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Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman 2021 Saint Louis University - School of Law

Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Public health literature has long recognized the existence of determinants of health, a set of socio-economic conditions that affect health risks and health outcomes across the world. The World Health Organization defines these determinants as “forces and systems” consisting of “factors combin[ing] together to affect the health of individuals and communities.” Frameworks relying on determinants of health have been widely adopted by countries in the global South and North alike, as well as international institutional players, several of which are direct or indirect players in transnational intellectual property (IP) policymaking. Issues raised by the implementation of IP policies, however ...


The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman 2021 Saint Louis University School of Law

The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

The response to COVID-19 is indissolubly tied to intellectual property. In an increasingly globalized world in which infectious disease pathogens travel faster and wider than before, the development of vaccines, treatments and other forms of medical technology has become an integral part of public health preparedness and response frameworks. The development of these technologies, and to a certain extent the allocation and distribution of resulting outputs, is informed by intellectual property regimes. These regimes influence the commitment of R&D resources, shape scientific collaborations and, in some cases, may condition the widespread availability of emerging technologies. As seen throughout this ...


Creation Of A Covid-19 Community Testing Team For Home Health And Hospice, Lilah Raja 2020 The University of San Francisco

Creation Of A Covid-19 Community Testing Team For Home Health And Hospice, Lilah Raja

Master's Projects and Capstones

The novel SARS-CoV-2 strain (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019 (Eddy et. al, 2020). The resulting US outbreak has affected the Kaiser Permanente (KP) Oakland health care system. With the threat of COVID-19 highest among immunosuppressed and elderly clients, KP Oakland home health and hospice (HH/HO) department is rapidly mobilizing to provide community and in-home testing for eligible clients. A project was created to build a COVID-19 testing team workflow to provide diagnostic and preventative testing. This project focuses on team-based interventions that will change the pre-existing practice of requiring HH/HO clients to travel to ...


Covid-19 Viral Testing Disparities In Los Angeles City, Laura Cyphers 2020 Chapman University

Covid-19 Viral Testing Disparities In Los Angeles City, Laura Cyphers

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Hispanic and Black communities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality (California Department of Public Health, 2020). Inequitable access to viral testing resources may have exacerbated these COVID-19-related racial and ethnic health disparities. For example, reports from the Los Angeles Department of Public Health revealed glaring viral testing disparities in April 2020 (early pandemic), with predominantly White communities in Los Angeles County receiving 65% more tests than Hispanic and Black communities. In response, California statewide testing was expanded for communities of color (Vann et al., 2020). To investigate access to viral testing in Los Angeles City, the current ...


Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi 2020 MountainView Hospital-Nevada

Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving public health issue that has become globally widespread and an overwhelming pandemic. Clinical manifestations of the disease include asymptomatic carrier states, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even multiorgan dysfunction. Here, we present a unique and rare case of an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in an asymptomatic pregnant woman with no predisposing medical illnesses.

Discussion: An 18-year-old G2P1 African American woman at 7 weeks gestational age with no significant medical or family history presenting to the Emergency Department during the initial phases of the pandemic with complaints of new onset left ...


FacebookʼS Latest Attempt To Address Vaccine Misinformation — And Why ItʼS Not Enough, Ana Santos Rutschman 2020 Saint Louis University School of Law

FacebookʼS Latest Attempt To Address Vaccine Misinformation — And Why ItʼS Not Enough, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

On October 13, 2020 Facebook announced the adoption of a series of measures to promote vaccine trust “while prohibiting ads with misinformation that could harm public health efforts.” In the post written by Kang-Xing Jin (head of health) and Rob Leathern (director of product management), the company explained that the new measures were designed with an emphasis on encouraging widespread use of this yearʼs flu vaccine, as well as in anticipation of potential COVID-19 vaccines becoming available in the near future.

The changes focus mainly on the establishment of a multiprong informational campaign about the seasonal flu vaccine, which includes ...


Knowledge And Attitude Toward Common Cold In Beirut, Lebanon, Ghida Itani, Maha Aboul Ela, Souraya Domiati 2020 Clinical Instructor, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

Knowledge And Attitude Toward Common Cold In Beirut, Lebanon, Ghida Itani, Maha Aboul Ela, Souraya Domiati

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Background Common cold is a self- limiting condition targeting the upper respiratory tract. Even though it resolves on its own yet it accounts for 40% of absentees from work and a large number of visits to the physician clinic. The most common sign and symptoms include sore throat, coryza, runny nose or congestion, muscle pain, and sometimes cough. Symptomatic treatment of this minor ailment can be either by herbal products or over the counter drugs. Nevertheless, it is always mistaken for Influenza or bacterial infection. The proper knowledge of this condition could prevent mistreatment and would keep the country’s ...


The Occupational Depression Inventory: A New Tool For Clinicians And Epidemiologists, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld 2020 Université de Neuchâtel

The Occupational Depression Inventory: A New Tool For Clinicians And Epidemiologists, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Background: Depressive symptoms induced by insurmountable job stress and sick leave for mental health reasons have become a focal concern among occupational health specialists. The present study introduces the Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI), a measure designed to quantify the severity of work-attributed depressive symptoms and establish provisional diagnoses of job-ascribed depression. The ODI comprises nine symptom items and a subsidiary question assessing turnover intention. Methods: A total of 2254 employed individuals were recruited in the U.S., New Zealand, and France. We examined the psychometric and structural properties of the ODI as well as the nomological network of work-attributed depressive ...


Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In District Haveli, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Abu ul Hassan Faiz, Ghazal Tariq, Ayesha Faiz, Lariab Zahra Faiz 2020 Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan

Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In District Haveli, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz, Ghazal Tariq, Ayesha Faiz, Lariab Zahra Faiz

Journal of Bioresource Management

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a common occurrence in population of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The current study was designed to find out the prevalence of TB among the general population of a less developed District Haveli. Samples were collected from different hospitals and TB centers located in district Haveli and tested through sputum smear microscopy for conformation of positive for TB. The three-year (2015 to 2018) study was conducted to record prevalence of tuberculosis in selected area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The trend line of prevalence was made by using (SPSS software). Results produced linear trends yearly ...


Clinically Meaningful Change In Quality Of Life And Associated Factors Among Older Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Hawa Ozien Abu, Jane S. Saczynski, Jordy Mehawej, Mayra Tisminetzky, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, David D. McManus 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Clinically Meaningful Change In Quality Of Life And Associated Factors Among Older Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Hawa Ozien Abu, Jane S. Saczynski, Jordy Mehawej, Mayra Tisminetzky, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, David D. Mcmanus

Open Access Articles

Background: Among older patients with atrial fibrillation, there are limited data examining clinically meaningful changes in quality of life (QoL). We examined the extent of, and factors associated with, clinically meaningful change in QoL over 1-year among older adults with atrial fibrillation.

Methods and Results: Patients from cardiology, electrophysiology, and primary care clinics in Massachusetts and Georgia were enrolled in a cohort study (2015-2018). The Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life questionnaire was used to assess overall QoL and across 3 subscales: symptoms, daily activities, and treatment concern. Clinically meaningful change in QoL (ie, difference between 1-year and baseline QoL score ...


Bayesian Variable Selection For High Dimensional Predictors And Self-Reported Outcomes, Xiangdong Gu, Mahlet G. Tadesse, Andrea S. Foulkes, Yunsheng Ma, Raji Balasubramanian 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bayesian Variable Selection For High Dimensional Predictors And Self-Reported Outcomes, Xiangdong Gu, Mahlet G. Tadesse, Andrea S. Foulkes, Yunsheng Ma, Raji Balasubramanian

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The onset of silent diseases such as type 2 diabetes is often registered through self-report in large prospective cohorts. Self-reported outcomes are cost-effective; however, they are subject to error. Diagnosis of silent events may also occur through the use of imperfect laboratory-based diagnostic tests. In this paper, we describe an approach for variable selection in high dimensional datasets for settings in which the outcome is observed with error.

METHODS: We adapt the spike and slab Bayesian Variable Selection approach in the context of error-prone, self-reported outcomes. The performance of the proposed approach is studied through simulation studies. An illustrative ...


Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim 2020 Independent Researcher

Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim

Animal Sentience

Wiebers & Feigin accurately propose that reducing the risks posed by infectious disease outbreaks and other global health challenges will depend critically on transitioning away from intensive animal farming practices. Creating the right incentive structure for this transition to happen is one of the great challenges in the years to come, but a much-needed step to ensure the health and well-being of current and future generations.


Pterygium Recurrence And Corneal Stabilization Point After Pterygium Excision Using The Controlled Partial Avulsion Fibrin Glue Technique, Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin 2020 Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 53100, Malaysia

Pterygium Recurrence And Corneal Stabilization Point After Pterygium Excision Using The Controlled Partial Avulsion Fibrin Glue Technique, Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the pterygium recurrence rate and corneal stabilization point after pterygium excision via the controlled partial avulsion fibrin glue technique using multiple corneal parameters.

Methods: One hundred eyes of 100 patients who had undergone primary pterygium excision surgery via the controlled partial avulsion fibrin glue technique were retrospectively reviewed. Corneal stabilization points were determined over four follow-up sessions (i.e., the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after surgery) based on changes in Simulated-K, corneal irregularity measurement, shape factor, and toric mean keratometry. Post-operative courses were followed for 12 months after surgery. Recurrence was defined ...


Treading Water: Coping With Uncertainty During A Novel Pandemic, Sachin Patel 2020 WakeMed Health & Hospitals

Treading Water: Coping With Uncertainty During A Novel Pandemic, Sachin Patel

Patient Experience Journal

The abruptness with which the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the delivery of healthcare will have a lasting effect on patients and families of intensive care unit survivors. Using the best science and epidemiology healthcare systems developed protocols and policies to implement the highest level of care but mitigate disease spread. Out of these initiatives the “no visitor” policy was born. The impact of COVID-19 causing florid respiratory failure immediately derailed the lives of a happily retired couple. While on mechanical ventilation for sixteen days, Betty was unable to connect with her husband of over 40 years. In that time, the ...


Uptake Of Direct Acting Antivirals For Hepatitis C Virus In A New England Medicaid Population, 2014-2017, Karen M. Clements, Parag Kunte, Bonnie C. Greenwood, Carter Pratt, Laura A. Sefton, Melissa Clark, Sharina D. Person, Deborah Gurewich 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Uptake Of Direct Acting Antivirals For Hepatitis C Virus In A New England Medicaid Population, 2014-2017, Karen M. Clements, Parag Kunte, Bonnie C. Greenwood, Carter Pratt, Laura A. Sefton, Melissa Clark, Sharina D. Person, Deborah Gurewich

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Introduction

Introduction of the direct acting antiviral (DAA) sofosbuvir (SOV) in 2013 offered significant improvement over previous options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. Initial uptake was low in Medicaid and other populations, perhaps in part due to high drug cost and prior authorization (PA) restrictions related to fibrosis stage, prescribing provider specialty, and sobriety. Both the subsequent introduction of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOV), an all-oral regimen for most genotypes, and lifting of PA restrictions were expected to increase overall uptake, but little is known about recent prescribing patterns. We examined trends in DAA uptake in a Medicaid population and ...


Addressing Decontaminated Respirators: Some Methods Appear To Damage Mask Integrity And Protective Function, Richard E. Peltier, Jiayuan Wang, Brian L. Hollenbeck, Jennifer Lanza, Ryan M. Furtado, Jay Cyr, Richard T. Ellison III, Kimiyoshi J. Kobayashi 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Addressing Decontaminated Respirators: Some Methods Appear To Damage Mask Integrity And Protective Function, Richard E. Peltier, Jiayuan Wang, Brian L. Hollenbeck, Jennifer Lanza, Ryan M. Furtado, Jay Cyr, Richard T. Ellison Iii, Kimiyoshi J. Kobayashi

Open Access Articles

Decontamination of N95 respirators is being used by clinicians in the face of a global shortage of these devices. Some treatments for decontamination, such as some vaporized hydrogen peroxide methods or ultraviolet methods, had no impact on respiratory performance, while other treatments resulted in substantial damage to masks.


The Association Between Dengue Virus Infection And Liver And Kidney Function Among Cambodian Children, Ashley Moineau 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Association Between Dengue Virus Infection And Liver And Kidney Function Among Cambodian Children, Ashley Moineau

Masters Theses

Severe liver and kidney dysfunction are prevalent in 10%-30% of the Southeast Asian population. Dengue virus infection has been reported as a modifiable risk factor for liver and kidney dysfunction, especially among children in Southeast Asia. Epidemiologic studies assessing this relationship are sparse, often failed to include children, and did not adjust for important covariates. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between dengue virus infection and liver and kidney dysfunction among hospitalized children in Cambodia (n=551). Participants with a serologically confirmed dengue virus infection were categorized according to increasing severity of infection (i.e. dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever ...


Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Transmitted In Maine?, Eric J. Ray 2020 Maine Medical Center

Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Transmitted In Maine?, Eric J. Ray

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction:

Tickborne disease occurs worldwide with recent recognition of changes in tick vector distributions. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is already widespread across the United States; however, it is being monitored for introduction to non-endemic areas.

Clinical Findings:

A 65-year-old male with a history of psoriatic arthritis on adalimumab and local tick exposures but no known recent bites presented to the emergency department with fevers, myalgias, arthralgias, and a maculopapular rash of unclear etiology. Initial testing showed transaminitis, worsened chronic thrombocytopenia, and slight neutropenia with absolute neutrophil count 2,330 (reference value: 2,400-7,600 cells per µL); however, he ...


Characterization Of Molecular Pattern In Sensory Pain Signaling Following Mustard Exposure On Mouse Ear Vesicant Model, Hong-Duck Kim, Diane E. Heck 2020 New York Medical College

Characterization Of Molecular Pattern In Sensory Pain Signaling Following Mustard Exposure On Mouse Ear Vesicant Model, Hong-Duck Kim, Diane E. Heck

Annual SHSP Student Research and Scholarship Day

No abstract provided.


Translating Clinical And Patient-Reported Data To Tailored Shared Decision Reports With Predictive Analytics For Knee And Hip Arthritis, Patricia D. Franklin, Hua Zheng, Christina Bond, Danielle C. Lavallee 2020 Northwestern University

Translating Clinical And Patient-Reported Data To Tailored Shared Decision Reports With Predictive Analytics For Knee And Hip Arthritis, Patricia D. Franklin, Hua Zheng, Christina Bond, Danielle C. Lavallee

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: New informatics tools can transform evidence-based information to individualized predictive reports to serve shared decisions in clinic. We developed a web-based system to collect patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and medical risk factors and to compare responses to national registry data. The system generates predicted outcomes for individual patients and a report for use in clinic to support decisions. We present the report development, presentation, and early experience implementing this PRO-based, shared decision report for knee and hip arthritis patients seeking orthopedic evaluation.

METHODS: Iterative patient and clinician interviews defined report content and visual display. The web-system supports: (a) collection of ...


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