Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Epidemiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2721 Full-Text Articles 6058 Authors 413947 Downloads 99 Institutions

All Articles in Epidemiology

Faceted Search

2721 full-text articles. Page 1 of 92.

Socioeconomic Status, Air Quality And Geographic Variation In Emergency Room Visits For Acute Bronchitis On The California Central Coast, Sean Lang-Brown, Heather W. Starnes, Gary B. Hughes 2017 California Polytechnic State University

Socioeconomic Status, Air Quality And Geographic Variation In Emergency Room Visits For Acute Bronchitis On The California Central Coast, Sean Lang-Brown, Heather W. Starnes, Gary B. Hughes

Symposium

IMPORTANCE: Analysis of geospatial variation in acute bronchitis due to socioeconomic and environmental factors can allow the efficient delivery of resources to populations most at risk.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if small scale variation in socioeconomic factors and emergency room (ER) visits for acute bronchitis are associated in small cities or rural communities. We also modeled the effects of air quality on daily rates of ER visits for acute bronchitis in the context of socioeconomic factors to investigate modifying relationships.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined ER visits for acute bronchitis in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties ...


Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Among Medicare Patients In Nursing Homes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Marya D. Zilberberg, Andrew F. Shorr, William M. Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane

Jennifer Tjia

We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals. We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age > /=65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for > /=3 days ...


Association Between Psychosocial Factors, Quality Of Life And Atrial Fibrillation, Summer Aldrugh, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Jane S. Saczynski, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Psychosocial Factors, Quality Of Life And Atrial Fibrillation, Summer Aldrugh, Mayank Sardana, Darleen M. Lessard, Jane S. Saczynski, David D. Mcmanus

David D. McManus

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive and psychosocial comorbidities, and poorer quality of life (QOL). In this study, we aimed to study the association between cognition, psychosocial status and QOL at baseline and AF recurrence. Methods: We enrolled 222 symptomatic AF patients (64±10.0 years, 36% women) treated with a rhythm-control strategy. We performed cognitive, psychosocial, and QOL assessments using Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA, cognitive impairment Results: A total of 123 (55%) participants experienced an AF recurrence over the 6-month follow-up period. Participants with an AF recurrence had higher rates of depression (31% vs.14%, p=0 ...


The Effects Of Insurance Status On Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes: A Literature Review, Anthony Fabio, Austin Murray, Michelle Mellers, Stephen Wisniewski, Michael Bell 2017 University of Pittsburgh

The Effects Of Insurance Status On Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes: A Literature Review, Anthony Fabio, Austin Murray, Michelle Mellers, Stephen Wisniewski, Michael Bell

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: To review the literature that describes the effects of insurance status on traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes among pediatric patients to understand how policies related to access to health insurance changes TBI outcomes. Method: This review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). A search of OVID Medline was conducted in May of 2016 for all years for peer-reviewed articles that included keywords related to “brain injuries” and “insurance status”. Articles were included if authors conducted a separate analysis of children aged 0 to 18. Articles were excluded if the TBI was the ...


Residential Segregation, Neighborhood Social And Physical Context In Obesity Disparities In Hispanic Preschoolers: A Conceptual Model, Catherina Chang Martinez PhD(c), Nasar U. Ahmed PhD, Ruby A. Natale PhD, PsyD 2017 Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University

Residential Segregation, Neighborhood Social And Physical Context In Obesity Disparities In Hispanic Preschoolers: A Conceptual Model, Catherina Chang Martinez Phd(C), Nasar U. Ahmed Phd, Ruby A. Natale Phd, Psyd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

During the last decade, there has been a significant inclusion in obesity prevention studies from individual characteristics to household factors then neighborhood factors. The study of place in the context of early childhood obesity studies has been limited to the food and physical built environment. With the persistent disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity, and Hispanic minorities being increasingly affected, there is a need to reexamine existing models and develop new model conceptual frameworks to examine the role of place and residential segregation in the context of race, ethnicity, social position, and socioeconomic disparities. In the context of place ...


The Impact Of African American Male Incarceration Rates On The Racial Disparities In Hiv/Aids Rates, Michelle S. Aelion 2017 DePaul University

The Impact Of African American Male Incarceration Rates On The Racial Disparities In Hiv/Aids Rates, Michelle S. Aelion

DePaul Discoveries

In the United States, HIV/AIDS disproportionately impacts African Americans and African American communities. The nature of this national health disparity is complex and cannot be explained simply by one factor or an individual’s behavior within a given community. This paper suggests that the disparity in African American male incarceration rates is among the most important factors to consider in the racial disparities of HIV/AIDS rates. Existing studies on relevant subjects were examined and used to create a conceptual model of factors. This model presents an outline of factors during pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration that contribute to the ...


Public Health Research Priorities To Address Us Human Trafficking, Emily F. Rothman, Hanni Stoklosa, Susie B. Baldwin, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Rumi Kato Price, Holly G. Atkinson 2017 Boston University

Public Health Research Priorities To Address Us Human Trafficking, Emily F. Rothman, Hanni Stoklosa, Susie B. Baldwin, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Rumi Kato Price, Holly G. Atkinson

Publications and Research

In this Perspective, HEAL Trafficking, the nation's leading public health anti-trafficking organization maps out a national research agenda to tackle the problem of human trafficking. Given the paucity of research on trafficking, HEAL Trafficking engaged its membership in a consensus development process throughout 2016 to develop its national research agenda. HEAL Trafficking proposes five priorities that public health researchers should focus on in the decade ahead to make meaningful progress on preventing and responding to human trafficking in the Unites States.


Mixture Models For Undiagnosed Prevalent Disease And Interval-Censored Incident Disease: Applications To A Cohort Assembled From Electronic Health Records., Li C Cheung, Qing Pan, Noorie Hyun, Mark Schiffman, Barbara Fetterman, Philip E Castle, Thomas Lorey, Hormuzd A Katki 2017 George Washington University

Mixture Models For Undiagnosed Prevalent Disease And Interval-Censored Incident Disease: Applications To A Cohort Assembled From Electronic Health Records., Li C Cheung, Qing Pan, Noorie Hyun, Mark Schiffman, Barbara Fetterman, Philip E Castle, Thomas Lorey, Hormuzd A Katki

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

For cost-effectiveness and efficiency, many large-scale general-purpose cohort studies are being assembled within large health-care providers who use electronic health records. Two key features of such data are that incident disease is interval-censored between irregular visits and there can be pre-existing (prevalent) disease. Because prevalent disease is not always immediately diagnosed, some disease diagnosed at later visits are actually undiagnosed prevalent disease. We consider prevalent disease as a point mass at time zero for clinical applications where there is no interest in time of prevalent disease onset. We demonstrate that the naive Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk estimator underestimates risks at early ...


History Of Periodontitis Diagnosis And Edentulism As Predictors Of Cardiovascular Disease, Stroke, And Mortality In Postmenopausal Women, Michael J. LaMonte, Robert J. Genco, Kathleen M. Hovey, Robert B. Wallace, Jo L. Freudenheim, Dominique S. Michaud, Xiaodan Mai, Lesley Tinker, Christian R. Salazar, Christopher A. Andrews, Wenjun Li, Charles Eaton, Lisa W. Martin, Jean Wactawski-Wende 2017 SUNY University at Buffalo

History Of Periodontitis Diagnosis And Edentulism As Predictors Of Cardiovascular Disease, Stroke, And Mortality In Postmenopausal Women, Michael J. Lamonte, Robert J. Genco, Kathleen M. Hovey, Robert B. Wallace, Jo L. Freudenheim, Dominique S. Michaud, Xiaodan Mai, Lesley Tinker, Christian R. Salazar, Christopher A. Andrews, Wenjun Li, Charles Eaton, Lisa W. Martin, Jean Wactawski-Wende

Wenjun Li

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in older women, which is the objective of the present investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 57 001 postmenopausal women ages 55 to 89 years (mean 68 years; > 85% 60 and older) who were enrolled (1993-1998) in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, and were without known CVD when history of periodontitis and edentulism was assessed by questionnaire at study Year-5 (1998-2003). There were 3589 incident CVD events and 3816 total deaths during a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. In multivariable analysis, periodontitis was not ...


Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison, Duc A. Ha, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Hanh T. Tran, Cuong K. Nguyen, Diem M. Dang, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison, Duc A. Ha, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Hanh T. Tran, Cuong K. Nguyen, Diem M. Dang, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Robert J. Goldberg

Robert J. Goldberg

BACKGROUND: Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Novel, large-scale, effective, and sustainable interventions to control hypertension in Vietnam are needed. We report the results of a cluster-randomized feasibility trial at 3 months follow-up conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" intervention, "We Talk about Our Hypertension," and a didactic intervention. METHODS: The storytelling intervention included stories about strategies for coping with hypertension, with patients speaking in their own words, and didactic content about the importance of healthy ...


Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison, Duc A. Ha, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Hanh T. Tran, Cuong K. Nguyen, Diem M. Dang, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Culturally Adaptive Storytelling Intervention Versus Didactic Intervention To Improve Hypertension Control In Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jeroan J. Allison, Duc A. Ha, German Chiriboga, Ha N. Ly, Hanh T. Tran, Cuong K. Nguyen, Diem M. Dang, Ngoc T. Phan, Nguyen C. Vu, Quang P. Nguyen, Robert J. Goldberg

Jeroan J. Allison

BACKGROUND: Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Novel, large-scale, effective, and sustainable interventions to control hypertension in Vietnam are needed. We report the results of a cluster-randomized feasibility trial at 3 months follow-up conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" intervention, "We Talk about Our Hypertension," and a didactic intervention. METHODS: The storytelling intervention included stories about strategies for coping with hypertension, with patients speaking in their own words, and didactic content about the importance of healthy ...


Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Association Of C-Reactive Protein With Bacterial And Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pneumonia Among Children Aged <5 Years In The Perch Study., Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Lack of a gold standard for identifying bacterial and viral etiologies of pneumonia has limited evaluation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for identifying bacterial pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CRP for identifying bacterial vs respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) multicenter case-control study. Methods.

We measured serum CRP levels in cases with World Health Organization–defined severe or very severe pneumonia and a subset of community controls. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of elevated CRP for “confirmed” bacterial pneumonia (positive blood culture or positive lung aspirate or pleural ...


Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Is Higher Viral Load In The Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From The Perch Study., Daniel R Feikin, Wei Fu, Daniel E Park, Qiyuan Shi, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

The etiologic inference of identifying a pathogen in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with pneumonia is unclear. To determine if viral load could provide evidence of causality of pneumonia, we compared viral load in the URT of children with World Health Organization–defined severe and very severe pneumonia and age-matched community controls.

Methods.

In the 9 developing country sites, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with and without pneumonia were tested using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for 17 viruses. The association of viral load with case status was evaluated using logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves ...


Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N DeLuca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Safety Of Induced Sputum Collection In Children Hospitalized With Severe Or Very Severe Pneumonia., Andrea N Deluca, Laura L Hammitt, Julia Kim, Melissa M Higdon, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Induced sputum (IS) may provide diagnostic information about the etiology of pneumonia. The safety of this procedure across a heterogeneous population with severe pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries has not been described.

Methods.: IS specimens were obtained as part a 7-country study of the etiology of severe and very severe pneumonia in hospitalized childrenbefore, during, and after the procedure to record oxygen requirement, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, consciousness level, and other evidence of clinical deterioration. Criteria for IS contraindications were predefined and serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported to ethics committees and a central safety monitor.

Results.: A ...


Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Standardization Of Clinical Assessment And Sample Collection Across All Perch Study Sites., Jane Crawley, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.: Variable adherence to standardized case definitions, clinical procedures, specimen collection techniques, and laboratory methods has complicated the interpretation of previous multicenter pneumonia etiology studies. To circumvent these problems, a program of clinical standardization was embedded in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study.

Methods.: Between March 2011 and August 2013, standardized training on the PERCH case definition, clinical procedures, and collection of laboratory specimens was delivered to 331 clinical staff at 9 study sites in 7 countries (The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Zambia, Thailand, and Bangladesh), through 32 on-site courses and a training website. Staff competency ...


Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N DeLuca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul 2017 George Washington University

Data Management And Data Quality In Perch, A Large International Case-Control Study Of Severe Childhood Pneumonia., Nora L Watson, Christine Prosperi, Amanda J Driscoll, Melissa M Higdon, Daniel E Park, Megan Sanza, Andrea N Deluca, Juliet O Awori, Doli Goswami, Emily Hammond, Lokman Hossain, Catherine Johnson, Alice Kamau, Locadiah Kuwanda, David P Moore, Omid Neyzari, Uma Onwuchekwa, David Parker, Patranuch Sapchookul

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study is the largest multicountry etiology study of pediatric pneumonia undertaken in the past 3 decades. The study enrolled 4232 hospitalized cases and 5325 controls over 2 years across 9 research sites in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. The volume and complexity of data collection in PERCH presented considerable logistical and technical challenges. The project chose an internet-based data entry system to allow real-time access to the data, enabling the project to monitor and clean incoming data and perform preliminary analyses throughout the study. To ensure high-quality data, the project developed ...


The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

The Diagnostic Utility Of Induced Sputum Microscopy And Culture In Childhood Pneumonia., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.

We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1–59 months. Comparisons were made between induced sputum samples from hospitalized children with radiographically confirmed ...


Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Microscopic Analysis And Quality Assessment Of Induced Sputum From Children With Pneumonia In The Perch Study., David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Daniel E Park, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background.

It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods.

We evaluated induced sputum Gram stain smears and cultures from hospitalized children aged 1–59 months enrolled in a large study of community-acquired pneumonia. We hypothesized that a specimen ...


Investigation Of The Relationship Between Chronic Stress And Insulin Resistance In A Chinese Population, Yuxiang Yan, Huanbo Xiao, Sisi Wang, Jing Zhao, Yan He, Wei Wang, Jing Dong 2017 Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Beijing, China

Investigation Of The Relationship Between Chronic Stress And Insulin Resistance In A Chinese Population, Yuxiang Yan, Huanbo Xiao, Sisi Wang, Jing Zhao, Yan He, Wei Wang, Jing Dong

Jing Dong

Background: Chronic stress may facilitate the development of metabolic diseases. Insulin resistance is present long before the clinical manifestations of individual metabolic abnormalities. To explore whether chronic stress is an independent risk factor of insulin resistance, we investigated the relationship between the stress system, selected parameters of energy homeostasis, and insulin resistance in a Chinese population. Methods: We recruited 766 workers employed at four companies in Beijing. The degree of insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The highest quartile of HOMA-IR among all study subjects was further defined as insulin resistance in our ...


A Descriptive Study Of The Elderly In California Substance Abuse Treatment Programs, David Berenschot 2017 California State University - San Bernardino

A Descriptive Study Of The Elderly In California Substance Abuse Treatment Programs, David Berenschot

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As gerontologists may know, there are a great deal of studies and a variety of academic literature on the misuse of alcohol and prescription medication amongst the elderly population. While there is a plethora of information on alcohol and prescription misuse, there is little reported data about the prevalence of other substance misuse experienced by this population. This study aims to help to fill that gap in the data by using quantitative methods to describe the scope of substance abuse of individuals 55-years or older. This study utilizes data from the Treatment Data Set Admission (TEDS-A). The TEDS-A is a ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress