Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Epidemiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2900 Full-Text Articles 6240 Authors 362021 Downloads 95 Institutions

All Articles in Epidemiology

Faceted Search

2900 full-text articles. Page 1 of 94.

Clinical & Translational Research In Pneumonia: Defining A Research Agenda For Today And Tomorrow, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Clinical & Translational Research In Pneumonia: Defining A Research Agenda For Today And Tomorrow, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

From the Editor in Chief

The reason for this special supplement of the Journal is to inform readers of a scientific research conference supported by the National Institutes of Health (NHI). The NIH Research Conference Grant (R13) supports high quality scientific conferences in areas that are important to the NIH's mission and to the public health. We just received notification that the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has approved the application for an international research conference entitled: DzClinical & Translational Research in Pneumonia: Defining a Research Agenda for Today and Tomorrowdz. The conference will be held on Wednesday ...


Shoes Are Not Paleo, Stephanie Welch 2017 Ancestral Health Society

Shoes Are Not Paleo, Stephanie Welch

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Als Surveillance In Massachusetts: A One-Of-A-Kind Registry For Tracking An Elusive Disease, Vannalyn Abille, Alicia Fraser, Robert Knorr 2017 Massachusetts Department of Public Health

Als Surveillance In Massachusetts: A One-Of-A-Kind Registry For Tracking An Elusive Disease, Vannalyn Abille, Alicia Fraser, Robert Knorr

Community Engagement and Research Symposia

Background: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease with an etiology not yet fully understood. The Massachusetts Argeo Paul Cellucci ALS Registry is a unique population-based surveillance system used to monitor the occurrence of ALS throughout the state and to explore possible environmental causes of the disease.

Methods: The Registry gathers annual reports of ALS cases from physicians, hospitals, and clinics in accordance with state regulations. Medical records are obtained and abstracted for each case, and eligible cases are reviewed by a consulting neurologist to confirm diagnosis. Necessary clinical and demographic information are recorded in a ...


A Statistical Method For The Conservative Adjustment Of False Discovery Rate (Q-Value), Yinglei Lai 2017 George Washington University

A Statistical Method For The Conservative Adjustment Of False Discovery Rate (Q-Value), Yinglei Lai

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

q-value is a widely used statistical method for estimating false discovery rate (FDR), which is a conventional significance measure in the analysis of genome-wide expression data. q-value is a random variable and it may underestimate FDR in practice. An underestimated FDR can lead to unexpected false discoveries in the follow-up validation experiments. This issue has not been well addressed in literature, especially in the situation when the permutation procedure is necessary for p-value calculation.

Results

We proposed a statistical method for the conservative adjustment of q-value. In practice, it is usually necessary to calculate p ...


Bse: Risk, Uncertainty, And Policy Change, Enda Cummins, Pat Grace, Kevin McDonnell, Shane Ward 2017 University of New Hampshire

Bse: Risk, Uncertainty, And Policy Change, Enda Cummins, Pat Grace, Kevin Mcdonnell, Shane Ward

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors discuss how, in our "risk society," a range of potential risks and uncertainties are associated with new technologies and new diseases, such as BSE. These risks bring with them worries about human health, while the ability to assess and manage new health scares is an essential skill for government and related industries.


Evaluation Of Progress Towards The Unaids 90-90-90 Hiv Care Cascade: A Description Of Statistical Methods Used In An Interim Analysis Of The Intervention Communities In The Search Study, Laura Balzer, Joshua Schwab, Mark J. van der Laan, Maya L. Petersen 2017 Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Heath

Evaluation Of Progress Towards The Unaids 90-90-90 Hiv Care Cascade: A Description Of Statistical Methods Used In An Interim Analysis Of The Intervention Communities In The Search Study, Laura Balzer, Joshua Schwab, Mark J. Van Der Laan, Maya L. Petersen

U.C. Berkeley Division of Biostatistics Working Paper Series

WHO guidelines call for universal antiretroviral treatment, and UNAIDS has set a global target to virally suppress most HIV-positive individuals. Accurate estimates of population-level coverage at each step of the HIV care cascade (testing, treatment, and viral suppression) are needed to assess the effectiveness of "test and treat" strategies implemented to achieve this goal. The data available to inform such estimates, however, are susceptible to informative missingness: the number of HIV-positive individuals in a population is unknown; individuals tested for HIV may not be representative of those whom a testing intervention fails to reach, and HIV-positive individuals with a viral ...


Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisville, KY

Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

-


Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Time to clinical stability is a well-defined early clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but it has not been evaluated in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The objective of this study was to compare time to clinical stability in patients with MRSA VAP treated with linezolid versus vancomycin.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the IMPACT-HAP study database. VAP was defined according to CDC criteria. MRSA VAP was considered when MRSA was isolated from a tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage. A patient was considered to reach clinical stability the day that the following four criteria were ...


Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon 2017 Providence Hospital, Washington, DC

Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Studies have found admission hyperglycemia as a predictor of poor outcomes in Community acquired Pneumonia (CAP), whereas others have not. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on mortality as well as Length of stay (LOS) and Time to clinical stability (TCS) of hospitalized patients with CAP.

Materials and Methods: Adult patients hospitalized with CAP enrolled at Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) database with DM were categorized as admission blood glucose ≥ 250 mg/dL (diabetes mellitus blood sugar (BG) > 250) and admission blood glucose ≤ 250 mg/dL (DM BG ≤ 250). CAP outcomes included ...


A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority ...


High Burden Of Unrecognized Atrial Fibrillation In Rural India: An Innovative Community-Based Cross-Sectional Screening Program, Apurv Soni, Allison Earon, Anna Handorf, Nisha Fahey, Kandarp Talati, John Bostrom, Ki Chon, Craig Napolitano, Michael S. Chin, John Stephen Sullivan, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Robert J. Goldberg, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Jeroan J. Allison, Sunil Thanvi, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

High Burden Of Unrecognized Atrial Fibrillation In Rural India: An Innovative Community-Based Cross-Sectional Screening Program, Apurv Soni, Allison Earon, Anna Handorf, Nisha Fahey, Kandarp Talati, John Bostrom, Ki Chon, Craig Napolitano, Michael S. Chin, John Stephen Sullivan, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Robert J. Goldberg, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Jeroan J. Allison, Sunil Thanvi, David D. Mcmanus

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation, the world's most common arrhythmia, is a leading risk factor for stroke, a disease striking nearly 1.6 million Indians annually. Early detection and management of atrial fibrillation is a promising opportunity to prevent stroke but widespread screening programs in limited resource settings using conventional methods is difficult and costly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to screen people for atrial fibrillation in rural western India using a US Food and Drug Administration-approved single-lead electrocardiography device, Alivecor. METHODS: Residents from 6 villages in Anand District, Gujarat, India, comprised the base population. After obtaining informed consent ...


Breast Cancer Care In California And Ontario: Primary Care Protections Greatest Among The Most Socioeconomically Vulnerable Women Living In The Most Underserved Places, Kevin M. Gorey, Caroline Hamm, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Eric J. Holowaty 2017 University of Windsor

Breast Cancer Care In California And Ontario: Primary Care Protections Greatest Among The Most Socioeconomically Vulnerable Women Living In The Most Underserved Places, Kevin M. Gorey, Caroline Hamm, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Eric J. Holowaty

Social Work Publications

Background: Better health care among Canada’s socioeconomically vulnerable versus America’s has not been fully explained. We examined the effects of poverty, health insurance and the supply of primary care physicians on breast cancer care. Methods: We analyzed breast cancer data in Ontario (n = 950) and California (n = 6300) between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2014. We obtained socioeconomic data from censuses, oversampling the poor. We obtained data on the supply of physicians, primary care and specialists. The optimal care criterion was being diagnosed early with node negative disease and received breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiation ...


Exploring Sexual And Behavioral Health Inequities Among College Students: A Need For Lgb-Specific Risk Reduction, Todd M. Sabato 2017 University of North Dakota

Exploring Sexual And Behavioral Health Inequities Among College Students: A Need For Lgb-Specific Risk Reduction, Todd M. Sabato

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based upon self-identified sexual orientation, with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in greater risk behaviors than those with opposite sex partners. However, few of those studies consisted of large, national sample studies. To address that gap, the present study examined the relationship between sexual orientation and both behavioral and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2012 through Spring 2014 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment was used to examine behavioral and sexual health related responses from self-identified heterosexual ...


Overcoming Recruitment Challenges: A Pilot Study In Arab Americans, Nawar M. Shara, Sayf A. Yassin, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Asqual Getaneh, Shaunagh Browning, Alexander Zeymo, Barbara V. Howard, Zeid Abudiab, Anas Shahrour, Jason G. Umans 2017 MedStar Health Research Institute; Georgetown-Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Science

Overcoming Recruitment Challenges: A Pilot Study In Arab Americans, Nawar M. Shara, Sayf A. Yassin, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Asqual Getaneh, Shaunagh Browning, Alexander Zeymo, Barbara V. Howard, Zeid Abudiab, Anas Shahrour, Jason G. Umans

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

While diabetes prevalence and cardiovascular risk factors have been increasing among Arab populations worldwide, few studies of Arab Americans have been conducted because of the difficulty in recruiting Arab American participants. Cultural sensitivity and social awareness of different immigrant groups could ensure successful recruitment and retention in clinical studies. While the primary objective of our overall research project was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Arab Americans, the focus of this article is to describe the methodology used to overcome challenges in recruiting and enrolling Arab Americans for a community-based study. We used novel methods, including open houses ...


Research Methods In Occupational Health Psychology, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Chu-Hsiang Chang 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Research Methods In Occupational Health Psychology, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Chu-Hsiang Chang

Publications and Research

http://www.springerpub.com/occupational-health-psychology.html

Occupational Health Psychology (OHP) is a rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field that focuses on the science and practice of psychology in promoting and developing workplace health- and safety-related initiatives. This comprehensive text for undergraduate and graduate survey courses is the first to encompass a wide range of key issues in OHP. It draws from the domains of psychology, public health, preventive medicine,nursing, industrial engineering, law, and epidemiology to focus on the theory and practice of protecting and promoting the health, well-being, and safety of individuals in the workplace and improving the quality of work ...


Serum Iron Concentration And Prostate Cancer In The United States, Aleeshaia Danner Raymonvil 2017 Walden University

Serum Iron Concentration And Prostate Cancer In The United States, Aleeshaia Danner Raymonvil

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Over 2 million adult men in the United States have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, with nearly 200,000 new diagnoses each year. This type of cancer is the leading cause of mortality in U.S. men. One possible risk factor for prostate cancer is a high level of iron in the body, but the association has yet to be confirmed. This study was an investigation of the relationship between serum iron concentration and prostate cancer using data obtained from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. This quantitative study involved 1,850 men in the U.S. aged ...


Visualizing The Diffusion Of Digital Mammography In New York State, Francis P. Boscoe, Xiuling Zhang 2017 University at Albany, State University of New York

Visualizing The Diffusion Of Digital Mammography In New York State, Francis P. Boscoe, Xiuling Zhang

Epidemiology & Biostatistics Faculty Scholarship

Digital mammography saw rapid adoption during the first decade of the 2000s. According to data maintained by the Food and Drug Administration, which regulates mammography machines, fewer than 1 percent of the machines in 2001 were digital. By 2014, this figure had risen to 94%. We were interested in identifying the times and locations where the technology was introduced within the state of New York as a way of illustrating the uneven introduction of this technology. While the diffusion of medical innovation has been well-studied, there have not been many instances where maps or geographic information science methods have been ...


The Impact Of Palliative Care On Health Status In Hiv-Positive Children, Aabid Abdulmajid Ahmed 2017 Walden University

The Impact Of Palliative Care On Health Status In Hiv-Positive Children, Aabid Abdulmajid Ahmed

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa have numerous challenges to overcome. These challenges increase psychosocial stress as well as symptom burden including fatigue, weight loss, pain, and mental changes. The symptoms may persist even after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, so such children need additional care. Palliative care lays emphasis on holistic patient-centered care, including physical, psychological, social, and spiritual symptoms, alongside antiretroviral therapy. There is limited data on the impact of integrating palliative care with standard HIV care and treatment in children. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap in the literature by investigating the impact of palliative ...


Demographic Factors Associated With Consistent Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Icu Nurses, Sharon Lea Kurtz 2017 Walden University

Demographic Factors Associated With Consistent Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Icu Nurses, Sharon Lea Kurtz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Healthcare associated infections cause 75,000 to 80,000 deaths a year. Many are preventable with proper hand hygiene adherence (HHA). Worldwide, HHA range is between 40-60%, far below the 100% recommended. The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study was to investigate any association between 15 demographic variables and HHA of ICU nurses. A convenience sample of 613 hand hygiene opportunities was collected by direct observation at each of 5ICUs (4 hospitals) in Texas for 8 consecutive hours each day for 3-5 days. The theoretical foundation guiding this study was the healthcare environment theory. The Statistical Package for Social ...


Individual And Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Childhood Immunization Coverage In Nigeria, Obinna Ositadimma Oleribe 2017 Walden University

Individual And Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Childhood Immunization Coverage In Nigeria, Obinna Ositadimma Oleribe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Immunization remains one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the individual and socioeconomic factors that influence childhood immunization coverage in Nigeria. The health belief model and the social ecological model were used as the theoretical framework for the study, which examined the effects of individual, parental, and socioeconomic factors on complete immunization among Nigerian children. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate tests were conducted within a secondary analysis of 2013 Nigerian National Demographic and Health Survey was done. Of 27,571 children aged 0 to 59 months, 22.1% had ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress