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Maintaining Stability In A Changing Climate: A Comparative Analysis Of Public Health Systems And Migration Policies In The U.S. And Canada, Laura Cutlip 2019 Colorado College

Maintaining Stability In A Changing Climate: A Comparative Analysis Of Public Health Systems And Migration Policies In The U.S. And Canada, Laura Cutlip

Climate and Society

This paper examines the relation between climate change, migration, and public health to better understand how the United States health system is positioned to deal with likely challenges to human health posed by environmental changes. The author reviews probable impacts of climate change on population displacement and disease before considering how the current structure of the health system of the United States will render it unable to adapt to these changes and challenges. The Canadian health care system and refugee policies are then reviewed to provide a counterpoint to this analysis. These findings are then considered in tandem as the ...


Food Access And Dignity Among University Of Wyoming Students, Alanna Elder 2018 University of Wyoming

Food Access And Dignity Among University Of Wyoming Students, Alanna Elder

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Because Albany County is the home of the state’s only four-year university, there is a question as to how the student population affects the proportion of county residents considered food insecure. Until now, it has been unclear how many students are struggling to access food. In 2017, a group of University of Wyoming faculty and administrators from the Department of Agricultural Economics, Financial Services, and the Office of Academic Affairs signed up for The Ohio State University’s College Study on Financial Wellness, which included a food security module (Alexander). Surveying 722 undergraduates and using USDA metrics, the researchers ...


Healthy Food Options At Dollar Discount Stores Are Equivalent In Quality And Lower In Price Compared To Grocery Stores: An Examination In Las Vegas, Nv, Courtney Coughenour, Timothy J. Bungum, M. Nikki Regalado 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Healthy Food Options At Dollar Discount Stores Are Equivalent In Quality And Lower In Price Compared To Grocery Stores: An Examination In Las Vegas, Nv, Courtney Coughenour, Timothy J. Bungum, M. Nikki Regalado

Community Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Food deserts indicate limited access to and affordability of healthy foods. One potential mediator is the availability of healthy food in non-traditional outlets such as dollar-discount stores, stores selling produce at the fixed $1 price. The purpose of this study was to compare availability, quality, price differences in ‘healthier’ versus ‘regular’ food choices, price per each food item, and summary score in dollar-discount stores to grocery stores in Las Vegas using the NEMS-S; a protocol consisting of three subscores—availability, quality, price of healthier versus regular food, and a summary score. [...] see article for full abstract


Trends In Childhood Elevated Blood Lead Levels In Nebraska, 2013 – 2017, Ellana Haakenstad 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Trends In Childhood Elevated Blood Lead Levels In Nebraska, 2013 – 2017, Ellana Haakenstad

Service Learning/Capstone Experience

This project explored the exposure to lead among children in Nebraska. Using the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services’ Blood Lead Level database, trends were investigated in screening; demographics; incidence; and prevalence of elevated blood lead levels, statewide and by census tract. The study further explored the geography of lead exposure and elevated blood lead level cases with maps. Based on these results, policy recommendations were made to the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services’ Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program, particularly about areas of Nebraska with high risk of lead incidence and exposure risk where testing should be ...


Analyzing Policies Through A Dohad Lens: What Can We Learn?, Julia M. Goodman, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Dawn M. Richardson, Sarah B. Andrea, Lynne C. Messer 2018 Portland State University

Analyzing Policies Through A Dohad Lens: What Can We Learn?, Julia M. Goodman, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Dawn M. Richardson, Sarah B. Andrea, Lynne C. Messer

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Social, health, and environmental policies are critical tools for providing the conditions needed for healthy populations. However, current policy analyses fall short of capturing their full potential impacts across the life course and from generation to generation. We argue that the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), a conceptual and research framework positing that early life experiences significantly affect health trajectories across the lifespan and into future generations, provides an important lens through which to analyze social policies. To illustrate this point, we synthesized evidence related to policies from three domains—family leave, nutrition, and housing—to ...


Concentrations Of Criteria Pollutants In The Contiguous U.S., 1979 – 2015: Role Of Model Parsimony In Integrated Empirical Geographic Regression, Sun-Young Kim, Matthew Bechle, Steve Hankey, Elizabeth (Lianne) A. Sheppard, Adam A. Szpiro, Julian D. Marshall 2018 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Concentrations Of Criteria Pollutants In The Contiguous U.S., 1979 – 2015: Role Of Model Parsimony In Integrated Empirical Geographic Regression, Sun-Young Kim, Matthew Bechle, Steve Hankey, Elizabeth (Lianne) A. Sheppard, Adam A. Szpiro, Julian D. Marshall

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

BACKGROUND: National- or regional-scale prediction models that estimate individual-level air pollution concentrations commonly include hundreds of geographic variables. However, these many variables may not be necessary and parsimonious approach including small numbers of variables may achieve sufficient prediction ability. This parsimonious approach can also be applied to most criteria pollutants. This approach will be powerful when generating publicly available datasets of model predictions that support research in environmental health and other fields. OBJECTIVES: We aim to (1) build annual-average integrated empirical geographic (IEG) regression models for the contiguous U.S. for six criteria pollutants, for all years with regulatory monitoring ...


Exposure To Household Air Pollution From Biomass Cookstoves And Levels Of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (Feno) Among Honduran Women, Megan L. Benka-Coker, Maggie L. Clark, Sarah Rajkumar, Bonnie N. Young, Annette M. Bachand, John R. Balmes, Robert Brook, Tracy L. Nelson, John Volckens, Steve J. Reynolds, Ander Wilson, Christian L'Orange, Nicholas Good, Casey Quinn, Kirsten Koehler, Sebastian Africano, Anibal Osorto Pinel, Jennifer L. Peel 2018 Gettysburg College

Exposure To Household Air Pollution From Biomass Cookstoves And Levels Of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (Feno) Among Honduran Women, Megan L. Benka-Coker, Maggie L. Clark, Sarah Rajkumar, Bonnie N. Young, Annette M. Bachand, John R. Balmes, Robert Brook, Tracy L. Nelson, John Volckens, Steve J. Reynolds, Ander Wilson, Christian L'Orange, Nicholas Good, Casey Quinn, Kirsten Koehler, Sebastian Africano, Anibal Osorto Pinel, Jennifer L. Peel

Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Household air pollution is estimated to be responsible for nearly three million premature deaths annually. Measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) may improve the limited understanding of the association of household air pollution and airway inflammation. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of FeNO with exposure to household air pollution (24-h average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter and black carbon; stove type) among 139 women in rural Honduras using traditional stoves or cleaner-burning Justastoves. We additionally evaluated interaction by age. Results were generally consistent with a null association; we did not observe a consistent pattern for interaction by age. Evidence ...


Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Magnetophosphenes are among the most reliably reported effects resulting from magnetic induction. The frequency dependence of the perception threshold is crucial, as guideline agencies use this information to set exposure limits whose purpose is to protect public and workers.

Objective:Establish the magnetophosphene perception thresholds throughout the extremely low frequency range (0-300 Hz) and evaluate the use of EEG as a biomarker.

Hypothesis:Perception thresholds will be lowest at ~30 Hz. EEG occipital alpha power will decrease upon perception.

Methods:60 participants were exposed to homogenous magnetic fields up to 300 Hz, and 70 mT. EEG alpha power was ...


Spatial And Temporal Clustering Analysis Of Tuberculosis In The Mainland Of China At The Prefecture Level, 2005-2015., Meng-Yang Liu, Qi-Huan Li, Ying-Jie Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Cheng-Bei Hou, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Wei-Min Li, Xiu-Hua Guo 2018 Edith Cowan University

Spatial And Temporal Clustering Analysis Of Tuberculosis In The Mainland Of China At The Prefecture Level, 2005-2015., Meng-Yang Liu, Qi-Huan Li, Ying-Jie Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Cheng-Bei Hou, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Wei-Min Li, Xiu-Hua Guo

ECU Publications Post 2013

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most serious infectious diseases in the mainland of China. So it was urgent for the formulation of more effective measures to prevent and control it.

METHODS: The data of reported TB cases in 340 prefectures from the mainland of China were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) during January 2005 to December 2015. The Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistics was used to identify the temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of reported TB in the mainland of China by using the discrete Poisson probability model. Spatio-temporal ...


Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is An Independent Predictor Of Vitamin D Deficiency In Us Children, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Philip Kum-Nji 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is An Independent Predictor Of Vitamin D Deficiency In Us Children, Benjamin U. Nwosu, Philip Kum-Nji

Endocrinology/Diabetes

IMPORTANCE: The role of tobacco-smoke exposure on serum vitamin D concentration in US pediatric population is not known. We hypothesized that tobacco smoke exposure would increase the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in US children.

METHODS: Representative national data were accessed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 databank on 2,263 subjects of ages 3 to 17 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their age: children, if <10 >years; and youth if 10 to 17 years. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the effect of serum cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure ...


Using Digital Scholarship And Citizen Science To Reduce Lead Poisoning Risk In Indiana, Matthew L. Sisk 6317313 2018 University of Notre Dame

Using Digital Scholarship And Citizen Science To Reduce Lead Poisoning Risk In Indiana, Matthew L. Sisk 6317313

Bucknell University Digital Scholarship Conference

Lead exposure remains a prevalent public health issue in many communities. In some cases, the exposure risk comes from contaminated water, but in others it is from the legacy of lead-based paint or contaminated soils. Here, we report on recent work using digital scholarship techniques along side a citizen science model to increase awareness and reduce environmental hazards in the affected city of South Bend, Indiana. Over the past two years, we have worked closely with local community organizations, civic entities and concerned individuals to develop a home test kit that puts the tools to determine risk in the hands ...


A Phage-Based Assay For The Rapid, Quantitative, And Single Cfu Visualization Of E. Coli (Ecor #13) In Drinking Water, Troy C. Hinkely, S. Singh, Spencer Garing, Anne-Laure M. Le Ny, Kevin P. Nichols, Joseph E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, Sam R. Nugen 2018 Cornell University

A Phage-Based Assay For The Rapid, Quantitative, And Single Cfu Visualization Of E. Coli (Ecor #13) In Drinking Water, Troy C. Hinkely, S. Singh, Spencer Garing, Anne-Laure M. Le Ny, Kevin P. Nichols, Joseph E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, Sam R. Nugen

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Drinking water standards in the United States mandate a zero tolerance of generic E. coli in 100mL of water. The presence of E. coli in drinking water indicates that favorable environmental conditions exist that could have resulted in pathogen contamination. Therefore, the rapid and specifc enumeration of E. coli in contaminated drinking water is critical to mitigate signifcant risks to public health. To meet this challenge, we developed a bacteriophage-based membrane fltration assay that employs novel fusion reporter enzymes to fully quantify E. coli in less than half the time required for traditional enrichment assays. A luciferase and an alkaline ...


Safety & Risk Management News October 2018, Tara Chinn 2018 Otterbein University

Safety & Risk Management News October 2018, Tara Chinn

Otterbein Police Department

No abstract provided.


Improving The Management Of Nationwide Drug And Iv Bag Shortages, Inpatient Pharmacy, Supply Chain, Stephen Tyzik, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Amy Sparks 2018 Maine Medical Center

Improving The Management Of Nationwide Drug And Iv Bag Shortages, Inpatient Pharmacy, Supply Chain, Stephen Tyzik, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Amy Sparks

Operational Excellence

IMPROVING THE MANAGEMENT OF NATIONWIDE DRUG AND IV SHORTAGE

In September of 2017, Hurricane Maria struck the island of Puerto Rico where over 50 pharmaceutical factories had previously operated. The impact of this was felt not only in the drastic reduction of products that are produced on the island, but it also exacerbated the supply chain issues for key drugs nationwide.

The pharmacy department and supply chain in an academic tertiary care medical center did not have a consistent and reliable process for communication, planning and real-time updates. This resulted in a tremendous amount of wasted staff time at their ...


Associations Between Environmental Quality And Infant Mortality In The United States, 2000–2005, Achal P. Patel, Jyotsna S. Jagai, Lynne C. Messer, Christine L. Gray, Kristen M. Rappazzo 2018 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

Associations Between Environmental Quality And Infant Mortality In The United States, 2000–2005, Achal P. Patel, Jyotsna S. Jagai, Lynne C. Messer, Christine L. Gray, Kristen M. Rappazzo

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: The United States (U.S.) suffers from high infant mortality (IM) rates and there are significant racial/ethnic differences in these rates. Prior studies on the environment and infant mortality are generally limited to singular exposures. We utilize the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a measure of cumulative environmental exposure (across air, water, land, sociodemographic, and land domains) for U.S. counties from 2000 to 2005, to investigate associations between ambient environment and IM across maternal race/ethnicity.

Methods: We linked 2000–2005 infant data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the EQI (n = 22 ...


Justice Served Fresh: Associations Between Food Insecurity, Community Gardening, And Property Value, Micajah Daniels, Courtney Coughenour PhD 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Justice Served Fresh: Associations Between Food Insecurity, Community Gardening, And Property Value, Micajah Daniels, Courtney Coughenour Phd

McNair Poster Presentations

Numerous stakeholders in Nevada have used a variety of efforts to combat the growth of food insecurity facing Nevadans. The purpose of this research project is to understand the association between food insecurity, community gardens, and property value. Following the wealth of scholarship on these topics and data collected from community garden agencies in Southern Nevada, the research questions for this project include: (1) Where are community gardens located in SNV? (2) What efforts community gardens agencies are doing to address food insecurity (most interested in their efforts using community gardens)? (3) What are the perceptions of supports and barriers ...


Grandparent Caregivers’ Perceptions And Lived Experiences: Their Health And Wellbeing, Access To Health And State Of Health Services In Zimbabwe, Magen M. Mutepfa Dr 2018 University of Botswana

Grandparent Caregivers’ Perceptions And Lived Experiences: Their Health And Wellbeing, Access To Health And State Of Health Services In Zimbabwe, Magen M. Mutepfa Dr

GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy

The study explored the perceptions and lived experiences of self-rated health, access to health, and state of health services for grandparent caregivers in Zimbabwe. In–depth interviews using semi-structured interview guides were carried out to elicit perceptions of lived experiences from grandparent caregivers (N=31; Mean age= 65.7; SD= 10.7). The data was thematically analysed and the software Nvivo 10 was used to help categorize emergent themes. The study found that grandparent caregivers experienced multiple chronic and complex self-rated health conditions (e.g., High blood pressure (HBP), arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, back pain, and heart problems), which influenced their ...


Casualties Of Racism: Racial And Ethnic Discrimination And Suicidal Thoughts And Behaviors Among Racial And Ethnic Minority Emerging Adults, Lillian Anais Polanco 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Casualties Of Racism: Racial And Ethnic Discrimination And Suicidal Thoughts And Behaviors Among Racial And Ethnic Minority Emerging Adults, Lillian Anais Polanco

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The evidence demonstrating that experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination is detrimental to the mental health of racial/ethnic minority youth is unequivocal. What remains unclear, however, is whether racial/ethnic discrimination increases vulnerability for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in particular, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms to explain this relation. Drawing upon the Race-based Traumatic Stress Theory (Carter, 2007), which suggests that some individuals may experience racial/ethnic discrimination as a traumatic stressor, and thus, eliciting a traumatic stress response, the present study examined posttraumatic stress reactions (i.e., posttraumatic stress, depression, dissociation, stress sensitivity) as mediators in ...


It's About Communities: The Commitment To Promoting A Culturally Competent Environmental Health Workforce., Clint Pinion Jr., Leslie D. Mitchell, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

It's About Communities: The Commitment To Promoting A Culturally Competent Environmental Health Workforce., Clint Pinion Jr., Leslie D. Mitchell, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Environmental health and public health are profoundly local. The Association of Environmental Health Academic Programs (AEHAP) firmly agrees and for this reason, it is important to have local environmental health experts who know the pulse of their communities. AEHAP believes in supporting the advanced scientific education of environmental health in these communities through people from these communities. Accordingly, AEHAP has sought to promote and support accredited environmental health programs among a diverse cross-section of the U.S. higher education landscape. AEHAP’s students are diverse in many ways, including socioeconomically, racially, ethnically, and culturally. The value of this approach enhances ...


Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Shigeru Yamada, Yusuke Kubo, Daiju Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yoko Nomura, Sachiko Yoshida, Yusunari Kanda 2018 National Institute of Health Sciences

Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Shigeru Yamada, Yusuke Kubo, Daiju Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yoko Nomura, Sachiko Yoshida, Yusunari Kanda

Publications and Research

Tributyltin (TBT), one of the organotin compounds, is a well-known environmental pollutant. In our recent study, we reported that TBT induces mitochondrial dysfunction, in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the degradation of mitofusin1 (Mfn1), which is a mitochondrial fusion factor. However, the effect of TBT toxicity on the developmental process of iPSCs was not clear. The present study examined the effect of TBT on the differentiation of iPSCs into the ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers. We found that exposure to nanomolar concentration of TBT (50 nM) selectively inhibited the induction of iPSCs into the ectoderm, which is the ...


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