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2862 full-text articles. Page 1 of 92.

Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon 2017 Providence Hospital, Washington, DC

Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Studies have found admission hyperglycemia as a predictor of poor outcomes in Community acquired Pneumonia (CAP), whereas others have not. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on mortality as well as Length of stay (LOS) and Time to clinical stability (TCS) of hospitalized patients with CAP.

Materials and Methods: Adult patients hospitalized with CAP enrolled at Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) database with DM were categorized as admission blood glucose ≥ 250 mg/dL (diabetes mellitus blood sugar (BG) > 250) and admission blood glucose ≤ 250 mg/dL (DM BG ≤ 250). CAP outcomes included ...


Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisville, KY

Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

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Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Time to clinical stability is a well-defined early clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but it has not been evaluated in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The objective of this study was to compare time to clinical stability in patients with MRSA VAP treated with linezolid versus vancomycin.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the IMPACT-HAP study database. VAP was defined according to CDC criteria. MRSA VAP was considered when MRSA was isolated from a tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage. A patient was considered to reach clinical stability the day that the following four criteria were ...


A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority ...


High Burden Of Unrecognized Atrial Fibrillation In Rural India: An Innovative Community-Based Cross-Sectional Screening Program, Apurv Soni, Allison Earon, Anna Handorf, Nisha Fahey, Kandarp Talati, John Bostrom, Ki Chon, Craig Napolitano, Michael S. Chin, John Stephen Sullivan, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Robert J. Goldberg, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Jeroan J. Allison, Sunil Thanvi, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

High Burden Of Unrecognized Atrial Fibrillation In Rural India: An Innovative Community-Based Cross-Sectional Screening Program, Apurv Soni, Allison Earon, Anna Handorf, Nisha Fahey, Kandarp Talati, John Bostrom, Ki Chon, Craig Napolitano, Michael S. Chin, John Stephen Sullivan, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Robert J. Goldberg, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Jeroan J. Allison, Sunil Thanvi, David D. Mcmanus

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation, the world's most common arrhythmia, is a leading risk factor for stroke, a disease striking nearly 1.6 million Indians annually. Early detection and management of atrial fibrillation is a promising opportunity to prevent stroke but widespread screening programs in limited resource settings using conventional methods is difficult and costly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to screen people for atrial fibrillation in rural western India using a US Food and Drug Administration-approved single-lead electrocardiography device, Alivecor. METHODS: Residents from 6 villages in Anand District, Gujarat, India, comprised the base population. After obtaining informed consent ...


Exploring Sexual And Behavioral Health Inequities Among College Students: A Need For Lgb-Specific Risk Reduction, Todd M. Sabato 2017 University of North Dakota

Exploring Sexual And Behavioral Health Inequities Among College Students: A Need For Lgb-Specific Risk Reduction, Todd M. Sabato

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based upon self-identified sexual orientation, with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in greater risk behaviors than those with opposite sex partners. However, few of those studies consisted of large, national sample studies. To address that gap, the present study examined the relationship between sexual orientation and both behavioral and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2012 through Spring 2014 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment was used to examine behavioral and sexual health related responses from self-identified heterosexual ...


Overcoming Recruitment Challenges: A Pilot Study In Arab Americans, Nawar M. Shara, Sayf A. Yassin, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Asqual Getaneh, Shaunagh Browning, Alexander Zeymo, Barbara V. Howard, Zeid Abudiab, Anas Shahrour, Jason G. Umans 2017 MedStar Health Research Institute; Georgetown-Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Science

Overcoming Recruitment Challenges: A Pilot Study In Arab Americans, Nawar M. Shara, Sayf A. Yassin, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Asqual Getaneh, Shaunagh Browning, Alexander Zeymo, Barbara V. Howard, Zeid Abudiab, Anas Shahrour, Jason G. Umans

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

While diabetes prevalence and cardiovascular risk factors have been increasing among Arab populations worldwide, few studies of Arab Americans have been conducted because of the difficulty in recruiting Arab American participants. Cultural sensitivity and social awareness of different immigrant groups could ensure successful recruitment and retention in clinical studies. While the primary objective of our overall research project was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Arab Americans, the focus of this article is to describe the methodology used to overcome challenges in recruiting and enrolling Arab Americans for a community-based study. We used novel methods, including open houses ...


Gender Differences In Hiv Care Among Criminal Justice-Involved Persons: Baseline Data From The Care+ Corrections Study., Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo 2017 George Washington University

Gender Differences In Hiv Care Among Criminal Justice-Involved Persons: Baseline Data From The Care+ Corrections Study., Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals recently released from incarceration have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. We conducted a study to evaluate an information and communication technology intervention to increase linkage to community care among HIV-infected persons recently involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Baseline characteristics including risk behaviors and HIV care indicators are reported and stratified by gender.

METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected individuals in the District of Columbia jail and persons with a recent history of incarceration through community and street outreach. Participants completed a baseline computer-assisted personal interview regarding HIV care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence, substance ...


Detecting Discordance Enrichment Among A Series Of Two-Sample Genome-Wide Expression Data Sets, Yinglei Lai, Fanni Zhang, Tapan Nayak, Reza Modarres, Norman H. Lee, Timothy A. McCaffrey 2017 George Washington University

Detecting Discordance Enrichment Among A Series Of Two-Sample Genome-Wide Expression Data Sets, Yinglei Lai, Fanni Zhang, Tapan Nayak, Reza Modarres, Norman H. Lee, Timothy A. Mccaffrey

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

With the current microarray and RNA-seq technologies, two-sample genome-wide expression data have been widely collected in biological and medical studies. The related differential expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis have been frequently conducted. Integrative analysis can be conducted when multiple data sets are available. In practice, discordant molecular behaviors among a series of data sets can be of biological and clinical interest.

Methods

In this study, a statistical method is proposed for detecting discordance gene set enrichment. Our method is based on a two-level multivariate normal mixture model. It is statistically efficient with linearly increased parameter space when ...


Risk Of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Among Dabigatran Users – A Self Controlled Case Series Analysis, Wenze Tang, Hsien-Yen Chang, Meijia Zhou, Sonal Singh 2017 George Washington University

Risk Of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Among Dabigatran Users – A Self Controlled Case Series Analysis, Wenze Tang, Hsien-Yen Chang, Meijia Zhou, Sonal Singh

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

This article aims to evaluate the real world risk of gastrointestinal bleeding among users naïve to dabigatran. We adopted a self-controlled case series design. We sampled 1215 eligible adult participants who were continuous insured users between July 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012 with use of dabigatran and at least one gastrointestinal bleeding episode. We used a conditional Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios. The population consisted of 64.69% of male and 60.25% patients equal to or greater than age 65 at start of observation. After adjustment for time-variant confounders, the incidence rate of gastrointestinal bleeding was ...


Post-Diagnosis Body Mass Index And Mortality Among Women Diagnosed With Endometrial Cancer: Results From The Women's Health Initiative., Hannah Arem, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Steven C Moore, Melinda L Irwin, Michael J LaMonte, Gloria E Sarto, Rami Nassir, Juhua Luo, Rowan T Chlebowski, Louise A Brinton, Charles E Matthews 2017 George Washington University

Post-Diagnosis Body Mass Index And Mortality Among Women Diagnosed With Endometrial Cancer: Results From The Women's Health Initiative., Hannah Arem, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Steven C Moore, Melinda L Irwin, Michael J Lamonte, Gloria E Sarto, Rami Nassir, Juhua Luo, Rowan T Chlebowski, Louise A Brinton, Charles E Matthews

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Higher body mass index (BMI) measured before endometrial cancer diagnosis has been associated with greater risk of developing endometrial cancer and higher mortality, but the association between BMI measured after diagnosis and mortality risk is unclear. We identified 467 women (91 deaths) in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) with information on BMI measured after diagnosis and used Cox proportional hazards regression to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause mortality. Comparing BMI 35+ with/m2, we observed no association with all-cause mortality (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.55-1.91). Our study does not support ...


Serum Iron Concentration And Prostate Cancer In The United States, Aleeshaia Danner Raymonvil 2017 Walden University

Serum Iron Concentration And Prostate Cancer In The United States, Aleeshaia Danner Raymonvil

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Over 2 million adult men in the United States have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, with nearly 200,000 new diagnoses each year. This type of cancer is the leading cause of mortality in U.S. men. One possible risk factor for prostate cancer is a high level of iron in the body, but the association has yet to be confirmed. This study was an investigation of the relationship between serum iron concentration and prostate cancer using data obtained from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. This quantitative study involved 1,850 men in the U.S. aged ...


Using Administrative Healthcare Records To Identify Determinants Of Amputee Residuum Outcomes, Judith Gail Walden 2017 Walden University

Using Administrative Healthcare Records To Identify Determinants Of Amputee Residuum Outcomes, Judith Gail Walden

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In the United States, the number of major limb amputees is predicted to exceed several million in the coming decades. For those amputees using a prosthesis, their quality of life (QoL) is often modulated by residuum limb problems resultant from its use. Multiple factors preclude quality evidence-based medicine (EBM) research in the field of prosthetics, leading to greater health risk from prosthetic prescription ambiguity. Positive social change is integral to good QoL; studies support administrative healthcare (AHc) as useful to support such, especially in the absence of EBM. This study utilized Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) AHc data to discriminate determinants ...


The Impact Of Palliative Care On Health Status In Hiv-Positive Children, Aabid Abdulmajid Ahmed 2017 Walden University

The Impact Of Palliative Care On Health Status In Hiv-Positive Children, Aabid Abdulmajid Ahmed

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa have numerous challenges to overcome. These challenges increase psychosocial stress as well as symptom burden including fatigue, weight loss, pain, and mental changes. The symptoms may persist even after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, so such children need additional care. Palliative care lays emphasis on holistic patient-centered care, including physical, psychological, social, and spiritual symptoms, alongside antiretroviral therapy. There is limited data on the impact of integrating palliative care with standard HIV care and treatment in children. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap in the literature by investigating the impact of palliative ...


Association Between Physician Characteristics And Surgical Errors In U.S. Hospitals, Obumneke A. Amadi 2017 Walden University

Association Between Physician Characteristics And Surgical Errors In U.S. Hospitals, Obumneke A. Amadi

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The high incidence of medical and surgical errors in U.S. hospitals and clinics affects patients' safety. Not enough is known about the relationship between physician characteristics and medical error rates. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between selected physician characteristics and surgical errors in U.S. hospitals. The ecological model was used to understand personal and systemic factors that might be related to the incidence of surgical errors. Archived data from the National Practitioner Data Bank database of physician surgical errors were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Independent variables included ...


Relationship Between Quality Of Life For Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors And Novel Biomarkers, Stephanie L. Ford-Scheimer 2017 Walden University

Relationship Between Quality Of Life For Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors And Novel Biomarkers, Stephanie L. Ford-Scheimer

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Research in the field of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has increased over the last decade, including studies focused on biochemical markers (biomarkers) of the disease. There is also growing interest in how NETs impact patients' quality of life (QOL). Consequently, there is a paucity of information about whether the expression of the specific disease biomarkers affects QOL as well as whether the primary tumor site impacts QOL. Using the explanatory model of health promotion and quality of life in chronic disabling conditions as the theoretical framework and data collected with the Norfolk QOL-NET instrument, this study's purpose was to fill ...


Demographic Factors Associated With Consistent Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Icu Nurses, Sharon Lea Kurtz 2017 Walden University

Demographic Factors Associated With Consistent Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Icu Nurses, Sharon Lea Kurtz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Healthcare associated infections cause 75,000 to 80,000 deaths a year. Many are preventable with proper hand hygiene adherence (HHA). Worldwide, HHA range is between 40-60%, far below the 100% recommended. The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study was to investigate any association between 15 demographic variables and HHA of ICU nurses. A convenience sample of 613 hand hygiene opportunities was collected by direct observation at each of 5ICUs (4 hospitals) in Texas for 8 consecutive hours each day for 3-5 days. The theoretical foundation guiding this study was the healthcare environment theory. The Statistical Package for Social ...


Exploring The Role Of Faith In Survival Of Breast Cancer, Franklin D. Lewis, Jr. 2017 Walden University

Exploring The Role Of Faith In Survival Of Breast Cancer, Franklin D. Lewis, Jr.

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2013, approximately 232,340 women were diagnosed with breast cancer, and an estimated 39,620 women would die as a result of breast cancer. Stage I breast cancer can often be treated, but Stage IV breast cancer presents more difficulties in treatment, as it spreads to the bones, liver, or other areas of the body. Consequently, women with Stage IV breast cancer have very low 18 month and 5-year survival rates. According to some statistics, 79.5% of the United States population claim to be Christian. Much of this segment of the population uses faith to guide most aspects ...


Predicting Weight Management Advice Behavior Using Social Cognitive Theory Among Psychiatry Professionals, Chidi Chima 2017 Walden University

Predicting Weight Management Advice Behavior Using Social Cognitive Theory Among Psychiatry Professionals, Chidi Chima

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Obesity remains a public health concern among persons with mental illness resulting from the interaction of a combination of factors such as genetic, medication, effects of their symptoms, social, and environmental factors. Obesity complications account for increased mortality and morbidity, reduced life expectancy, and quality of life in persons with mental illness. The management of obesity is challenging and predicting the ability of mental health professionals to advise patients on weight management behavior is important to improve patients' overall well-being. The social cognitive theory constructs knowledge, expectations, situational perception, self-efficacy, and goal setting were utilized in predicting Weight Management Advice ...


Individual And Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Childhood Immunization Coverage In Nigeria, Obinna Ositadimma Oleribe 2017 Walden University

Individual And Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Childhood Immunization Coverage In Nigeria, Obinna Ositadimma Oleribe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Immunization remains one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual and socioeconomic factors that influence childhood immunization coverage in Nigeria. The health belief model and the social ecological model were used as the theoretical framework for the study, which examined the effects of individual, parental, and socioeconomic factors on complete immunization among Nigerian children. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate tests were conducted within a secondary analysis of 2013 Nigerian National Demographic and Health Survey was done. Of 27,571 children aged 0 to 59 months, 22.1% had ...


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