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Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry 2016 George Washington University

Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified detectable levels of neonicotinoids (neonics) in the environment, adverse effects of neonics in many species including mammals, and pathways through which human exposure to neonics could occur, yet little is known about the human health effects of neonic exposure.

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review sought to identify human population studies on the health effects of neonics.

METHODS: Studies published in English between 2005 and 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. No restrictions were placed on the type of health outcome assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using guidance developed by the ...


Sperm Aneuploidy In Faroese Men With Lifetime Exposure To Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (Dde) And Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) Pollutants., Melissa J Perry, Heather A Young, Philippe Grandjean, Jónrit Halling, Maria S Petersen, Sheena E Martenies, Parisa Karimi, Pál Weihe 2016 George Washington University

Sperm Aneuploidy In Faroese Men With Lifetime Exposure To Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (Dde) And Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) Pollutants., Melissa J Perry, Heather A Young, Philippe Grandjean, Jónrit Halling, Maria S Petersen, Sheena E Martenies, Parisa Karimi, Pál Weihe

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background: Although it is known that sperm aneuploidy contributes to early pregnancy losses and congenital abnormalities, the causes are unknown and environmental contaminants are suspected.

Objectives: Our goal was to evaluate associations between lifetime exposure to organochlorines, specifically dichlorodiphenyldicholorethylene (p,p´-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and sperm aneuploidy in men from the general population of the Faroe Islands, a population with a known history of organochlorine exposures.

Methods: Serum and semen samples from men (n = 90) 22–44 years old who participated in Faroe Islands health studies were analyzed for p,p´-DDE and PCBs 118, 138, 153, and ...


Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson 2016 George Washington University

Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades. Specifically, an F1:A2:B20 plasmid is strongly associated with ...


Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background. Within-household sharing of strains from the resistance-associated H30R1 and H30Rx subclones of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has been inferred based on conventional typing data, but has been assessed minimally using whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis.

Methods. Thirty-three clinical and fecal isolates of ST131-H30R1 and ST131-H30Rx, from 20 humans and pets in six households, underwent WGS analysis for comparison with 52 published ST131 genomes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using a bootstrapped maximum likelihood tree based on core genome sequence polymorphisms. Accessory traits were compared between phylogenetically similar isolates.

Results. In the WGS-based ...


Workplace Predictors Of Perceived Quality Of Care In Nursing Homes, Winnie Chin, Laura Punnett, Rebecca Gore, Laura Kernan 2016 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Workplace Predictors Of Perceived Quality Of Care In Nursing Homes, Winnie Chin, Laura Punnett, Rebecca Gore, Laura Kernan

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Nursing home quality of care (QOC) is a matter of public concern and public policy. Higher nurse-to-patient ratios have been shown to decrease rates of adverse outcomes. Positive nurse-doctor relationships also have a positive effect, which might translate to other clinical staff, such as nursing aides, who perform the majority of direct care tasks in nursing homes. This cross-sectional study examined whether workplace factors in nursing homes were associated with QOC as evaluated by staff members themselves. Surveys were distributed to personnel in 24 nursing home facilities in the Northeast U.S. A total of 1463 respondents provided ratings of ...


Estimated And Self-Reported Workloads And Lower Extremity Symptoms For Nurses And Nursing Assistants, Alicia Kurowski, Laura Punnett 2016 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Estimated And Self-Reported Workloads And Lower Extremity Symptoms For Nurses And Nursing Assistants, Alicia Kurowski, Laura Punnett

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Objectives and Significance: In US nursing homes, nursing assistants (NAs) are responsible for direct care and resident handling, while nurses’ roles consist primarily of medication distribution and administrative duties. This study examines differences in observed physical exposures and self-reported knee and ankle symptoms of nurses and NAs.

Methods: Observations of clinical staff’s postures and handling were made at fixed time intervals using the PATH Method. An additive physical workload index (PWI) was computed to compare LE workload of NAs and nurses. The PWI combined observed frequencies of postures and handling with their associated forces on the knee and ankle ...


The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on “The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology,” on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts ...


Making It Sound As Good As It Tastes: Noise Reverberation Reduction In A Micro Distillery Tasting Room, Andrew Sheehy 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

Making It Sound As Good As It Tastes: Noise Reverberation Reduction In A Micro Distillery Tasting Room, Andrew Sheehy

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Noise reverberation in micro distillery tasting rooms can interfere with speech communication and negatively impact the acoustic quality of live music. Noise reverberation was characterized in a tasting room in Butte, MT by calculated and quantified methods. Sound absorbing baffles were then installed in an effort to reduce reverberation and improve room acoustics. The overall reverberation time and speech interference level were decreased by measureable amounts that corresponded with an increase in overall absorption in the space. Reverberation time decreased from 0.85 seconds to 0.49 seconds on average. As shown by a customer survey given before and after ...


Evaluation Of Particulate Metal And Noise Exposures At A Foundry And Recommended Control Strategies, Jeshua Sargetis 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

Evaluation Of Particulate Metal And Noise Exposures At A Foundry And Recommended Control Strategies, Jeshua Sargetis

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

An evaluation of current industrial hygiene practices were performed at a foundry located in the Northwestern United States. The foundry was evaluated for respirable and inhalable manganese, respirable crystalline silica and noise exposure. Personal breathing zone sampling was performed using proper safety and health practices on workers in the foundry and around the entire facility. Results showed that workers were being exposed to respirable manganese but not inhalable manganese. Bulk crystalline silica sampling was performed and personal breathing zone sampling was performed as a follow up to certain control measures which showed low concentrations. Area noise sampling was conducted in ...


An Analysis Of Helmet Sound Attenuation During Abrasive Blasting, Michael Lindsey 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

An Analysis Of Helmet Sound Attenuation During Abrasive Blasting, Michael Lindsey

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

During abrasive blasting, the operator is exposed to a process consisting of combined sound pressure levels from compressed air propelling an abrasive media through the hose, the abrasive striking metal substrate, the flow of breathing air inside the helmet, and the reverberation of sound inside the walls of the blast booth. The resulting noise can reach peak sound pressure levels (Lpeak) of 128 dBA, exceeding allowable occupational exposure levels.

The objectives of this study were to investigate the noise levels produced during abrasive blasting, attempt to further quantify total noise exposure to the abrasive blast operator, and calculate combined attenuation ...


Comparison Of Sample Methods And Results For Hexavalent Chromium Exposures At Langley Afb, Ericka Crosley 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

Comparison Of Sample Methods And Results For Hexavalent Chromium Exposures At Langley Afb, Ericka Crosley

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Various exposure limits and analytical methods are recommended for hexavalent chromium exposures. While the OSHA standard is legally binding, NIOSH and ACGIH recommendations should be considered as well when determining personnel overexposures. Hexavalent chromium is linked to severe acute and chronic effects, including cancer. The United States Air Force currently uses NIOSH methods 7600 and 7605 to sample for hexavalent chromium. This research analyzed if personnel are being overexposed, in addition to comparing NIOSH 7600 and NIOSH 7605 results to determine if both methods are required, or if one can be used in place of both. The results of the ...


An Exploratory Study Of Carbon Monoxide Exposures In Ice Rink Volunteers, Jonathan Triner 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

An Exploratory Study Of Carbon Monoxide Exposures In Ice Rink Volunteers, Jonathan Triner

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Hockey has grown in popularity in the United States substantially in the last fifty years. The combustion engine has primarily been utilized to power the ice resurfacing equipment to make the ice smooth and able to support the next activity. The exhaust from the combustion engine creates a source of CO that could be harmful to the bystanders if the exhaust is not ventilated from the area properly. Many studies have investigated CO concentrations in ice rinks, but few have evaluated carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels as a biological indicator of CO exposure, in order to evaluate the potential health effects of ...


Reducing Noise Exposures Produced By Vibratory Finishing Machines, Anna Kroening 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

Reducing Noise Exposures Produced By Vibratory Finishing Machines, Anna Kroening

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Tumbling operators are exposed to loud occupational noises when loading and unloading the metal products in tumbling machines. The increase in the number of hearing loss injuries in the metal stamping industry initiated OSHA’s Special Emphasis Programs in designated industries and locations across the United States. Because occupational hearing loss injuries do not manifest themselves until years later, it is critical that employers install engineering controls immediately in order to protect worker’s hearing and prevent hearing loss injuries.

Tumbling machines come in a variety of configurations. In addition to sound absorption material that can be installed on floors ...


Whole Body Vibration Exposure To Crane Operator’S, Steven Campbell 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

Whole Body Vibration Exposure To Crane Operator’S, Steven Campbell

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to lower back disorders (LBD’s). The purpose of this study is to determine whether crane operators are exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). If exposure exists then, do they exceed a current consensus standard. This information will be used to determine whether WBV should become a larger discussion item when purchasing cranes and or rebuilding. This information can also be used to make the case for seat replacement or at the very least a qualification to consider when purchasing replacement seats.

While many studies exist relating WBV to LBD, I could not ...


Risk Factors Associated With Non-Compliance With The Respiratory Protection Program Among Firefighters, Brandon Dawkins 2016 University of South Florida

Risk Factors Associated With Non-Compliance With The Respiratory Protection Program Among Firefighters, Brandon Dawkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Non-compliance with respiratory protection programs among firefighters may put them at increased risk of injury and illness from occupational exposures during fire extinguishing activities. This research aims to characterize respiratory protection practices among Florida firefighters. This information will allow better understanding of factors that are associated with non-compliance with respiratory protection guidelines.

Methods: Survey questionnaire was used to characterize Florida fire departments in this cross sectional study. Four hundred and seventy-seven surveys were administered to Florida firefighters both in person and electronically to collect information regarding firefighter knowledge and participation in their respective respiratory protection programs during the past ...


Comparison Of Urinary Pahs Among Firefighters And Asphalt Pavers, Theodore Aquino 2016 University of South Florida

Comparison Of Urinary Pahs Among Firefighters And Asphalt Pavers, Theodore Aquino

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Firefighters and asphalt pavers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during various work activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate urinary PAH levels and compare these bio-monitoring levels among firefighters, asphalt pavers, and non-occupationally exposed individuals. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urinary PAH levels were used for non-occupationally exposed controls. When compared to the NIST standard for smokers and non-smokers, firefighters demonstrated statistically significant differences in urinary concentration differences for the following metabolites: 2-OH-fluorene, 3-OH-fluorene and 1-OH-pyrene, which were lower in firefighters than the NIST mean for smokers. 1-OH-phenanthrene, 2-OH-phenanthrene and 3-OH-phenanthrene were higher ...


Phylogenetic Organization Of Bacterial Activity., Ember M Morrissey, Rebecca L Mau, Egbert Schwartz, J Gregory Caporaso, Paul Dijkstra, Natasja van Gestel, Benjamin J Koch, Cindy M. Liu, Michaela Hayer, Theresa A McHugh, Jane C Marks, Lance B. Price, Bruce A Hungate 2016 George Washington University

Phylogenetic Organization Of Bacterial Activity., Ember M Morrissey, Rebecca L Mau, Egbert Schwartz, J Gregory Caporaso, Paul Dijkstra, Natasja Van Gestel, Benjamin J Koch, Cindy M. Liu, Michaela Hayer, Theresa A Mchugh, Jane C Marks, Lance B. Price, Bruce A Hungate

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Phylogeny is an ecologically meaningful way to classify plants and animals, as closely related taxa frequently have similar ecological characteristics, functional traits and effects on ecosystem processes. For bacteria, however, phylogeny has been argued to be an unreliable indicator of an organism's ecology owing to evolutionary processes more common to microbes such as gene loss and lateral gene transfer, as well as convergent evolution. Here we use advanced stable isotope probing with (13)C and (18)O to show that evolutionary history has ecological significance for in situ bacterial activity. Phylogenetic organization in the activity of bacteria sets the ...


Associations Of Financial Stressors And Physical Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration, Laura M. Schwab-Reese, Corinne Peek-Asa, Edith Parker 2016 University of Iowa

Associations Of Financial Stressors And Physical Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration, Laura M. Schwab-Reese, Corinne Peek-Asa, Edith Parker

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Publications

Background

Contextual factors, such as exposure to stressors, may be antecedents to IPV perpetration. These contextual factors may be amenable to modification through intervention and prevention. However, few studies have examined specific contextual factors. To begin to address this gap, we examined the associations between financial stressors and three types of physical IPV perpetration.

Methods

This analysis used data from Wave IV of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used logistic regression to examine the associations of financial stressors and each type of IPV (minor, severe, causing injury), and multinomial logit regression to examine the associations ...


Pregnant Women’S Health Consequences Following Exposure To Pbdes, Alison Chiaramonte, Ami R. Zota 2016 George Washington University

Pregnant Women’S Health Consequences Following Exposure To Pbdes, Alison Chiaramonte, Ami R. Zota

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

PBDEs (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are chemicals introduced by industry in the 1970s to serve as flame-retardants on common consumer products like electronics, plastics, and foam in furniture. They are also suspected to disrupt thyroid activity during pregnancy, which is a time of increased demand on the thyroid gland. Maternal thyroid fluctuations and disease as a result of exposure to PBDEs are therefore a concern. This systematic review aimed to capture all of the relevant peer-reviewed literature investigating the association between PBDEs and maternal thyroid activity. Use of the PRISMA checklist (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), a best ...


Cord Blood Methylmercury And Fetal Growth Outcomes In Baltimore Newborns: Potential Confounding And Effect Modification By Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Selenium, And Sex, Ellen M Wells, Julie B Herbstman, Yu Hong Lin, Jeffery Jarrett, Carl P Verdon, Cynthia Ward, Kathleen L Caldwell, Joseph R Hibbeln, Frank R Witter, Rolf U Halden, Lynn R. Goldman 2016 George Washington University

Cord Blood Methylmercury And Fetal Growth Outcomes In Baltimore Newborns: Potential Confounding And Effect Modification By Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Selenium, And Sex, Ellen M Wells, Julie B Herbstman, Yu Hong Lin, Jeffery Jarrett, Carl P Verdon, Cynthia Ward, Kathleen L Caldwell, Joseph R Hibbeln, Frank R Witter, Rolf U Halden, Lynn R. Goldman

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) may affect fetal growth; however, prior research often lacked assessment of mercury speciation, confounders, and interactions.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the relationship between MeHg and fetal growth as well as the potential for confounding or interaction of this relationship from speciated mercury, fatty acids, selenium, and sex.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study includes 271 singletons born in Baltimore, Maryland, 2004-2005. Umbilical cord blood was analyzed for speciated mercury, serum omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs), and selenium. Multivariable linear regression models controlled for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking ...


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