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Comparison Of Soil Phosphorus Concentration In Farm Restored And Reference Wetlands In Lake County, Il, Catherine L. Pease 2016 CPEASE

Comparison Of Soil Phosphorus Concentration In Farm Restored And Reference Wetlands In Lake County, Il, Catherine L. Pease

DePaul Discoveries

The soil in the Midwest is fertile for agriculture use and therefore a lot of the wetlands have been turned into farmland. Wetlands can act as a sink for excess nutrients such as phosphorus. In part due to their value for nutrient storage, restoration of wetlands has become more frequent, including restoration of wetlands on former farmland. I am interested in phosphorus and the potential of wetlands to either store or release phosphorus. I compared differences in soil reactive phosphorus of restored and reference wetlands. This study compares Prairie Wolf Slough (PWS), a restored wetland, to two reference wetlands, both ...


Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry 2016 George Washington University

Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified detectable levels of neonicotinoids (neonics) in the environment, adverse effects of neonics in many species including mammals, and pathways through which human exposure to neonics could occur, yet little is known about the human health effects of neonic exposure.

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review sought to identify human population studies on the health effects of neonics.

METHODS: Studies published in English between 2005 and 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. No restrictions were placed on the type of health outcome assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using guidance developed by the ...


Sperm Aneuploidy In Faroese Men With Lifetime Exposure To Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (Dde) And Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) Pollutants., Melissa J Perry, Heather A Young, Philippe Grandjean, Jónrit Halling, Maria S Petersen, Sheena E Martenies, Parisa Karimi, Pál Weihe 2016 George Washington University

Sperm Aneuploidy In Faroese Men With Lifetime Exposure To Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (Dde) And Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) Pollutants., Melissa J Perry, Heather A Young, Philippe Grandjean, Jónrit Halling, Maria S Petersen, Sheena E Martenies, Parisa Karimi, Pál Weihe

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background: Although it is known that sperm aneuploidy contributes to early pregnancy losses and congenital abnormalities, the causes are unknown and environmental contaminants are suspected.

Objectives: Our goal was to evaluate associations between lifetime exposure to organochlorines, specifically dichlorodiphenyldicholorethylene (p,p´-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and sperm aneuploidy in men from the general population of the Faroe Islands, a population with a known history of organochlorine exposures.

Methods: Serum and semen samples from men (n = 90) 22–44 years old who participated in Faroe Islands health studies were analyzed for p,p´-DDE and PCBs 118, 138, 153, and ...


Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson 2016 George Washington University

Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades. Specifically, an F1:A2:B20 plasmid is strongly associated with ...


Is Housing Making People Sick?: An Overview Of Seven Studies That Raise Questions To Consider As We Incorporate Health Into Planning And Build New Housing To Address Shortages And Energy Efficiency, Merilee D. Karr 2016 Portland State University

Is Housing Making People Sick?: An Overview Of Seven Studies That Raise Questions To Consider As We Incorporate Health Into Planning And Build New Housing To Address Shortages And Energy Efficiency, Merilee D. Karr

Metroscape

The article discusses the unintended consequences of some of the strategies for housing energy efficiency: they can lead to indoor air pollution that is making people sick. As we pursue ways to reduce the cost of housing, we must pursue innovation in building materials and techniques that might reduce the negative health consequences of sealing our homes from the elements.


Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background. Within-household sharing of strains from the resistance-associated H30R1 and H30Rx subclones of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has been inferred based on conventional typing data, but has been assessed minimally using whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis.

Methods. Thirty-three clinical and fecal isolates of ST131-H30R1 and ST131-H30Rx, from 20 humans and pets in six households, underwent WGS analysis for comparison with 52 published ST131 genomes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using a bootstrapped maximum likelihood tree based on core genome sequence polymorphisms. Accessory traits were compared between phylogenetically similar isolates.

Results. In the WGS-based ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2016 Chapman University

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


Use Of Propensity Score Matching To Identify A Strong Association Between Health Care Provider Advice Not To Smoke And Quit Attempts Among Mid-Adolescent Smokers, Russell K. McIntire, PhD, MPH 2016 Jefferson School of Population Health

Use Of Propensity Score Matching To Identify A Strong Association Between Health Care Provider Advice Not To Smoke And Quit Attempts Among Mid-Adolescent Smokers, Russell K. Mcintire, Phd, Mph

Jefferson College of Population Health Posters

Background:

  • Nearly 1 out of 7 U.S. adolescents is a current cigarette smoker by the time they leave high school. 1
  • Although almost one third of adolescents who saw a healthcare provider in the past month were advised to quit or avoid tobacco,2 research on the influence of provider advice on quit attempts among adolescent smokers has shown mixed results. 3
  • These results may be due to selection bias—adolescent smokers who get advice may be different from those who do not on a range of factors including age of initiation, smoking frequency, attitudes toward smoking, exposure to ...


Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, is a known metabolic master-switch. In conditions of starvation, mTOR suppresses biosynthetic programs and increases the recycling of proteins and organelles. Upon stimulation by nutrients and growth factors, however, mTOR causes activation of biosynthesis and suppression of autophagy. The mTOR-centered molecular pathway is a major pathway of growth regulation and metabolism, linked to aging and the development of cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, the role of environmental factors in the modulation of the mTOR pathway remains largely unknown. The present study suggests that ...


Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Meta-analysis of 101 studies published between 1934 and 1996 indicates that mean sperm concentration decreased around 50% during this period. More recent studies have found alarmingly poor semen quality in the general population of Northern Europe. Additional adverse trends include increased incidence of testicular cancer, and congenital malformations such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Testicular germ cell cancers increased by about 400% over the period of 50 years in industrialized countries. Decreased quality of male reproductive health has been linked to environmental endocrine disruptors exposure. However, the ability of xenobiotics to produce long-lasting effects and mechanisms of perturbation of the male ...


Variation In Restaurant Sanitary Scores In New York City, Kyle Gregory 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Variation In Restaurant Sanitary Scores In New York City, Kyle Gregory

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether restaurants that are homogenous in nature would exhibit substantially different hygiene scores based on the underlying consumer learning behaviors present in the neighborhoods in which the restaurants are located.


Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...


Geodemographic Features Of Human Blastomycosis In Eastern Wisconsin, Megan E. Huber, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Jessica J. F. Kram, Melissa A. Lemke 2016 Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care

Geodemographic Features Of Human Blastomycosis In Eastern Wisconsin, Megan E. Huber, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Jessica J. F. Kram, Melissa A. Lemke

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Purpose

Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored ...


A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The highly associated paediatric conditions of asthma and overweight have seen dramatic increases over the past few decades. This thesis explored air pollution exposure as a potential underlying mechanism of co-morbid asthma and overweight among adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey were merged with a database containing estimates of air pollution as assessed by particulate matter ≤ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) concentrations at the postal code centroid in southwestern Ontario. Logistic regression was used to conduct the analysis. Adolescents were more likely to be overweight as PM2.5 concentrations increased. There ...


Biosand Water Filter Evaluation: Meta-Evaluation And Pilot Study Of Field Use Indicators, Bethesda O'Connell 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Biosand Water Filter Evaluation: Meta-Evaluation And Pilot Study Of Field Use Indicators, Bethesda O'Connell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diarrheal diseases are a global public health burden, killing 1.8 million people annually. Diarrhea disproportionately affects children and those in poverty. Most diarrheal cases can be prevented through safe drinking water, basic hygiene and/or sanitation measures, with drinking water interventions having the most impact on reducing diarrheal disease. A meta-evaluation was completed of studies evaluating a specific household water treatment method, the biosand water filter. Results from the meta-evaluation illustrate that biosand water filters improve drinking water quality and reduce diarrheal disease. However, there is no generally agreed upon field method for determining biosand water filter effectiveness that ...


Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Over 30% of adults in the US are obese. A primary contributor to obesity is an unhealthy diet related to imbalanced macronutrients. Diets higher in protein (PRO) are associated with increased energy expenditure (EE) and reduced food intake. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if protein source at breakfast influences EE in young men (n=4; ages 18-35). Participants consumed three isocaloric (whey (WP), pea (PP), beef (BP); 275 kcal, 62% PRO, 23% CHO, 15% Fat) drinks in randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period. Each test day EE, appetite, and cravings were assessed at ...


Environmental Vegetation : A Possible Association With Cardiovascular Disease Risk., Ray Anthony Yeager II 2016 University of Louisville

Environmental Vegetation : A Possible Association With Cardiovascular Disease Risk., Ray Anthony Yeager Ii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The built environment affects numerous aspects of human health and wellbeing, including risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both the U.S. and worldwide. The amount and quality of environmental vegetation, is an important aspect of the built environment that affects known CVD risk factors, including psychosocial stress, health behaviors, and exposure to air pollutants. Nevertheless, little evidence on the role of potential mechanisms and geographic scale in these relationships exists. Of previous studies that describe associations between vegetation and CVD outcomes, limited investigation has been performed to assess these observed relationships in ...


The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

The Emergence Of Systematic Review In Toxicology, Martin L. Stephens, Kellyn Betts, Nancy Beck, Vincent Cogliano, Kay Dickersin, George Gray, +8 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on “The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology,” on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts ...


Epidemiological Characteristics Of Clinically-Confirmed Cases Of Chikungunya In Teculutan, Guatemala, Annaly Aldana 2016 University of Rhode Island

Epidemiological Characteristics Of Clinically-Confirmed Cases Of Chikungunya In Teculutan, Guatemala, Annaly Aldana

Senior Honors Projects

As no vaccine currently exists for the Chikungunya virus (CHKV), mosquito control and efficient public health campaigns are crucial for the prevention of disease propagation. The purpose of this research project is to identify populations particularly at-risk for acquiring Chikungunya, and to explore the role that cultural attitudes may play in impacting mosquito-borne disease. Due to its geographical structure and climate, Guatemala is an ideal territory for the spread of emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. This project was developed by collaborating with the public governmental health clinic in the municipal town of Teculután, in the department of Zacapa in Guatemala ...


Redefining Medicine: The Epistemology, Political Theory, And Phenomenology Of Health And Disease, Jacqline J. Murillo 2016 jjmurillo

Redefining Medicine: The Epistemology, Political Theory, And Phenomenology Of Health And Disease, Jacqline J. Murillo

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

This thesis argues that health needs to be redefined in a more comprehensive fashion, namely as a physiological/biological state, with social, environmental, and individual determinants always related to one’s personal needs to achieve one’s life plan. The benefits of this new definition include more emphasis on the distribution of health as a social good.

Additionally, redefining health puts the value of the individual’s life rather than the strict monetary value of their needed treatment as a focal point. It also draws more attention to medicine as a practice of care, rather than viewing it simply as ...


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