University

Thin Films Cds/Cdte Diodes For Nuclear Radiation Detection, Julianna Calkins, John Murphy, Lindsey Smith, Israel Mejia, Bruce Gnade, Manuel Quevedo-Lopez

Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Speciation Behavior Of Americium Higher Oxidation States For The Separation Of Americium From Curium, Catherine Lynn Riddle 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Speciation Behavior Of Americium Higher Oxidation States For The Separation Of Americium From Curium, Catherine Lynn Riddle

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Several countries are currently expanding the use of nuclear energy as a method for the safe generation of carbon free energy and a number are evaluating starting up a nuclear power program. Closed fuel cycle technologies may be key to waste reduction and a sustainable nuclear energy future and to support the development of more efficient fuel cycles, the investigation of the chemical properties of key actinides is at the forefront of separations research. In this work the characterization of higher oxidation states of americium (Am) has been performed using spectroscopic methods. Americium in the formal oxidation state of Am ...


Binary Technetium Halides, Erik Vaughan Johnstone 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Binary Technetium Halides, Erik Vaughan Johnstone

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

In this work, the synthetic and coordination chemistry as well as the physico-chemical properties of binary technetium (Tc) chlorides, bromides, and iodides were investigated. Resulting from these studies was the discovery of five new binary Tc halide phases: α/β-TcCl3, α/β-TcCl2, and TcI3, and the reinvestigation of the chemistries of TcBr3 and TcX4 (X = Cl, Br). Prior to 2009, the chemistry of binary Tc halides was poorly studied and defined by only three compounds, i.e., TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. Today, ten phases are known (i.e., TcF6, TcF5 ...


Characterization And Optimization Of Extraction Chromatography Resins For Rapid Separations For Safeguard And Nuclear Forensics Purposes, Audrey Roman 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Characterization And Optimization Of Extraction Chromatography Resins For Rapid Separations For Safeguard And Nuclear Forensics Purposes, Audrey Roman

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

In this work, extraction chromatography resins, DGA and UTEVA, were characterized under various conditions in order to identify novel rapid separations for safeguards and nuclear forensic purposes. For safeguards purposes, mixed matrices containing some of the largest components found in used fuel and either Am, Pu, or U were characterized on DGA and UTEVA resins in order to determine any effects from the addition of these constituents. Results indicated that 5 M HNO3 would be an optimal loading condition due to the consistent actinide adsorption in the presence of the additional used fuel components. Investigations of varying the anion ...


Radiopharmaceuticals: The Application Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium Complexes, Angela Kristin Binion 2014 Syracuse University

Radiopharmaceuticals: The Application Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium Complexes, Angela Kristin Binion

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Nuclear imaging used in diagnostic medicine requires the use of radiopharmaceuticals to make biological areas visible under a gamma camera. Although much success has been found in the use of technetium based imaging agents, their corresponding rhenium complexes can provide insight into the chemical properties of these radiopharmaceuticals without the potentially damaging effects of radiation. Technetium and rhenium complexes utilize a bifunctional chelator to act as a linker between biological vectors and the metal, improving the coordination between the two. Ligands containing thiazole rings have been successfully coordinated to technetium or rhenium tricarbonyl complexes, although it is uncertain whether coordination ...


Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Electrochemistry Of Hydrogen Peroxide On Uranium Dioxide And The Modelling Of Used Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Disposal Conditions, Linda Wu 2014 Western University

The Electrochemistry Of Hydrogen Peroxide On Uranium Dioxide And The Modelling Of Used Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Disposal Conditions, Linda Wu

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis reports a series of investigations examining the corrosion process of used nuclear fuel under permanent disposal conditions. The motivation of the project is that the safety assessment of deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel requires a fundamental understanding of the processes controlling fuel corrosion which could lead to the release of radionuclides to the geosphere from a failed container.

One primary objective of this project was to develop a computational model in order to simulate fuel corrosion under the disposal conditions. A series of simulations based on COMSOL were designed and developed to determine the influence of ...


Peptidomimetic Ghs-R1a Agonists As Pet Imaging Agents For Prostate Cancer, Milan M. Fowkes 2014 Western University

Peptidomimetic Ghs-R1a Agonists As Pet Imaging Agents For Prostate Cancer, Milan M. Fowkes

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Contemporary diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer (PCa) have a limited ability to distinguish between benign and malignant disease. The ghrelin receptor has a differential expression in normal, benign and cancerous prostatic tissue. Targeting this receptor with 18F-radiolabelled peptidomimetics would enable differentiation between these disease states via PET imaging. A series of 19F-peptidomimetics were synthesized and characterized by HRMS, HPLC and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy in order to test locations for 18F radioisotope insertion. Competitive receptor binding assays using HEK293/GHS-R1a cells were used to evaluate compound binding affinities. This led to the identification of two lead compounds: [1-Nal4,Lys5(4-FB)]G-7039 ...


Nuclear Structure In Transitional Regions: Studies Of ¹³²,¹³⁴Xe And Lifetimes In The Stable Zr Nuclei With The (N,N′Γ) Reaction, Erin Elizabeth Peters 2014 University of Kentucky

Nuclear Structure In Transitional Regions: Studies Of ¹³²,¹³⁴Xe And Lifetimes In The Stable Zr Nuclei With The (N,N′Γ) Reaction, Erin Elizabeth Peters

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Nuclei at closed shells tend to be spherical and are well-described by the shell model, while those between closed shells are deformed and better described by collective models. The nuclei which are in transitional regions between spherical and deformed may be studied to gain insight into the nature of this transition. The stable isotopes of zirconium and xenon span such transitional regions and are the subject of this dissertation. Gamma-ray spectroscopy following inelastic neutron scattering has been performed on the stable isotopes of Zr as well as 132,134Xe at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory. Level lifetimes have ...


Comparative Metabolism Of Phenanthro[3,4-B]Thiophene And Benzo[C]Phenanthrene, Jaquan M. Williams 2013 SelectedWorks

Comparative Metabolism Of Phenanthro[3,4-B]Thiophene And Benzo[C]Phenanthrene, Jaquan M. Williams

Jaquan M Williams

ABSTRACT OF THESIS Comparative Metabolism of Phenanthro[3,4-b]Thiophene And Benzo[c]Phenanthrene

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their sulfur-heterocyclic analogs (thia-PAHs) are commonly occurring persistent environmental contaminants formed by incomplete combustion of organic matter. A number of thia-PAHs have shown significant mutagenic and carcinogenic activities. As noted with PAHs, these chemical contaminants also require metabolic activation in order to exhibit their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In the present study, a comparison of the metabolism of highly mutagenic phenanthro[3,4-b]thiophene (P[3,4-b]T) and its weakly mutagenic carbon analogue, benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]P), was ...


Investigation Of Storage-Phosphor Autoradiography For The Rapid Quantitative Screening Of Air Filters For Emergency Response Purposes, Athena Marie Gallardo 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Investigation Of Storage-Phosphor Autoradiography For The Rapid Quantitative Screening Of Air Filters For Emergency Response Purposes, Athena Marie Gallardo

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

Past nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl, resulted in a large release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Radiological assessment of the vicinity of the site of the incident is vital to assess the exposure levels and dose received by the population and workers. Therefore, it is critical to thoroughly understand the situation and risks associated with a particular event in a timely manner in order to properly manage the event. Current atmospheric radiological assessments of alpha emitting radioisotopes include acquiring large quantities of air samples, chemical separation of radionuclides, sample mounting, counting through alpha spectrometry, and analysis of the data. The ...


Neutron Scintillation Detectors Based On Polymers Containing Lithium-6 For Radiation Portal Monitor Applications, Andrew Neil Mabe 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Neutron Scintillation Detectors Based On Polymers Containing Lithium-6 For Radiation Portal Monitor Applications, Andrew Neil Mabe

Doctoral Dissertations

The work presented herein describes an investigation of four main types of thin film polymer scintillators containing 6Li [lithium-6] for neutron detection: polystyrene containing 6LiF [lithium-6 fluoride] and a preblended fluor mixture comprising 2,5-diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)benzene; poly(styrene-co-lithium maleate) containing salicylic acid; poly[styrene-co-lithium maleate-co-2-phenyl-5-(4-vinylphenyl)oxazole]; and poly(styrene-co-lithium 4-vinylbenzoate). A variety of chemical and physical characterizations as well as optical and scintillation characterizations were performed to guide the development of optimized compositions of each type of polymer film. The scintillation performances of optimized compositions ...


A. Catalysis Of Co-Prox By Water-Soluble Rhodium Fluorinated Porphyrins B. Studies Toward Fluorination Of Electron Rich Aromatics By Nucleophilic Fluoride, Shri Harsha Uppaluri 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A. Catalysis Of Co-Prox By Water-Soluble Rhodium Fluorinated Porphyrins B. Studies Toward Fluorination Of Electron Rich Aromatics By Nucleophilic Fluoride, Shri Harsha Uppaluri

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

The rhodium(III) derivative of a water soluble, heavily fluorinated porphyrin is shown to catalyze the low temperature, low pressure selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen gas streams for use in fuel cell applications. The catalytic activity is a direct result of the removal of electron density from the metal center. Selectivity for CO oxidation is a direct consequence of fluorination of the porphyrin periphery, since these substituents enhance the rate of the reaction and prevent the formation of Rh(II)-Rh(II) dimmers. Significantly, the dramatic increase in rhodium hydride acidity caused by fluorination precludes hydrogen activation and ...


Separation Of Tc From U And Development Of Metallic Tc Waste Forms, Edward Mausolf 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Separation Of Tc From U And Development Of Metallic Tc Waste Forms, Edward Mausolf

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

The isotope Technetium-99 (99Tc) is a major fission product of the nuclear industry. In the last decade, approximately 20 tons of 99Tc have been produced by the US nuclear industry. Due to its long half-life (t1/2 = 214,000 yr), beta radiotoxicity, and high mobility as pertechnetate [TcO4]-, Tc represents long-term concern to the biosphere. Various options have been considered to manage 99Tc. One of them is its separation from spent fuel, conversion to the metal and incorporation into a metallic waste form for long-term disposal. After dissolution of spent fuel in nitric acid and extraction ...


Forensic Signatures Of Chemical Process History In Uranium Oxides, Jonathan Plaue 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Forensic Signatures Of Chemical Process History In Uranium Oxides, Jonathan Plaue

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

This dissertation comprehensively explores and develops new tools for nuclear forensic science to facilitate the identification of chemical process history in uranium oxides. Nuclear forensics is an emerging discipline motivated by the need to prevent and combat malevolent acts involving nuclear and radiological materials. This dissertation examined process signatures in uranium oxide powders, precursors, and sintered fuel pellets.

Signatures were investigated on set of powder and pellet exemplars synthesized in the laboratory and a set of real‐world samples with process information obtained from the literature or manufacturer. The examined techniques included morphology as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, near ...


Density Functional Theory And The Calculation Of Tcmg2O4 Spinel Lattice Parameters, Jon Karlo Macias 2013 California Polytechnic State University

Density Functional Theory And The Calculation Of Tcmg2O4 Spinel Lattice Parameters, Jon Karlo Macias

Physics

The cohesive energy, lattice constant and bulk modulus of two simple HCP crystal structures of magnesium and technetium were calculated using the vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) which is based on density functional theory (DFT). The same properties were determined for TcMg2O4 spinel. The theoretical results of the lattice constant of the pure crystals were compared to experimental results and found to be in excellent agreement with a difference of less than 2%. The results for the lattice constant of the TcMg2O4 spinel were found to be in excellent agreement as well with ...


New Radiocarbon Dates From East Texas Caddo Sites, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr. 2013 Stephen F. Austin State University

New Radiocarbon Dates From East Texas Caddo Sites, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

Center for Regional Heritage Research

In this article, we report on new radiocarbon dates obtained from five Caddo sites in East Texas. The radiocarbon samples are charred organic remains scraped off of one surface of whole vessels or sherds. These samples are from the Johns (41CP12), Shelby Mound (41CP71), Gilbert (41RA13), Henry Spencer (41UR315), and Henry Williams (41UR318) sites. All of the dates are calibrated using OxCal v4.1.7 (Bronk Ramsey 2012), with atmospheric data from Reimer et al. (2009).


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