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The International Right To Health: What Does It Mean In Legal Practice And How Can It Affect Priority Setting For Universal Health Coverage?, Rebecca Dittrich, Leonardo Cubillos, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ryan Li, Kalipso Chalkidou 2016 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

The International Right To Health: What Does It Mean In Legal Practice And How Can It Affect Priority Setting For Universal Health Coverage?, Rebecca Dittrich, Leonardo Cubillos, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ryan Li, Kalipso Chalkidou

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The international right to health is enshrined in national and international law. In a growing number of cases, individuals denied access to high-cost medicines and technologies under universal coverage systems have turned to the courts to challenge the denial of access as against their right to health. In some instances, patients seek access to medicines, services, or technologies that they would have access to under universal coverage if not for government, health system, or service delivery shortfalls. In others, patients seek access to medicines, services, or technologies that have not been included or that have been explicitly denied for coverage ...


Do Pesticide Sellers Make Farmers Sick? Health, Information, And Adoption Of Technology In Bangladesh., Shamma Adeeb Alam, Hendrik Wolff 2016 Dickinson College

Do Pesticide Sellers Make Farmers Sick? Health, Information, And Adoption Of Technology In Bangladesh., Shamma Adeeb Alam, Hendrik Wolff

Faculty Publications By Year

We study the impact of supply-side and demand-side pesticide regulations on the adoption of health technologies and health outcomes in Bangladesh. We use a unique dataset that spans the chain from where farmers obtain information and which precautionary tools (i.e., masks, gloves) they use to subsequent health outcomes after spraying. In contrast to previous studies, we find that information from pesticide sellers increases the adoption of precautionary tools and subsequently improves health outcomes. We also find that there is substantial social learning from peers that act as key knowledge multipliers.


Global Health Security Agenda Legal Landscape Assessment, Natasha M. Nussbaum 2015 University of San Francisco School of Nursing and Health Professions

Global Health Security Agenda Legal Landscape Assessment, Natasha M. Nussbaum

Master's Projects

The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) was created on February 13, 2014, to improve country's ability to detect, prevent and respond to emerging health threats. Eleven action packages were created. The detection action package included antimicrobial resistance, zoonotic diseases, national biosafety/biosecurity and immunization. The prevention action package included establishing a national laboratory system, strengthening real-time biosurveillance, advancing timely and accurate disease reporting and establishing a trained global health security workforce.The response action package focused on establishing emergency operation centers, linking public health and law enforcement and enhancing medical countermeasures/personnel deployment.

The following paper summarizes the components ...


The Sustainable Development Goals: One-Health In The World’S Development Agenda, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman 2015 Georgetown University Law Center

The Sustainable Development Goals: One-Health In The World’S Development Agenda, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2015, embody a One-Health strategy—healthy people living on a habitable planet. Extending beyond the social development emphasis of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which accelerated progress globally, though unequally, the SDGs also encompass a range of environmental and economic goals, with a health goal that is far more comprehensive than the infectious diseases and maternal/child health focus of the MDGs.

To be achieved, the SDGs require resources and political commitment that is yet to be demonstrated. With a cost that could reach $5 trillion for ...


News From Cart, Patricia Fanning, Amos Nwosu 2015 Bridgewater State College

News From Cart, Patricia Fanning, Amos Nwosu

Patricia J. Fanning

No abstract provided.


Disparities In The Treatment Of Childhood Diarrhoea In India, Nisha Malhotra, Nicholas Choy 2015 University of British Columbia

Disparities In The Treatment Of Childhood Diarrhoea In India, Nisha Malhotra, Nicholas Choy

Nisha Malhotra

Despite the severe impact of diarrhoea on children’s health and mortality in India, recent survey shows that only half of all children suffering from diarrhoea receive treatment or medical advice, and more than two-thirds receive no Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT). An understanding of the socio-demographic determinants for appropriate treatment of the disease will be critical for improving these figures. This analysis is based on the most recent National Family Health Survey (2007), which shows that children are more likely to receive ORT if they are treated in a public health facility, rather than in a private health facility. Households ...


Epidemiology Of Infant Dengue Cases Illuminates Serotype-Specificity In The Interaction Between Immunity And Disease, And Changes In Transmission Dynamics, Hannah Clapham, Derek A. Cummings, Ananda Nisalak, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Stefan Fernandez, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Louis R. Macareo, Justin Lessler, Julia Reiser, In-Kyu Yoon 2015 Johns Hopkins School of Public Health

Epidemiology Of Infant Dengue Cases Illuminates Serotype-Specificity In The Interaction Between Immunity And Disease, And Changes In Transmission Dynamics, Hannah Clapham, Derek A. Cummings, Ananda Nisalak, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Stefan Fernandez, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Louis R. Macareo, Justin Lessler, Julia Reiser, In-Kyu Yoon

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Infants born to dengue immune mothers acquire maternal antibodies to dengue. These antibodies, though initially protective, decline during the first year of life to levels thought to be disease enhancing, before reaching undetectable levels. Infants have long been studied to understand the interaction between infection and disease on an individual level.
METHODS/FINDINGS: Considering infants (cases < 1 year old) as a unique group, we analyzed serotype specific dengue case data from patients admitted to a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. We show differences in the propensity of serotypes to cause disease in individuals with dengue antibodies (infants and post-primary cases) and in individuals without dengue antibodies (primary cases). The mean age of infant cases differed among serotypes, consistent with previously observed differential waning of maternal antibody titers by serotype. We show that trends over time in epidemiology of infant cases are consistent with those observed in the whole population, and therefore with trends in the force of infection.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infants with dengue are informative about the interaction between antibody and the dengue serotypes, confirming that in this population DENV-2 and DENV-4 almost exclusively cause disease in the presence of dengue antibody despite infections occurring in others. We also observe differences ...


The Pattern Of Adipose Tissue Accumulation During Early Infancy Provides An Environment For The Development Of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Daniel H. Libraty, Pengyan Wang, Zhiru Guo, Venelle Bigcas, Job D. Brion, Rosario Z. Capeding 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Pattern Of Adipose Tissue Accumulation During Early Infancy Provides An Environment For The Development Of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Daniel H. Libraty, Pengyan Wang, Zhiru Guo, Venelle Bigcas, Job D. Brion, Rosario Z. Capeding

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans with half of the world's population at risk. During early infancy, severe dengue can develop after a primary dengue virus infection. There has been a clinical observation that severe dengue during the first year of life is seen only in chubby infants.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the associations between the development of severe dengue and adipose tissue accumulation patterns during the first year of life in a prospective observational clinical study of infants and dengue virus infections. We found that adipose tissue contains two potential targets for ...


Effects Of A Community-Based Intervention Package On Postnatal Care Seeking Behavior In Rural Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial, Mohammad Tajul Islam, Nazrul Islam, Costas Christophi, Yukie Yoshimura 2015 Japan International Cooperation Agency

Effects Of A Community-Based Intervention Package On Postnatal Care Seeking Behavior In Rural Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial, Mohammad Tajul Islam, Nazrul Islam, Costas Christophi, Yukie Yoshimura

Proceedings in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Background: Community-based Postnatal Care (PNC) initiatives have been found to improve maternal and neonatal health.

Objectives: This paper aims at evaluating the effectiveness of a Community-Based Intervention Package in providing ‘limited’ PNC services by Community Support Systems (CmSS) and in increasing maternal PNC visits from Skilled Healthcare Providers (SHPs) in rural Bangladesh as well as identifying the predictors of maternal PNC from SHPs.

Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was employed where 6 clusters (each with an average population of about 28,000) of Narsingdi District were randomly assigned to the intervention and the comparison group. Sample sizes for pre- and ...


Physical Activity And Aging Research: A Bibliometric Analysis, Andre M Müller, Payam Ansari, Nader Ale Ebrahim, Selina Khoo 2015

Physical Activity And Aging Research: A Bibliometric Analysis, Andre M Müller, Payam Ansari, Nader Ale Ebrahim, Selina Khoo

Andre M Müller

Physical activity and aging research has burgeoned in the past few decades. Despite the increase in scholarly publications no attempts have been made to summarize the publication landscape and to identify works that had great impact to physical activity and aging research. We conducted a bibliometric analysis and collected publication data from 1980 to February 6, 2015 in the Web of Science Core Collection. Of the overall 9,935 publications most were published after 2007 and almost 60% were in the category of Geriatrics and Gerontology or Sport Sciences. Highly cited publications (n = 45) were mostly authored by researchers from ...


Diagnostic Radiology In Liberia: A Country Report, Farah S. Ali, Samantha G. Harrington, Stephen B. Kennedy, Sarwat Hussain 2015 UMass Memorial Healthcare

Diagnostic Radiology In Liberia: A Country Report, Farah S. Ali, Samantha G. Harrington, Stephen B. Kennedy, Sarwat Hussain

The Journal of Global Radiology

Liberia is a tropical country located south of the Sahara Desert in coastal West Africa. It lies at 6 °30’ North Latitude and 9° 30’ West Longitude and is bordered by Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone and the Atlantic Ocean. Liberia has three distinct topographical areas: 1) coastal plain, creeks, lagoons and mangrove swamps; 2) rolling, forested hills with elevations up to 500 feet that cover most of the country; and 3) low mountains and plateaus in the Northern highlands with elevations reaching 4,748 feet (Nimba Mountains). Liberia is home to approximately four million people and is roughly ...


The Logistics Of Bringing Imaging To The World, Sarwat Hussain 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Logistics Of Bringing Imaging To The World, Sarwat Hussain

The Journal of Global Radiology

The current issue of the Journal of Global Radiology (JGR) covers a range of topics that fall within the sub-specialty of global radiology. Original articles, country reports, and a conference report have attempted to paint an informative picture of the practice, research, and educational opportunities for voluntary contributions and profitable business. These papers contribute, in one way or another, to the vision of the Journal of Global Radiology: Ensuring medical imaging access for all.


Using Village Health Teams For Effective Ultrasound Education In Rural Uganda, Naiim S. Ali, Sarah A. Ebert, Angela Njeri, Renny Ssembatya, Owani Collins, Picho Alli Shadrack, Asiimwe Allan, Moses Amatsiko, Alphonsus Matovu, Mary H. Streeter, Kristen K. DeStigter 2015 Department of Radiology, University of Vermont Medical Center

Using Village Health Teams For Effective Ultrasound Education In Rural Uganda, Naiim S. Ali, Sarah A. Ebert, Angela Njeri, Renny Ssembatya, Owani Collins, Picho Alli Shadrack, Asiimwe Allan, Moses Amatsiko, Alphonsus Matovu, Mary H. Streeter, Kristen K. Destigter

The Journal of Global Radiology

Maternal and child health conditions, many of which can be detected by ultrasound, represent the highest burden of disease in Uganda. Imaging the World (ITW) is a not-for-profit organization which integrates high quality, affordable ultrasound services into rural health facilities. Of all the challenges faced with implementation of ITW programs in Uganda, lack of sensitization to ultrasound represented the greatest barrier. The Village Health Team (VHT) is an existing public health “train the trainer” model sponsored by the Uganda Ministry of Health which provides public health training to community volunteers. Trained VHT members were recruited to help with ultrasound community ...


Pacs For The Developing World, Jeffrey B. Mendel, Alan L. Schweitzer 2015 Partners in Health

Pacs For The Developing World, Jeffrey B. Mendel, Alan L. Schweitzer

The Journal of Global Radiology

Digital imaging is now firmly ensconced in the developed world. Its widespread adoption has enabled instant access to images, remote viewing, remote consultation, and the end of lost or misplaced film. Unfortunately, the current paradigm of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), with advanced technology inseparable from high complexity, high purchase costs, and high maintenance costs, is not suited for the low-income developing world. Like the simple, easy to repair, 1950’s American cars still running on the streets of Havana, the developing world requires a PACS (DW-PACS) that can perform basic functions and survive in a limited-resource environment. The ...


Forced Migration, The Human Face Of A Health Crisis, Lawrence O. Gostin, Anna E. Roberts 2015 Georgetown University Law Center

Forced Migration, The Human Face Of A Health Crisis, Lawrence O. Gostin, Anna E. Roberts

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Nearly 60 million refugees, asylum-seekers and internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled their homes in 2014, predominately from war-torn Syria, Afghanistan and Somalia. The global response to assisting this vulnerable group has been wholly incommensurate with the need given the profound health hazards faced by forced migrants at each stage of their journey. The majority of forced migrants are housed in lower-income countries that do not have the infrastructure to assist the significant numbers of individuals who are crossing their borders and the humanitarian organizations who seek to assist in the response are grossly underfunded and under-resourced.

Countries have varying responsibilities ...


The International Health Regulations 10 Years On: The Governing Framework For Global Health Security, Lawrence O. Gostin, Mary C. DeBartolo, Eric A. Friedman 2015 Georgetown University Law Center

The International Health Regulations 10 Years On: The Governing Framework For Global Health Security, Lawrence O. Gostin, Mary C. Debartolo, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The World Health Organization (WHO) and its global health security treaty, the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) have lost the world's confidence after the West African Ebola epidemic. The epidemic led to several high-level reviews of the IHR and global health security more broadly. Here, we propose a series of recommendations for operational and legal reforms to enhance the functioning of the FCGH. It is critical that WHO act on them quickly, before the window of opportunity for fundamental reform closes.

WHO should ensure that all states fulfill their obligations to develop national core surveillance and response capacities, including ...


Open Access Challenge, Amy Dailey, Janelle Wertzberger 2015 Gettysburg College

Open Access Challenge, Amy Dailey, Janelle Wertzberger

Janelle Wertzberger

This class activity is designed to help health sciences students understand challenges to accessing public health information in a variety of settings. The exercise was created for students in Prof. Dailey’s Global Health class (HS 322) at Gettysburg College in Fall 2015.

The activity, as well as notes for instructors considering using this exercise, are both shared here.


Imaging In The Khmer’S Land: Cambodia Country Report, Samantha G. Harrington, Joseph Makris 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Imaging In The Khmer’S Land: Cambodia Country Report, Samantha G. Harrington, Joseph Makris

The Journal of Global Radiology

Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia on the Indochina Peninsula and borders Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand (Figure 1). With a total area of 69,898 square miles and population of 15,458,332, Cambodia’s population density has steadily increased since 1980. The country’s annual rate of urbanization is 2.65 %. As of 2014, 20.5% of the population lives in an urban setting. The estimated population growth rate is 1.63% (1).

The capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh, which is located in the southern part of the country. Other major cities include Battambang ...


Open Access Challenge, Amy Dailey, Janelle Wertzberger 2015 Gettysburg College

Open Access Challenge, Amy Dailey, Janelle Wertzberger

Open Access Week at Gettysburg College

This class activity is designed to help health sciences students understand challenges to accessing public health information in a variety of settings. The exercise was created for students in Prof. Dailey’s Global Health class (HS 322) at Gettysburg College in Fall 2015.

The activity, as well as notes for instructors considering using this exercise, are both shared here.


Breast Ultrasound Following A Positive Clinical Breast Examination: Does It Have A Role In Low- And Middle-Income Countries?, Vivien Tsu, John R. Scheel, Amie Bishop, Marjorie Murray, Bernhard Weigl, Constance D. Lehman 2015 PATH

Breast Ultrasound Following A Positive Clinical Breast Examination: Does It Have A Role In Low- And Middle-Income Countries?, Vivien Tsu, John R. Scheel, Amie Bishop, Marjorie Murray, Bernhard Weigl, Constance D. Lehman

The Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, with an estimated 1.7 million new cases occurring in 2012. The majority of cases and deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where population-based mammography screening is not available and countries must rely on clinical breast examination (CBE). Since ultrasound has the potential to reduce unnecessary biopsies by triaging women with palpable or focal breast findings at CBE, we searched for evidence in the literature on the effectiveness of ultrasound in detecting potential breast cancer following positive CBE findings.

Methods: We reviewed the literature from 2000 to ...


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