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Exploring Determinants Of Handwashing With Soap In Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis, Mitsuaki Hirai, Jay P. Graham, Kay Mattson, Andrea Kelsey, Supriya Mukherji, Aidan Cronin 2016 George Washington University

Exploring Determinants Of Handwashing With Soap In Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis, Mitsuaki Hirai, Jay P. Graham, Kay Mattson, Andrea Kelsey, Supriya Mukherji, Aidan Cronin

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials ...


Consumer Product Chemicals In Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis Of U.S. Studies, Susanna D. Mitro, Robin Dodson, Veena SIngla, Gary Adamkiewicz, Angelo F. Elmi, Monica Tilly, Ami R. Zota 2016 George Washington University

Consumer Product Chemicals In Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis Of U.S. Studies, Susanna D. Mitro, Robin Dodson, Veena Singla, Gary Adamkiewicz, Angelo F. Elmi, Monica Tilly, Ami R. Zota

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Indoor dust is a reservoir for commercial consumer product chemicals, including many compounds with known or suspected health effects. However, most dust exposure studies measure few chemicals in small samples. We systematically searched the U.S. indoor dust literature on phthalates, replacement flame retardants (RFRs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), synthetic fragrances, and environmental phenols and estimated pooled geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals for 45 chemicals measured in ≥3 data sets. In order to rank and contextualize these results, we used the pooled GMs to calculate residential intake from dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal uptake from air, and then identified ...


Trends In The Use, Sociodemographic Correlates, And Undertreatment Of Prescription Medications For Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among Adults With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In The United States From 1999 To 2010, Earl S. Ford, David M. Mannino, Anne G. Wheaton, Letitia Presley-Cantrell, Yong Liu, Wayne H. Giles, Janet B. Croft 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Trends In The Use, Sociodemographic Correlates, And Undertreatment Of Prescription Medications For Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among Adults With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In The United States From 1999 To 2010, Earl S. Ford, David M. Mannino, Anne G. Wheaton, Letitia Presley-Cantrell, Yong Liu, Wayne H. Giles, Janet B. Croft

David M. Mannino

BACKGROUND: The extent to which patients with COPD are receiving indicated treatment with medications to improve lung function and recent trends in the use of these medications is not well documented in the United States. The objective of this study was to examine trends in prescription medications for COPD among adults in the United States from 1999 to 2010.

METHODS: We performed a trend analysis using data from up to 1426 participants aged ≥20 years with self-reported COPD from six national surveys (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010).

RESULTS: During 2009-2010, the age-adjusted percentage of participants who used any ...


Pre- And Post-Bronchodilator Lung Function As Predictors Of Mortality In The Lung Health Study, David M. Mannino, Enrique Diaz-Guzman, Sonia Buist 2016 University of Kentucky

Pre- And Post-Bronchodilator Lung Function As Predictors Of Mortality In The Lung Health Study, David M. Mannino, Enrique Diaz-Guzman, Sonia Buist

David M. Mannino

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is supposed to be classified on the basis of post-bronchodilator lung function. Most longitudinal studies of COPD, though, do not have post-bronchodilator lung function available. We used pre-and post bronchodilator lung function data from the Lung Health Study to determine whether these measures differ in their ability to predict mortality.

METHODS: We limited our analysis to subjects who were of black or white race, on whom we had complete data, and who participated at either the 1 year or the 5 year follow-up visit. We classified subjects based on their baseline lung function, according ...


Continuing To Confront Copd International Surveys: Comparison Of Patient And Physician Perceptions About Copd Risk And Management, Ana M. Menezes, Sarah H. Landis, MeiLan K. Han, Hana Muellerova, Zaurbek Aisanov, Thys van der Molen, Yeon-Mok Oh, Masakazu Ichinose, David M. Mannino, Kourtney J. Davis 2016 Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil

Continuing To Confront Copd International Surveys: Comparison Of Patient And Physician Perceptions About Copd Risk And Management, Ana M. Menezes, Sarah H. Landis, Meilan K. Han, Hana Muellerova, Zaurbek Aisanov, Thys Van Der Molen, Yeon-Mok Oh, Masakazu Ichinose, David M. Mannino, Kourtney J. Davis

David M. Mannino

PURPOSE: Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians' attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD.

METHODS: In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD.

RESULTS: Most physicians ...


Influence Of Sex On Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk And Treatment Outcomes, Shambhu Aryal, Enrique Diaz-Guzman, David M. Mannino 2016 Duke University

Influence Of Sex On Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk And Treatment Outcomes, Shambhu Aryal, Enrique Diaz-Guzman, David M. Mannino

David M. Mannino

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the most common chronic diseases and a leading cause of death, has historically been considered a disease of men. However, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of COPD in women over the last two decades. This has largely been attributed to historical increases in tobacco consumption among women. But the influence of sex on COPD is complex and involves several other factors, including differential susceptibility to the effects of tobacco, anatomic, hormonal, and behavioral differences, and differential response to therapy. Interestingly, nonsmokers with COPD are more likely ...


Subjects With Discordant Airways Obstruction: Lost Between Spirometric Definitions Of Copd, Bernd Lamprecht, Lea Schirnhofer, Bernhard Kaiser, Sonia A. Buist, David Mannino, Michael Studnicka 2016 Paracelsus Private Medical University of Salzburg, Austria

Subjects With Discordant Airways Obstruction: Lost Between Spirometric Definitions Of Copd, Bernd Lamprecht, Lea Schirnhofer, Bernhard Kaiser, Sonia A. Buist, David Mannino, Michael Studnicka

David M. Mannino

Background. Since the FEV1/FVC ratio declines with age, using the fixed ratio of 0.70 leads to overdiagnosis of COPD in older populations and underdiagnosis among young adults. Objective. To evaluate whether discordant obstructive cases (FEV1/FVC < 0.70 but ≥LLN) are a healthy population or have clinical features that would place them at increased risk. Methods. We used post-bronchodilator spirometry data from the population-based Austrian Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Those with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio


Smoking Duration, Respiratory Symptoms, And Copd In Adults Aged ≥45 Years With A Smoking History, Yong Liu, Roy A. Pleasants, Janet B. Croft, Anne G. Wheaton, Khosrow Heidari, Ann M. Malarcher, Jill A. Ohar, Monica Kraft, David M. Mannino, Charlie Strange 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Smoking Duration, Respiratory Symptoms, And Copd In Adults Aged ≥45 Years With A Smoking History, Yong Liu, Roy A. Pleasants, Janet B. Croft, Anne G. Wheaton, Khosrow Heidari, Ann M. Malarcher, Jill A. Ohar, Monica Kraft, David M. Mannino, Charlie Strange

David M. Mannino

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012.

METHODS: Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design.

RESULTS:The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1-9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ...


Recent Trends In Exposure To Secondhand Smoke In The United States Population, Chieh-I Chen, Tanya Burton, Christine L. Baker, Vera Mastey, David Mannino 2016 Pfizer Inc.

Recent Trends In Exposure To Secondhand Smoke In The United States Population, Chieh-I Chen, Tanya Burton, Christine L. Baker, Vera Mastey, David Mannino

David M. Mannino

BACKGROUND: Previous research using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data documented a significant downward trend in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure between 1988 and 2002. The objective of this study was to assess whether the downward trend in exposure continued from 2001 through 2006.

METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2001-2006 NHANES to estimate exposure of nonsmokers to SHS. Geometric means of serum cotinine levels for all nonsmokers were computed.

RESULTS: Overall serum cotinine levels (95% Confidence Intervals) in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, and 2005-2006 were 0.06 ng/mL (0.05-0.07), 0.07 ng/mL (0.06-0.09 ...


Elevated Cardiovascular Risk Among Adults With Obstructive And Restrictive Airway Functioning In The United States: A Cross-Sectional Study Of The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey From 2007-2010, Earl S. Ford, Anne G. Wheaton, David M. Mannino, Letitia Presley-Cantrell, Chaoyang Li, Janet B. Croft 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Elevated Cardiovascular Risk Among Adults With Obstructive And Restrictive Airway Functioning In The United States: A Cross-Sectional Study Of The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey From 2007-2010, Earl S. Ford, Anne G. Wheaton, David M. Mannino, Letitia Presley-Cantrell, Chaoyang Li, Janet B. Croft

David M. Mannino

BACKGROUND: Reasons for the excess risk for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular risk profile for adults with obstructive and restrictive impairments of lung functioning in a representative sample of adults from the United States.

METHODS: We used data from adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010 and had a pulmonary function test. The severity of obstructive impairment was defined by adapting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria.

RESULTS: Among 7249 participants, 80.9 ...


Continuing To Confront Copd International Physician Survey: Physician Knowledge And Application Of Copd Management Guidelines In 12 Countries, Kourtney J. Davis, Sarah H. Landis, Yeon-Mok Oh, David M. Mannino, MeiLan K. Han, Thys van der Molen, Zaurbek Aisanov, Ana M. Menezes, Masakazu Ichinose, Hana Muellerova 2016 GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium

Continuing To Confront Copd International Physician Survey: Physician Knowledge And Application Of Copd Management Guidelines In 12 Countries, Kourtney J. Davis, Sarah H. Landis, Yeon-Mok Oh, David M. Mannino, Meilan K. Han, Thys Van Der Molen, Zaurbek Aisanov, Ana M. Menezes, Masakazu Ichinose, Hana Muellerova

David M. Mannino

AIM: Utilizing data from the Continuing to Confront COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) International Physician Survey, this study aimed to describe physicians' knowledge and application of the GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD diagnosis and treatment recommendations and compare performance between primary care physicians (PCPs) and respiratory specialists.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Physicians from 12 countries were sampled from in-country professional databases; 1,307 physicians (PCP to respiratory specialist ratio three to one) who regularly consult with COPD, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis patients were interviewed online, by telephone or ...


Identifying Cases Of Undiagnosed, Clinically Significant Copd In Primary Care: Qualitative Insight From Patients In The Target Population, Nancy K. Leidy, Katherine Kim, Elizabeth D. Bacci, Barbara P. Yawn, David M. Mannino, Byron M. Thomashow, R. Graham Barr, Stephen I. Rennard, Julia F. Houfek, Meilan K. Han, Catherine A. Meldrum, Barry J. Make, Russ P. Bowler, Anna W. Steenrod, Lindsey T. Murray, John W. Walsh, Fernando Martinez 2016 Evidera

Identifying Cases Of Undiagnosed, Clinically Significant Copd In Primary Care: Qualitative Insight From Patients In The Target Population, Nancy K. Leidy, Katherine Kim, Elizabeth D. Bacci, Barbara P. Yawn, David M. Mannino, Byron M. Thomashow, R. Graham Barr, Stephen I. Rennard, Julia F. Houfek, Meilan K. Han, Catherine A. Meldrum, Barry J. Make, Russ P. Bowler, Anna W. Steenrod, Lindsey T. Murray, John W. Walsh, Fernando Martinez

David M. Mannino

BACKGROUND: Many cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are diagnosed only after significant loss of lung function or during exacerbations.

AIMS: This study is part of a multi-method approach to develop a new screening instrument for identifying undiagnosed, clinically significant COPD in primary care.

METHODS: Subjects with varied histories of COPD diagnosis, risk factors and history of exacerbations were recruited through five US clinics (four pulmonary, one primary care). Phase I: Eight focus groups and six telephone interviews were conducted to elicit descriptions of risk factors for COPD, recent or historical acute respiratory events, and symptoms to inform the ...


Fibrinogen, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) And Outcomes In Two United States Cohorts, Deepa Valvi, David M. Mannino, Hana Müllerova, Ruth Tal-Singer 2016 University of Kentucky

Fibrinogen, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) And Outcomes In Two United States Cohorts, Deepa Valvi, David M. Mannino, Hana Müllerova, Ruth Tal-Singer

David M. Mannino

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is a marker of systemic inflammation and may be important in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

METHODS: We used baseline data from Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Studies to determine the relation between fibrinogen levels and COPD and to examine how fibrinogen levels at baseline affected outcomes of death, development of COPD, lung function decline, and COPD-hospitalizations.

RESULTS: Our study sample included 20,192 subjects, of whom 2995 died during the follow-up period. The mean fibrinogen level was 307.6 mg/dL and 10% of the sample had levels >393.0 ...


School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson 2016 George Washington University

School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the April 17, 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades K-12, a nursing care facility and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous ...


Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the present study, 90 coprolites from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for 3 diarrhea-inducing protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, to determine whether these parasites were present among the people who utilized this cave 1,200–1,400 yr ago. These people, the Loma San Gabriel, developed as a culture out of the Archaic Los Caracoles population and lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The Loma San Gabriel persisted through a mixed subsistence strategy of hunting-gathering and agricultural production. The results of ...


Differences In The Carcinogenic Evaluation Of Glyphosate Between The International Agency For Research On Cancer (Iarc) And The European Food Safety Authority (Efsa)., C. J. Portier, B. Armstrong, B. Baguley, X. Baur, I. Belyaev, Melissa J. Perry, +several additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Differences In The Carcinogenic Evaluation Of Glyphosate Between The International Agency For Research On Cancer (Iarc) And The European Food Safety Authority (Efsa)., C. J. Portier, B. Armstrong, B. Baguley, X. Baur, I. Belyaev, Melissa J. Perry, +Several Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., Jordan B. Finch 2016 University of Louisville

Air Pollution, Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, And The Endothelin System In The Development Of Cardiovascular Injury., Jordan B. Finch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this project was to examine the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a mediator in the pathway between air pollution exposure and the development of vascular injury. A human cohort and male mice (C57BL/6 and ecSOD-Tg) were used to evaluate changes in the ET-1 system in response to exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Human ET-1 levels were significantly associated with environmental factors and markers of vascular change, but were decreased with increased PM2.5. No association was seen between ET-1 and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) except for EPC-4, possibly indicating a regulatory relationship with this ...


Comparison Of Soil Phosphorus Concentration In Farm Restored And Reference Wetlands In Lake County, Il, Catherine L. Pease 2016 CPEASE

Comparison Of Soil Phosphorus Concentration In Farm Restored And Reference Wetlands In Lake County, Il, Catherine L. Pease

DePaul Discoveries

The soil in the Midwest is fertile for agriculture use and therefore a lot of the wetlands have been turned into farmland. Wetlands can act as a sink for excess nutrients such as phosphorus. In part due to their value for nutrient storage, restoration of wetlands has become more frequent, including restoration of wetlands on former farmland. I am interested in phosphorus and the potential of wetlands to either store or release phosphorus. I compared differences in soil reactive phosphorus of restored and reference wetlands. This study compares Prairie Wolf Slough (PWS), a restored wetland, to two reference wetlands, both ...


Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry 2016 George Washington University

Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified detectable levels of neonicotinoids (neonics) in the environment, adverse effects of neonics in many species including mammals, and pathways through which human exposure to neonics could occur, yet little is known about the human health effects of neonic exposure.

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review sought to identify human population studies on the health effects of neonics.

METHODS: Studies published in English between 2005 and 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. No restrictions were placed on the type of health outcome assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using guidance developed by the ...


Is Housing Making People Sick?: An Overview Of Seven Studies That Raise Questions To Consider As We Incorporate Health Into Planning And Build New Housing To Address Shortages And Energy Efficiency, Merilee D. Karr 2016 Portland State University

Is Housing Making People Sick?: An Overview Of Seven Studies That Raise Questions To Consider As We Incorporate Health Into Planning And Build New Housing To Address Shortages And Energy Efficiency, Merilee D. Karr

Metroscape

The article discusses the unintended consequences of some of the strategies for housing energy efficiency: they can lead to indoor air pollution that is making people sick. As we pursue ways to reduce the cost of housing, we must pursue innovation in building materials and techniques that might reduce the negative health consequences of sealing our homes from the elements.


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