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Calcium Montmorillonite Clay Reduces Urinary Biomarkers Of Fumonisin B₁ Exposure In Rats And Humans, Abraham Robinson, Natalie M. Johnson, A. Strey, John F. Taylor, Alicia Marroquin-Cardona, N. J. Mitchell, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Nii-Ayi Ankrah, Jonathan H. Williams, Jia-Sheng Wang, Pauline E. Jolly, R. J. Nachman, Timothy D. Phillips 2016 Texas A & M University - College Station

Calcium Montmorillonite Clay Reduces Urinary Biomarkers Of Fumonisin B₁ Exposure In Rats And Humans, Abraham Robinson, Natalie M. Johnson, A. Strey, John F. Taylor, Alicia Marroquin-Cardona, N. J. Mitchell, Evans Afriyie-Gyawu, Nii-Ayi Ankrah, Jonathan H. Williams, Jia-Sheng Wang, Pauline E. Jolly, R. J. Nachman, Timothy D. Phillips

John H. Robinson

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF’s carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. Calcium montmorillonite (i.e. NovaSil, NS) is a possible dietary intervention to help decrease chronic aflatoxin exposure where populations are at risk. Previous studies show that an oral dose of NS clay was able to reduce AF exposure in a Ghanaian population. In vitro analyses from our laboratory indicated that FB1 (like aflatoxin) could also be sorbed onto the surfaces of NS. Hence, our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of NS clay to reduce urinary ...


School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson 2016 George Washington University

School Siting Near Industrial Chemical Facilities: Findings From The U.S. Chemical Safety Board's Investigation Of The West Fertilizer Explosion., Veronica A Tinney, Jerad M Denton, Lucy Sciallo-Tyler, Jerome A. Paulson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigated the April 17, 2013 explosion at the West Fertilizer Company (WFC) that resulted in 15 fatalities, more than 260 injuries and damage to more than 150 buildings. Among these structures were four nearby school buildings cumulatively housing children in grades K-12, a nursing care facility and an apartment complex. The incident occurred during the evening when school was not in session, which reduced the number of injuries.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to illustrate the consequences of siting schools near facilities that store or use hazardous ...


Differences In The Carcinogenic Evaluation Of Glyphosate Between The International Agency For Research On Cancer (Iarc) And The European Food Safety Authority (Efsa)., C. J. Portier, B. Armstrong, B. Baguley, X. Baur, I. Belyaev, Melissa J. Perry, +several additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Differences In The Carcinogenic Evaluation Of Glyphosate Between The International Agency For Research On Cancer (Iarc) And The European Food Safety Authority (Efsa)., C. J. Portier, B. Armstrong, B. Baguley, X. Baur, I. Belyaev, Melissa J. Perry, +Several Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Comparison Of Soil Phosphorus Concentration In Farm Restored And Reference Wetlands In Lake County, Il, Catherine L. Pease 2016 CPEASE

Comparison Of Soil Phosphorus Concentration In Farm Restored And Reference Wetlands In Lake County, Il, Catherine L. Pease

DePaul Discoveries

The soil in the Midwest is fertile for agriculture use and therefore a lot of the wetlands have been turned into farmland. Wetlands can act as a sink for excess nutrients such as phosphorus. In part due to their value for nutrient storage, restoration of wetlands has become more frequent, including restoration of wetlands on former farmland. I am interested in phosphorus and the potential of wetlands to either store or release phosphorus. I compared differences in soil reactive phosphorus of restored and reference wetlands. This study compares Prairie Wolf Slough (PWS), a restored wetland, to two reference wetlands, both ...


Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry 2016 George Washington University

Effects Of Neonicotinoid Pesticide Exposure On Human Health: A Systematic Review., Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J. Perry

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified detectable levels of neonicotinoids (neonics) in the environment, adverse effects of neonics in many species including mammals, and pathways through which human exposure to neonics could occur, yet little is known about the human health effects of neonic exposure.

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review sought to identify human population studies on the health effects of neonics.

METHODS: Studies published in English between 2005 and 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. No restrictions were placed on the type of health outcome assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using guidance developed by the ...


Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson 2016 George Washington University

Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades. Specifically, an F1:A2:B20 plasmid is strongly associated with ...


Is Housing Making People Sick?: An Overview Of Seven Studies That Raise Questions To Consider As We Incorporate Health Into Planning And Build New Housing To Address Shortages And Energy Efficiency, Merilee D. Karr 2016 Portland State University

Is Housing Making People Sick?: An Overview Of Seven Studies That Raise Questions To Consider As We Incorporate Health Into Planning And Build New Housing To Address Shortages And Energy Efficiency, Merilee D. Karr

Metroscape

The article discusses the unintended consequences of some of the strategies for housing energy efficiency: they can lead to indoor air pollution that is making people sick. As we pursue ways to reduce the cost of housing, we must pursue innovation in building materials and techniques that might reduce the negative health consequences of sealing our homes from the elements.


Sperm Aneuploidy In Faroese Men With Lifetime Exposure To Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (Dde) And Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) Pollutants., Melissa J Perry, Heather A Young, Philippe Grandjean, Jónrit Halling, Maria S Petersen, Sheena E Martenies, Parisa Karimi, Pál Weihe 2016 George Washington University

Sperm Aneuploidy In Faroese Men With Lifetime Exposure To Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (Dde) And Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) Pollutants., Melissa J Perry, Heather A Young, Philippe Grandjean, Jónrit Halling, Maria S Petersen, Sheena E Martenies, Parisa Karimi, Pál Weihe

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background: Although it is known that sperm aneuploidy contributes to early pregnancy losses and congenital abnormalities, the causes are unknown and environmental contaminants are suspected.

Objectives: Our goal was to evaluate associations between lifetime exposure to organochlorines, specifically dichlorodiphenyldicholorethylene (p,p´-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and sperm aneuploidy in men from the general population of the Faroe Islands, a population with a known history of organochlorine exposures.

Methods: Serum and semen samples from men (n = 90) 22–44 years old who participated in Faroe Islands health studies were analyzed for p,p´-DDE and PCBs 118, 138, 153, and ...


Evaluation Of Iowa’S Anti-Bullying Law, Marizen Ramirez, Patrick Ten Eyck, Corinne Peek-Asa, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Angela Onwuachi-Willig 2016 University of Iowa

Evaluation Of Iowa’S Anti-Bullying Law, Marizen Ramirez, Patrick Ten Eyck, Corinne Peek-Asa, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Publications

Background

Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa’s anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying.

Methods

Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year ...


Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background. Within-household sharing of strains from the resistance-associated H30R1 and H30Rx subclones of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has been inferred based on conventional typing data, but has been assessed minimally using whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis.

Methods. Thirty-three clinical and fecal isolates of ST131-H30R1 and ST131-H30Rx, from 20 humans and pets in six households, underwent WGS analysis for comparison with 52 published ST131 genomes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using a bootstrapped maximum likelihood tree based on core genome sequence polymorphisms. Accessory traits were compared between phylogenetically similar isolates.

Results. In the WGS-based ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2016 Chapman University

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


Traveling With Stowaways: The Human Microbiome And Travel, Alisha N. Hughes 2016 University of Washington - Tacoma Campus

Traveling With Stowaways: The Human Microbiome And Travel, Alisha N. Hughes

Global Honors Theses

The human microbiome is a research field that is fairly new and thus, not yet fully understood. However, past research has revealed that the human host and the microorganisms interact with each other. To comprehend how influential the connection between host and its stowaways is, the following text will first offer general information on the human microbiome, before moving on to a pilot case study proposal. With the use of similar case studies, this proposal aims to investigate how the human microbiome changes when the host travels and analyzes the changes and their affects on the individual’s health. The ...


Use Of Propensity Score Matching To Identify A Strong Association Between Health Care Provider Advice Not To Smoke And Quit Attempts Among Mid-Adolescent Smokers, Russell K. McIntire, PhD, MPH 2016 Jefferson School of Population Health

Use Of Propensity Score Matching To Identify A Strong Association Between Health Care Provider Advice Not To Smoke And Quit Attempts Among Mid-Adolescent Smokers, Russell K. Mcintire, Phd, Mph

Jefferson College of Population Health Posters

Background:

  • Nearly 1 out of 7 U.S. adolescents is a current cigarette smoker by the time they leave high school. 1
  • Although almost one third of adolescents who saw a healthcare provider in the past month were advised to quit or avoid tobacco,2 research on the influence of provider advice on quit attempts among adolescent smokers has shown mixed results. 3
  • These results may be due to selection bias—adolescent smokers who get advice may be different from those who do not on a range of factors including age of initiation, smoking frequency, attitudes toward smoking, exposure to ...


Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, is a known metabolic master-switch. In conditions of starvation, mTOR suppresses biosynthetic programs and increases the recycling of proteins and organelles. Upon stimulation by nutrients and growth factors, however, mTOR causes activation of biosynthesis and suppression of autophagy. The mTOR-centered molecular pathway is a major pathway of growth regulation and metabolism, linked to aging and the development of cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, the role of environmental factors in the modulation of the mTOR pathway remains largely unknown. The present study suggests that ...


Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Meta-analysis of 101 studies published between 1934 and 1996 indicates that mean sperm concentration decreased around 50% during this period. More recent studies have found alarmingly poor semen quality in the general population of Northern Europe. Additional adverse trends include increased incidence of testicular cancer, and congenital malformations such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Testicular germ cell cancers increased by about 400% over the period of 50 years in industrialized countries. Decreased quality of male reproductive health has been linked to environmental endocrine disruptors exposure. However, the ability of xenobiotics to produce long-lasting effects and mechanisms of perturbation of the male ...


Variation In Restaurant Sanitary Scores In New York City, Kyle Gregory 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Variation In Restaurant Sanitary Scores In New York City, Kyle Gregory

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether restaurants that are homogenous in nature would exhibit substantially different hygiene scores based on the underlying consumer learning behaviors present in the neighborhoods in which the restaurants are located.


Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...


Geodemographic Features Of Human Blastomycosis In Eastern Wisconsin, Megan E. Huber, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Jessica J. F. Kram, Melissa A. Lemke 2016 Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care

Geodemographic Features Of Human Blastomycosis In Eastern Wisconsin, Megan E. Huber, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Jessica J. F. Kram, Melissa A. Lemke

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Purpose

Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored ...


A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Link Between Paediatric Asthma And Obesity: Are They Caused By The Same Environmental Conditions?, Phylicia Gonsalves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The highly associated paediatric conditions of asthma and overweight have seen dramatic increases over the past few decades. This thesis explored air pollution exposure as a potential underlying mechanism of co-morbid asthma and overweight among adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey were merged with a database containing estimates of air pollution as assessed by particulate matter ≤ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) concentrations at the postal code centroid in southwestern Ontario. Logistic regression was used to conduct the analysis. Adolescents were more likely to be overweight as PM2.5 concentrations increased. There ...


Biosand Water Filter Evaluation: Meta-Evaluation And Pilot Study Of Field Use Indicators, Bethesda O'Connell 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Biosand Water Filter Evaluation: Meta-Evaluation And Pilot Study Of Field Use Indicators, Bethesda O'Connell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diarrheal diseases are a global public health burden, killing 1.8 million people annually. Diarrhea disproportionately affects children and those in poverty. Most diarrheal cases can be prevented through safe drinking water, basic hygiene and/or sanitation measures, with drinking water interventions having the most impact on reducing diarrheal disease. A meta-evaluation was completed of studies evaluating a specific household water treatment method, the biosand water filter. Results from the meta-evaluation illustrate that biosand water filters improve drinking water quality and reduce diarrheal disease. However, there is no generally agreed upon field method for determining biosand water filter effectiveness that ...


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