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Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier 2014 Gettysburg College

Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier

Psychology Faculty Publications

Obesity and excess weight are significant societal problems. Mindfulness may encourage healthier weight and eating habits. Across four studies, we found a positive relation between mindfulness and healthier eating. Trait mindfulness was associated with less impulsive eating, reduced calorie consumption, and healthier snack choices. In addition, we found a causal effect of mindfulness on healthier eating. An experimental manipulation of state mindfulness led participants to consume fewer calories in a spontaneous eating task. We also found preliminary evidence that mindfulness affects eating behavior by encouraging attitudinal preferences for healthier foods. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that mindfulness encourages ...


Mission And Sustainability Of Informatics For Integrating Biology And The Bedside (I2b2), Shawn N. Murphy, Adam Wilcox 2014 EDM Forum

Mission And Sustainability Of Informatics For Integrating Biology And The Bedside (I2b2), Shawn N. Murphy, Adam Wilcox

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: A visible example of a successfully disseminated research project in the healthcare space is Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside, or i2b2. The project serves to provide the software that can allow a researcher to do direct, self-serve queries against the electronic healthcare data form a hospital. The goals of these queries are to find cohorts of patients that fit specific profiles, while providing for patient privacy and discretion. Sustaining this resource and keeping its direction has always been a challenge, but ever more so as the ten year National Centers for Biomedical Computing (NCBCs) sunset their funding ...


Prevalence Of Tobacco Smoking Among Health-Care Physicians In Bahrain., Saif M. Borgan, Ghufran Jassim, Zaid A. Marhoon, Mohamed A. Almuqamam, Mohamed A. Ebrahim, Peter A. Soliman 2014 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Prevalence Of Tobacco Smoking Among Health-Care Physicians In Bahrain., Saif M. Borgan, Ghufran Jassim, Zaid A. Marhoon, Mohamed A. Almuqamam, Mohamed A. Ebrahim, Peter A. Soliman

Family and Community Medicine Articles

BACKGROUND: There is a clear shift in smoking habits among the Middle Eastern population with a recent and alarming increase in the prevalence of waterpipe (shisha) smoking. This phenomenon has not yet been studied sufficiently across the physician population. Therefore, we set out to establish the smoking status of primary healthcare physicians in the kingdom of Bahrain.

METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 175 out of the total 320 primary care physicians. Descriptive analysis was performed on all data and associations between variables were tested using Fishers Exact t test with statistical significance set as ...


Seasonality Of Birth Outcomes In Rural Sarlahi District, Nepal: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort, Michelle M. Hughes, Joanne Katz, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. LeClerq, Gary L. Darmstadt, James M. Tielsch 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Seasonality Of Birth Outcomes In Rural Sarlahi District, Nepal: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort, Michelle M. Hughes, Joanne Katz, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. Leclerq, Gary L. Darmstadt, James M. Tielsch

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

While seasonality of birth outcomes has been documented in a variety of settings, data from rural South Asia are lacking. We report a descriptive study of the seasonality of prematurity, low birth weight, small for gestational age, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths in the plains of Nepal.

Methods

Using data collected prospectively during a randomized controlled trial of neonatal skin and umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine, we analyzed a cohort of 23,662 babies born between September 2002 and January 2006. Project workers collected data on birth outcomes at the infant’s household. Supplemental data from other studies conducted at ...


Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Time To Cure Of Incontinence Present At Nursing Home Admission, Donna Z. Bliss, Olga Gurvich, Kay Savik, Lynn Eberly, Susan Harms, Jean F. Wyman 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Time To Cure Of Incontinence Present At Nursing Home Admission, Donna Z. Bliss, Olga Gurvich, Kay Savik, Lynn Eberly, Susan Harms, Jean F. Wyman

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Abstract

As many as half of older people that are admitted to nursing homes (NHs) are incontinent of urine and/or feces. Not much is known about the rate of cure of incontinence present at NH admission, but available reports suggest the rate is low. There have been racial and ethnic disparities in incontinence treatment, but the role of disparities in the cure of incontinence is understudied. Using the Peters-Belson method and multilevel predictors, our findings showed that there were disparities in the time to cure of incontinence for Hispanic NH admissions. A significantly smaller proportion of older Hispanic admissions ...


Disparities In Access To Health Insurance And Workers’ Compensation Benefit Between Non-Contingent And Contingent Farm Workers In U.S. Agriculture, Abay Asfaw 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Disparities In Access To Health Insurance And Workers’ Compensation Benefit Between Non-Contingent And Contingent Farm Workers In U.S. Agriculture, Abay Asfaw

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The share of contingent employment has increased significantly in the last two decades. Not much is known about the impact of this shift on disparities in access to health insurance and other benefits. I examined disparities in access to any type of health insurance, employer-sponsored health insurance and workers’ compensation (WC) benefits between contingent and non-contingent workers in U.S. agriculture. I used the National Agricultural Workers Survey and the extended Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique to estimate disparities. Contingent employment could be a barrier to access of health insurance and WC benefit, which in turn could contribute to health inequalities in ...


Physicians' Attitudes About Recommending Surgery For Early Stage Lung Cancer And Possible Reasons For Racial Disparities, Franklin R. McGuire 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Physicians' Attitudes About Recommending Surgery For Early Stage Lung Cancer And Possible Reasons For Racial Disparities, Franklin R. Mcguire

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

PHYSICIANS’ ATTITUDES ABOUT RECOMMENDING SURGERY FOR EARLY STAGE LUNG CANCER AND POSSIBLE REASONS FOR RACIAL DISPARITIES

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Patient refusal for lung cancer surgery is significant, but other factors, such as negative framing of the treatment discussion, may be involved. Physician attitudes could influence the nuances of and therefore the conclusions of these discussions. We determined physicians’ attitudes and the influence it has on possible decisions against lung cancer surgery, particularly surgical rates for blacks, using a companion survey.

Methods: The study is a prospective, multicenter observational trial conducted at five sites in North and South Carolina from December 2005 ...


Internet Use For Health Information Among American Indians: Facilitators And Inhibitors, Melissa K. Filippi, Christina M. Pacheco, Charlotte McCloskey, Rebecca Jeanne Crosthwait, Justin Begaye, JB Kinlacheeny, Won S. Choi, K Allen Greiner, Christine M. Daley 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Internet Use For Health Information Among American Indians: Facilitators And Inhibitors, Melissa K. Filippi, Christina M. Pacheco, Charlotte Mccloskey, Rebecca Jeanne Crosthwait, Justin Begaye, Jb Kinlacheeny, Won S. Choi, K Allen Greiner, Christine M. Daley

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Our research team explored Internet use among a heterogeneous American Indian (AI) population to determine Internet use in relation to health information seeking behaviors. Participants examined an AI culturally-tailored tobacco website as an example to explain what they wanted in an AI Internet health site. Using community-based participatory research, we conducted 10 focus groups with non-college AI men and women (N=96), stratified by age (18-29, 30-49, and 50 and over) to better understand their perceptions of Internet use and health information needs. We found that Internet use varied greatly among all strata. Participants referenced WebMD© more than any other ...


American Indian Men's Perceptions Of Breast Cancer Screening For American Indian Women, Melissa K. Filippi, Joseph Pacheco, Aimee S. James, Travis Brown, Florence Ndikum-Moffor, Won S. Choi, K Allen Greiner, Christine M. Daley 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

American Indian Men's Perceptions Of Breast Cancer Screening For American Indian Women, Melissa K. Filippi, Joseph Pacheco, Aimee S. James, Travis Brown, Florence Ndikum-Moffor, Won S. Choi, K Allen Greiner, Christine M. Daley

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Screening, especially screening mammography, is vital for decreasing breast cancer incidence and mortality. Screening rates in American Indian women are low compared to other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, American Indian women are diagnosed at more advanced stages and have lower 5-year survival rate than others. To better address the screening rates of American Indian women, focus groups (N=8) were conducted with American Indian men (N=42) to explore their perceptions of breast cancer screening for American Indian women. Our intent was to understand men’s support level toward screening. Using a community-based participatory approach, focus groups were audio-taped ...


Association Analysis Of Reported Attitudes And Culturally Competent Behavior Engagement Among Public Health Department Employees, Marla B. Hall PhD, Jeffrey J. Guidry PhD, E. Lisako McKyer PhD, Corliss Outley PhD, Danny Ballard PhD 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Association Analysis Of Reported Attitudes And Culturally Competent Behavior Engagement Among Public Health Department Employees, Marla B. Hall Phd, Jeffrey J. Guidry Phd, E. Lisako Mckyer Phd, Corliss Outley Phd, Danny Ballard Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: The purpose of this research is to analyze the association of attitudes and beliefs on engaging in culturally competent behavior.

Design: Explorational case study of individuals employed within an urban public health department.

Participants: Employees (n=90) from four metropolitan clinical sites of an urban public health department located in the southwest region of the United States were solicited and recruited during a monthly staff meeting. This sample is representative of 84% of the total employees which is comprised of 107 individuals.

Main Outcome Measures: The Cultural Competence Assessment is designed to explore individual knowledge, feelings and actions of ...


Trauma Patient Satisfaction Survey Opens Discussion About Bias In Health Care, Marie Crandall 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Trauma Patient Satisfaction Survey Opens Discussion About Bias In Health Care, Marie Crandall

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background

Patient satisfaction is an important part of quality care, and patient backgrounds can influence satisfaction with care. Since trauma disproportionately affects the underserved, this study aimed to determine the effects of race and insurance status on trauma patient satisfaction.

Methods

The validated Trauma Patient Satisfaction Survey (TPSS) was administered to 143 hospitalized trauma patients. ANOVA and Chi2 statistics were used to compare demographics with patient satisfaction. Qualitative data were analyzed with EZ-Text.

Results

Of the 143 patients surveyed, 95 (66%) were African American, 33 (23%) were Caucasian, and 15 (10%) were Latino. Sixty-one patients (43%) were uninsured. No statistically ...


Ebola: Towards An International Health Systems Fund, Lawrence O. Gostin 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

Ebola: Towards An International Health Systems Fund, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa is spiraling out of control, but it never had to happen. What can the international community do now to bring the epidemic under control, and how can we prevent the next one?

The counties most affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), rank among the lowest in global development, lacking essential public health infrastructure. If the affected countries had adequate public health systems, they probably would have contained Ebola within rural settings, avoiding the first outbreak in major urban areas.

More than 130 health workers have died from ...


Developing A Community-Wide Electronic Health Record Disease Registry In Primary Care Practices: Lessons Learned From The Western New York Beacon Community, Arvela R. Heider, Nancy Maloney, Nikhil Satchidanand, Geoff Allen, Raymond Mueller, Steven Gangloff, Ranjit Singh 2014 EDM Forum

Developing A Community-Wide Electronic Health Record Disease Registry In Primary Care Practices: Lessons Learned From The Western New York Beacon Community, Arvela R. Heider, Nancy Maloney, Nikhil Satchidanand, Geoff Allen, Raymond Mueller, Steven Gangloff, Ranjit Singh

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Background and Introduction: Disease registries, as part of electronic health records (EHRs), have shown promise in improving care and outcomes. However, little is known about how best to implement them across communities, especially in communities that are not highly integrated. The Western New York (WNY) primary care community consists largely of independent practices using at least 20 different EHR products. This paper discusses the processes undertaken to develop a communitywide EHR disease registry in WNY, improvements it engendered, barriers overcome, and the lessons learned.

Methods: HEALTHeLINK, under the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology Beacon Community Initiative ...


The Dartnet Institute: Seeking A Sustainable Support Mechanism For Electronic Data Enabled Research Networks, Wilson D. Pace, Chet Fox, Turner White, Deborah Graham, Lisa M. Schilling, David R. West PhD 2014 EDM Forum

The Dartnet Institute: Seeking A Sustainable Support Mechanism For Electronic Data Enabled Research Networks, Wilson D. Pace, Chet Fox, Turner White, Deborah Graham, Lisa M. Schilling, David R. West Phd

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Context: Clinical data research networks require large investments in infrastructure support to maintain their abilities to extract, transform, and load data from varied data sources, expand electronic data sources and develop learning communities.

Case Description: This paper outlines a sustainable business model of ongoing infrastructure support for clinical data research activities. The DARTNet Institute is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization that serves as a support entity for multiple practice-based research networks. Several clinical data research networks working closely with a professional society began collaborating to support shared goals in 2008. This loose affiliation called itself the “DARTNet Collaborative.” In ...


Development And Validation Of An Instrument To Assess Imminent Risk Of Homelessness Among Veterans, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Jamison Fargo, Vincent Kane, Dennis P. Culhane 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Development And Validation Of An Instrument To Assess Imminent Risk Of Homelessness Among Veterans, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Jamison Fargo, Vincent Kane, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

Objectives. Veterans are overrepresented within the homeless population compared with their non-veteran counterparts, particularly when controlling for poverty. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) aims to prevent new episodes of homelessness by targeting households at greatest risk; however, there are no instruments that systematically assess veterans’ risk of homelessness. We developed and tested a brief screening instrument to identify imminent risk of homelessness among veterans accessing VA health care.

Methods. The study team developed initial assessment items, conducted cognitiveinterviews with veterans experiencing homelessness, refined pilot items based on veterans’ and experts’ feedback and results of psychometric analyses, and ...


Cancer Prevention And Control: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Michael Preston 2014 SelectedWorks

Cancer Prevention And Control: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Michael Preston

Michael Preston

The Delta Leadership Institute Executive Academy is a year-long training program in leadership development and advocacy. Over 52 leaders from across the 8 state Delta Regional Authority service area (Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama) who work in the public, private and nonprofit sectors attended this session. At each session, the leaders study best practices in community and economic development, and learn from experts who share resources that these leaders can apply in their communities. This session provided findings on the economic burden of health disparities and interventions being used to address health disparities related to cancer.


Lifetime Probability Of Developing Diabetes In The United States, Samuel Preston, Ezra Fishman, Andrew Stokes 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Lifetime Probability Of Developing Diabetes In The United States, Samuel Preston, Ezra Fishman, Andrew Stokes

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Rethinking Aids Website, Jennifer Dettmann 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Rethinking Aids Website, Jennifer Dettmann

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

A group of scientists known as the Group for Scientific Reappraisal of the HIV-AIDS hypothesis created a web site title, Rethinking AIDS. The group behind the web site argues that AIDS is not a sexually transmitted disease. They even question the existence of the virus entity. My analysis is driven by the critical question: Does the web site construct a reality that affectively alters our perception of HIV-AIDS? In order to answer this question, Goodnight and Poulakos 1981 article, Conspiracy rhetoric: from pragmatism to fantasy to public discourse (Western Journal of Speech), will be utilized.


The National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry: A Sustainable Model For The Information Age?, Richard Dutton 2014 EDM Forum

The National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry: A Sustainable Model For The Information Age?, Richard Dutton

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Anesthesiologists care for patients of all ages, with all conceivable comorbidities, in every kind of healthcare facility. This leads to a significant challenge in collection of data to describe the specialty, and in development of evidence-based performance measures for anesthesiologists. Whereas narrowly defined medical specialties have developed registries based on manual abstraction of clinical data from the medical record (e.g. cardiac surgery), this approach would be prohibitively expensive for anesthesiology, and unlikely to generate statistically useful data when major adverse outcomes occur a handful of times in tens of thousands of cases. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) addressed ...


Maternal Employment During Infancy And Toddlerhood: Mechanisms For Associations With Childhood Overweight/Obesity In Canada, Nathalie Victoria Metzer 2014 Western University

Maternal Employment During Infancy And Toddlerhood: Mechanisms For Associations With Childhood Overweight/Obesity In Canada, Nathalie Victoria Metzer

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health issue, with approximately 1 in 3 children classified as overweight or obese in Canada. Research suggests that maternal employment during childhood may be associated with later overweight and obesity risk, but it is not known whether employment during infancy and toddlerhood has a similar effect on weight status. Mechanisms such as reduced breastfeeding and use of informal child care have been proposed in the literature but not been formally tested among infants and toddlers. It is important to identify possible mechanisms that could explain the association with overweight and obesity ...


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