Wdph 2017 Summer Internship Report, 2018 Clark University
Wdph 2017 Summer Internship Report, Lauren Meininger
Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise
In the spring of 2014, the Worcester Division of Public Health, UMass Memorial Health Care, and Clark University’s Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise joined forces to begin developing a partnership that would combine academic resources, student input, and public health needs in the City of Worcester. Founders of this program were motivated to seek and implement innovative interventions for public health issues while simultaneously inspiring a new generation of public health professionals.
Each year, the Academic Health Collaborative of Worcester (AHCW) brings in student interns to work on the pressing public health issues of the moment. Interns work alongside ...
The Association Of Long-Term Exposure To Particulate Matter Air Pollution With Brain Mri Findings: The Aric Study., 2018 George Washington University
The Association Of Long-Term Exposure To Particulate Matter Air Pollution With Brain Mri Findings: The Aric Study., Melinda C Power, Archana P Lamichhane, Duanping Liao, Xiaohui Xu, Clifford R Jack, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas Mosley, James D Stewart, Jeff D Yanosky, Eric A Whitsel
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence links higher particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure to late-life cognitive impairment. However, few studies have considered associations between direct estimates of long-term past exposures and brain MRI findings indicative of neurodegeneration or cerebrovascular disease.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to quantify the association between brain MRI findings and PM exposures approximately 5 to 20 y prior to MRI in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
METHODS: ARIC is based in four U.S. sites: Washington County, Maryland; Minneapolis suburbs, Minnesota; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi. A subset of ARIC participants underwent 3T brain MRI ...
Long-Term Exposure Of Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension By Impaired Renal D1 Receptor-Mediated Sodium Excretion Via Upregulation Of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Type 4 Expression In Sprague-Dawley Rats., 2018 George Washington University
Long-Term Exposure Of Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension By Impaired Renal D1 Receptor-Mediated Sodium Excretion Via Upregulation Of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Type 4 Expression In Sprague-Dawley Rats., Xi Lu, Zhengmeng Ye, Shuo Zheng, Hongmei Ren, Jing Zeng, Xinquan Wang, Pedro A Jose, Ken Chen, Chunyu Zeng
Medicine Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence supports an important association between air pollution exposure and hypertension. However, the mechanisms are not clear.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Our present study found that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes hypertension and impairs renal sodium excretion, which might be ascribed to lower D1 receptor expression and higher D1 receptor phosphorylation, accompanied with a higher G-protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) expression. The in vivo results were confirmed in in vitro studies (ie, PM2.5 increased basal and decreased D1 receptor mediated inhibitory effect on Na+-K+ ATPase activity, decreased D1 receptor expression, and increased ...
Using Photovoice As A Tool For Community Engagement To Assess The Environment And Explore Environmental Health Disparities, 2018 University of South Carolina
Using Photovoice As A Tool For Community Engagement To Assess The Environment And Explore Environmental Health Disparities, Heather M. Brandt, Venice E. Haynes, Lashanta J. Rice, Dayna Campbell, Edith Williams, *Sacoby Wilson, Saundra H. Glover
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
Photovoice was used as a participatory research method to document perceived local environmental hazards, pollution sources, and potential impact on health among community members to address environmental health disparities. A convenience sample of 16 adults in Orangeburg, South Carolina participated in Photovoice. Photos depicted positive and negative implications of the environment across seven themes: recreation and leisure; food access; hazards and pollution; health, human, and social services; economic issues; beautification; and accommodation and accessibility. Positive and negative photos demonstrated a high level of interest among community members in considering how the environment influences health and health disparities.
The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, 2018 Claremont McKenna College
The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, Grace Bailey
CMC Senior Theses
This paper conducts an analysis of county level data to determine the effect of fast food restaurants on type 2 diabetes rates. Due to endogeneity concerns with respect to the location of fast food restaurants, this paper follows the work of Dunn (2010) and uses the number of interstate exits in a given county to serve as an instrument for fast food restaurants. The strength of the instrument, which is theoretically and empirically tested in this paper, imposes some restraints on the interpretation of the findings. Using the Two-Stage Least Squares estimation method, I find that the presence of fast ...
Evaluation Of Behavior Change Communication Campaigns To Promote Modern Cookstove Purchase And Use In Lower Middle Income Countries, 2018 George Washington University
Evaluation Of Behavior Change Communication Campaigns To Promote Modern Cookstove Purchase And Use In Lower Middle Income Countries, W. Douglas Evans, Michael Johnson, Kirstie Jagoe, Dana Charron, A.S.M. Mashiur Rahman, Daniel Omolloh, Julie Ipe
Global Health Faculty Publications
Nearly three billion people worldwide burn solid fuels and kerosene in open fires and inefficient stoves to cook, light, and heat their homes. Cleaner-burning stoves reduce emissions and can have positive health, climate, and women’s empowerment benefits. This article reports on the protocol and baseline data from the evaluation of four behavior change communication (BCC) campaigns carried out in lower to middle income countries aimed at promoting the sale and use of cleaner-burning stoves. Interventions implemented in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Nigeria are using a range of BCC methods including mass media, digital media, outdoor advertising, and inter-personal communication. The ...
Lebanon: Cholera Outbreak, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Lebanon: Cholera Outbreak, Muhammad Naqvi
Global Public Health
Lebanon is a country that has always been tangled with the ever looming threat of a growing health crisis. With a failing government and massive influx of refugees, mostly the victim of their war torn economy, it seemed inevitable that sanitation procedures would run short. Now the Lebanese people and government face the challenge of the spread of Cholera, a water-borne disease, within the countries vicinity as a result of mass pollution from the formation of informal settlements as well as the country being a hotbed for political instability. These have resulted in limited success in controlling the outbreak engulfing ...
Chile: Air Pollution, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Chile: Air Pollution, Kara Eder
Global Public Health
Chile faces a constant issue of air pollution, reaping respiratory health problems for citizens in urban areas. While the many cases over the past century have increased officials to take action on the issue, the growing infrastructure and economy of the country makes it difficult to regulate harmful emissions. Wood-burning heaters within urban residential areas also contribute to the unhealthy smog. Ingestion of these forms of matter in the air causes respiratory symptoms such as bronchitis and cardiovascular disease. Bans on such heaters and taxes on vehicle emissions were placed in order to prevent the severity of pollutants in the ...
Myanmar: Malaria, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Myanmar: Malaria, Michelle Grevengoed
Global Public Health
Myanmar is an underdeveloped country that struggles with the problem of lack of medical access and expensive healthcare. The endemic of Malaria has been going on for several years in this country and many efforts have been made to try and decrease the Public Health issue. However, Myanmar still has the highest number of Malaria-related deaths. The Myanmar government is continuously working at improving the healthcare system to help with the Malaria endemic. However, the poor country still continues to struggle with this issue. The parasite, P. falciparum, has been an ongoing issue since it is resistant to the anti-malarial ...
Genomic Differences Between Nasal Staphylococcus Aureus From Hog Slaughterhouse Workers And Their Communities., 2018 George Washington University
Genomic Differences Between Nasal Staphylococcus Aureus From Hog Slaughterhouse Workers And Their Communities., Yaqi You, Li Song, Bareng A S Nonyane, Lance B Price, Ellen K Silbergeld
Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications
New human pathogens can emerge from the livestock-human interface and spread into human populations through many pathways including livestock products. Occupational contact with livestock is a risk factor for exposure to those pathogens and may cause further spreading of those pathogens in the community. The current study used whole genome sequencing to explore nasal Staphylococcus aureus obtained from hog slaughterhouse workers and their community members, all of whom resided in a livestock-dense region in rural North Carolina. Sequence data were analyzed for lineage distribution, pathogenicity-related genomic features, and mobile genetic elements. We observed evidence of nasal S. aureus differences between ...
Tanzania: Hiv/Aids, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Tanzania: Hiv/Aids, Francis Faasen
Global Public Health
Tanzania has a lot of issues going on in the community, but HIV/AIDS is the number one issue they are facing. Over 5% of their population has the HIV/Aids virus. There are many interventions that have been tried in Tanzania. In the last year there have been over 50,000 new cases of HIV/Aids in Tanzania. The goal is to main those numbers go down dramatically in the coming years. The two most common interventions are trying to educate this subject at a young age and provide condoms to the population. They tried giving condoms out to ...
Somalia: Rift Valley Fever, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Somalia: Rift Valley Fever, Alyson Meeks
Global Public Health
This walks readers through the basic demographics of Somalia, a country located in the horn of Africa. After learning about the government in Somalia and the problems that the people of the country face, this focuses on the problem of Rift Valley Fever. Rift Valley Fever is a virus that year after year strikes Somalia and surrounding countries. Weather patterns seem to help predict when Rift Valley Fever will be at the highest risk for an outbreak. This outlines the steps the current government and people are trying to take to help prevent outbreaks of RVF. But the solutions currently ...
French Polynesia: Chikungunya Virus And Fever, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
French Polynesia: Chikungunya Virus And Fever, Chase Spicer
Global Public Health
French Polynesia, a country with very a tropical climate, consists of 118 islands in the middle of the ocean and they are all completely controlled by the nation of France. French Polynesia is a very different nation than most in a lot of ways. The aspects and culture of the people who live here are very different because they are mainly only influenced from people of neighboring islands. This place is also very interesting because of the past political corruption that has occurred, the very fluctuating economy and job market, a variety of religious beliefs, and the fact that they ...
Segmenting Human Trajectory Data By Movement States While Addressing Signal Loss And Signal Noise, Sungsoon Hwang, Cynthia Vandemark, Navdeep Dhatt, Sai Yalla, Ryan Crews
Health Starts In The Home: An Assessment Of Efforts To Improve Occupant Health Through Healthy Building Materials In San Francisco’S Affordable Housing, 2017 The University of San Francisco
Health Starts In The Home: An Assessment Of Efforts To Improve Occupant Health Through Healthy Building Materials In San Francisco’S Affordable Housing, Staci Hoell
Master's Projects and Capstones
Americans spend 90% of their lives indoors, and much of this time is spent at home, surrounded by building materials that typically have added chemicals like flame retardants, highly fluorinated compounds, and antimicrobials. Recent research has linked these chemicals to adverse health outcomes such as asthma, endocrine disruption, cancer, neurodevelopmental issues, and reproductive problems (Bayer et al., n.d.; Green Science Policy Institute). Furthermore, these chronic health conditions disproportionately affect low-income populations. Fortunately, substantial efforts in research, practice, and policy are working to reduce the use of these potentially harmful chemicals in building materials, particularly in San Francisco’s affordable ...
Evaluation Of Iowa’S Anti-Bullying Law, 2017 University of Iowa
Evaluation Of Iowa’S Anti-Bullying Law, Marizen Ramirez, Patrick Ten Eyck, Corinne Peek-Asa, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Angela Onwuachi-Willig
Background Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa’s anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Methods Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year ...
Moving Mountains : A Study Examining Long-Term Impacts Of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining On Mortality In The Appalachian Region Using Geographic Information Sciences Techniques., 2017 University of Louisville
Moving Mountains : A Study Examining Long-Term Impacts Of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining On Mortality In The Appalachian Region Using Geographic Information Sciences Techniques., James Howard Kent Pugh
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Over the last hundred years, the Appalachian region has been dominated by the coal industry. It has also been and currently is one of the unhealthiest regions in the United States. Recent scholarship has examined the relationship between coal mining and health and mortality rates in the Appalachian region. The first study incorporates air quality and pollution data to examine if coal mining counties have higher levels of pollution and if this pollution contributes to mortality disadvantage. In the second study, I construct a population-based coal-exposure measure to better evaluate the relationship between coal mining and health I find that ...
Behavioral Ecology And Associated Virology Of Mosquito-Host Interactions In Southern California, 2017 Loma Linda University
Behavioral Ecology And Associated Virology Of Mosquito-Host Interactions In Southern California, Oliver Eshun
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects
Elucidating characteristics of mosquito-host interactions are critical for understanding the ecology and epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. In this dissertation, I conducted three studies to explore potential mosquito-host interactions and associated virus infection rates. I first demonstrated that mosquito captures at CO2-baited traps decreased most markedly with height above ground, and also decreased with distance from water at a riparian area but not at an open water source lacking a vegetated border. Birds might therefore prefer elevated nests or roosts to avoid mosquitoes. The second study examined the anti-mosquito behaviors of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in a laboratory study. The birds defended ...
Air Pollution In India: Questions Of Advocacy And Ethics, 2017 Yale University
Air Pollution In India: Questions Of Advocacy And Ethics, Roger Worthington, Michelle Mclean, Neelam Doshi
Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications
In large cities around the world, the effects of air pollution on human health present a growing problem. In this commentary, we assert that governments alone are not responsible for addressing such issues and health care professionals (HCPs) need to consider whether their duty of care should extend beyond normal clinical boundaries. When considering the ethics around the generation and effects of air pollution, especially in relation to justice and health care, actions taken by HCPs (e.g. in a country such as India) potentially extend beyond treating individual patients one-at-a-time for toxic effects of emissions and include advocating on ...
The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, 2017 Cedarville University
The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, Andrew Barnhart, Lawrence Bisong, Mckenzie Brittenham, Emma Eccher
Introduction to Public Health Posters
Waste and where it ends up is not a common discussion topic; in fact, it is often treated as a taboo subject. However, it has become necessary to examine this topic due to the growing ecological problems caused by the collection of garbage within our oceans. The Great Pacific Garbage patch, in particular, has grown quite large, and it is now affecting the health of people. This poster explores the ramifications of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. It discusses the background of the garbage patches and the impact of the issue. It also mentions the different determinants of health that ...