Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Radiochemistry Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

294 Full-Text Articles 399 Authors 91,021 Downloads 39 Institutions

All Articles in Radiochemistry

Faceted Search

294 full-text articles. Page 1 of 11.

The High Pressure Dependence Of X-Ray Induced Decomposition Of Cadmium Oxalate, Adrian F. Lua Sanchez, Petrika Cifligu, Marc Graff, Michael Pravica, Pradip K. Bhowmik, Changyong Park, Egor Evlyukhin 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The High Pressure Dependence Of X-Ray Induced Decomposition Of Cadmium Oxalate, Adrian F. Lua Sanchez, Petrika Cifligu, Marc Graff, Michael Pravica, Pradip K. Bhowmik, Changyong Park, Egor Evlyukhin

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Research

The high proclivity of x rays to destabilize and distort molecular structures has been previously utilized in the synthesis of novel compounds. Here, we show that x-ray induced decomposition of cadmium oxalate induces chemical and structural transformations only at 0.5 and 1 GPa. Using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, the synthesized product is identified as cadmium carbonate with cadmium oxalate remnants, which is stable under ambient conditions. At ambient and >1 GPa pressures, only degradation of the electronic density distribution is observed. The transformation kinetics are examined in terms of Avrami’s model, which demonstrates that despite the necessity of high …


Corrosion Related To The Nuclear Waste Containers, Ali Ebrahimzadeh Pilehrood 2023 Western University

Corrosion Related To The Nuclear Waste Containers, Ali Ebrahimzadeh Pilehrood

Corrosion Research

The disposal of nuclear waste is a demanding topic, and the existing methods, whether it is temporary storage in spent fuel pools or storage in geological repositories, both face the risk of corrosion-related problems. Any failure in these storage methods can potentially lead to the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To avert such catastrophic scenarios, people in the nuclear industry consistently monitor and maintain these storage facilities endlessly and attempt to improve the plans designed to store nuclear waste. Here, I will examine the nuclear waste management organization (NWMO) plan in Canada. Choosing an appropriate location for the …


Women As A Force Multiplier For Bringing Nuclear Forensic Capabilities To The International Stage, Heather M. Dion, Caterina Fox, Kim Knight, Anne Phillip 2023 Los Alamos National Laboratory

Women As A Force Multiplier For Bringing Nuclear Forensic Capabilities To The International Stage, Heather M. Dion, Caterina Fox, Kim Knight, Anne Phillip

International Journal of Nuclear Security

In 2009, the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Program initiated a new nuclear forensics outreach effort under its Confidence Building Measures Program. Little did they know that the timing could not have been better. This article focuses on the early years (2009–2015) of the NNSA’s international nuclear forensics outreach, specifically the efforts and experiences of the women who helped establish this program, building it from a fledgling, bilateral effort into an enduring technical capacity provider engaging with dozens of countries and multilateral organizations. At the onset of the program, nuclear forensics was an …


The Effect Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Corrosion Dynamics Of Carbon Steel, Kwang Soak Gabriel O'Donnell 2023 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Corrosion Dynamics Of Carbon Steel, Kwang Soak Gabriel O'Donnell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Used Fuel Container (UFC) is a key barrier in Canada’s nuclear fuel disposal plan. Understanding the radiation-induced corrosion of the carbon steel (CS) vessel is critical for predicting the long-term integrity of the UFC. Developing a mechanistic understanding of CS corrosion and the effect of solution parameters is essential.

This work investigates the effects of H2O2, the key radiolytic oxidant, on CS corrosion dynamics in small, stagnant solutions. Elementary processes are identified, corrosion rates are calculated, and the effects of H2O2 concentration are investigated. Corrosion was studied by quantifying the concentrations of …


The Development Of Novel Radioimmunoconjugates For The Pet Imaging And Radioimmunotherapy Of Cancer, Samantha M. Sarrett 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Development Of Novel Radioimmunoconjugates For The Pet Imaging And Radioimmunotherapy Of Cancer, Samantha M. Sarrett

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Antibodies have long played a vital role in nuclear medicine for both the diagnosis and therapy of various malignancies. The role and development of antibodies in nuclear medicine can be broadly separated into three different categories: 1) bioconjugation strategies, 2) immunoPET imaging, and 3) radioimmunotherapy. This dissertation will attempt to comprehensively cover each of these categories through a series of studies, protocols, and reviews. For the bioconjugation strategies, we will describe the development of a novel site-selective bioconjugation strategy using an innovative lysine-targeting reagent, PFP-bisN3, to prepare [89Zr]Zr-SSKDFO-pertuzumab for visualizing HER2+ breast cancer. Further, …


The Novel Chlorination Of Zirconium Metal And Its Application To A Recycling Protocol For Zircaloy Cladding From Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods, Breanna K. Vestal 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Novel Chlorination Of Zirconium Metal And Its Application To A Recycling Protocol For Zircaloy Cladding From Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods, Breanna K. Vestal

Doctoral Dissertations

A novel protocol has been developed for the chemical removal of zirconium alloy (Zircaloy) cladding from spent nuclear fuel rods and subsequent isolation and purification of nuclear-grade zirconium chloride derived therefrom. This protocol is based on the chemistry developed from two new scientific findings.

First, two new oxidative chlorination reactions have been discovered for zirconium metal. In both solvents, zirconium can be quantitatively chlorinated at temperatures less than 150°C, with the operative equations seen below. In sulfur monochloride, the reaction is completed in 2 – 4 hours via surface etching, exhibiting 0th order kinetic behavior. The elemental sulfur byproduct …


Impacts Of Preferential Flow On Tc-99and Np-237 Vadose Transport In Soils At The Savannah River Site, Josh Parris 2023 Clemson University

Impacts Of Preferential Flow On Tc-99and Np-237 Vadose Transport In Soils At The Savannah River Site, Josh Parris

All Theses

Since the 1950s, the United States has produced approximately 90,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (Office of Nuclear Energy, 2022); however, no long-term storage solutions are available. Technecium-99 and neptunium-237, two fission products found in SNF, readily form highly mobile species in oxidizing conditions (Hu, 2008; Bondietti, 1979) and have respective half-lives of 2.13 x 105 and 2.14 x106 years (Hu, 2010). Considering these characteristics, 99Tc and 237Np are two risk-driving isotopes found in SNF storage. The process of macropore-facilitated preferential flow, transport through cracks within a soil matrix, has been recognized to increase …


The Effect Of Ionization Density In Applications Of Radiation Detection, Dosimetry, And Therapy, Daniel Mulrow 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Effect Of Ionization Density In Applications Of Radiation Detection, Dosimetry, And Therapy, Daniel Mulrow

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation covers a wide range of topics but is linked by the common theme of radiation interacting with materials and studying the result of those interactions. The introduction describes the fundamentals of how radiation interacts with material and how we are able to detect that radiation and the application of how we use those interactions in radiation oncology. The thesis starts with a chapter detailing the temperature dependence of the photophysics in two organic scintillators. This chapter is the foundation for a future study that will look the degree to which these scintillators can distinguish between gammas and neutrons …


Analytical Techniques For The Analysis Of Uranium Bearing Materials, Nathaniel D. Fletcher 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Analytical Techniques For The Analysis Of Uranium Bearing Materials, Nathaniel D. Fletcher

Doctoral Dissertations

The interest in the use of nuclear power has increased drastically in recent years. This is due to significantly increased efficiency at producing energy when compared to fossil fuels. With the increased use of nuclear power comes an increased need to for monitor for uranium bearing materials outside of regulatory control. This dissertation covers four projects aimed at improving the analysis of these materials. The first projects aims to develop a method that allows for the analysis of elements that exist in nature as anions by triple quadrupole ICP – MS. This would allow for the ability to measure more …


Near-Ir Laser Ablation Of Simulated Radiologically Contaminated Oxides On Carbon Steel Feeder Pipes, Thao Viet Do 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Near-Ir Laser Ablation Of Simulated Radiologically Contaminated Oxides On Carbon Steel Feeder Pipes, Thao Viet Do

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As nuclear power plants age and retire from service, many countries face significant challenges concerning the safe long-term storage and disposal of large volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (L&ILW). The volumes of metallic waste are of particular concern, as when metal corrodes it produces hydrogen that could lead to pressure build-up in interim storage and disposal. In Canada, a significant fraction of the metallic wastes for Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactors are out-of-core reactor components, such as carbon steel (CS) feeder pipes. The radioactive contamination is expected to be largely confined to the surface oxide layers …


Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis Of A Fully Mobile Radiation Oncology System Using Monte Carlo Simulation, Alex T. Price, Casey I. Canfield, Geoffrey D. Hugo, James A. Kavanaugh, Lauren E. Henke, Eric Laugeman, Pamela Samson, Clair Reynolds-Kueny, Elizabeth A. Cudney 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis Of A Fully Mobile Radiation Oncology System Using Monte Carlo Simulation, Alex T. Price, Casey I. Canfield, Geoffrey D. Hugo, James A. Kavanaugh, Lauren E. Henke, Eric Laugeman, Pamela Samson, Clair Reynolds-Kueny, Elizabeth A. Cudney

Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

PURPOSEDisparities in radiation oncology (RO) can be attributed to geographic location, socioeconomic status, race, sex, and other societal factors. One potential solution is to implement a fully mobile (FM) RO system to bring radiotherapy to rural areas and reduce barriers to access. We use Monte Carlo simulation to quantify techno-economic feasibility with uncertainty, using two rural Missouri scenarios.METHODSRecently, a semimobile RO system has been developed by building an o-ring linear accelerator (linac) into a mobile coach that is used for temporary care, months at a time. Transitioning to a more FM-RO system, which changes location within a given day, presents …


“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to alleviate the effects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. The brain-penetrant PET radioligand [18F]EKZ-001 has high affinity and selectivity towards HDAC6 and therefore suggests great promise in therapeutic treatment studies and development for neurodegenerative diseases. “Translation of HDAC6 PET imaging using [18F]EKZ-001 – cGMP production and measurement of HDAC6 target occupancy in NHPs” has achieved an effective, fully automated method of producing [18F]EKZ-001 in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to support the translation of [18F]EKZ-001 PET for …


Design & Analysis Of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuit For Pulse-Shape Discrimination, Bryan Orabutt 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Design & Analysis Of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuit For Pulse-Shape Discrimination, Bryan Orabutt

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In nuclear science experiments it is usually necessary to determine the type of radiation, its energy and direction with considerable accuracy. The detection of neutrons and discriminating them from gamma rays is particularly difficult. A popular method of doing so is to measure characteristics intrinsic to the pulse shape of each radiation type in order to perform pulse-shape discrimination (PSD).

Historically, PSD capable systems have been designed with two approaches in mind: specialized analog circuitry, or digital signal processing (DSP). In this work we propose a PSD capable circuit topology using techniques from both the analog and DSP domains. We …


Extractive Membranes For The Detection And Screening Of Waterborne Plutonium, James Foster 2022 Clemson University

Extractive Membranes For The Detection And Screening Of Waterborne Plutonium, James Foster

All Dissertations

The development of rapid screening tools for special nuclear materials remains a crucial focus for nonproliferation efforts. Traditional approaches for the analysis of trace-level Pu isotopes in water requires tedious and time-consuming sample preparation steps that do not lend well to expeditious screening. Therefore, a novel analytical method that combines both Pu concentration and source preparation into a single detection system would make for an invaluable tool for nuclear security applications. Extractive membranes absorbers can help to fulfill this role as they are capable of concentrating Pu to detectable limits while subsequently serving as alpha spectrometry sample sources. In Chapter …


O-Sulfonamidophenol Ligands And Derivatives For F-Element Sensing, Complexation, And Extraction From Alkaline High-Level Waste, Oluwaseun William Adedoyin 2022 Florida International University

O-Sulfonamidophenol Ligands And Derivatives For F-Element Sensing, Complexation, And Extraction From Alkaline High-Level Waste, Oluwaseun William Adedoyin

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The accumulated (>100 Mgal) alkaline high-level waste (HLW), which is a legacy of nuclear weapons manufacturing during the cold war era, is an issue of environmental concern that has presented reprocessing challenges, due to its complex physicochemical properties and the presence of 137Cs, 90Sr, and long-lived actinides.

This study is focused on o-sulfonamidophenol derivatives bearing electron-rich O- and N- donor sites (when deprotonated in alkaline conditions) for effective complexation, sensing, and extraction of f-elements from highly alkaline solutions. Using Ln(III) as experimental surrogates for An(III), a family of o-sulfonamidophenol ligands (L1H2 – L4H2 …


Electron Spin Relaxation Of Nitroxide Spin Labels And Relaxation Processes, Thacien Ngendahimana 2022 University of Denver

Electron Spin Relaxation Of Nitroxide Spin Labels And Relaxation Processes, Thacien Ngendahimana

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MTSL is the nitroxide spin label that is most commonly used in site-directed spin labeling. However, due to rotation of its gem-dimethyl groups that average anisotropic interactions, Tm becomes short above about 70 K and this makes DEER experiments difficult at these temperatures. Strategies for decreasing spin echo dephasing and electron spin lattice relaxation rates are important for design of nitroxide spin labels and molecular qubits.

In searching for labels with longer Tm, new nitroxide spin labels devoid of gemdimethyl groups or with more rigid structures were synthesized at the University of Nebraska and pulsed EPR measurements …


Statistical Measurements Of Dispersion Measure Fluctuations Of Frbs, Siyao Xu, David H. Weinberg, Bing Zhang 2021 Institute for Advanced Studies

Statistical Measurements Of Dispersion Measure Fluctuations Of Frbs, Siyao Xu, David H. Weinberg, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Research

Extragalactic fast radio bursts (FRBs) have large dispersion measures (DMs) and are unique probes of intergalactic electron density fluctuations. By using the recently released First CHIME/FRB Catalog, we reexamined the structure function (SF) of DM fluctuations. It shows a large DM fluctuation similar to that previously reported in Xu & Zhang, but no clear correlation hinting toward large-scale turbulence is reproduced with this larger sample. To suppress the distortion effect from FRB distances and their host DMs, we focus on a subset of CHIME catalog with DM < 500 pc cm-3. A trend of nonconstant SF and nonzero correlation function (CF) at angular separations θ less than 10 is seen, but with large statistical uncertainties. The difference found between SF and that derived from CF at θ ≲ 10 can be ascribed to the large statistical uncertainties or the density inhomogeneities on scales on the order of 100 Mpc. The possible correlation of electron density fluctuations and inhomogeneities of density distribution should be tested when several thousands of FRBs are available.


Effects Of Gamma-Radiation On The Evolution Of Copper Corrosion Dynamics In Deep Geological Repository Solution Environments, Lindsay J. Grandy 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Gamma-Radiation On The Evolution Of Copper Corrosion Dynamics In Deep Geological Repository Solution Environments, Lindsay J. Grandy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Canadian plan for permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel involves a used fuel container (UFC), a carbon steel vessel with a copper coating to provide the corrosion protection. The corrosion conditions for the copper layer of the UFC are expected to involve small, stagnant water volumes, pH values between 6 and 9, and a continuous flux of γ-radiation emitted from the radionuclides trapped in the fuel matrix. While γ-radiation does not affect the copper metal directly, humid air and water will radiolytically decompose into redox-active and acidic species which will be produced at constant concentrations and can alter the …


Ligands For Complexation, Extraction, And Sensing Of Mercury(Ii) For Application To High-Level Waste (Hlw) At The Savannah River Site (Srs), Adenike O. Fasiku 2021 Florida International University

Ligands For Complexation, Extraction, And Sensing Of Mercury(Ii) For Application To High-Level Waste (Hlw) At The Savannah River Site (Srs), Adenike O. Fasiku

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mercury (Hg) separation and sensing is of high significance due to Hg(II) environmental mobility and toxicity. Furthermore, the use of Hg in nuclear applications has resulted in its accumulation in several DOE sites, such as in Oak Ridge and Savannah River reservations. Organic mercury species have been found in low activity waste (LAW) streams resulting from high-level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), therefore posing a threat to humans and the environment. Mercury, being a soft Lewis acid, has a strong affinity for softer Lewis bases, such as S- or N-donor ligands. Therefore, we focus on …


Thin Safety Margin: The Sefor Super-Prompt-Critical Transient Experiments, Ozark Mountains, Arkansas 1970–1971, Jerry Havens, Collis Geren 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Thin Safety Margin: The Sefor Super-Prompt-Critical Transient Experiments, Ozark Mountains, Arkansas 1970–1971, Jerry Havens, Collis Geren

Arkansas Scholarly Editions

Thin Safety Margin charts the history of SEFOR, a twenty-megawatt reactor that operated for three years in the rural Ozark Mountains of Arkansas as part of an internationally sponsored program designed to demonstrate the Doppler effect in plutonium-oxide-fueled fast reactors. Authors Jerry Havens and Collis Geren draw upon this history to assess the accidental explosion risk inherent in using fast reactors to reduce the energy industry’s carbon dioxide emissions.

If a sufficiently powerful fast-neutron explosion were to cause the containment of a reactor such as SEFOR’s to fail, the reactor’s radiotoxic plutonium fuel could vaporize and escape into the surrounding …


Digital Commons powered by bepress