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A Mathematical Model Of The Spread Of Dengue Fever Incorporating Mobility, Kelly A. Reagan 2016 Elon University

A Mathematical Model Of The Spread Of Dengue Fever Incorporating Mobility, Kelly A. Reagan

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pandemic continues to thrive due to ineffective HIV-1 vaccines. Historically, the world’s most infectious diseases, such as polio and smallpox, have been eradicated or have come close to eradication due to the advent of effective vaccines. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is able to delay the onset of AIDS but can neither rid the body of HIV-1 proviral DNA nor prevent further transmission. A prophylactic vaccine that prevents the various mechanisms HIV-1 has to evade and attack our immune system is needed to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Recent advances in engineered nuclease systems, like the CRISPR/Cas9 ...


Socratic Dialogue As A Framework For Understanding Activist Music During The Ebola Outbreak In Liberia, Evan Slaney 2016 Memorial University

Socratic Dialogue As A Framework For Understanding Activist Music During The Ebola Outbreak In Liberia, Evan Slaney

Nota Bene: Canadian Undergraduate Journal of Musicology

This paper argues that Plato’s Socratic Dialogues can effectively model the process through which musical activism is understood by listeners. The Socratic Dialogues, as an abstract model, are first analyzed for advantages and disadvantages when using them to understand musical activism. This analysis breaks the dialogues into two stages: “Deconstruction” and “Collaboration.” The model is then applied to the song “Ebola is Real” by F. A., Soul Fresh, and DenG, a work that arose from the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Liberia in March 2014. The song was supported by UNICEF and has a clear activist agenda. The ...


Pilot Study Of A Resource-Appropriate Strategy For Downstaging Breast Cancer In Rural Uganda, Alphonsus Matovu, John R. Scheel, Picho Alli Shadrack, Renny Ssembatya, Angela Njeri, Moses Galukande, Kristen K. DeStigter 2016 Mubende Regional Referral Hospital

Pilot Study Of A Resource-Appropriate Strategy For Downstaging Breast Cancer In Rural Uganda, Alphonsus Matovu, John R. Scheel, Picho Alli Shadrack, Renny Ssembatya, Angela Njeri, Moses Galukande, Kristen K. Destigter

The Journal of Global Radiology

Breast cancer incidence and mortality are rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries like Uganda. Shifting the proportion of women presenting with late-stage breast cancer to early-stage breast cancer (downstaging) at the time of diagnosis would substantially improve survival and efficient use of available resources. Imaging The World (ITW) conducted a pilot study in Uganda where trained village health teams (VHTs) promoted breast cancer awareness in the Kamuli District (Uganda). As a result, 212 women with self-detected lumps presented to the community health center level III (Nawanyago HCIII) for a clinical breast examination (CBE). Patients with masses on CBE were ...


Maternal, Environmental, And Social Context Predicts Diarrheal Infection Incidence In Young Children In Sundarbans, India, Sohini Mukherjee, Laura M. Glynn 2016 Chapman University

Maternal, Environmental, And Social Context Predicts Diarrheal Infection Incidence In Young Children In Sundarbans, India, Sohini Mukherjee, Laura M. Glynn

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Diarrheal infection is the third leading cause of childhood mortality in India and is responsible for 13% of all deaths per year in children under 5 years of age (Lakshaminarayan & Jayalakshmy, 2015). The Sundarbans in West Bengal is amongst the poorest regions of India and is the epitome of abject deprivation and the acute struggle against geographical and socioeconomic challenges. The incidence of diarrhea in this region is considerably high; about 42,000 reported cases occur per month, and one in five diarrhea cases are reported as severe (with blood in stool). In addition, 37% of children hospitalized for ailments were admitted due to diarrhea (Kanjilal et al., 2013). However, little research has been conducted to determine whether maternal characteristics and behaviours correlate with this incidence in India, though some studies have found certain family characteristics to be protective in ...


Village Health Insurance, Michaela Domaratzky, Sean Roget 2016 Duke University

Village Health Insurance, Michaela Domaratzky, Sean Roget

The International Undergraduate Journal For Service-Learning, Leadership, and Social Change

No abstract provided.


Exploring Emergency Communication Experiences In Response To The 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Lessons Learned From International Donors And Local Government Agencies, Pierre Marie Barbara Roussel 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Exploring Emergency Communication Experiences In Response To The 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Lessons Learned From International Donors And Local Government Agencies, Pierre Marie Barbara Roussel

Theses & Dissertations

Background:

In almost every disaster situation, the use of standardized communication procedures among humanitarian relief agencies has been identified as one of the efficient practices to minimize the mismanagement of resources and thus to maximize the response effort among actors to reduce the incidence impact on the public and to increase their resilience capabilities.

Agencies have access to several guidelines to follow during domestic disasters, but there have been very few manuals developed to guide relief organizations on best practices during international large and complex natural disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

Haiti has experienced over its history several ...


Epidemiological Characteristics Of Clinically-Confirmed Cases Of Chikungunya In Teculutan, Guatemala, Annaly Aldana 2016 University of Rhode Island

Epidemiological Characteristics Of Clinically-Confirmed Cases Of Chikungunya In Teculutan, Guatemala, Annaly Aldana

Senior Honors Projects

As no vaccine currently exists for the Chikungunya virus (CHKV), mosquito control and efficient public health campaigns are crucial for the prevention of disease propagation. The purpose of this research project is to identify populations particularly at-risk for acquiring Chikungunya, and to explore the role that cultural attitudes may play in impacting mosquito-borne disease. Due to its geographical structure and climate, Guatemala is an ideal territory for the spread of emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. This project was developed by collaborating with the public governmental health clinic in the municipal town of Teculután, in the department of Zacapa in Guatemala ...


The Association Of Patient Care Load And Health Inequities: A Comparison Of Physicians In The United States, Germany, And Japan, Margaux Joe 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Association Of Patient Care Load And Health Inequities: A Comparison Of Physicians In The United States, Germany, And Japan, Margaux Joe

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Measles In Germany: Past, Present, And Future Of Outbreaks And Vaccination, Erin Hope Sherwin 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Measles In Germany: Past, Present, And Future Of Outbreaks And Vaccination, Erin Hope Sherwin

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Is The United States Prepared For A Major Zika Virus Outbreak?, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge Jr. 2016 Georgetown University Law Center

Is The United States Prepared For A Major Zika Virus Outbreak?, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge Jr.

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Zika virus has emerged as a global public health crisis with active transmission in the Americas and Caribbean. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and recently WHO reported there is a scientific consensus that Zika is a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In the U.S. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) activated its emergency operations center at its highest capacity. President Obama requested $1.86 billion in emergency funding. Shamefully, Congress has yet to appropriate the funding needed for Zika preparedness, and the President has had to ...


Effect Of An Improved Biomass Stove On Acute Lower Respiratory Infections In Young Children In Rural Nepal: A Cluster-Randomised, Step-Wedge Trial, James M. Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Subarna K. Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Patrick N. Breysse, Scott L. Zeger, +5 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Effect Of An Improved Biomass Stove On Acute Lower Respiratory Infections In Young Children In Rural Nepal: A Cluster-Randomised, Step-Wedge Trial, James M. Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Subarna K. Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Patrick N. Breysse, Scott L. Zeger, +5 Additional Authors

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are an important cause of death in young children in low income countries. High concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) indoors caused by open burning of biomass are associated with risk of ALRI. However, improved biomass stoves reduce emissions and might reduce the incidence of lower respiratory illness. A cluster-randomised, step-wedge, community-based trial was conducted to estimate the eff ect that a change from open burning of biomass to improved biomass stoves could have on rates of ALRI in children younger than 36 months in a rural area of southern Nepal.

Methods

Households ...


Validity Of Home-Based Sonographic Diagnosis Of Obstetric Risk Factors By Auxiliary Nurse Midwives In Rural Nepal, Naoko Kozuki, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Ram Ghimire, Sharma Paudel, James M. Tielsch, +5 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Validity Of Home-Based Sonographic Diagnosis Of Obstetric Risk Factors By Auxiliary Nurse Midwives In Rural Nepal, Naoko Kozuki, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Ram Ghimire, Sharma Paudel, James M. Tielsch, +5 Additional Authors

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Approximately 2·3 million fetal, neonatal, or maternal deaths occur annually during the intrapartum period or on the day of birth. Several risk factors for intrapartum-related complications require ultrasonography for accurate diagnosis, but sonographic services are scarce in low-resource settings. In this study, we aimed to assess the feasibility of community-based ultrasonography conducted by auxiliary nurse midwives to identify basic obstetric risk factors, in rural Sarlahi District, Nepal. We aimed to assess the validity at which these health workers can detect noncephalic position, multiple gestation, and placenta previa and to explore whether sonographic diagnosis could improve outcomes for women ...


Development Of A Community-Managed Hiv Case Management Program In Zomba Malawi, Sharon Christman 2016 Cedarville University

Development Of A Community-Managed Hiv Case Management Program In Zomba Malawi, Sharon Christman

Sharon K. Christman, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


(Video) Income-Related Inequalities In Utilization Of Health Services Among Private Health Insurance Beneficiaries In Brazil, Heitor Werneck 2016 George Washington University

(Video) Income-Related Inequalities In Utilization Of Health Services Among Private Health Insurance Beneficiaries In Brazil, Heitor Werneck

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Brazil’s 1988 health reform created the Unified Health System (SUS). SUS is a universal health system that emulates British National Health Service, featuring an open-ended benefit package and a major goal of health equity. An unforeseen consequence of the reform was that former beneficiaries of the social health insurance sought to sustain their privileged access to health services through private health insurance. Despite achievements in expanding healthcare access and improved health outcomes, recurring opinion polls suggest that Brazilians are skeptical about SUS’ capacity to delivery timely and quality health services, making private insurance a priority to most households. The ...


Predictors Of Malnutrition In Different Geographic Regions Of Peru, Elizabeth LaCroix 2016 George Washington University

Predictors Of Malnutrition In Different Geographic Regions Of Peru, Elizabeth Lacroix

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Malnutrition is responsible for over 3 million childhood deaths each year. Those who survive early nutritional deficiencies and the subsequent growth failure face life-long consequences, including long-term deficits in cognitive development, decreased academic achievement, and reduced economic opportunities later in life. Low height for age, or stunting, indicates chronic malnutrition, while low weight for height (wasting) indicates acute malnutrition. Caloric deficiencies, micronutrient deficiencies, intestinal parasites, and diarrheal diseases all directly contribute to acute and chronic undernutrition.

Peru is an ethnically and geographically diverse country that has experienced great economic growth and dramatic health improvements in the last decade. Nationally, stunting ...


Infant Vaccination Timing: Beyond Traditional Coverage Metrics For Maximizing Impact Of Vaccine Programs, An Example From Southern Nepal., Michelle M Hughes, Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C LeClerq, Mark Steinhoff, James M. Tielsch 2016 George Washington University

Infant Vaccination Timing: Beyond Traditional Coverage Metrics For Maximizing Impact Of Vaccine Programs, An Example From Southern Nepal., Michelle M Hughes, Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C Leclerq, Mark Steinhoff, James M. Tielsch

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Immunization programs currently measure coverage by assessing the proportion of children 12–24 months who have been immunized but this does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. Data capturing the timing of vaccination in first 6 months, when severe disease is most likely to occur, are limited.

Objective

To estimate the time to Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) (recommended at birth), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-H, influenza b-hepatitis B (DTP-Hib-HepB), and oral polio vaccine (OPV) (recommended at 6, 10, and 14 weeks) vaccinations and risk factors for vaccination delay in infants <6 months of age in a district in southern Nepal where traditional coverage metrics are high.

Design/methods

Infants enrolled in a randomized ...


Knowledge, Attitude And Practices: Assessing Maternal And Child Health Care Handbook Intervention In Vietnam, Hirotsugu Aiga, Vinh Duc Nguyen, Cuong Dinh Nguyen, Tho Thi Thi Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong Nguyen 2016 George Washington University

Knowledge, Attitude And Practices: Assessing Maternal And Child Health Care Handbook Intervention In Vietnam, Hirotsugu Aiga, Vinh Duc Nguyen, Cuong Dinh Nguyen, Tho Thi Thi Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong Nguyen

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook, an integrated MCH home-based record, was piloted in four provinces of Vietnam (Dien Bien, Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa and An Giang). The study is aimed at assessing the changes in pregnant women’s behavior towards the frequencies of their antenatal care service utilizations and their subsequent breastfeeding practices up to six months of age, through the MCH Handbook intervention. This is because the levels of pregnant women’s knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards their antenatal care service utilizations and exclusive breastfeeding practices have been previously neither analyzed nor reported in relation to ...


Global Mortality Impact Of The 1957–1959 Influenza Pandemic, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A. Miller, Gerardo Chowell 2016 George Washington University

Global Mortality Impact Of The 1957–1959 Influenza Pandemic, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A. Miller, Gerardo Chowell

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background. Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics.

Methods. We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic.

Results. The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10 000 population (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.6 cases/10 000 population) on average during ...


Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Cataract-Related Blindness Treatment In Women In Rural Regions Of Andhra Pradesh, Kiranpreet Kaur 4198353 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University Honors College

Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Cataract-Related Blindness Treatment In Women In Rural Regions Of Andhra Pradesh, Kiranpreet Kaur 4198353

Undergraduate Research Posters

Despite efforts of Vision 2020 in India, the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS) extrapolated, in 2000, approximately 18.7 million blind people in India and also, projected an increase to 31.6 million blind people by 2020. Within the state Andhra Pradesh itself, preventable corneal blindness increased to 1.84% from 1.5% in the late 1980s.

Numerous public health studies have been conducted to outline factors that cause and preclude treatment of avoidable corneal blindness in the India. Conclusively, the escalation of corneal blindness can be largely attributed to personal, social, and economic barriers in utilizing available eye-care ...


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