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Evidence-Based Recommendations For The Assessment Of Severe Acute Malnutrition In Children Aged 6-59 Months In The Central African Republic, Rachel R. Wong 2015 Cedarville University

Evidence-Based Recommendations For The Assessment Of Severe Acute Malnutrition In Children Aged 6-59 Months In The Central African Republic, Rachel R. Wong

Master of Science in Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Projects

Thirty-five percent of mortalities in children under the age of five can be attributed to malnutrition (World Health Organization (WHO), n.d.). Nearly 24 percent of children less than five from 2008-2012 in the Central African Republic were moderately or severely underweight and nearly eight percent suffered from severe or moderate wasting (The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, 2013). As a result of recent sectarian violence which began with a coup in March 2013, the Central African Republic is facing a nutrition crisis. As a result, an estimated 28,000 Central African children under the age of five ...


Ambient Air Pollution And Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Natural Experiment Study, Cheng Huang, Catherine Nichols, Yang Liu, Yunping Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Suhong Gao, Zhiwen Li, Aiguo Ren 2015 George Washington University

Ambient Air Pollution And Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Natural Experiment Study, Cheng Huang, Catherine Nichols, Yang Liu, Yunping Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Suhong Gao, Zhiwen Li, Aiguo Ren

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

Radical regulations to improve air quality, including traffic control, were implemented prior to and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Consequently, ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and particular matter 10 micrometers or less (PM 10 ), were reduced in a distinct and short window of time, which presented a natural experiment for testing the relationships between maternal exposure to PM 10 and NO 2 during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes.

Methods

We estimated the effect of PM 10 and NO 2 exposure during each trimester of gestation on the risk of preterm birth among live births and the ...


Public Health, Universal Health Coverage, And Sustainable Development Goals: Can They Coexist?, Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ezekiel Emanuel 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Public Health, Universal Health Coverage, And Sustainable Development Goals: Can They Coexist?, Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ezekiel Emanuel

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In her 2012 reconfirmation speech as WHO Director-General, Dr. Margaret Chan asserted: "universal coverage is the single most powerful concept that public health has to offer. It is our ticket to greater efficiency and better quality. It is our savior from the crushing weight of chronic noncommunicable diseases that now engulf the globe ". The UN General Assembly is currently considering proposals for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), succeeding the Millennium Development Goals. SDGs, focusing on health, specifically includes universal health coverage (UHC) among its targets. Unquestionably, UHC is timely and fundamentally important. However, its promotion also entails substantial risks. A narrow ...


Sex Differences In Morbidity And Care-Seeking During The Neonatal Period In Rural Southern Nepal, Summer Rosenstock, Joanne Katz, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. LeClerq, James M. Tielsch, et al. 2015 George Washington University

Sex Differences In Morbidity And Care-Seeking During The Neonatal Period In Rural Southern Nepal, Summer Rosenstock, Joanne Katz, Luke C. Mullany, Subarna K. Khatry, Steven C. Leclerq, James M. Tielsch, Et Al.

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background

South Asian studies, including those from Nepal, have documented increased risk of neonatal mortality among girls, despite their early biologic survival advantage. We examined sex differences in neonatal morbidity and care-seeking behavior to determine whether such differences could help explain previously observed excess late neonatal mortality among girls in Nepal.

Methods

A secondary analysis of data from a trial of chlorhexidine use among neonates in rural Nepal was conducted. The objective was to examine sex differences in neonatal morbidity and care-seeking behavior for ill newborns. Girls were used as the reference group.

Results

Referral for care was higher during ...


Onalie, Michael Finn, Brittany Long, Liz Zabel, Onalie Ariyabandhu 2015 Iowa State University

Onalie, Michael Finn, Brittany Long, Liz Zabel, Onalie Ariyabandhu

Ethos

Nine years ago, Onalie Ariyabandhu and her whole family were all happily gathered under one roof, laughing and playing and eating good food with each other. It was December 25, 2004. They were celebrating Almsgiving, a Buddhist tradition in which respect is given to monks by offering food and gifts.


Jefferson's Center For Refugee Health: A Model Of Community Collaboration, Colleen Payton MPH,CHES, Neesha Patel MD, Kevin Scott MD 2015 Thomas Jefferson University

Jefferson's Center For Refugee Health: A Model Of Community Collaboration, Colleen Payton Mph,Ches, Neesha Patel Md, Kevin Scott Md

Population Health Matters (Formerly Health Policy Newsletter)

No abstract provided.


Gold Mining And Unequal Exchange In Western Amazonia: A Theoretical Photo Essay, Gordon L. Ulmer 2015 The Ohio State University

Gold Mining And Unequal Exchange In Western Amazonia: A Theoretical Photo Essay, Gordon L. Ulmer

disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory

I combine fieldwork photography and ethnographic documentation of gold mining in Madre de Dios, Peru, to examine the localized material, social, environmental, and health outcomes of the global gold boom. This 'theoretical photo essay’ examines how local and global forces coalesce around gold mining and influence peoples and environments in Western Amazonia. I use embodiment theory in anthropology, ecological economics, and theories of underdevelopment to understand local consequences of the global gold trade and to elucidate how opulence and the machinations of capital accumulation in economic centers of the world occur at the expense of human lives and environments in ...


A Rival To The West? Comparing The Effects Of Chinese And World Bank Health Aid On Health Outcomes In Sub-Saharan Africa, Isabel Jane DoCampo 2015 College of William and Mary

A Rival To The West? Comparing The Effects Of Chinese And World Bank Health Aid On Health Outcomes In Sub-Saharan Africa, Isabel Jane Docampo

Honors Theses

The international community has come to criticize existing foreign aid practices for their poor coordination, misguided programming, and ineffective implementation strategies. China’s controversial aid policies pose an alternative to dominant Western aid paradigms, as they thwart conventions of conditionality and good governance paramount to traditional donors. This thesis evaluates Chinese health aid as an alternative to Western health aid via the impacts of each on sub-Saharan African health capacity, commitment to health, and overall health outcomes. Results indicate that Chinese aid does not significantly impact health in sub-Saharan Africa, while World Bank aid displays strong significant relationships with improvements ...


Nested Partially-Latent Class Models For Dependent Binary Data; Estimating Disease Etiology, Zhenke Wu, Maria Deloria-Knoll, Scott L. Zeger 2015 Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Nested Partially-Latent Class Models For Dependent Binary Data; Estimating Disease Etiology, Zhenke Wu, Maria Deloria-Knoll, Scott L. Zeger

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study seeks to use modern measurement technology to infer the causes of pneumonia. The paper describes a latent variable model designed to infer from case-control data the etiology distribution for the population of cases and for an individual case given his or her measurements taking account of dependence among pathogen measurements due to sources other than class membership. We assume each observation is drawn from a mixture model for which each component represents one pathogen. Conditional dependence among multivariate binary measurements on a single subject is induced by nesting latent subclasses within ...


Occupational Health Risk Factors For Schistosomiasis: Systematic Review And Analysis, Sarah Grace Sawyer, Amira Roess, Gisela Butera 2015 George Washington University

Occupational Health Risk Factors For Schistosomiasis: Systematic Review And Analysis, Sarah Grace Sawyer, Amira Roess, Gisela Butera

GW Research Days 2015

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a parasitic flatworm which afflicts over 200 million people in the poorest regions of Africa. Carried by snails living in fresh, stagnant water, the parasite penetrates human skin upon contact, causing the victim to suffer a range of symptoms including diarrhea, blood in the urine, and eventual death. Despite its prevalence, schistosomiasis is preventable, treatable, and curable once a control program is implemented. Substantial reduction of schistosomiasis would relieve suffering and produce many socio-economic benefits, including higher productivity and higher school attendance rates. Disease transmission is directly tied to the environment, and ...


The Challenges Of Conducting International Public Health Research: Data Collection Lessons From The Field, Caroline Kuo 2015 Brown University

The Challenges Of Conducting International Public Health Research: Data Collection Lessons From The Field, Caroline Kuo

University of Massachusetts and New England Area Librarian e-Science Symposium

Caroline Kuo, DPhil, MPhil, is Assistant Professor, Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University. She spoke about the data collection and data management challenges encountered in her research.


Whom Do You Trust? Doubt And Conspiracy Theories In The 2009 Influenza Pandemic, Shawn Smallman 2015 Portland State University

Whom Do You Trust? Doubt And Conspiracy Theories In The 2009 Influenza Pandemic, Shawn Smallman

International Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza led people around the globe to create narratives about the epidemic defined by the question of trust; these narratives ranged from true conspiracy theories to simply accounts in which mistrust and betrayal formed a motif. In particular, most of these narratives reflected a fear of capitalism and globalization, although in specific regions, other issues—such as religion—played a more central role. These stories were not unique to the H1N1 pandemic but rather have appeared with every contemporary outbreak of infectious disease. This paper will examine conspiracy theories and moral panics related to the ...


By The Time You Read This, We’Ll All Be Dead: The Failures Of History And Institutions Regarding The 2013-2015 West African Ebola Pandemic., George Denkey 2015 Trinity College

By The Time You Read This, We’Ll All Be Dead: The Failures Of History And Institutions Regarding The 2013-2015 West African Ebola Pandemic., George Denkey

Senior Theses and Projects

Abstract

The 2013 – 2015 Ebola pandemic had a devastating impact on the countries of Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, with a few regional and global sparks as a result of the 25,178 cases and 10,445 deaths that the epidemic has so far brought upon the three most affected nations by April First 2015. The epidemic has collapsed healthcare systems, economies, and the very social fabric of life within the subregion itself. In the light of this tragic epidemic, one question stands out above all, “How and why did this happen?” The medical literature around Ebola is sound and ...


“The Borehole Has Given Us A Chance:” Health, Hygiene, And Human Development In Karamoja, Uganda, Laura E. Pugh 2015 College of William and Mary

“The Borehole Has Given Us A Chance:” Health, Hygiene, And Human Development In Karamoja, Uganda, Laura E. Pugh

Honors Theses

Access to adequate amounts of clean water is critical to disease prevention in developing countries. This paper constitutes four studies of water access, hygiene behavior, and health outcomes in Karamoja, an impoverished region of Uganda. Using the combined results from focus groups, survey questionnaires, and a larger survey dataset, I conclude that Karamoja is an extremely unique case within Uganda, but its problems parallel pastoralist communities throughout Eastern Africa. Mothers in Uganda place a high priority on their children’s hygiene, and frequently conflate hygiene and health. However, the hygiene status of children is often low, and recommended hand washing ...


Assessing The Role Of Maternal And Community Capabilities In Preventing Childhood Diarrhea, Stephanie E. Wraith 2015 College of William and Mary

Assessing The Role Of Maternal And Community Capabilities In Preventing Childhood Diarrhea, Stephanie E. Wraith

Honors Theses

This paper examines the potential implications of incorporating a framework of maternal and community capabilities into interventions targeting the global burden of childhood diarrheal disease. To assess these maternal and community capacities as they relate to hygiene-related infectious diseases – both diarrheal and parasitic – primary, interview-based qualitative research was conducted in a rural Nicaraguan community, in conjunction with a large cross-sectional data analysis of maternal and household determinants from demographic health surveys pulled from 17 countries of interest. I propose that these capabilities play a critical role in mediating the impact of diarrheal diseases on children, and through this paper explore ...


Investigating Barriers To Early Cancer Detection For Rural Indian Women: A Qualitative Analysis Of Cancer Outreach In Dehradun, Uttarakhand, Blair Burnett 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Investigating Barriers To Early Cancer Detection For Rural Indian Women: A Qualitative Analysis Of Cancer Outreach In Dehradun, Uttarakhand, Blair Burnett

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examines barriers to early detection for women’s specific cancers in rural India in and around Dehradun, Uttarakhand, within the framework of existing health outreach programs from tertiary hospitals in the state. The burden of cancer mortality within India is disproportionately affecting women living in rural populations considering the current health education and health care infrastructure in place. Barriers of knowledge, access to knowledge, economic condition, geography, and cultural norms are all examined within this study in the context of early cancer detection. National Indian health policy is currently framed to address the burden of cancer within India ...


Deconstructing Unmade Examining The Capacity Of Ayurveda To Address India’S Mental Health Crisis, Cassie Sutten Coats 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Deconstructing Unmade Examining The Capacity Of Ayurveda To Address India’S Mental Health Crisis, Cassie Sutten Coats

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Though India does not have a credible, widespread system in place to recognize and focus on issues of mental health, especially in allopathic treatments, it is imperative to evaluate the existing practices and approaches in regards to mental health alongside the impact that these approaches may have on Indian society. In contrast to Westernized systems of medicine, the traditional Indian system of Ayurveda inherently addresses issues in mental health due to the holistic approach through mind-body medicine. This study evaluates the enormous potential that exists within Ayurvedic philosophy to provide adequate, culturally congruent, treatments and care in mental health, and ...


Fighting The Obesity Epidemic: Challenges And Ethics, Grace Brown 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Fighting The Obesity Epidemic: Challenges And Ethics, Grace Brown

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Background

In recent decades, a double burden of disease has emerged that requires public health workers to fight both hunger and obesity. The obesity epidemic is unlike other epidemics in that it is largely man-made and dependent on social factors and industry influences, making it difficult to fight. The high global prevalence of obesity is partially a result of globalization, which has encouraged development and the liberalizing of economies all around the world, which in turn has increased the marketing and consumption of obesogenic products. Policy solutions have been proposed and implemented in some countries, but an international solution has ...


Babies First: Ensuring Proper Infant Nutrition During Emergencies, Abigail M. Alonso 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Babies First: Ensuring Proper Infant Nutrition During Emergencies, Abigail M. Alonso

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Background: Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for an infant, living in all regions and cultures. Recommendations apply across the board, from developed nations to refugee camps, from women with HIV to those with time constraints regarding feeding. There also exists a complex relationship between corporations that provide BMS and the NGOs working to promote breastfeeding in emergency situations amongst vulnerable populations.

Objective: The objective of this paper is to expose breastfeeding promotion, using the Dadaab camps in Northeastern Kenya as a case study of IYCF programs and support of breastfeeding among low-literacy populations with an emphasis on women ...


The Impact Of Vaccine Hesitancy On The Polio Vaccine In South Asia, Leah Everist 2015 SIT Study Abroad

The Impact Of Vaccine Hesitancy On The Polio Vaccine In South Asia, Leah Everist

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

A disease that paralyzes hundreds of children each year, polio is incurable but also entirely preventable through vaccination. Though part of the reason some children are not reached for immunization is that they are in areas too volatile for healthcare workers to access, vaccine hesitancy is increasingly being recognized as an important player. The objective of this study is to ascertain the degree to which vaccine hesitancy affects polio vaccine campaigns in Afghanistan and Pakistan, the countries in South Asia where polio continues to be endemic, to assess the drivers behind hesitancy in this region, and to present recommendations for ...


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