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Risk And Burden Of Adverse Intrapartum-Related Outcomes Associated With Non-Cephalic And Multiple Birth In Rural Nepal: A Prospective Cohort Study., Naoko Kozuki, Joanne Katz, Subarna K Khatry, James M Tielsch, Steven C LeClerq, Luke C Mullany 2017 George Washington University

Risk And Burden Of Adverse Intrapartum-Related Outcomes Associated With Non-Cephalic And Multiple Birth In Rural Nepal: A Prospective Cohort Study., Naoko Kozuki, Joanne Katz, Subarna K Khatry, James M Tielsch, Steven C Leclerq, Luke C Mullany

Global Health Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Intrapartum-related complications are the second leading cause of neonatal death worldwide. We estimate the community-level risk and burden of intrapartum-related fetal/neonatal mortality and morbidity associated with non-cephalic and multiple birth in rural Sarlahi District, Nepal.

DESIGN: Community-based prospective cohort study.

SETTING: Rural Sarlahi District, Nepal.

PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women residing in the study area.

METHODS: We collected data on maternal background characteristics, conditions during labour and delivery, fetal presentation and multiple birth during home visits. We ran log-binomial regression models to estimate the associations between non-cephalic/multiple births and fresh stillbirth, early neonatal mortality and signs of neonatal encephalopathy ...


Improving Health Outcomes In Trafficking Survivors Through Core Skills Development In The Workplace: Experience From The Philippines, Melinda A. Gill 2017 Renewsiya Foundation

Improving Health Outcomes In Trafficking Survivors Through Core Skills Development In The Workplace: Experience From The Philippines, Melinda A. Gill

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Whilst an emerging body of research documents the adverse physical and mental health outcomes of victims of trafficking following rescue, there is little research or guidance regarding interventions which improve these outcomes. In this article, I describe my experience as physician involved in a computer-based social enterprise for survivors of trafficking and slavery in the Philippines, and outline my evolving understanding of the requirements for health behavior change and improved outcomes. I conclude that while meaningful vocational skills, economic security, and adequate health-related knowledge are foundational, it is necessary to develop core skills to achieve improved health outcomes and that ...


Victims Or Heroes? How Did Journalists Frame The Ebola Crisis In Liberia?, Tamah Kamlem, Nwanneamaka Ume, Skylar Lisse, Eme Udoh, Jialin Meng 2017 George Washington University

Victims Or Heroes? How Did Journalists Frame The Ebola Crisis In Liberia?, Tamah Kamlem, Nwanneamaka Ume, Skylar Lisse, Eme Udoh, Jialin Meng

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

The Ebola Virus Disease epidemic in West Africa in 2014 with over 11,000 deaths made headlines worldwide, causing fear and posing a challenge to traditional media, entrusted with the task of reporting about the spread of the disease. Individuals and communities rely on media to obtain health information, including decisions related to disease prevention and behavior to protect their health. Therefore, frames used by the media to report about health emergencies impact public perceptions. Mass media framing during crises has been associated with emotional and behavioral responses that are consistent with the thematic depiction of unfolding events. Moreover, message ...


Stakeholders' Perceptions Of A Hospital Based Emergency Medicine Education & Training Program: A System Change, Kate Douglass, Jay Pandya, Michael Brennan, Kyle Yoder, Janice Blanchard, Natasha Powell, Zohray Talib 2017 George Washington University

Stakeholders' Perceptions Of A Hospital Based Emergency Medicine Education & Training Program: A System Change, Kate Douglass, Jay Pandya, Michael Brennan, Kyle Yoder, Janice Blanchard, Natasha Powell, Zohray Talib

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: Emergency Medicine (EM) is a new and developing specialty around the world. In India, one model for capacity building has been the development of partnerships between US academic institutions and private healthcare institutions for implementing post-graduate education and training in EM. Initiated in 2007, programs have grown both in number and scope and have continued to attract new students and partner institutions. This study was undertaken to better understand the impact of EM training programs on hospital systems.

Methods: A mixed-methods evaluation was undertaken at 5 program sites across India in the summer of 2016. Two researchers conducted onsite ...


Needs Assessment Of Pediatric Radiological Equipment And Cross-Cultural Investigation Into Parental Empowerment In Pediatric Radiology Program Development In The Kingdom Of Bhutan, Danielle Canter 2017 George Washington University

Needs Assessment Of Pediatric Radiological Equipment And Cross-Cultural Investigation Into Parental Empowerment In Pediatric Radiology Program Development In The Kingdom Of Bhutan, Danielle Canter

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Bhutan is a magnificent mountainous country hugged by India to the east and west and by China to the North and South. This peaceful nestled country faces challenges in combating non-communicable diseases due to the lack of radiological equipment necessary for early diagnosis. Prior to implementation of these medical devices, it is imperative to investigate the cultural attitudes, beliefs, and infrastructure, to ensure successful integration. Bhutan is beginning to implement a pediatric radiology program for the nation with the assistance of ABAH Foundation and RAD-AID International, both of whom partnered with graduate students at George Washington University School of ...


Secondary Prevention At The Aswan Heart Centre, Amira Athanasios 2017 George Washington University

Secondary Prevention At The Aswan Heart Centre, Amira Athanasios

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally, taking the lives of almost 18 million patients around the world each year. The overwhelming majority of cardiovascular deaths take place in low- to mid-income counties, suggesting that most cardiovascular deaths are preventable. In this study, current literature on secondary prevention of coronary artery disease was analyzed. Specific emphasis was given to preventative measures and successes in low income countries. Based on a literature review, a patient questionnaire to better understand patient adherence to preventative measures was created. This questionnaire focuses on patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy post acute myocardial infarct ...


Urine Electrolyte Excretion In A Hypertensive Population Of East Africans, Aiste Dobrovolskaite 2017 Western Kentucky University

Urine Electrolyte Excretion In A Hypertensive Population Of East Africans, Aiste Dobrovolskaite

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the largest contributor to mortality rates worldwide including in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) which already suffer from high rates of infectious disease. Among the four major NCDs that cause 38 million deaths annually, cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes 17.5 million of these annual deaths. The primary risk factor of CVD is hypertension. Kenya, a developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa, has a high rate of hypertension with low (2.6%) management rates. Prior research from our lab has identified a population of Kenyans with a high prevalence of hypertension that is not statistically correlated ...


Rahi-Sathi Indo-U.S. Collaboration: The Evolution Of A Trainee-Led Twinning Model In Global Health Into A Multidisciplinary Collaborative Program, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Abraham Jaffe, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Nancy Byatt, Michael Chin, David D. McManus, Michaela Tracey, Jasmine A. Khubchandani, Haley Newman, Allison Earon, Hannah Rosenfield, Anna Handorf, Brittany Novak, John Bostrom, Anindita Deb, Milagros C. Rosal, Patricia A. McQuilkin, Heena Santry, Melissa A. Fischer, Jeroan J. Allison 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rahi-Sathi Indo-U.S. Collaboration: The Evolution Of A Trainee-Led Twinning Model In Global Health Into A Multidisciplinary Collaborative Program, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Abraham Jaffe, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Nancy Byatt, Michael Chin, David D. Mcmanus, Michaela Tracey, Jasmine A. Khubchandani, Haley Newman, Allison Earon, Hannah Rosenfield, Anna Handorf, Brittany Novak, John Bostrom, Anindita Deb, Milagros C. Rosal, Patricia A. Mcquilkin, Heena Santry, Melissa A. Fischer, Jeroan J. Allison

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been a surge in the number of global health programs operated by academic institutions. However, most of the existing programs describe partnerships that are primarily faculty-driven and supported by extramural funding.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Research and Advocacy for Health in India (RAHI, or "pathfinder" in Hindi) and Support and Action Towards Health-Equity in India (SATHI, or "partnership" in Hindi) are 2 interconnected, collaborative efforts between the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) and Charutar Arogya Mandal (CAM), a medical college and a tertiary care center in rural western India. The RAHI-SATHI program is the culmination ...


Clinical & Translational Research In Pneumonia: Defining A Research Agenda For Today And Tomorrow, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Clinical & Translational Research In Pneumonia: Defining A Research Agenda For Today And Tomorrow, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

From the Editor in Chief

The reason for this special supplement of the Journal is to inform readers of a scientific research conference supported by the National Institutes of Health (NHI). The NIH Research Conference Grant (R13) supports high quality scientific conferences in areas that are important to the NIH's mission and to the public health. We just received notification that the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has approved the application for an international research conference entitled: DzClinical & Translational Research in Pneumonia: Defining a Research Agenda for Today and Tomorrowdz. The conference will be held on Wednesday ...


Medical Student And Hospital Team Fight Cervical Cancer In Rural China, Haley Newman 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Medical Student And Hospital Team Fight Cervical Cancer In Rural China, Haley Newman

Senior Scholars Program

Blog post for the Gynius company website describing Newman's Senior Scholars project. She is evaluating portable colposcopy for cervical cancer screening in rural China.


Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge On Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience, Timothy Musila Mutala, Priscilla Nyambura Maina 2017 University of Nairobi

Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge On Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience, Timothy Musila Mutala, Priscilla Nyambura Maina

The Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: Our study aimed to establish exposure to and level of knowledge about contrast media among non-radiological clinicians and evaluate the contributory factors to the status.

Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and December 2015 through interviews using structured questionnaires. We recruited 197 non-radiological clinicians with experience in use of contrast media in their routine practice. They were of different cadres and years of experience, all working in a large referral hospital in Kenya. Levels of basic knowledge on contrast media were evaluated through a scoring system after each clinician responded to the questions provided. We ...


Impact Belize 2010 Executive Report, Ritchie D. Taylor, Jordan Norris, Molly Calico, Bernie Strenecky, Daniel Carter, Dawn Garrett Wright, Eve Main, Bonny Petty, Molly Kerby, Jill Norris 2017 Western Kentucky University

Impact Belize 2010 Executive Report, Ritchie D. Taylor, Jordan Norris, Molly Calico, Bernie Strenecky, Daniel Carter, Dawn Garrett Wright, Eve Main, Bonny Petty, Molly Kerby, Jill Norris

Molly Kerby

No abstract provided.


Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisville, KY

Why A New Journal?, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

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A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

A Review Of Macrolide Based Regimens For Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Forest W. Arnold, Leslie A. Beavin

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has significant morbidity and mortality. The Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines recommend two antimicrobial regimens for hospitalized patients with CAP, one of which includes a macrolide, and one of which does not. Both regimens have antimicrobial properties, but macrolides also possess immunomodulatory properties. Macrolides, however, may also have potential arrhythmia adverse effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of studies evaluating outcomes for patients with CAP treated with or without a macrolide-based regimen. Two recent randomized controlled trials conflict with each other regarding the benefit versus noninferiority ...


Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

Time To Clinical Stability In Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Due To Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Treated With Linezolid Versus Vancomycin: Results From The Impact-Hap Study, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Marcus J. Zervos, Daniel H. Kett, Thomas M. File Jr., Gary E. Stein, Kimbal D. Ford, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Time to clinical stability is a well-defined early clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but it has not been evaluated in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The objective of this study was to compare time to clinical stability in patients with MRSA VAP treated with linezolid versus vancomycin.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the IMPACT-HAP study database. VAP was defined according to CDC criteria. MRSA VAP was considered when MRSA was isolated from a tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage. A patient was considered to reach clinical stability the day that the following four criteria were ...


Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon 2017 Providence Hospital, Washington, DC

Clinical Outcomes Of Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Siddartha Bandhary, Bolivar Y. Contreras-Mora, Ruby Gupta, Patricia Fernandez, Patricio Jimenez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L. Wiemken, Steven Burdette, Julio A. Ramirez, Hadi Harati, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Studies have found admission hyperglycemia as a predictor of poor outcomes in Community acquired Pneumonia (CAP), whereas others have not. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on mortality as well as Length of stay (LOS) and Time to clinical stability (TCS) of hospitalized patients with CAP.

Materials and Methods: Adult patients hospitalized with CAP enrolled at Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) database with DM were categorized as admission blood glucose ≥ 250 mg/dL (diabetes mellitus blood sugar (BG) > 250) and admission blood glucose ≤ 250 mg/dL (DM BG ≤ 250). CAP outcomes included ...


Implementation Science To Accelerate Clean Cooking For Public Health., Joshua Rosenthal, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Nigel Bruce, David Chambers, Jay Graham, Darby Jack, Lydia Kline, Omar Masera, Sumi Mehta, Ilse Ruiz Mercado, Gila Neta, Subhrendu Pattanayak, Elisa Puzzolo, Helen Petach, Antonello Punturieri, Adolfo Rubinstein, Michael Sage, Rachel Sturke, Anita Shankar, Kenny Sherr, Kirk Smith, Gautam Yadama 2017 George Washington University

Implementation Science To Accelerate Clean Cooking For Public Health., Joshua Rosenthal, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Nigel Bruce, David Chambers, Jay Graham, Darby Jack, Lydia Kline, Omar Masera, Sumi Mehta, Ilse Ruiz Mercado, Gila Neta, Subhrendu Pattanayak, Elisa Puzzolo, Helen Petach, Antonello Punturieri, Adolfo Rubinstein, Michael Sage, Rachel Sturke, Anita Shankar, Kenny Sherr, Kirk Smith, Gautam Yadama

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the ...


The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study Of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements And Estimated Fetal Weight., Torvid Kiserud, Gilda Piaggio, Guillermo Carroli, Mariana Widmer, José Carvalho, Lisa Neerup Jensen, Sameera A Talegawkar, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study Of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements And Estimated Fetal Weight., Torvid Kiserud, Gilda Piaggio, Guillermo Carroli, Mariana Widmer, José Carvalho, Lisa Neerup Jensen, Sameera A Talegawkar, +Several Additional Authors

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle ...


Monthly Food Insecurity Assessment In Rural Mkushi District, Zambia: A Longitudinal Analysis, Muzi Na, Bess Caswell, Sameera A Talegawkar, Amanda C Palmer 2017 George Washington University

Monthly Food Insecurity Assessment In Rural Mkushi District, Zambia: A Longitudinal Analysis, Muzi Na, Bess Caswell, Sameera A Talegawkar, Amanda C Palmer

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Perception-based scales are widely used for household food insecurity (HFI) assessment but were only recently added in national surveys. The frequency of assessments needed to characterize dynamics in HFI over time is largely unknown. The study aims to examine longitudinal changes in monthly reported HFI at both population- and household-level.

Methods

A total of 157 households in rural Mkushi District whose children were enrolled in the non-intervened arm of an efficacy trial of biofortified maize were included in the analysis. HFI was assessed by a validated 8-item perception-based Likert scale on a monthly basis from October 2012 to March ...


Perspectives On Model Forecasts Of The 2014–2015 Ebola Epidemic In West Africa: Lessons And The Way Forward, Gerardo Chowell, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Stefano Merler, Alessandro Vespignani 2017 George Washington University

Perspectives On Model Forecasts Of The 2014–2015 Ebola Epidemic In West Africa: Lessons And The Way Forward, Gerardo Chowell, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Stefano Merler, Alessandro Vespignani

Global Health Faculty Publications

The unprecedented impact and modeling efforts associated with the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa provides a unique opportunity to document the performances and caveats of forecasting approaches used in near-real time for generating evidence and to guide policy. A number of international academic groups have developed and parameterized mathematical models of disease spread to forecast the trajectory of the outbreak. These modeling efforts often relied on limited epidemiological data to derive key transmission and severity parameters, which are needed to calibrate mechanistic models. Here, we provide a perspective on some of the challenges and lessons drawn from these ...


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