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Appendix: Expand Wikipedia Stub On Supplier - Induced Demand, Robert D. Lieberthal, PhD, Juan Leon, PhD 2015 Thomas Jefferson University

Appendix: Expand Wikipedia Stub On Supplier - Induced Demand, Robert D. Lieberthal, Phd, Juan Leon, Phd

School of Population Health Faculty Papers

Appendix for article that has been accepted for Journal of Economic Education.


A Systematic Review Of The Epidemiology Of Nonfatal Strangulation, A Human Rights And Health Concern, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz 2014 University of Pennsylvania

A Systematic Review Of The Epidemiology Of Nonfatal Strangulation, A Human Rights And Health Concern, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz

Departmental Papers (SPP)

We reviewed the literature on the epidemiology of nonfatal strangulation (also, albeit incorrectly, called choking) by an intimate partner.

We searched 6 electronic databases to identify cross-sectional, primary research studies from 1960 to 2014 that reported national prevalence estimates of nonfatal strangulation by an intimate partner among community-residing adults. Of 7260 identified references, 23 articles based on 11 self-reported surveys in 9 countries met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of women who reported ever having been strangled by an intimate partner ranged from 3.0% to 9.7%; past-year prevalence ranged from 0.4% to 2.4%, with 1.0 ...


Evaluating The Reliability Of Ehr-Generated Clinical Outcomes Reports: A Case Study, Chatrian Kanger, Lisanne Brown, Snigdha Mukherjee, Haichang Xin, Mark Diana, Anjum Khurshid 2014 EDM Forum

Evaluating The Reliability Of Ehr-Generated Clinical Outcomes Reports: A Case Study, Chatrian Kanger, Lisanne Brown, Snigdha Mukherjee, Haichang Xin, Mark Diana, Anjum Khurshid

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: Quality incentive programs, such as Meaningful Use, operate under the assumption that clinical quality measures can be reliably extracted from EHRs. Safety Net providers, particularly Federally Qualified Health Centers and Look-Alikes, tend to be high adopters of EHRs; however, recent reports have shown that only about 9% of FQHCs and Look-Alikes were demonstrating meaningful use as of 2013. Our experience working with the Crescent City Beacon Community (CCBC) found that many health centers relied on chart audits to report quality measures as opposed to electronically generating reports directly from their EHRs due to distrust in the data. This paper ...


Enhanced Precision In The Analysis Of Randomized Trials With Ordinal Outcomes, Iván Díaz, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Michael Rosenblum 2014 COBRA

Enhanced Precision In The Analysis Of Randomized Trials With Ordinal Outcomes, Iván Díaz, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Michael Rosenblum

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

We present a general method for estimating the effect of a treatment on an ordinal outcome in randomized trials. The method is robust in that it does not rely on the proportional odds assumption. Our estimator leverages information in prognostic baseline variables, and has all of the following properties: (i) it is consistent; (ii) it is locally efficient; (iii) it is guaranteed to match or improve the precision of the standard, unadjusted estimator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first estimator of the causal relation between a treatment and an ordinal outcome to satisfy these properties. We ...


Patient Report Improves Posthospital Discharge Event Capture In Total Joint Replacement: A Novel Approach To Capturing All Posthospital Event Data, Leslie Harrold, Scott Pascal, Courtland Lewis, Regis O'Keefe, Vincent Pellegrini, Jeroan Allison, David Ayers, Patricia Franklin 2014 EDM Forum

Patient Report Improves Posthospital Discharge Event Capture In Total Joint Replacement: A Novel Approach To Capturing All Posthospital Event Data, Leslie Harrold, Scott Pascal, Courtland Lewis, Regis O'Keefe, Vincent Pellegrini, Jeroan Allison, David Ayers, Patricia Franklin

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: Current approaches to quantifying total posthospital complications and readmissions following surgical procedures are limited because the United States does not have a single health care payer. Patients seek posthospital care in varied locations, yet hospitals can only quantify those returning to the same facility. Seeking information directly from patients about health care utilization following hospital discharge holds promise to provide data that is missing for surgeons and health care systems.

Background: Because total joint replacement (TJR) is the most common and costly elective surgical hospitalization, we examined the concordance between patients’ self-report of potential short-term complications and their readmissions ...


A Study In Self-Defeat: The Public Health Venereal Disease Clinic, Joseph F. Sheley 2014 Western Michigan University

A Study In Self-Defeat: The Public Health Venereal Disease Clinic, Joseph F. Sheley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper relates the results of three months of participant observation and interviews in a public venereal disease clinic. The research was directed toward assessment of the relationship of clinic efficiency (a smoothly operating bureaucratic clinic) and clinic effectiveness (a major reduction of illness within a community). The venereal disease clinic is described as an efficient and well planned health unit with three major objectives: a) checking the increase of V.D. through preventive medicine; b) detection and treatment of V.D. within the community; and c) provision of health services to lower S.E.S. segments of the population ...


Health Insurance Among Young Adults Rebounds Post Recession: More Become Dependents On A Parent's Plan After Aca Extends Coverage To Adult Children, Michael J. Staley, Jessica A. Carson 2014 University of New Hampshire

Health Insurance Among Young Adults Rebounds Post Recession: More Become Dependents On A Parent's Plan After Aca Extends Coverage To Adult Children, Michael J. Staley, Jessica A. Carson

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

While much of the existing research explores young adults' insurance only in the post-recession period (that is, 2010 to present), authors Michael Staley and Jessica Carson assess young adults' rates of coverage within and beyond the context of the recession by examining changes across the entire 2007 to 2012 period.


Malagasy Women's Preferences For Reproductive Health Care In Mahabo, Madagascar, Mackenzie Findlay 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Malagasy Women's Preferences For Reproductive Health Care In Mahabo, Madagascar, Mackenzie Findlay

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

In rural Madagascar, women seeking reproductive care may have the option of seeking out their local traditional birth attendant (TBA) or going to a biomedical Western clinic. In those cases in which there is a choice, our understandings of how women make their choice is limited. By understanding local women’s preferences for reproductive health care, this research seeks to not “[put] oneself in her place” and make recommendations from that standpoint, but rather to understand the “variety of responses to the practices that shape their lives” (Narayan 419). There is a finite amount of resources in the world and ...


Value And Cos-Effectivess Of Community Health Worker Programs: Implications For Home Care Workers, Glen P. Mays 2014 University of Kentucky

Value And Cos-Effectivess Of Community Health Worker Programs: Implications For Home Care Workers, Glen P. Mays

Glen Mays

This presentation reviews studies on the health and economic value of strategies to improve the coordination of medical care, public health, and social support services for high-need and high-risk populations. Community health worker (CHW) programs feature prominently in these strategies, particularly for rural and low-resource community settings. Home care workers have the potential to function as CHWs in many settings, and as such present powerful opportunities for scaling up CHW programs that connect medical care, public health, and social services delivery.


Is The United States Prepared For Ebola?, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge Jr., Scott Burris 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

Is The United States Prepared For Ebola?, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge Jr., Scott Burris

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The West African Ebola epidemic is a humanitarian crisis and a threat to international security. It is not surprising that isolated cases have emerged in Europe and North America, but a large outbreak in the United States, with its advanced health system, is unlikely. Yet the handling of the first domestically diagnosed Ebola case in Dallas, Texas, raised concerns about national public health preparedness. What were the critical health system vulnerabilities revealed in Dallas, and how can the country respond more effectively to novel diseases in a globalized world?


Applications Of The Wei-Lachin Multivariate One-Sided Test For Multiple Outcomes On Possibly Different Scales, John M. Lachin 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Applications Of The Wei-Lachin Multivariate One-Sided Test For Multiple Outcomes On Possibly Different Scales, John M. Lachin

GW Biostatistics Center Faculty Publications

Many studies aim to assess whether a therapy has a beneficial effect on multiple outcomes simultaneously relative to a control. Often the joint null hypothesis of no difference for the set of outcomes is tested using separate tests with a correction for multiple tests, or using a multivariate T2-like MANOVA or global test. However, a more powerful test in this case is a multivariate one-sided or one-directional test directed at detecting a simultaneous beneficial treatment effect on each outcome, though not necessarily of the same magnitude. The Wei-Lachin test is a simple 1 df test obtained from a simple ...


The Community Health Applied Research Network (Charn) Data Warehouse: A Resource For Patient-Centered Outcomes Research And Quality Improvement In Underserved, Safety Net Populations, Reesa Laws, Suzanne Gillespie, Jon Puro, Stephan Van Rompaey, Thu Quach, Joseph Carroll, Rosy Chang Weir, Phil Crawford, Chris Grasso, Erin Kaleba, Mary Ann McBurnie 2014 EDM Forum

The Community Health Applied Research Network (Charn) Data Warehouse: A Resource For Patient-Centered Outcomes Research And Quality Improvement In Underserved, Safety Net Populations, Reesa Laws, Suzanne Gillespie, Jon Puro, Stephan Van Rompaey, Thu Quach, Joseph Carroll, Rosy Chang Weir, Phil Crawford, Chris Grasso, Erin Kaleba, Mary Ann Mcburnie

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Background: The Community Health Applied Research Network, funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration, is a research network comprising 18 Community Health Centers organized into four Research Nodes (each including an academic partner) and a data coordinating center. The network represents more than 500,000 diverse safety net patients across 11 states.

Objective: The primary objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation process of the CHARN data warehouse.

Methods: The methods involved regulatory and governance development and approval, development of content and structure of the warehouse and processes for extracting the data locally, performing validation ...


Cost Estimates Of Foundational Public Health Capabilities: Pilot Test Results Of An Expert Consensus Methodology, Cezar B. Mamaril, Glen Mays 2014 University of Kentucky

Cost Estimates Of Foundational Public Health Capabilities: Pilot Test Results Of An Expert Consensus Methodology, Cezar B. Mamaril, Glen Mays

Glen Mays

The Institute of Medicine's 2012 report on U.S. public health financing recommended research to identify the components and costs of a "minimum package" of public health services and foundational capabilities to be made available in every U.S. community. We present results from pilot testing of a proposed methodology for estimating the costs and resource requirements for a set of foundational public health capabilities identified by the Public Health Leadership Forum. Using pilot data from Kentucky public health settings, we estimate both current and projected costs under a range of assumptions about the resources required to fully implement ...


Hiv Testing Implementation In Two Urban Cities: Practice, Policy And Perceived Barriers, Camden J. Hallmark, Jennifer Skillicorn, Thomas P. Giordano, Jessica A. Davila, Marlene McNeese, Nestor Rocha, Avemaria Smith, Stacey Cooper, Amanda D. Castel 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Hiv Testing Implementation In Two Urban Cities: Practice, Policy And Perceived Barriers, Camden J. Hallmark, Jennifer Skillicorn, Thomas P. Giordano, Jessica A. Davila, Marlene Mcneese, Nestor Rocha, Avemaria Smith, Stacey Cooper, Amanda D. Castel

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

Although funding has supported the scale up of routine, opt-out HIV testing in the US, variance in implementation mechanisms and barriers in high-burden jurisdictions remains unknown.

Methods

We conducted a survey of health care organizations in Washington, DC and Houston/Harris County to determine number of HIV tests completed in 2011, policy and practices associated with HIV testing, funding mechanisms, and reported barriers to testing in each jurisdiction and to compare results between jurisdictions.

Results

In 2012, 43 Houston and 35 DC HIV-testing organizations participated in the survey. Participants represented 85% of Department of Health-supported testers in DC and ...


The Politics Of Hpv Vaccination Advocacy: Effects Of Source Expertise On Effectiveness Of A Pro-Vaccine Message, Roger Gans 2014 Roger Williams University

The Politics Of Hpv Vaccination Advocacy: Effects Of Source Expertise On Effectiveness Of A Pro-Vaccine Message, Roger Gans

Proceedings of the New York State Communication Association

The Politics of HPV Vaccination Advocacy:

Effects of Source Expertise on Effectiveness of a Pro-Vaccine Message

Persistent public resistance to an apparently safe, effective and life-saving public health practice such as HPV vaccination illustrates a significant issue in the communication of behavioral recommendations based on evidence-based scientific data and consensus views of scientific and medical experts. This study examines the influence of source expertise on pro-HPV-vaccine advocacy messaging effectiveness among audiences of differing political ideologies. The findings support prior research indicating greater resistance to HPV vaccination among political conservatives. Subjects who self-identified politically as Centrists and Conservatives were significantly less ...


Ebola: A Crisis In Global Health Leadership, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

Ebola: A Crisis In Global Health Leadership, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

At the core of the present Ebola crisis in West Africa is a lack of global health leadership. WHO should be the global health leader, following its constitutional charge, yet it is significantly under-resourced, having a direct effect on its rapid response capacity. The Organization's response to this crisis has been constantly behind, from low funding appeals to its delay in declaring this outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the binding International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR). The IHR themselves have proven insufficient, as countries have failed to cooperate in building the public health capacities ...


Ending Failures, Showing Results, Improving Population Health:Insights From Research & Reform In The U.S., Glen P. Mays 2014 University of Kentucky

Ending Failures, Showing Results, Improving Population Health:Insights From Research & Reform In The U.S., Glen P. Mays

Glen Mays

A growing body of empirical research supports the value of aligning the delivery systems for public health, medical care, and social services for populations with shared needs and risk factors. This presentation reviews selected studies from the field of public health services & systems research (PHSSR) in the U.S. that suggest pathways for achieving greater system alignment in the Canadian context.


How Can Public Health Economics Help Health Systems Focus Upstream?, Glen P. Mays 2014 University of Kentucky

How Can Public Health Economics Help Health Systems Focus Upstream?, Glen P. Mays

Glen Mays

Research on the health and economic impact of public health strategies can help newly evolving health care delivery systems focus on upstream health determinants and make evidence-informed decisions about resource allocation across the prevention-treatment spectrum. Examples from research underway in the U.S. have particular relevance for Canada's evolving regional health authorities and their integrated approaches to medical care and public health delivery.


Public Health In The Age Of Ebola In West Africa, Michael T. Osterholm, Kristine A. Moore, Lawrence O. Gostin 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

Public Health In The Age Of Ebola In West Africa, Michael T. Osterholm, Kristine A. Moore, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Ebola epidemic, with its fast-growing toll and real potential for spreading into much of Africa, including major cities, has the makings of a “Black Swan” event. Such events, using the term coined by Nassim Nicholas Taleb, are: 1) unpredictable, outside the realm of regular expectations; 2) have a major impact, and; 3) are rationalized after the fact as being explainable and predictable.

We have learned from this outbreak the potential for an infectious disease to be politically, economically, and socially destabilizing, and that what kills us may be very different from what frightens us or substantially affects our social ...


Egems’ Early Adventures In Open Access Publishing, Erin Holve 2014 EDM Forum

Egems’ Early Adventures In Open Access Publishing, Erin Holve

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: In January 2013 AcademyHealth officially launched eGEMs (Generating Evidence and Methods to improve patient outcomes) to rapidly disseminate peer-reviewed approaches using electronic health data (EHD) to advance research and quality improvement (QI), with the overall goal of improving patient and community outcomes. Instigated by the publication of eGEMs 50th paper, Dr. Erin Holve, eGEMs editor-in-chief reviews the EDM Forum’s early experiences with open access publishing.

eGEMs to Date: As of the end of September 2014 eGEMs has published 59 manuscripts and received nearly 150 submissions. These early findings demonstrate eGEMs is filling a need for dissemination outlets ...


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