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349 full-text articles. Page 1 of 13.

Evidence-Based Recommendations For The Assessment Of Severe Acute Malnutrition In Children Aged 6-59 Months In The Central African Republic, Rachel R. Wong 2015 Cedarville University

Evidence-Based Recommendations For The Assessment Of Severe Acute Malnutrition In Children Aged 6-59 Months In The Central African Republic, Rachel R. Wong

Master of Science in Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Projects

Thirty-five percent of mortalities in children under the age of five can be attributed to malnutrition (World Health Organization (WHO), n.d.). Nearly 24 percent of children less than five from 2008-2012 in the Central African Republic were moderately or severely underweight and nearly eight percent suffered from severe or moderate wasting (The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, 2013). As a result of recent sectarian violence which began with a coup in March 2013, the Central African Republic is facing a nutrition crisis. As a result, an estimated 28,000 Central African children under the age of five ...


Ambient Air Pollution And Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Natural Experiment Study, Cheng Huang, Catherine Nichols, Yang Liu, Yunping Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Suhong Gao, Zhiwen Li, Aiguo Ren 2015 George Washington University

Ambient Air Pollution And Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Natural Experiment Study, Cheng Huang, Catherine Nichols, Yang Liu, Yunping Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Suhong Gao, Zhiwen Li, Aiguo Ren

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Radical regulations to improve air quality, including traffic control, were implemented prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Consequently, ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and particular matter 10 micrometers or less (PM 10 ), were reduced in a distinct and short window of time, which presented a natural experiment for testing the relationships between maternal exposure to PM 10 and NO 2 during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes.

Methods

We estimated the effect of PM 10 and NO 2 exposure during each trimester of gestation on the risk of preterm birth among live births and the ...


Public Health, Universal Health Coverage, And Sustainable Development Goals: Can They Coexist?, Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ezekiel Emanuel 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Public Health, Universal Health Coverage, And Sustainable Development Goals: Can They Coexist?, Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ezekiel Emanuel

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In her 2012 reconfirmation speech as WHO Director-General, Dr. Margaret Chan asserted: "universal coverage is the single most powerful concept that public health has to offer. It is our ticket to greater efficiency and better quality. It is our savior from the crushing weight of chronic noncommunicable diseases that now engulf the globe ". The UN General Assembly is currently considering proposals for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), succeeding the Millennium Development Goals. SDGs, focusing on health, specifically includes universal health coverage (UHC) among its targets. Unquestionably, UHC is timely and fundamentally important. However, its promotion also entails substantial risks. A narrow ...


Onalie, Michael Finn, Brittany Long, Liz Zabel, Onalie Ariyabandhu 2015 Iowa State University

Onalie, Michael Finn, Brittany Long, Liz Zabel, Onalie Ariyabandhu

Ethos

Nine years ago, Onalie Ariyabandhu and her whole family were all happily gathered under one roof, laughing and playing and eating good food with each other. It was December 25, 2004. They were celebrating Almsgiving, a Buddhist tradition in which respect is given to monks by offering food and gifts.


Jefferson's Center For Refugee Health: A Model Of Community Collaboration, Colleen Payton MPH,CHES, Neesha Patel MD, Kevin Scott MD 2015 Thomas Jefferson University

Jefferson's Center For Refugee Health: A Model Of Community Collaboration, Colleen Payton Mph,Ches, Neesha Patel Md, Kevin Scott Md

Population Health Matters (Formerly Health Policy Newsletter)

No abstract provided.


Gold Mining And Unequal Exchange In Western Amazonia: A Theoretical Photo Essay, Gordon L. Ulmer 2015 The Ohio State University

Gold Mining And Unequal Exchange In Western Amazonia: A Theoretical Photo Essay, Gordon L. Ulmer

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

I combine fieldwork photography and ethnographic documentation of gold mining in Madre de Dios, Peru, to examine the localized material, social, environmental, and health outcomes of the global gold boom. This 'theoretical photo essay’ examines how local and global forces coalesce around gold mining and influence peoples and environments in Western Amazonia. I use embodiment theory in anthropology, ecological economics, and theories of underdevelopment to understand local consequences of the global gold trade and to elucidate how opulence and the machinations of capital accumulation in economic centers of the world occur at the expense of human lives and environments in ...


Nested Partially-Latent Class Models For Dependent Binary Data; Estimating Disease Etiology, Zhenke Wu, Maria Deloria-Knoll, Scott L. Zeger 2015 Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Nested Partially-Latent Class Models For Dependent Binary Data; Estimating Disease Etiology, Zhenke Wu, Maria Deloria-Knoll, Scott L. Zeger

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study seeks to use modern measurement technology to infer the causes of pneumonia. The paper describes a latent variable model designed to infer from case-control data the etiology distribution for the population of cases and for an individual case given his or her measurements taking account of dependence among pathogen measurements due to sources other than class membership. We assume each observation is drawn from a mixture model for which each component represents one pathogen. Conditional dependence among multivariate binary measurements on a single subject is induced by nesting latent subclasses within ...


Occupational Health Risk Factors For Schistosomiasis: Systematic Review And Analysis, Sarah Grace Sawyer, Amira Roess, Gisela Butera 2015 George Washington University

Occupational Health Risk Factors For Schistosomiasis: Systematic Review And Analysis, Sarah Grace Sawyer, Amira Roess, Gisela Butera

GW Research Days 2015

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a parasitic flatworm which afflicts over 200 million people in the poorest regions of Africa. Carried by snails living in fresh, stagnant water, the parasite penetrates human skin upon contact, causing the victim to suffer a range of symptoms including diarrhea, blood in the urine, and eventual death. Despite its prevalence, schistosomiasis is preventable, treatable, and curable once a control program is implemented. Substantial reduction of schistosomiasis would relieve suffering and produce many socio-economic benefits, including higher productivity and higher school attendance rates. Disease transmission is directly tied to the environment, and ...


The Challenges Of Conducting International Public Health Research: Data Collection Lessons From The Field, Caroline Kuo 2015 Brown University

The Challenges Of Conducting International Public Health Research: Data Collection Lessons From The Field, Caroline Kuo

University of Massachusetts and New England Area Librarian e-Science Symposium

Caroline Kuo, DPhil, MPhil, is Assistant Professor, Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University. She spoke about the data collection and data management challenges encountered in her research.


Whom Do You Trust? Doubt And Conspiracy Theories In The 2009 Influenza Pandemic, Shawn Smallman 2015 Portland State University

Whom Do You Trust? Doubt And Conspiracy Theories In The 2009 Influenza Pandemic, Shawn Smallman

International Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza led people around the globe to create narratives about the epidemic defined by the question of trust; these narratives ranged from true conspiracy theories to simply accounts in which mistrust and betrayal formed a motif. In particular, most of these narratives reflected a fear of capitalism and globalization, although in specific regions, other issues—such as religion—played a more central role. These stories were not unique to the H1N1 pandemic but rather have appeared with every contemporary outbreak of infectious disease. This paper will examine conspiracy theories and moral panics related to the ...


By The Time You Read This, We’Ll All Be Dead: The Failures Of History And Institutions Regarding The 2013-2015 West African Ebola Pandemic., George Denkey 2015 Trinity College

By The Time You Read This, We’Ll All Be Dead: The Failures Of History And Institutions Regarding The 2013-2015 West African Ebola Pandemic., George Denkey

Senior Theses and Projects

Abstract

The 2013 – 2015 Ebola pandemic had a devastating impact on the countries of Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, with a few regional and global sparks as a result of the 25,178 cases and 10,445 deaths that the epidemic has so far brought upon the three most affected nations by April First 2015. The epidemic has collapsed healthcare systems, economies, and the very social fabric of life within the subregion itself. In the light of this tragic epidemic, one question stands out above all, “How and why did this happen?” The medical literature around Ebola is sound and ...


Journal Of Global Radiology, Volume 1 Issue 1 (March 2015), 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Journal Of Global Radiology, Volume 1 Issue 1 (March 2015)

The Journal of Global Radiology

Full issue of Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2015) of the Journal of Global Radiology. Articles are available individually at http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/jgr/vol1/iss1/.


The Benefits Of Breastfeeding, Helen L. Byers 2015 Liberty University

The Benefits Of Breastfeeding, Helen L. Byers

Senior Honors Theses

It is important to educate women of childbearing age, their families, and society of the benefits that breastfeeding has over bottle-feeding and formula-feeding. The benefits of breastfeeding are in three main categories. First, the developmental, physical, emotional, and spiritual benefits of the baby will be discussed. Then the physical, emotional, and spiritual benefits for the mother will be talked about along with possible contraindications or difficulties. Finally, the financial benefits of breastfeeding over feeding an infant from the bottle will be discussed as it relates to the family and government. The goal is to persuade that breastfeeding is a superior ...


The Role Of Zinc And Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation On Early Child Temperament And Eating Behaviors In Rural Nepal: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Pamela J. Surkan, Mary Katherine Charles, Joanne Katz, Emily H. Siegel, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. LeClerq, Rebecca J. Stoltzfus, James M. Tielsch 2015 George Washington University

The Role Of Zinc And Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation On Early Child Temperament And Eating Behaviors In Rural Nepal: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Pamela J. Surkan, Mary Katherine Charles, Joanne Katz, Emily H. Siegel, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. Leclerq, Rebecca J. Stoltzfus, James M. Tielsch

Global Health Faculty Publications

Child eating behaviors play an important role in nutrient intake, ultimately affecting child growth and later outcomes in adulthood. The study assessed the effects of iron-folic acid and zinc supplementation on child temperament and child eating behaviors in rural Nepal. Children (N = 569) aged 4–17 months in Sarlahi district, southern Nepal were randomized to receive daily supplements of placebo, iron-folic acid, zinc, or zinc plus iron-folic acid and followed for approximately 1 year. At baseline and four follow-up visits mothers completed questionnaires including information on demographic characteristics and child temperament and eating behaviors. The main effects of zinc and ...


Imaging In The Land Of 1000 Hills: Rwanda Radiology Country Report, David A. Rosman, Jean Jacques Nshizirungu, Emmanuel Rudakemwa, Crispin Moshi, Jean de Dieu Tuyisenge, Etienne Uwimana, Louise Kalisa 2015 Harvard Medical School

Imaging In The Land Of 1000 Hills: Rwanda Radiology Country Report, David A. Rosman, Jean Jacques Nshizirungu, Emmanuel Rudakemwa, Crispin Moshi, Jean De Dieu Tuyisenge, Etienne Uwimana, Louise Kalisa

The Journal of Global Radiology

Rwanda is an equatorial country in central Africa (Figure 1), and part of the East African Community of Burundi, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. It is a small country, just over 10,000 square miles. Its population of nearly 12,000,000 makes it the most densely populated state in continental Africa. Rwanda’s capital, Kigali, is a mile-high city. Its elevation makes the climate much cooler and more comfortable than a typical equatorial climate. The average annual temperature is 20.5 degrees Celsius with a narrow range – April, the coldest month has an average temperature of 20 degrees, whereas August ...


Melding Data Collection Methodology With Community Assistance: Benefits To Both Researchers And The Indigenous Groups They Study, Douglas S. London 2015 Adelphi University

Melding Data Collection Methodology With Community Assistance: Benefits To Both Researchers And The Indigenous Groups They Study, Douglas S. London

Journal of Ecological Anthropology

I present a description of a model of melding data collection with community aid in the form of health educator training that emerged in the process of research collaboration during 2009-2011 with the Kawymeno Waorani foragers of Amazonian Ecuador. Some guidelines are suggested as to how benefits to both parties might be achieved when collecting data with indigenous populations. In this article I describe some of the advantages and pitfalls of melding data collection and community aid with research when collaborating with vulnerable indigenous groups.


Sequential Dengue Virus Infections Detected In Active And Passive Surveillance Programs In Thailand, 1994-2010, Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo, Ananda Nisalak, Natkamol Chansatiporn, In-Kyu Yoon, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Mathuros Thipayamongkolgul, Timothy Endy, Alan L. Rothman, Sharone Green, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Darunee Buddhari, Mammen P. Mammen, Robert V. Gibbons 2015 Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences

Sequential Dengue Virus Infections Detected In Active And Passive Surveillance Programs In Thailand, 1994-2010, Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo, Ananda Nisalak, Natkamol Chansatiporn, In-Kyu Yoon, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Mathuros Thipayamongkolgul, Timothy Endy, Alan L. Rothman, Sharone Green, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Darunee Buddhari, Mammen P. Mammen, Robert V. Gibbons

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The effect of prior dengue virus (DENV) exposure on subsequent heterologous infection can be beneficial or detrimental depending on many factors including timing of infection. We sought to evaluate this effect by examining a large database of DENV infections captured by both active and passive surveillance encompassing a wide clinical spectrum of disease.

METHODS: We evaluated datasets from 17 years of hospital-based passive surveillance and nine years of cohort studies, including clinical and subclinical DENV infections, to assess the outcomes of sequential heterologous infections. Chi square or Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of infection outcomes ...


Welcome To The Journal Of Global Radiology, Sarwat Hussain 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Welcome To The Journal Of Global Radiology, Sarwat Hussain

The Journal of Global Radiology

‘Global radiology’ is a new concept – a subspecialty of radiology that includes much more than diagnosticians and interventionists. It consists of an international community of individuals, groups and organizations working to improve access to and quality of medical imaging around the globe, and address universal shortages of equipment, infrastructure, trained personnel, education, and research opportunities in underdeveloped countries. Currently, articles on global radiology are scattered throughout various radiology journals. The Journal of Global Radiology (JGR), an open-access, peer-reviewed journal, seeks to counteract this fragmentation of information by publishing content pertaining exclusively to improving access to medical imaging on an international ...


Book Review: Radiology In Global Health, Yogesh Jha, Ali M. Tahvildari 2015 Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders

Book Review: Radiology In Global Health, Yogesh Jha, Ali M. Tahvildari

The Journal of Global Radiology

This book review examines Mollura and Lungren’s (eds.) Radiology in Global Health: Strategies, Implementation, and Applications (2014). The contributors have attempted to investigate root causes for radiological service-related disparity that exists between prosperous economies and low- and middle-income countries. The book is clearly geared towards manufacturing consent among stakeholders through research-based evidence to amplify the role of radiology in global healthcare through initiation, implementation, amelioration, and developing sustainable solutions for rollout of essential diagnostic/therapeutic radiology services at population levels. This includes reducing access gaps for radiology/imaging services within industrialized countries as well.


Implementing Diagnostic Imaging Services In A Rural Setting Of Extreme Poverty: Five Years Of X-Ray And Ultrasound Service Delivery In Achham, Nepal, Malina Filkins, Scott Halliday, Brock Daniels, Roshan Bista, Sudan Thapa, Ryan Schwarz, Dan Schwarz, Bikash Gauchan, Duncan Maru 2015 Partners HealthCare System

Implementing Diagnostic Imaging Services In A Rural Setting Of Extreme Poverty: Five Years Of X-Ray And Ultrasound Service Delivery In Achham, Nepal, Malina Filkins, Scott Halliday, Brock Daniels, Roshan Bista, Sudan Thapa, Ryan Schwarz, Dan Schwarz, Bikash Gauchan, Duncan Maru

The Journal of Global Radiology

Introduction: Diagnostic radiology services are severely lacking in many rural settings and the implementation of these services poses complex challenges. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of diagnostic radiology services at a district-level hospital in Achham, a rural district in Nepal.

Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of the implementation of diagnostic radiology services. We compiled a list of implementation challenges and proposed solutions based on an internal review of historical data, hospital records, and the experiences of hospital staff members. We used a seven-domain analytic framework to structure our discussion of these challenges ...


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