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# Health and Medical Physics Commons™

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55 Full-Text Articles 48 Authors 7,737 Downloads 14 Institutions

## All Articles in Health and Medical Physics

55 full-text articles. Page 1 of 2.

Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

#### Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, Louise Gabrielle Lima '19, Alice Liu '19

##### Student Publications & Research

Proton Radiotherapy

Proton radiotherapy is a form of radiation treatment that uses energized protons to break DNA, leading to cell death and killing cancers.

Endorectal Digital Prostate Tomosynthesis, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Endorectal Digital Prostate Tomosynthesis, Joseph Robert Steiner

##### LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Several areas of prostate cancer (PCa) management, such as imaging permanent brachytherapy implants or small, aggressive lesions, benefit from high image resolution. Current PCa imaging methods can have inadequate resolution for imaging these areas. Endorectal digital prostate tomosynthesis (endoDPT), an imaging method that combines an external x-ray source and an endorectal x-ray sensor, can produce three-dimensional images of the prostate region that have high image resolution compared to typical methods. This high resolution may improve PCa management and increase positive outcomes in affected men.

This dissertation presents the initial development of endoDPT, including system design, image quality assessment, and examples ...

2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells

##### Theses and Dissertations

The complexities of an organism’s experience of- and interaction with the world are emergent phenomena produced by large populations of neurons within the cerebral cortex and other brain regions. The network dynamics of these populations have been shown to be sometimes synchronous, with many neurons firing together, and sometimes asynchronous, with neurons firing more independently, leading to a decades-old debate within the neuroscience community. This discrepancy comes from viewing the system at two different scales; at the single cell level, the spiking activity of two neurons within cortex tend to be rather independent, but when the average activity of ...

2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Development And Applications Of A Real-Time Magnetic Electron Energy Spectrometer For Use With Medical Linear Accelerators, Paul Ethan Maggi

##### LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Purpose – This work presents a design for a real-time electron energy spectrometer, and provides data analysis methods and characterization of the real-time system. This system is intended for use with medical linear accelerators (linacs). The goal is 1 Hz acquisition of the energy range 4-25 MeV, reconstructed in 0.1 MeV increments.

Methods – Our spectrometer uses a nominal 0.54 T permanent magnet block as the dispersive element and scintillating fibers coupled to a CCD camera as the position sensitive detector. A broad electron beam produced by a linac is collimated by a 6.35 mm dimeter aperture at the ...

2017 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

#### Proposed Method For Measuring The Let Of Radiotherapeutic Particle Beams, Stephen D. Bello

##### Physics & Astronomy ETDs

The Bragg peak geometry of the depth dose distributions for hadrons allows for precise and effective dose delivery to tumors while sparing neighboring healthy tissue. Further, compared against other forms of radiotherapeutic treatments, such as electron beam therapy (EBT) or photons (x and $$\gamma$$-rays), hadrons create denser ionization events along the particle track, which induces irreparable damage to DNA, and thus are more effective at inactivating cancerous cells. The measurement of radiation's ability to inactivate cellular reproduction is the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). A quality related to the RBE that is a measurable physical property is the linear ...

2017 The University of Western Ontario

#### Determining The Detective Quantum Efficiency (Dqe) Of X-Ray Detectors In Clinical Environments, Terenz R. Escartin

##### Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

According to Health Canada, dental and medical radiography accounts for more than 90% of total man-made radiation dose to the general population. Ensuring patients receive the health benefits of diagnostic x-ray imaging without use of higher radiation exposures requires knowledge and understanding of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Currently, the DQE is not measured in clinics because it requires specialized instrumentation and specific DQE-expertise to perform an accurate analysis. In this regard, the goals of this thesis were to: 1) address the limitations of measuring the DQE in clinical environments that affects the accuracy of the measurement; 2) develop and ...

2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### An Algorithm To Improve Deformable Image Registration Accuracy In Challenging Cases Of Locally-Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Christopher L. Guy

##### Theses and Dissertations

A common co-pathology of large lung tumors located near the central airways is collapse of portions of lung due to blockage of airflow by the tumor. Not only does the lung volume decrease as collapse occurs, but fluid from capillaries also fills the space no longer occupied by air, greatly altering tissue appearance. During radiotherapy, typically administered to the patient over multiple weeks, the tumor can dramatically shrink in response to the treatment, restoring airflow to the lung sections which were collapsed when therapy began. While return of normal lung function is a positive development, the change in anatomy presents ...

2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

#### Postural Responses To Perturbations Of The Vestibular System During Walking In Healthy Young And Older Adults, Jung Hung Chien

##### Theses & Dissertations

It has been shown that approximate one-third of US adults aged 40 years and older (69 million US citizens) have some type of vestibular problems. These declining abilities of the vestibular system affect quality of life. Difficulties in performing daily activities (dressing, bathing, getting in and out of the bed and etc.) have been highly correlated to loss of balance due to vestibular disorders. The exact number of people affected by vestibular disorders is still difficult to quantify. This might be because symptoms are difficult to describe and differences exist in the qualifying criteria within and across studies. Thus, it ...

2014 University of Iowa

#### Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Lower Dietary Energy Density And A Better Diet Quality In Us Adults, Yong Zhu, James Hollis

##### Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19–64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003–8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States ...

2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Multi – Modality Molecular Imaging Of Adoptive Immune Cell Therapy In Breast Cancer, Fatma Youniss

##### Theses and Dissertations

Cancer treatment by adoptive immune cell therapy (AIT) is a form of immunotherapy that relies on the in vitro activation and/or expansion of immune cells. In this approach, immune cells, particularly CD8+ T lymphocytes, can potentially be harvested from a tumor-bearing patient, then activated and/or expanded in vitro in the presence of cytokines and other growth factors, and then transferred back into the same patient to induce tumor regression. AIT allows the in vitro generation and activation of T-lymphocytes away from the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, thereby providing optimum conditions for potent anti-tumor activity. The overall objective of this ...

2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Multimodality Molecular Imaging Of [18f]-Fluorinated Carboplatin Derivative Encapsulated In [111in]-Labeled Liposome, Narottam Lamichhane

##### Theses and Dissertations

Platinum based chemotherapy is amongst the mainstream DNA-damaging agents used in clinical cancer therapy today. Agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin are clinically prescribed for the treatment of solid tumors either as single agents, in combination, or as part of multi-modality treatment strategy. Despite the potent anti-tumor activity of these drugs, overall effectiveness is still hampered by inadequate delivery and retention of drug in tumor and unwanted normal tissue toxicity, induced by non-selective accumulation of drug in normal cells and tissues. Utilizing molecular imaging and nanoparticle technologies, this thesis aims to contribute to better understanding of how to improve the profile ...

2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Statistical Modeling Of Interfractional Tissue Deformation And Its Application In Radiation Therapy Planning, Douglas J. Vile

##### Theses and Dissertations

In radiation therapy, interfraction organ motion introduces a level of geometric uncertainty into the planning process. Plans, which are typically based upon a single instance of anatomy, must be robust against daily anatomical variations. For this problem, a model of the magnitude, direction, and likelihood of deformation is useful. In this thesis, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to statistically model the 3D organ motion for 19 prostate cancer patients, each with 8-13 fractional computed tomography (CT) images. Deformable image registration and the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) are used to quantify the interfraction systematic and random motion. By applying ...

2013 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Hybrid Pet/Mri Nanoparticle Development And Multi-Modal Imaging, David Hoffman

##### Theses and Dissertations

The development of hybrid PET/MRI imaging systems needs to be paralleled with the development of a hybrid intrinsic PET/MRI probes. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a novel radio-superparamagnetic nanoparticle (r-SPNP) for hybrid PET/MRI imaging. This was achieved with the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) that intrinsically incorporated 59Fe and manganese iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) that intrinsically incorporated 52Mn. Both [59Fe]-SPIONs and [52Mn]-MIONs were produced through thermal decomposition synthesis. The physiochemical characteristics of the r-SPNPs were assessed with TEM, DLS, and zeta-potential measurements, as well as in imaging phantom ...

2013 Selected Works

#### Characterization Of A Small Animal Spect Platform For Use In Preclinical Translational Research, Dustin Ryan Osborne

##### Dustin Ryan Osborne

Imaging Iodine-125 requires an increased focus on developing an understanding of how fundamental processes used by imaging systems work to provide quantitative output for the imaging system. Isotopes like I-125 pose specific imaging problems that are a result of low energy emissions as well as how closely spaced those emissions are in the spectrum. This work seeks to characterize the performance of a small animal SPECT-CT imaging system with respect to imaging I-125 for use in a preclinical translational research environment and to understand how the performance of this system relates to critical applications such as attenuation and scatter correction ...

2013 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Positron Emission Tomography For Pre-Clinical Sub-Volume Dose Escalation, Christopher Bass

##### Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: This dissertation focuses on establishment of pre-clinical methods facilitating the use of PET imaging for selective sub-volume dose escalation. Specifically the problems addressed are 1.) The difficulties associated with comparing multiple PET images, 2.) The need for further validation of novel PET tracers before their implementation in dose escalation schema and 3.) The lack of concrete pre-clinical data supporting the use of PET images for guidance of selective sub-volume dose escalations. Methods and materials: In order to compare multiple PET images the confounding effects of mispositioning and anatomical change between imaging sessions needed to be alleviated. To mitigate the ...

2013 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Principled Variance Reduction Techniques For Real Time Patient-Specific Monte Carlo Applications Within Brachytherapy And Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Andrew Sampson

##### Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the application of two principled variance reduction strategies to increase the efficiency for two applications within medical physics. The first, called correlated Monte Carlo (CMC) applies to patient-specific, permanent-seed brachytherapy (PSB) dose calculations. The second, called adjoint-biased forward Monte Carlo (ABFMC), is used to compute cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scatter projections. CMC was applied for two PSB cases: a clinical post-implant prostate, and a breast with a simulated lumpectomy cavity. CMC computes the dose difference between the highly correlated dose computing homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. The particle transport in the heterogeneous geometry assumed a purely homogeneous environment ...

2013 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Time Dependent Cone-Beam Ct Reconstruction Via A Motion Model Optimized With Forward Iterative Projection Matching, David Staub

##### Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work is to present the development and validation of a novel method for reconstructing time-dependent, or 4D, cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images. 4DCBCT can have a variety of applications in the radiotherapy of moving targets, such as lung tumors, including treatment planning, dose verification, and real time treatment adaptation. However, in its current incarnation it suffers from poor reconstruction quality and limited temporal resolution that may restrict its efficacy. Our algorithm remedies these issues by deforming a previously acquired high quality reference fan-beam CT (FBCT) to match the projection data in the 4DCBCT data-set, essentially creating a ...

2013 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Automatic Block-Matching Registration To Improve Lung Tumor Localization During Image-Guided Radiotherapy, Scott Robertson

##### Theses and Dissertations

To improve relatively poor outcomes for locally-advanced lung cancer patients, many current efforts are dedicated to minimizing uncertainties in radiotherapy. This enables the isotoxic delivery of escalated tumor doses, leading to better local tumor control. The current dissertation specifically addresses inter-fractional uncertainties resulting from patient setup variability. An automatic block-matching registration (BMR) algorithm is implemented and evaluated for the purpose of directly localizing advanced-stage lung tumors during image-guided radiation therapy. In this algorithm, small image sub-volumes, termed “blocks”, are automatically identified on the tumor surface in an initial planning computed tomography (CT) image. Each block is independently and automatically registered ...

2013 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### A Study Of Coverage Optimized Planning Incorporating Models Of Geometric Uncertainties For Prostate Cancer, Huijun Xu

##### Theses and Dissertations

A fundamental challenge in the treatment planning process of multi-fractional external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is the tradeoff between tumor control and normal tissue sparing in the presence of geometric uncertainties (GUs). To accommodate GUs, the conventional way is to use an empirical planning treatment volume (PTV) margin on the treatment target. However, it is difficult to determine a near-optimal PTV margin to ensure specified target coverage with as much normal tissue protection as achievable. Coverage optimized planning (COP) avoids this problem by optimizing dose in possible virtual treatment courses with GU models directly incorporated. A near-optimal dosimetric margin generated by ...

Optimization Of Radiation Therapy In Time-Dependent Anatomy, 2013 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Optimization Of Radiation Therapy In Time-Dependent Anatomy, W. Tyler Watkins

##### Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is to develop treatment planning techniques that have the potential to improve radiation therapy of time-dependent (4D) anatomy. Specifically, this study examines dose estimation, dose evaluation, and decision making in the context of optimizing lung cancer radiation therapy. Two methods of dose estimation are compared in patients with locally advanced and early stage lung cancer: dose computed on a single image (3D-dose) and deformably registered, accumulated dose (or 4D-dose). The results indicate that differences between 3D- and 4D- dose are not significant in organs at risk (OARs), however, 4D-dose to a moving lung cancer target ...