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The Path To Health Equity Through Multidisciplinary Collaboration, Cynthia Haq 2017 Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

The Path To Health Equity Through Multidisciplinary Collaboration, Cynthia Haq

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The author, a guest editor for this special issue of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews dedicated to health disparities and inequities, comments on recent studies demonstrating poorer health outcomes among various patient populations in the United States despite its having higher spending per capita than any other nation. Noting that health inequities are defined as avoidable differences, the author encourages health professionals to work to narrow these gaps.


Reflections On 15 Years In The Global Tobacco Trenches, Kenneth D. Ward 2017 University of Memphis

Reflections On 15 Years In The Global Tobacco Trenches, Kenneth D. Ward

Health Behavior Research

This paper is based on my 2017 Research Laureate Presentation at the annual scientific meeting of the American Academy of Health Behavior in Tucson, Arizona. It provides a brief overview of the history of the smoking epidemic, and describes my work in global tobacco control, focusing on my experiences over the last 15 years as a co-founder and intervention director of the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS) in Aleppo, Syria. The SCTS is an NIH-funded research center that draws on a broad range of complementary expertise and resources from developed and developing nations to address the tobacco epidemic in ...


Persistent Organic Pollutants And Mortality In The United States, Nhanes 1999-2011., Kristiann Fry, Melinda C Power 2017 George Washington University

Persistent Organic Pollutants And Mortality In The United States, Nhanes 1999-2011., Kristiann Fry, Melinda C Power

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are environmentally and biologically persistent chemicals that include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Currently, data on the associations between exposure to POPs and the risk of mortality in the U.S. population is limited.

Our objective was to determine if higher exposure to POPs is associated with greater risk of all-cause, cancer, heart/cerebrovascular disease, or other-cause mortality.

Methods

Analyses included participants aged 60 years and older from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We included 483 participants for analyses ...


Hiv Rates In The State Of Georgia: A Growing Threat Among Predominately African American Populations, Swati Raychowdhury, Stuart H. Tedders 2017 Georgia Southern University

Hiv Rates In The State Of Georgia: A Growing Threat Among Predominately African American Populations, Swati Raychowdhury, Stuart H. Tedders

Stuart H. Tedders

Background: US rates of HIV/AIDS continue to rise with over 55% of new cases identified in southern states in 2003. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of HIV/AIDS cases in rural southeast Georgia in comparison to urban areas of the state.

Methods: County level data was acquired using OASIS. Rates of HIV infections by gender and race (black vs. white) were aggregated over a five year period (2000–2005) and indirectly adjusted using Georgia as the standard. Rates for rural counties, (populations less than 35,000), were statistically compared to urban rates (α = 0 ...


Variations In Public Health Governance, Jeff Jones, Ankit Bangar, Patrick Chang, Yelena N. Tarasenko 2017 Georgia Southern University

Variations In Public Health Governance, Jeff Jones, Ankit Bangar, Patrick Chang, Yelena N. Tarasenko

Yelena N. Tarasenko

Background: Studies of public health departments have found mixed results regarding the relevance of governance through local boards of health (LBOHs). Some studies find that LBOHs can be an important component in higher performance by local health departments. Other analyses, however, find no advantage for local health departments having or not having a LBOH. The hypothesis was that a typology of LBOHs nationwide can define different types of LBOHs based on their powers and responsibilities. Methods: Using national profile sample data from the National Association of Local Boards of Health, LBOHs were categorized using 34 variables based on four domains ...


Lessons Learned From Hospital-Based Community Health Needs Assessment In A Rural Setting, Marie Denis-Luque, Raymona Lawrence, Yelena N. Tarasenko, Dziyana Nazaruk, Stuart Tedders 2017 Georgia College and State University

Lessons Learned From Hospital-Based Community Health Needs Assessment In A Rural Setting, Marie Denis-Luque, Raymona Lawrence, Yelena N. Tarasenko, Dziyana Nazaruk, Stuart Tedders

Yelena N. Tarasenko

Objective: The objective of this practice-based project is to provide lessons learned on the challenges of conducting a community health needs assessment in 18 nonprofit hospitals in rural Georgia as recently required by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Methods: The PPACA created anxiety among many nonprofit rural hospitals in Georgia because of the financial penalties that would be incurred for noncompliance and the risk of losing nonprofit status as stipulated in the law. The Georgia Department of Community Health, Office of Rural Health, responded to the volume of questions received from these hospitals by requesting the expertise ...


Adversity And Academic Performance Among Adolescent Youth: A Community-Based Participatory Research Study, Sukhdip Purewal Boparai, Tiffani Marie, Eduardo Aguayo, Jordan Brooks, Estefany Juarez, Sheana Soriano, Alasia Waters, Jaquez Donaldson, Joseph Reagans, Gracee Anguiano, Allison Ipsen 2017 Center for Youth Wellness

Adversity And Academic Performance Among Adolescent Youth: A Community-Based Participatory Research Study, Sukhdip Purewal Boparai, Tiffani Marie, Eduardo Aguayo, Jordan Brooks, Estefany Juarez, Sheana Soriano, Alasia Waters, Jaquez Donaldson, Joseph Reagans, Gracee Anguiano, Allison Ipsen

Journal of Adolescent and Family Health

Researchers and youth stakeholders devised a survey on 27 adversities based on youth expertise, clinical practice, and adversity literature. The aim of the study was to understand the prevalence of individual and cumulative adversities, and association of adversities to age, gender, race/ethnicity and academic performance among a community sample of urban high school students. All participants experienced two or more adversities and experienced greater overall adversity than youth in population-based studies. Youth-proposed stressors were among the most prevalent, and females, older youth, and African American youth reported disproportionately greater number of adversities. Specific types of adversities were endorsed differentially ...


Drawbacks Of Utilizing The Logit Link In Propensity Score Weighting Adjustment, Evrim Oral 2017 LSUHSC, School of Public Health, Biostatistics Program

Drawbacks Of Utilizing The Logit Link In Propensity Score Weighting Adjustment, Evrim Oral

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Stochastic Epidemiological Model Of The Response Of American Chestnut Populations To Fungal Blight, Kelsey Lieberman, Rebecca Rouleau, Anita Davelos Baines, Martin Allen 2017 Truman State University

A Stochastic Epidemiological Model Of The Response Of American Chestnut Populations To Fungal Blight, Kelsey Lieberman, Rebecca Rouleau, Anita Davelos Baines, Martin Allen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly PhD, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken PhD 2017 University of Louisville

Distributing Data And Analysis Software Containers For Better Data Sharing In Clinical Research, William A. Mattingly Phd, Stephen Furmanek, Christopher M. Sinclair, Timothy L. Wiemken Phd

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Data sharing in clinical research is critical for increasing knowledge discovery. Data and software tools should be FAIR: Findable, Accessible, Inter-operable and Re-usable. Many bottlenecks exist in the process of a clinical investigator using shared data including data acquisition and statistical analysis. The objective of this project is to develop a structure for sharing data and providing rapid automated statistical analysis through creation of a pre-packaged, open-source software container.

Methods: We use the open source software container technologies VirtualBox and Vagrant to create a template for sharing clinical data and analysis scripts as a single container. We use a ...


Lung Cytokines And Systemic Inflammation In Patients With Copd, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Stephen P. Furmanek, Andrea Reyes-Vega, Umair Gauhar, Hiram Rivas-Perez, Jesse Roman, Julio A. Ramirez, Rafael Fernandez-Botran 2017 University of Louisville School of Medicine Division of Pulmonary

Lung Cytokines And Systemic Inflammation In Patients With Copd, Alessandra Morello Gearhart, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Stephen P. Furmanek, Andrea Reyes-Vega, Umair Gauhar, Hiram Rivas-Perez, Jesse Roman, Julio A. Ramirez, Rafael Fernandez-Botran

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung and systemic inflammation. The role of cytokines in local and systemic inflammation in COPD is not well understood. This study aimed to compare plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytokine levels in COPD and non-COPD subjects with the intent of better understand their potential roles in driving local and systemic inflammation.

Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 65 subjects: 31 with COPD confirmed by spirometry and 34 non-COPD controls. All subjects underwent spirometry, plasma sample collection, and bronchoscopy/BAL. Levels of 21 inflammatory cytokines were measured in the plasma ...


Most Common Statistical Methodologies In Recent Clinical Studies Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Stephen Furmanek, Connor L. English, Thomas Chandler, Timothy L. Wiemken PhD 2017 Division of Infectious Diseases / University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA

Most Common Statistical Methodologies In Recent Clinical Studies Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Stephen Furmanek, Connor L. English, Thomas Chandler, Timothy L. Wiemken Phd

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Training new individuals in pneumonia research is imperative to produce a new generation of clinical investigators with the expertise necessary to fill gaps in knowledge. Clinical investigators are often intimidated by their unfamiliarity with statistics. The objective of this study is to define the most common statistical methodologies in recent clinical studies of CAP to inform teaching approaches in the field.

Methods: Articles met inclusion criteria if they were clinical research with an emphasis on incidence, epidemiology, or patient outcomes, searchable via PubMed or Google Scholar, published within the timeframe of January 1st 2012 to August 1st 2017, and ...


Antimicrobial Stewardship In Hospitalized Patients With Respiratory Infections: Ten-Year Experience From The Robley Rex Louisville Va Medical Center, Leslie A. Beavin, Forest W. Arnold, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, David Newman, Ronald Smith, Carmen Sciortino, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth M. Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Antimicrobial Stewardship In Hospitalized Patients With Respiratory Infections: Ten-Year Experience From The Robley Rex Louisville Va Medical Center, Leslie A. Beavin, Forest W. Arnold, Paula Peyrani, Anupama Raghuram, David Newman, Ronald Smith, Carmen Sciortino, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth M. Carrico, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Rationale: Antibiotic stewardship has been defined as coordinated interventions designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotic agents. Respiratory infections are the most common infectious reason for hospitalization in the United States. Therefore, one could extrapolate that respiratory infections are then also the most common reason for hospital antibiotic use and possess the highest potential for hospital antibiotic misuse. The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the role of antimicrobial stewardship on improving antibiotic use for respiratory infections in hospitalized patients on intravenous (IV) antibiotics at the Robley Rex Louisville VAMC over a 10-year period.

Methods ...


Level Of Recall Bias Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination History Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Results From The University Of Louisville Pneumonia Study, Sarah Van Heiden, Ruth Carrico, Timothy L. Wiemken, Ronika Alexander, John M. McLaughlin, Qin Jiang, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Senen Pena, Raul Isturiz, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Level Of Recall Bias Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination History Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Results From The University Of Louisville Pneumonia Study, Sarah Van Heiden, Ruth Carrico, Timothy L. Wiemken, Ronika Alexander, John M. Mclaughlin, Qin Jiang, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Stephen P. Furmanek, Connor L. English, Senen Pena, Raul Isturiz, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Recall bias is likely to occur in vaccine effectiveness studies using self-reported vaccination history. The validity of patient-reported vaccination status for adults is not well defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported pneumococcal vaccination history among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: Prospective ancillary study of a population-based observational study of hospitalized patients with CAP in the city of Louisville. To be included in the analysis, patients had to (i) be reached by phone 30-days after discharge from the hospital and (ii) report that they remembered whether or not they received a ...


One-Year Mortality In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

One-Year Mortality In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumonia remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Although, communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) has traditionally been considered an acute process, more recently, data have emerged showing that patients surviving an episode of CAP are at increased risk of death long after hospital discharged. In this descriptive review, we examine the current knowledge of long-term mortality and propose a hypothesis explaining the pathogenesis of long-term mortality in patients with CAP.


Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf 2017 University of Louisville

Preliminary Evaluation Of An Lyta Pcr Assay For Detection Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Urine Specimens From Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Subathra Marimuthu, James T. Summersgill, Kuldeep Ghosh, Leslie A Wolf

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae still occurs in at risk populations, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Laboratory confirmation of S. pneumoniae remains challenging in cases of CAP despite advances in blood culture techniques and the availability of nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR-based methods. Urine specimens are an attractive sample type because they are non-invasive compared to bronchial washes or whole blood specimens for patients with CAP. While urine specimens have been used successfully in antigen detection assays, they have not been extensively evaluated for PCR-based assays. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the potential ...


Rationale And Methods Of The Study Protocol: Streptococcus Pneumoniae Serotypes In Adults 18 Years And Older With Radiographically-Confirmed Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Ronika Alexander, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez, Wesley H. Self MD, MPH, Carlos Grijalva, Francis Counselman, Gregory A. Volturo, Heidi Kabler, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Richard Wunderink, Robert L. Sherwin, Senen Pena, Thomas File, Timothy L. Wiemken, Sharon Gray, Michael Pride, Kimbal D. Ford, Qin Jiang, Raul Isturiz 2017 Pfizer, Inc.

Rationale And Methods Of The Study Protocol: Streptococcus Pneumoniae Serotypes In Adults 18 Years And Older With Radiographically-Confirmed Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Ronika Alexander, Paula Peyrani, Julio A. Ramirez, Wesley H. Self Md, Mph, Carlos Grijalva, Francis Counselman, Gregory A. Volturo, Heidi Kabler, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Richard Wunderink, Robert L. Sherwin, Senen Pena, Thomas File, Timothy L. Wiemken, Sharon Gray, Michael Pride, Kimbal D. Ford, Qin Jiang, Raul Isturiz

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

This study was an active, prospective surveillance study of adults 18 years and older hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae conducted at 21 hospitals in ten cities across the United States. This report describes the surveillance methodology applied between October 7, 2013 and September 30, 2016, including the identification and description of surveillance areas and populations at-risk for CAP hospitalization for estimation of incidence rates for selected study sites.


Streptococcus Pneumoniae Antigen, Missing Opportunities Of A Promising Point Of Care Diagnostic Test, Magdelina Słomka, Ruby Gupta, Baltej Singh, Venkatesh Gondhi, Siddartha Bhandary, Ekezie Francis, Jose Bordon 2017 St. Vincent Charity Medical Center, Cleveland, OH

Streptococcus Pneumoniae Antigen, Missing Opportunities Of A Promising Point Of Care Diagnostic Test, Magdelina Słomka, Ruby Gupta, Baltej Singh, Venkatesh Gondhi, Siddartha Bhandary, Ekezie Francis, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: The etiologic diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and community-acquired meningitis (CAM) are still far from optimal accuracy and turnaround time. The most common bacterial pathogen identified in both CAP and CAM is Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Methods: We reviewed the literature on S. pneumoniae antigen to highlight opportunities to optimize its use as a point of care diagnostic test to maximize quality of patient care, antimicrobial stewardship outcomes and cost saving. A PubMed search was performed using key words “S. pneumoniae antigen; rapid diagnostic tests for S. pneumoniae”. We selected articles in English and sorted into randomized controlled trials (RCT ...


Using Steroids In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia At The University Of Louisville Hospital: Who, What, And When, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Disorders, University of Louisville

Using Steroids In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia At The University Of Louisville Hospital: Who, What, And When, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Pneumonia Pathogenesis And The Lung Microbiome: Back To The Drawing Board, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Pneumonia Pathogenesis And The Lung Microbiome: Back To The Drawing Board, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


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