# Health and Medical Physics Commons™

## All Articles in Health and Medical Physics

67 full-text articles. Page 1 of 3.

2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Reconsidering The Obstetrical Dilemma: Correlations Between Head And Pelvic Size, Kelsey Catrice Fox

##### LSU Master's Theses

The Obstetrical Dilemma (OD) theory has become canon in biological anthropology. The OD posits that i] dystocia results from bipedal mothers and encephalized infants, ii] contrasting selection for bipedality and obstetrics hinders locomotive efficiency, and iii] the contradicting requirement of the fetus being small enough to pass through the birth canal yet being cognitively advanced enough to cling to its mother after birth. Females, theoretically, exhibit deficient gait efficiency for the sake of successful childbirth. An obstetric advantage theory has been posited where taller individuals with a larger head size have larger pelves. If the distance between the acetabulae increases ...

Towards Optimizing Quality Assurance Outcomes Of Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using Machine Learning, 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Towards Optimizing Quality Assurance Outcomes Of Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using Machine Learning, Phillip Douglas Hardenbergh Wall

##### LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Knowledge-based planning (KBP) techniques have been shown to provide improvements in plan quality, consistency, and efficiency for advanced radiation therapies such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). While the potential clinical benefits of KBP methods are generally well known, comparatively less is understood regarding the impact of using these systems on resulting plan complexity and pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) measurements, especially for in-house KBP systems. Therefore, the overarching purpose of this work was to assess QA implications with using an in-house KBP system and explore data-driven methods for mitigating increased plan complexity and QA error rates without compromising dosimetric plan ...

2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Quantitative Study Of The Antimicrobial Effects Of Silver On The Motility Of Escherichia Coli, Benjamin Russell

##### Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has grown to become a serious global threat. This rise can be attributed to the widespread misuse of antibiotics and the lack of newly developed drugs to fight resistant organisms. Novel bactericidal substances have, therefore, garnered significant research interest. Silver, due to its powerful antimicrobial effects, is one such substance. Silver is typically most effective in cationic form; however, advancements in nanotechnology have paved the way for the controlled fabrication of nano-silver. Silver nanoparticles have been shown to have increased antibacterial potency for a variety of reasons, including the release of ...

Enhancing Cpr Training: Development And Assessment Of An Affordable, Open-Source Real-Time Feedback Manikin, 2019 Augusta University

#### Enhancing Cpr Training: Development And Assessment Of An Affordable, Open-Source Real-Time Feedback Manikin, Anish Sangari, Nitish Sood, Joseph Andrew Hauger

##### Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique used in cases of cardiac arrest. Immediate CPR can increase survival rates two to three-fold. While many CPR training courses use non-electronic CPR manikins, recent literature has shown that training on a real-time feedback CPR manikin improves functional outcomes such as chest compression rate and mean tidal volume. However, current commercially available real-time feedback manikins only measure metrics on chest compressions or can be prohibitively expensive ( >\$200). Accordingly, we have designed, constructed, and tested a low-cost Arduino microcontroller-based CPR manikin that provides real-time feedback to trainees on eight critical metrics including force of ...

2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Evaluating Feline Release Criteria Following Iodine-131 Therapy For Hyperthyroidism, Anthony Davila

##### LSU Master's Theses

Hyperthyroidism is a very common endocrine disorder in both humans and cats. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy is considered the gold standard; however, the patient becomes a radiation source and poses a potential radiological risk to others. The regulations governing when the patient can be released differ between human medicine and veterinary medicine. A human patient can receive up to 33 mCi of I-131 and be discharged the same day; yet a feline patient can receive a dose as low as 2 mCi and require multiple days of hospitalization. This discrepancy has not been satisfactorily addressed; and overly restrictive release criteria ...

2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Determination Of Scatter Fractions, Albedos, And Tenth Value Layers For Shielding Of Synchrotron Beamline Hutches, Bethany Lynn Broekhoven

##### LSU Master's Theses

Synchrotron facilities require substantial amounts of shielding to protect facility staff and researchers. To meet mandatory exposure limits, the traditional combination of time, distance, and shielding of the radiation source are utilized. Because of continuous 24-7 operation of most synchrotrons, time is the least useful tool. The experimental stations for synchrotron x-ray beamlines, called hutches, enforce a minimum distance from the source, but shielding provided by hutch walls is still the principal tool for a synchrotron facility. Currently there is no single resource for synchrotron beamline hutch shielding design in the literature; most hutch shielding is designed through either over-simplified ...

Sub-Region Based Radiomics Analysis For Survival Prediction In Oesophageal Tumours Treated By Definitive Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy, 2019 Wenzhou Medical University

#### Sub-Region Based Radiomics Analysis For Survival Prediction In Oesophageal Tumours Treated By Definitive Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy, Congying Xie, Pengfei Yang, Xuebang Zhang, Lei Xu, Xiaoju Wang, Xiadong Li, Luhan Zhang, Ruifei Xie, Ling Yang, Zhao Jing, Hongfang Zhang, Lingyu Ding, Yu Kuang, Tianye Niu, Shixiu Wu

##### Health Physics & Diagnostic Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Evaluating clinical outcome prior to concurrent chemoradiotherapy remains challenging for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as traditional prognostic markers are assessed at the completion of treatment. Herein, we investigated the potential of using sub-region radiomics as a novel tumour biomarker in predicting overall survival of OSCC patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Independent patient cohorts from two hospitals were included for training (n = 87) and validation (n = 46). Radiomics features were extracted from sub-regions clustered from patients' tumour regions using K-means method. The LASSO regression for ‘Cox’ method was used for feature selection. The survival prediction model was constructed ...

Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty

##### Theses and Dissertations

The conglomeration of myriad activities in neural systems often results in prominent oscillations. The primary goal of the research presented in this thesis was to study effects of sensory stimulus on the olfactory system of rats, focusing on the olfactory bulb (OB) and the anterior piriform cortex (aPC). Extracellular electrophysiological measurements revealed distinct frequency bands of oscillations in OB and aPC. However, how these oscillatory fluctuations help the animal to process sensory input is not clearly understood. Here we show high frequency oscillations in olfactory bulb carry feedforward signals to anterior piriform cortex whereas feedback from the aPC is predominantly ...

2019 University of Louisville

#### An Evaluation Of The Supply And Demand Of Radiation Oncology Medical Physicists In The United States., Christine Marie Swanson

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: This dissertation is a mixed methods evaluation of the radiation oncology medical physics workforce in the United States. Radiation oncology medical physicists serve a vital role in the safe treatment of patients with radiation therapy. While cancer incidence continues to rise, the pathways to board certification in radiation oncology medical physics continue to narrow causing a potential shortage of radiation oncology physicists in the United States. While there is no lack of data about the medical physics community it has scarcely been used to evaluate the current state of the workforce. In order to ensure patient safety, appropriate physics ...

Potential Reduction Of Lung Dose Via Vmat With Jaw Tracking In The Treatment Of Single-Isocenter/Two-Lesion Lung Sbrt, 2019 University of Kentucky

#### Potential Reduction Of Lung Dose Via Vmat With Jaw Tracking In The Treatment Of Single-Isocenter/Two-Lesion Lung Sbrt, Damodar Pokhrel, Lana Sanford, Matthew Halfman, Janelle A. Molloy

Purpose/objectives: Due to higher radiosensitivity, non‐target normal tissue dose is a major concern in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment. The aim of this report was to estimate the dosimetric impact, specifically the reduction of normal lung dose in the treatment of single‐isocenter/two‐lesion lung SBRT via volumetric modulated arc therapy with jaw tracking (JT‐VMAT).

Materials/methods: Twelve patients with two peripherally located early‐stage non‐small‐cell‐lung cancer (NSCLC) lung lesions underwent single‐isocenter highly conformal non‐coplanar JT‐VMAT SBRT treatment in our institution. The mean isocenter to tumors distance was 5 ...

Evaluation Of Plan Quality And Treatment Efficiency For Single-Isocenter/Two-Lesion Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, 2019 University of Kentucky

#### Evaluation Of Plan Quality And Treatment Efficiency For Single-Isocenter/Two-Lesion Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, Lana Sanford, Janelle A. Molloy, Sameera S. Kumar, Marcus Randall, Ronald C. Mcgarry, Damodar Pokhrel

Purpose/objectives: To evaluate the plan quality and treatment delivery efficiency of single‐isocenter/two‐lesions volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

Materials/methods: Eight consecutive patients with two peripherally located early stage nonsmall‐cell‐lung cancer (NSCLC) lung lesions underwent single‐isocenter highly conformal noncoplanar VMAT SBRT treatment in our institution. A single‐isocenter was placed between the two lesions. Doses were 54 or 50 Gy in 3 and 5 fractions respectively. Patients were treated every other day. Plans were calculated in Eclipse with AcurosXB algorithm and normalized to at least 95% of the ...

Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

#### Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, Louise Gabrielle Lima '19, Alice Liu '19

##### Student Publications & Research

Proton radiotherapy is a form of radiation treatment that uses energized protons to break DNA, leading to cell death and killing cancers.

Endorectal Digital Prostate Tomosynthesis, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Endorectal Digital Prostate Tomosynthesis, Joseph Robert Steiner

##### LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Several areas of prostate cancer (PCa) management, such as imaging permanent brachytherapy implants or small, aggressive lesions, benefit from high image resolution. Current PCa imaging methods can have inadequate resolution for imaging these areas. Endorectal digital prostate tomosynthesis (endoDPT), an imaging method that combines an external x-ray source and an endorectal x-ray sensor, can produce three-dimensional images of the prostate region that have high image resolution compared to typical methods. This high resolution may improve PCa management and increase positive outcomes in affected men.

This dissertation presents the initial development of endoDPT, including system design, image quality assessment, and examples ...

2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells

##### Theses and Dissertations

The complexities of an organism’s experience of- and interaction with the world are emergent phenomena produced by large populations of neurons within the cerebral cortex and other brain regions. The network dynamics of these populations have been shown to be sometimes synchronous, with many neurons firing together, and sometimes asynchronous, with neurons firing more independently, leading to a decades-old debate within the neuroscience community. This discrepancy comes from viewing the system at two different scales; at the single cell level, the spiking activity of two neurons within cortex tend to be rather independent, but when the average activity of ...

2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Development And Applications Of A Real-Time Magnetic Electron Energy Spectrometer For Use With Medical Linear Accelerators, Paul Ethan Maggi

##### LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Purpose – This work presents a design for a real-time electron energy spectrometer, and provides data analysis methods and characterization of the real-time system. This system is intended for use with medical linear accelerators (linacs). The goal is 1 Hz acquisition of the energy range 4-25 MeV, reconstructed in 0.1 MeV increments.

Methods – Our spectrometer uses a nominal 0.54 T permanent magnet block as the dispersive element and scintillating fibers coupled to a CCD camera as the position sensitive detector. A broad electron beam produced by a linac is collimated by a 6.35 mm dimeter aperture at the ...

2017 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

#### Proposed Method For Measuring The Let Of Radiotherapeutic Particle Beams, Stephen D. Bello

##### Physics & Astronomy ETDs

The Bragg peak geometry of the depth dose distributions for hadrons allows for precise and effective dose delivery to tumors while sparing neighboring healthy tissue. Further, compared against other forms of radiotherapeutic treatments, such as electron beam therapy (EBT) or photons (x and $$\gamma$$-rays), hadrons create denser ionization events along the particle track, which induces irreparable damage to DNA, and thus are more effective at inactivating cancerous cells. The measurement of radiation's ability to inactivate cellular reproduction is the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). A quality related to the RBE that is a measurable physical property is the linear ...

2017 The University of Western Ontario

#### Determining The Detective Quantum Efficiency (Dqe) Of X-Ray Detectors In Clinical Environments, Terenz R. Escartin

##### Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

According to Health Canada, dental and medical radiography accounts for more than 90% of total man-made radiation dose to the general population. Ensuring patients receive the health benefits of diagnostic x-ray imaging without use of higher radiation exposures requires knowledge and understanding of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Currently, the DQE is not measured in clinics because it requires specialized instrumentation and specific DQE-expertise to perform an accurate analysis. In this regard, the goals of this thesis were to: 1) address the limitations of measuring the DQE in clinical environments that affects the accuracy of the measurement; 2) develop and ...

2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### An Algorithm To Improve Deformable Image Registration Accuracy In Challenging Cases Of Locally-Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Christopher L. Guy

##### Theses and Dissertations

A common co-pathology of large lung tumors located near the central airways is collapse of portions of lung due to blockage of airflow by the tumor. Not only does the lung volume decrease as collapse occurs, but fluid from capillaries also fills the space no longer occupied by air, greatly altering tissue appearance. During radiotherapy, typically administered to the patient over multiple weeks, the tumor can dramatically shrink in response to the treatment, restoring airflow to the lung sections which were collapsed when therapy began. While return of normal lung function is a positive development, the change in anatomy presents ...

2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

#### Postural Responses To Perturbations Of The Vestibular System During Walking In Healthy Young And Older Adults, Jung Hung Chien

##### Theses & Dissertations

It has been shown that approximate one-third of US adults aged 40 years and older (69 million US citizens) have some type of vestibular problems. These declining abilities of the vestibular system affect quality of life. Difficulties in performing daily activities (dressing, bathing, getting in and out of the bed and etc.) have been highly correlated to loss of balance due to vestibular disorders. The exact number of people affected by vestibular disorders is still difficult to quantify. This might be because symptoms are difficult to describe and differences exist in the qualifying criteria within and across studies. Thus, it ...

2015 Western Washington University

#### The Effect Of A Five-Week Exercise Intervention Using Emg Biofeedback On Scapular Stabilizer Muscle Activation And Scapular Kinematics., Samantha Gunderson

##### Scholars Week

This study investigated the effects of a five-week EMG biofeedback intervention on scapular stabilizer muscle activation, and scapular kinematics, in a healthy population. Twenty subjects participated in the study (n = 10 exercise with biofeedback, n = 10 exercise only). Both groups participated in exercises targeted at activating the serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscles three days a week for five weeks. The exercise with biofeedback group completed a biofeedback session once a week. All subjects were tested at baseline, week 6, and week 8 for muscle activation of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (UT), and serratus anterior (SA), as well ...