Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Public Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

8,343 Full-Text Articles 16,362 Authors 1,992,986 Downloads 163 Institutions

All Articles in Public Health

Faceted Search

8,343 full-text articles. Page 1 of 226.

Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier 2014 Gettysburg College

Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier

Psychology Faculty Publications

Obesity and excess weight are significant societal problems. Mindfulness may encourage healthier weight and eating habits. Across four studies, we found a positive relation between mindfulness and healthier eating. Trait mindfulness was associated with less impulsive eating, reduced calorie consumption, and healthier snack choices. In addition, we found a causal effect of mindfulness on healthier eating. An experimental manipulation of state mindfulness led participants to consume fewer calories in a spontaneous eating task. We also found preliminary evidence that mindfulness affects eating behavior by encouraging attitudinal preferences for healthier foods. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that mindfulness encourages ...


Constructing Representative Social Networks For Disease Simulation, Tao Yang, Mario Ventresca 2014 Purdue University

Constructing Representative Social Networks For Disease Simulation, Tao Yang, Mario Ventresca

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Diseases spread mechanisms have been questioned and studied for many years. The ability to make predictions about an epidemic could enable scientists to evaluate inoculation/ isolation plans, control the mortality rate, and prevent the future course of an outbreak. Accurate predictions, however, are extremely hard to make and requires interdisciplinary solutions from epidemiology, sociology, statistics, graph theory, and Computer Science. For making the prediction, currently few network analysis platforms written in C++ are designed and optimized. The research is aimed to address this gap by exploring methods of constructing social contact network, simulating disease spreading, and proposing mitigation strategies for ...


Using Graph Visualization To Look At The Trajectories Of Events That Lead To Readmission, Abbas Shojaee, Isuru Ranasinghe, Sudhakar Nuti, Shu-Xia Li, Harlan Krumholz 2014 Yale University

Using Graph Visualization To Look At The Trajectories Of Events That Lead To Readmission, Abbas Shojaee, Isuru Ranasinghe, Sudhakar Nuti, Shu-Xia Li, Harlan Krumholz

Yale Day of Data

Information on specific sequence of healthcare utilization events in heart failure patients may be useful for identifying distinct subpopulations of patients with HF. Knowledge of patient trajectories may help to improve prediction of future readmission which can be used to tailor management to the individual needs of the patient.

This research introduces a new approach to mining administrative and clinical datasets by incorporating graph networks to identify & visualize the trajectories of sequences of events.


International Occupational Health Research On An "Invisible" Workforce, Martin D. Slade, Rafael Lefkowitz 2014 Yale University

International Occupational Health Research On An "Invisible" Workforce, Martin D. Slade, Rafael Lefkowitz

Yale Day of Data

There are many professions in which employees are located in remote locations. International maritime workers make up one such occupation. They are a vulnerable, underserved and neglected population of approximately 1.2 million people with high rates of disease and injury. During their typical nine month deployments, they live in relative isolation with no health care professional on board. To understand the root causes of disease and injury among this remote workforce, strategies to collect information, analyze data, and report results and recommendations have been developed. These strategies, which include gathering of data through an alliance of companies involved in ...


Beyond Original Intent – The Use Of A Corporation’S Administrative Databases For Academic Research, Martin D. Slade, Linda Cantley, Baylah Tessier-Sherman, Deron Galusha, Michael McTague 2014 Yale University

Beyond Original Intent – The Use Of A Corporation’S Administrative Databases For Academic Research, Martin D. Slade, Linda Cantley, Baylah Tessier-Sherman, Deron Galusha, Michael Mctague

Yale Day of Data

Large corporations maintain a variety of administrative databases as part of their normal operations. These databases, created for distinct functions by separate organizational entities, are generally independent. For instance, a company’s Human Resources organization typically maintains a database containing information such as demographics, job and salary history, and employee status for all employees.. The environmental, health and safety department maintains information regarding work-place exposures and exposure levels for various agents within each job as well as injury and illness surveillance records. The medical department maintains occupational health information including audiometric and pulmonary function test results. As many large corporations ...


Applying Novel Tree-Based Frameworks To Big Data For Classification Of Heart Failure Patients And Prediction Of Clinical Responses, Yan Zhang, Nicholas Downing, Emily Bucholz, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Shu-Xia Li, Tara Liptak, Harlan Krumholz, Mark Gerstein 2014 Yale University

Applying Novel Tree-Based Frameworks To Big Data For Classification Of Heart Failure Patients And Prediction Of Clinical Responses, Yan Zhang, Nicholas Downing, Emily Bucholz, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Shu-Xia Li, Tara Liptak, Harlan Krumholz, Mark Gerstein

Yale Day of Data

Over 5 million Americans suffer from heart failure, a condition with a 5-year survival that eclipses all cancers apart from that of lung cancer. Conventional understanding of heart failure is simplistic: it is viewed as a single syndrome, despite real heterogeneity. In addition, models predicting outcomes focus on dichotomous results, like 30-day readmission. A novel approach to classification of heart failure may improve our ability to target interventions, improve patient experiences, and predict outcomes.

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of administrative claims databases that describes patient demographics, comorbidities, procedures, acute care utilization and outcomes, such as ...


The Yoda Project: Developing Methods For Sharing Clinical Trial Data, Jessica Ritchie, Harlan Krumholz, Joseph Ross, Cary Gross, Beth Hodshon 2014 Yale University

The Yoda Project: Developing Methods For Sharing Clinical Trial Data, Jessica Ritchie, Harlan Krumholz, Joseph Ross, Cary Gross, Beth Hodshon

Yale Day of Data

Abstract

Data sharing and data transparency are becoming the new standard in clinical research to ensure that patients and clinicians possess all necessary information about a drug or device when making treatment decisions. The Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) Project developed a model to facilitate access to participant-level clinical research data to promote independent analysis by external investigators. The YODA Project is currently collaborating with Medtronic, Inc. and Janssen, the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson & Johnson, to facilitate access to their clinical trial program data by external investigators in a manner that is aligned with the following principles: advance science ...


Stratified Meta-Analysis To Examine Data Biases In Lung Cancer Studies Of Refinery Workers, Sherman Selix 2014 Yale University

Stratified Meta-Analysis To Examine Data Biases In Lung Cancer Studies Of Refinery Workers, Sherman Selix

Yale Day of Data

Petroleum refineries employ a variety of workers who historically experienced different potentials for asbestos exposure depending on job tasks. Associations between petroleum refinery work and lung cancer related to occupational asbestos exposure have been quantified among various locations, corporations, and time periods. To combine the data from several individual refinery studies and examine an overall effect, a systematic review and stratified meta-analysis was employed. Using set search terms among four databases, 112 potential publications were identified, of which 29 qualified for meta-analysis. Risk estimates and confidence intervals were extracted from these publications to construct four separate datasets. Inverse variance weighting ...


Emphasizing Public Health Within A Health Information Exchange: An Evaluation Of The District Of Columbia’S Health Information Exchange Program, Jason Goldwater, Juliette Jardim, Tasnuva Khan, Karen Chan 2014 EDM Forum

Emphasizing Public Health Within A Health Information Exchange: An Evaluation Of The District Of Columbia’S Health Information Exchange Program, Jason Goldwater, Juliette Jardim, Tasnuva Khan, Karen Chan

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: Clinovations Government Solutions (CGS) was contracted in 2013 to conduct a mixed-methods evaluation of the District of Columbia (D.C.) Health Information Exchange (HIE) program as part of their Cooperative Agreement Grant funded by the Office of the National Coordinator in 2010. The evaluation was to focus on the progress of the HIE, how many providers and hospitals were participating in the program, and what benefits were being realized through the use of the HIE. During the course of the evaluation, the CGS team found that the use of the HIE to support public health reporting was one of ...


The Ebola Epidemic: A Public Health Emergency Of International Concern, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel Lucey, Alexandra Phelan 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

The Ebola Epidemic: A Public Health Emergency Of International Concern, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel Lucey, Alexandra Phelan

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On August 8, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Margaret Chan declared the West Africa Ebola crises a “public health emergency of international concern,” triggering powers under the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR).

The most affected West African states have attempted classic public health measures with varied success, including quarantine and isolation, social distancing, risk communication, and travel restrictions. These have involved a trade off between population health and human rights; sometimes to the disadvantage of both. At the same time, the countries’ health systems and human resources are fragile, impeding an effective response.

Beyond the public health and ...


Sustainability Considerations For Health Research And Analytic Data Infrastructures, Adam Wilcox, Gurvaneet Randhawa, Peter Embi, Hui Cao, Gil Kuperman 2014 EDM Forum

Sustainability Considerations For Health Research And Analytic Data Infrastructures, Adam Wilcox, Gurvaneet Randhawa, Peter Embi, Hui Cao, Gil Kuperman

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: The United States has made recent large investments in creating data infrastructures to support the important goals of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and comparative effectiveness research (CER), with still more investment planned. These initial investments, while critical to the creation of the infrastructures, are not expected to sustain them much beyond the initial development. To provide the maximum benefit, the infrastructures need to be sustained through innovative financing models while providing value to PCOR and CER researchers.

Sustainability Factors: Based on our experience with creating flexible sustainability strategies (i.e., strategies that are adaptive to the different characteristics and ...


The Historic Role Of Boards Of Health In Local Innovation: New York City’S Soda Portion Case, Lawrence O. Gostin, Belinda H. Reeve, Marice Ashe 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

The Historic Role Of Boards Of Health In Local Innovation: New York City’S Soda Portion Case, Lawrence O. Gostin, Belinda H. Reeve, Marice Ashe

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Childhood and adult obesity pose major risks for cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, with the poor and racial minorities suffering from disproportionately high burdens of obesity and chronic disease. With current policies failing, cities and states have moved forward with creative prevention measures–-with boards of health driving policy innovation in many local jurisdictions. The New York City Board of Board of Health’s (NYCBH) soda portion limit pushed the boundaries of innovation, but was struck down on June 26, 2014 by New York State’s highest court, which held that the Board trespassed on the City Council’s authority ...


Virus Sharing, Genetic Sequencing, And Global Health Security, Lawrence O. Gostin, Alexandra Phelan, Michael A. Stoto, John D. Kraemer, K. Srinath Reddy 2014 Georgetown University Law Center

Virus Sharing, Genetic Sequencing, And Global Health Security, Lawrence O. Gostin, Alexandra Phelan, Michael A. Stoto, John D. Kraemer, K. Srinath Reddy

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The WHO’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework was a milestone global agreement designed to promote the international sharing of biological samples to develop vaccines, while that ensuring poorer countries would have access to those vaccines. Since the PIP Framework was negotiated, scientists have developed the capacity to use genetic sequencing data (GSD) to develop synthetic viruses rapidly for product development of life-saving technologies in a time-sensitive global emergency—threatening to unravel the Framework. Access to GSD may also have major implications for biosecurity, biosafety, and intellectual property (IP).

By rendering the physical transfer of viruses antiquated, GSD may also ...


Mission And Sustainability Of Informatics For Integrating Biology And The Bedside (I2b2), Shawn N. Murphy, Adam Wilcox 2014 EDM Forum

Mission And Sustainability Of Informatics For Integrating Biology And The Bedside (I2b2), Shawn N. Murphy, Adam Wilcox

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Introduction: A visible example of a successfully disseminated research project in the healthcare space is Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside, or i2b2. The project serves to provide the software that can allow a researcher to do direct, self-serve queries against the electronic healthcare data form a hospital. The goals of these queries are to find cohorts of patients that fit specific profiles, while providing for patient privacy and discretion. Sustaining this resource and keeping its direction has always been a challenge, but ever more so as the ten year National Centers for Biomedical Computing (NCBCs) sunset their funding ...


Analytical Methods For Learning Health Systems, Michael A. Stoto, Erin Holve, Lucy Savitz, Neil S. Fleming, Elisa L. Priest, Brian S. Mittman 2014 EDM Forum

Analytical Methods For Learning Health Systems, Michael A. Stoto, Erin Holve, Lucy Savitz, Neil S. Fleming, Elisa L. Priest, Brian S. Mittman

Webinars

Overview: Learning healthcare systems use routinely collected electronic health data (EHD) – known as “observational data” – to advance knowledge and support continuous learning within comparative effectiveness research and patient-centered outcomes research. Despite the increasing sophistication of analytics and data, analysts are still unable to confidently infer causal relationships from observational data. However, effective framing of research questions, careful study design, and appropriate analytical methods can improve these inferences and the utility of EHD.

This webinar discussed approaches to using observational data to improve performance in learning healthcare systems, including how to frame research questions effectively and how to apply study design ...


Prevalence Of Tobacco Smoking Among Health-Care Physicians In Bahrain., Saif M. Borgan, Ghufran Jassim, Zaid A. Marhoon, Mohamed A. Almuqamam, Mohamed A. Ebrahim, Peter A. Soliman 2014 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Prevalence Of Tobacco Smoking Among Health-Care Physicians In Bahrain., Saif M. Borgan, Ghufran Jassim, Zaid A. Marhoon, Mohamed A. Almuqamam, Mohamed A. Ebrahim, Peter A. Soliman

Family and Community Medicine Articles

BACKGROUND: There is a clear shift in smoking habits among the Middle Eastern population with a recent and alarming increase in the prevalence of waterpipe (shisha) smoking. This phenomenon has not yet been studied sufficiently across the physician population. Therefore, we set out to establish the smoking status of primary healthcare physicians in the kingdom of Bahrain.

METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 175 out of the total 320 primary care physicians. Descriptive analysis was performed on all data and associations between variables were tested using Fishers Exact t test with statistical significance set as ...


Seasonality Of Birth Outcomes In Rural Sarlahi District, Nepal: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort, Michelle M. Hughes, Joanne Katz, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. LeClerq, Gary L. Darmstadt, James M. Tielsch 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Seasonality Of Birth Outcomes In Rural Sarlahi District, Nepal: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort, Michelle M. Hughes, Joanne Katz, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. Leclerq, Gary L. Darmstadt, James M. Tielsch

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

While seasonality of birth outcomes has been documented in a variety of settings, data from rural South Asia are lacking. We report a descriptive study of the seasonality of prematurity, low birth weight, small for gestational age, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths in the plains of Nepal.

Methods

Using data collected prospectively during a randomized controlled trial of neonatal skin and umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine, we analyzed a cohort of 23,662 babies born between September 2002 and January 2006. Project workers collected data on birth outcomes at the infant’s household. Supplemental data from other studies conducted at ...


Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Time To Cure Of Incontinence Present At Nursing Home Admission, Donna Z. Bliss, Olga Gurvich, Kay Savik, Lynn Eberly, Susan Harms, Jean F. Wyman 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Time To Cure Of Incontinence Present At Nursing Home Admission, Donna Z. Bliss, Olga Gurvich, Kay Savik, Lynn Eberly, Susan Harms, Jean F. Wyman

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Abstract

As many as half of older people that are admitted to nursing homes (NHs) are incontinent of urine and/or feces. Not much is known about the rate of cure of incontinence present at NH admission, but available reports suggest the rate is low. There have been racial and ethnic disparities in incontinence treatment, but the role of disparities in the cure of incontinence is understudied. Using the Peters-Belson method and multilevel predictors, our findings showed that there were disparities in the time to cure of incontinence for Hispanic NH admissions. A significantly smaller proportion of older Hispanic admissions ...


Disparities In Access To Health Insurance And Workers’ Compensation Benefit Between Non-Contingent And Contingent Farm Workers In U.S. Agriculture, Abay Asfaw 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Disparities In Access To Health Insurance And Workers’ Compensation Benefit Between Non-Contingent And Contingent Farm Workers In U.S. Agriculture, Abay Asfaw

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The share of contingent employment has increased significantly in the last two decades. Not much is known about the impact of this shift on disparities in access to health insurance and other benefits. I examined disparities in access to any type of health insurance, employer-sponsored health insurance and workers’ compensation (WC) benefits between contingent and non-contingent workers in U.S. agriculture. I used the National Agricultural Workers Survey and the extended Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique to estimate disparities. Contingent employment could be a barrier to access of health insurance and WC benefit, which in turn could contribute to health inequalities in ...


Physicians' Attitudes About Recommending Surgery For Early Stage Lung Cancer And Possible Reasons For Racial Disparities, Franklin R. McGuire 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Physicians' Attitudes About Recommending Surgery For Early Stage Lung Cancer And Possible Reasons For Racial Disparities, Franklin R. Mcguire

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

PHYSICIANS’ ATTITUDES ABOUT RECOMMENDING SURGERY FOR EARLY STAGE LUNG CANCER AND POSSIBLE REASONS FOR RACIAL DISPARITIES

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Patient refusal for lung cancer surgery is significant, but other factors, such as negative framing of the treatment discussion, may be involved. Physician attitudes could influence the nuances of and therefore the conclusions of these discussions. We determined physicians’ attitudes and the influence it has on possible decisions against lung cancer surgery, particularly surgical rates for blacks, using a companion survey.

Methods: The study is a prospective, multicenter observational trial conducted at five sites in North and South Carolina from December 2005 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress