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Transition In Occupations Of Refugees During Resettlement, Jacqueline-Elizabeth Cantrell, Kimberley K. Banuelos, Adam Chan, Jennifer H. Daine 2019 Dominican University of California

Transition In Occupations Of Refugees During Resettlement, Jacqueline-Elizabeth Cantrell, Kimberley K. Banuelos, Adam Chan, Jennifer H. Daine

Occupational Therapy | Graduate Capstone Projects

Purpose: In 2016, there were 22.5 million refugees worldwide (UNHCR, 2017). California resettled just over 5,000 of those 85,000 (Igielnik & Krogstad, 2017). Limited research has been conducted in the United States (U.S.) focusing on the refugee experience; furthermore, there is a significant gap in research regarding the impact of the refugee experience on the occupations of refugees as they transition to living in the U.S. Smith (2012) explored the adaptation of cultural weaving among Karen refugees to maintain their previous occupations and the impact of daily weaving on their lives within Western culture; however, the study focused only on work occupations. This study sought to capture the experience of refugees and the impact ...


Maintaining Stability In A Changing Climate: A Comparative Analysis Of Public Health Systems And Migration Policies In The U.S. And Canada, Laura Cutlip 2019 Colorado College

Maintaining Stability In A Changing Climate: A Comparative Analysis Of Public Health Systems And Migration Policies In The U.S. And Canada, Laura Cutlip

Climate and Society

This paper examines the relation between climate change, migration, and public health to better understand how the United States health system is positioned to deal with likely challenges to human health posed by environmental changes. The author reviews probable impacts of climate change on population displacement and disease before considering how the current structure of the health system of the United States will render it unable to adapt to these changes and challenges. The Canadian health care system and refugee policies are then reviewed to provide a counterpoint to this analysis. These findings are then considered in tandem as the ...


Factors Influencing Healthy Eating Habits Among Low-Income African Americans In Tennessee, Kushal Patel, Jonathon Smith, Jemal Gishe 9637046, Mohamed Kanu, Rosemary Theriot, Jianguo Liu, Yuan Zhou, Margaret Hargreaves 2019 Tennessee State University

Factors Influencing Healthy Eating Habits Among Low-Income African Americans In Tennessee, Kushal Patel, Jonathon Smith, Jemal Gishe 9637046, Mohamed Kanu, Rosemary Theriot, Jianguo Liu, Yuan Zhou, Margaret Hargreaves

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: Poor nutrition and diet are significant contributors to the development of chronic illnesses such as cancer and diabetes, particularly among individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES).This study examined demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced decisions to engage in healthy eating behaviors among low-income African Americans in three urban Tennessee cities.

Methods: As part of the Meharry Community Networks Program (CNP) needs assessment, a 123-item community survey was administered to assess demographic characteristics and eating behaviors among low-income African Americans. The total sample size was 1116. The primary outcome of interest was the healthy eating habits score which was ...


Comparison Of Compliance With Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Aged 18 And Above In Arkansas And The United States, Sarah N. O'Connor, Jun Tao, L. Joseph Su 2019 Department of Epidemiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Comparison Of Compliance With Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Aged 18 And Above In Arkansas And The United States, Sarah N. O'Connor, Jun Tao, L. Joseph Su

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: Cervical cancer preys on women without access to preventative screening. Any woman who has developed an invasive case of cervical cancer should be regarded as a failure of screening. Disparities in access to screening, triage, and treatment fuel an uneven distribution in the burden of cervical cancer within the United States; weighing unusually heavy on the Southern States like Arkansas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate demographic and behavioral risk factors for cervical cancer and identify potential barriers which may influence the likelihood of complying with current Pap test recommendations on a state level, in Arkansas, and ...


Who Speaks For Me?: Addressing Variability In Informed Consent Practices For Minimal Risk Research Involving Foster Youth, Mary V. Greiner, Sarah J. Beal, Antonio Allen, Vikash Patel, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Armand Antommaria 2019 Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati

Who Speaks For Me?: Addressing Variability In Informed Consent Practices For Minimal Risk Research Involving Foster Youth, Mary V. Greiner, Sarah J. Beal, Antonio Allen, Vikash Patel, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Armand Antommaria

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: Youth in protective custody (i.e., foster care) are at higher risk for poorer physical and mental health outcomes compared with those who are not. These differences may be due in part to the lack of research on the population to create evidence-based recommendations for health care delivery. A potential contributor to this lack of research is difficulties in obtaining informed consent for empirical studies in this population. The objective of this study was to describe the approaches to obtaining informed consent in minimal risk studies of foster youth and provide recommendations for future requirements.

Methods: We conducted a ...


Racial Discrimination And Preterm Birth Among African American Women: The Important Role Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Amelia Gavin, Nancy Grote, Kyaien Conner, Taurmini Fentress 2019 University of Washington

Racial Discrimination And Preterm Birth Among African American Women: The Important Role Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Amelia Gavin, Nancy Grote, Kyaien Conner, Taurmini Fentress

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Among African American infants, preterm birth (PTB) is the most frequent cause of infant mortality. In the United States, there remains a stark African American-Non-Hispanic White difference in PTB (< 37 weeks of completed gestation). When compared to Non-Hispanic White infants, African American infants have greater than three times the risk of preterm-related mortality. Prior research studies have examined whether traditional prenatal risk factors explain the African American-Non-Hispanic White difference in PTB. However identification of these factors fails to explain the disparity. The lack of progress in addressing the African American - Non-Hispanic White difference in PTB suggests that exposures to risk factors across the life-course may be vital to addressing the African American-Non-Hispanic White difference in PTB. One potential life-course risk exposure is racial discrimination, which has been shown to influence the increased risk of PTB among African American women. However, research is needed to reveal the mechanisms that underlie the association between racial discrimination and PTB. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be one potential mechanism by which African American women's exposure to racial discrimination contributes to increased risk of PTB. This concept paper strives to advance our understanding of the increased risk of PTB among African American women. Recommendations are suggested to mitigate the impact of racial discrimination and PTSD on the PTB risk among African American women.


Exploring The Cultural Perceptions Of Physical Activity Among Transnational Nigerian Immigrants, Kelechi D. Ibe-Lamberts, Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka, Abi Fapohunda 2019 SUNY Cortland

Exploring The Cultural Perceptions Of Physical Activity Among Transnational Nigerian Immigrants, Kelechi D. Ibe-Lamberts, Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka, Abi Fapohunda

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: Transnational Nigerian Immigrants, as other Transnational African Immigrants, are a subset of African immigrants with the unique ability to sustain multi-national ties. These ties could potentially affect health behavior choices and participation in physical activity. Physical Activity has the potential to improve health and prevent chronic diseases; however, there is a lack of literature regarding physical activity and its determinants within the Transnational African Immigrant population in general. This study investigated the cultural factors that shape Transnational Nigerian Immigrants’ perceptions and attitudes towards physical activity.

Methods: Semi-structured, individual interviews supported by photo-elicitation were conducted on 24 Transnational Nigerian Immigrants ...


Prehypertensive Risk Among African-American Undergraduates: Do The Extra Pounds Really Matter?, Cecile N. Yancu, Amber DeBono, Anna K. Lee, Correll McRae, Daphne Witherspoon 2019 Winston-Salem State University

Prehypertensive Risk Among African-American Undergraduates: Do The Extra Pounds Really Matter?, Cecile N. Yancu, Amber Debono, Anna K. Lee, Correll Mcrae, Daphne Witherspoon

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The objective of this study is to examine prehypertension among young African American adults and evaluate the predictive value of easily obtained standard measures of adiposity. Data for this study of 155 primarily African-American undergraduates was collected between April 2010-11. Participants provided family health history and anthropometric measures, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist to hip (WHR) ratio. Percentages were calculated for demographics. The average systolic blood pressure measured over two time periods within a single semester generated prehypertension rates. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression examined the impact of BMI, WHR, weight, and family medical history on ...


Disparities In Access To Primary Care And Emergency Department Utilization In A Large Medicaid Program, Natasha Parekh, Marian Jarlenski, David Kelley 2019 University of Pittsburgh

Disparities In Access To Primary Care And Emergency Department Utilization In A Large Medicaid Program, Natasha Parekh, Marian Jarlenski, David Kelley

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Identifying and eliminating disparities are priorities for State Medicaid programs, especially in the context of increased enrollment through Medicaid expansion. We assessed racial, ethnic, regional, and managed care organization (MCO) differences, as well as time trends before and after Medicaid expansion, in primary care and emergency department (ED) utilization in a large Medicaid program. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of data from Pennsylvania Medicaid from 2011-2015. Three primary care outcomes included: 1) adult access to primary care; 2) adolescent access to primary care; and 3) pediatric access to dental care. Our fourth outcome reflected ED utilization. We observed significant racial ...


College Of Public Health News, Georgia Southern University 2019 Georgia Southern University

College Of Public Health News, Georgia Southern University

Public Health, Jiann-Ping Hsu College of - News

  • Georgia Southern public health professor wins prestigious national award


Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant PhD, Holly M. Harner 2019 La Salle University

Financial Barriers And Utilization Of Medical Services In Prison: An Examination Of Co-Payments, Personal Assets, And Individual Characteristics, Brian R. Wyant Phd, Holly M. Harner

Journal for Evidence-based Practice in Correctional Health

Although research has found that requiring incarcerated individuals to pay fees for medical service decreases use, there are still important unanswered questions about this association: 1) Is the copayment fee a barrier to those seeking medical attention? 2) If so, what individual factors are associated with viewing the copayments as the reason to avoid seeing a medical professional? Using 2012 survey data collected from 45 incarcerated persons housed in a maximum security prison on the East Coast, it was discovered that over 70% of the men surveyed reported avoiding medical services at least once in the past three months due ...


The Use Of A “Cpr Posture” For Hemorrhage Control, Nathan Phillip Charlton, Robert Solberg, Nici Singletary, Craig Goolsby, Justin Rizer, William Woods 2019 University of Virginia, American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council

The Use Of A “Cpr Posture” For Hemorrhage Control, Nathan Phillip Charlton, Robert Solberg, Nici Singletary, Craig Goolsby, Justin Rizer, William Woods

International Journal of First Aid Education

Bleeding from traumatic injury is a major source of morbidity and mortality, however, little data is available to aid guidelines and curriculum developers in best practice of applying direct pressure when treating or teaching how to stop life-threatening hemorrhage.

Hypothesis: This study investigated the use of two-handed pressure with bent arms versus two-handed pressure with straight arms to apply direct pressure to a hemorrhage model.

Methods: Participants, recruited as a convenience sample, were randomized and instructed to use either two hands overlapping using arm strength only, or two hands overlapping with arms straight in a “CPR-like” position to apply force ...


Level Of Satisfaction Among Food Pantry Clients, Staff/Volunteers, And Directors And Its Association With Client Choice In Food Pantry Layouts, Myranda Dunmire 2019 South Dakota State University

Level Of Satisfaction Among Food Pantry Clients, Staff/Volunteers, And Directors And Its Association With Client Choice In Food Pantry Layouts, Myranda Dunmire

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: Food insecurity is an issue in rural communities, particularly among food pantry clients. Food pantries may not provide clients with the opportunity to choose their own foods (client choice), and instead may just give a set amount and type of foods. Client choice is important in regards to client health status as well as perceptions of autonomy and quality of life. Although client choice can be promoted in food pantries, it may be difficult to grasp the process of food pantry transitioning and how well changes such as these may be perceived by clients or food pantry personnel. We ...


Referral Patterns And Service Provision In Child Protective Services: Child, Caregiver, And Case Predictors, Hannah Mead Holbrook 2019 University of Vermont

Referral Patterns And Service Provision In Child Protective Services: Child, Caregiver, And Case Predictors, Hannah Mead Holbrook

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Child maltreatment, and recurrent maltreatment in particular, occurs at an alarmingly high rate. Frequency of reports to Child Protective Services (CPS) is associated with negative psychological outcomes, and children whose reports are unsubstantiated experience similar risk of behavioral, emotional, and substance use disorders as those whose reports are substantiated. Prior research has demonstrated that children with no CPS reports and children with one CPS report showed no significant differences in rates of maltreatment perpetration or substance use in adulthood, suggesting that prevention efforts after one report may have strong merit in reducing negative outcomes in adulthood. However, patterns and risk ...


Factors That Influence The Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Aboriginals In Canada, Olayinka Awoyemi 2019 Walden University

Factors That Influence The Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Aboriginals In Canada, Olayinka Awoyemi

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The focus of this study was on potential social determinants of health factors that influence the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the general population of Canada, with emphasis on the disproportion in rates of the disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations of Canada. This study also examined the risk factors that are peculiar to the general, Aboriginal, and non-Aboriginal population of Canada. A total number of 101,080 individuals who were 18 years and above provided data for this study. The data and information obtained from these participants were used to answer the major research questions regarding if there ...


Ethnic Minority Young Adult Perspectives On Health Literacy Readiness For Adulthood, Selwyn A. B. Carrington 2019 Walden University

Ethnic Minority Young Adult Perspectives On Health Literacy Readiness For Adulthood, Selwyn A. B. Carrington

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Health literacy is a social determinant of health and health disparity and low health literacy contributes to poor health outcomes in ethnic minority young adults (EMYAs). There is a gap in the literature regarding the health literacy readiness (HLR) of EMYAs transitioning to adulthood. The overarching research question concerned the perspectives of EMYAs on HLR for the transition to adulthood. A phenomenological study design was used with a theoretical framework that integrated concepts from the socioecological and health belief models. Twelve purposefully selected EMYAs ages 18-22 from a southern U.S. county participated in the study. Data were collected by ...


Analysis Of Control Measures Used During Cholera Outbreaks Among Internally Displaced Persons, Nicole Devine Carneal-Frazer 2019 Walden University

Analysis Of Control Measures Used During Cholera Outbreaks Among Internally Displaced Persons, Nicole Devine Carneal-Frazer

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Cholera remains a major public health problem affecting high-risk populations such as camps of internally displaced persons. During a cholera outbreak, it is essential to reduce transmission and minimize new infections. The Miasma theory, host-agent-environment model and Ecosocial theory were utilized for this study. This study was a retrospective comparison to determine whether historical cholera control measures are effective during current cholera outbreaks within camps of internally displaced persons. A quantitative approach ascertained changes in incidence and mortality rates following implementation of primary and/or secondary control measures. Cholera outbreaks were identified from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Disease ...


Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe 2019 Walden University

Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breast cancer is a world health problem and is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. However, breast cancer risks were reported to be reduced through exposure to Vitamin D through its Receptors identified as the p53 target gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms knowledge/awareness and decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening among women in Texas. Data from survey were used. Roy adaptation model was the theoretical framework that guided this quasi- experimental, quantitative research. The dependent variables were decisions ...


Obesity Epidemic In The Military: Implications For Veterans, Tracy Lewis 2019 Walden University

Obesity Epidemic In The Military: Implications For Veterans, Tracy Lewis

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of overweight and obesity on veterans' careers. Obesity, once thought unproblematic for the military, is being recognized as a health concern that has expansive implications for the health and readiness of service men and women, as well as for veterans. There is an abundance of information on obesity within the general population, but research on the impact of obesity on military careers is limited. This quantitative, cross-sectional research study investigated how obesity is a challenge throughout a veteran's career, from enlistment to retirement, using an online survey to gather ...


Care Intervention And Reduction Of Emergency Department Utilization In Medicaid Populations, Eno J. Rouse 2019 Walden University

Care Intervention And Reduction Of Emergency Department Utilization In Medicaid Populations, Eno J. Rouse

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Expansion of Medicaid and private health insurance coverage through passage of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 was expected to increase primary care access and reduce emergency department (ED) use by reducing financial burden and improving affordability of care. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in utilization patterns that exist among the Medicaid population that participated in an optimal level of care (OLC) intervention inclusive of appointments scheduled to primary care providers. Using the integrated behavior model as a theoretical framework, the key research question focused on determining if there was a difference in ED use ...


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