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Ethnicity Matters: Implications For Understanding And Acting Upon Disparities In Health Affecting Black Men In The United States, Helen V. S. Cole 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Ethnicity Matters: Implications For Understanding And Acting Upon Disparities In Health Affecting Black Men In The United States, Helen V. S. Cole

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks have higher rates of mortality from heart disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and HIV/AIDS. Black men have a life expectancy approximately 4.7 years than the life expectancy of non-Hispanic white men, due in part to higher prevalence of chronic disease among black men. Many factors are hypothesized to contribute to disparities in health between races, including differences in socioeconomic status; culturally-linked behaviors such as diet, substance use, and physical activity; access to quality healthcare and other resources; and experiences of racism, both institutional and interpersonal. However, in public health research, race is usually ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2016 Chapman University

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


Prep Advocacy Project: Increasing The Adoption Of Pre-­Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) In San Luis Obispo County, Leona Rajaee 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Prep Advocacy Project: Increasing The Adoption Of Pre-­Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) In San Luis Obispo County, Leona Rajaee

Journalism

The following study investigates the need for Pre­exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in San Luis Obispo (SLO) County in order to develop an effective health outreach and advocacy program that could increase the adoption of PrEP treatment and in turn decrease new HIV transmissions in the community studied. The sponsor of this study is the Access Support Network (ASN), a non­profit organization that provides supportive services for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. ASN launched this study after observing the effectiveness of PrEP in metropolitan cities. At the same time, ASN also noticed a rise in new HIV transmissions, particularly among ...


Putting Prep Into Practice: Lessons Learned From Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis And Associated Care, S. K. Calabrese, Manya Magnus, K. H. Mayer, D. S. Krakower, A. I. Eldahan, L. A. Gaston Hawkins, +5 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Putting Prep Into Practice: Lessons Learned From Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis And Associated Care, S. K. Calabrese, Manya Magnus, K. H. Mayer, D. S. Krakower, A. I. Eldahan, L. A. Gaston Hawkins, +5 Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers' adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers' firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription-financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)-as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014-2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern ...


Conceptualization Of Autism In The Latino Community And Its Relationship With Early Diagnosis, Katharine E. Zuckerman, Brianna Sinche, Martiza Cobian, Marlene Cervantes, Angie Mejia, Thomas Becker, Christina Nicolaidis 2016 Oregon Health & Science University

Conceptualization Of Autism In The Latino Community And Its Relationship With Early Diagnosis, Katharine E. Zuckerman, Brianna Sinche, Martiza Cobian, Marlene Cervantes, Angie Mejia, Thomas Becker, Christina Nicolaidis

Christina Nicolaidis

Objective—Early identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been linked to improved long-term developmental outcomes. However, Latino children are diagnosed later than white non- Latino children. We aimed to qualitatively assess the understanding and conceptualization of ASD in the Latino community in order to understand potential community barriers to early diagnosis.

Method—We conducted 5 focus groups and 4 qualitative interviews with 30 parents of typicallydeveloping Latino children in Oregon. Participants were asked structured questions concerning video vignettes that follow a Latina mother from the time she begins to worry about her 3-year-old son's behaviors to the time ...


The Impact Of Changing Guidelines On Prostate Cancer Screening In A Population-Based Setting, 2000-2014, Daniel M. Frendl, Mara M. Epstein, Hassan Fouayzi, Richard Krajenta, Benjamin A. Rybicki, Mitchell H. Sokoloff 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Impact Of Changing Guidelines On Prostate Cancer Screening In A Population-Based Setting, 2000-2014, Daniel M. Frendl, Mara M. Epstein, Hassan Fouayzi, Richard Krajenta, Benjamin A. Rybicki, Mitchell H. Sokoloff

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: This study evaluates the potential impact of the publication of conflicting prostate cancer (PCa) screening trial results in 2009 and changes to the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines to recommend against screening in 2012 on temporal trends in PSA testing at two participating sites in the NCI-funded Cancer Research Network.

Methods: Study participants were men aged 40-80 without a history of PCa who sought care at Fallon Health (Worcester, MA) or Henry Ford Health System (Detroit, MI) between 2000-2014. We used health claims and electronic health record data to identify men who underwent PSA testing per calendar ...


Community-Based Participatory Research To Promote Healthy Diet And Nutrition And Prevent And Control Obesity Among African Americans: A Literature Review, Steven Coughlin, Selina Smith 2016 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Community-Based Participatory Research To Promote Healthy Diet And Nutrition And Prevent And Control Obesity Among African Americans: A Literature Review, Steven Coughlin, Selina Smith

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches for promoting healthy diet, nutrition, and preventing and controlling obesity in African American communities was systematically reviewed.

CBPR studies of diet, nutrition, and weight management among African Americans were identified from 1989 through October 31, 2015 using PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH term and keyword searches.

A total of 16 CBPR studies on healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management among African Americans were identified; outcome evaluation results were available for all but two. Of the remaining 14 studies, 11 focused on adults, 1 on children, and 2 on both children and ...


Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pandemic continues to thrive due to ineffective HIV-1 vaccines. Historically, the world’s most infectious diseases, such as polio and smallpox, have been eradicated or have come close to eradication due to the advent of effective vaccines. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is able to delay the onset of AIDS but can neither rid the body of HIV-1 proviral DNA nor prevent further transmission. A prophylactic vaccine that prevents the various mechanisms HIV-1 has to evade and attack our immune system is needed to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Recent advances in engineered nuclease systems, like the CRISPR/Cas9 ...


Improving Policies Impacting School Absenteeism Due To Influenza Using Agent-Based Simulation Modeling., Galina V. Miller 2016 Purdue Polytechnic Institute

Improving Policies Impacting School Absenteeism Due To Influenza Using Agent-Based Simulation Modeling., Galina V. Miller

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

No abstract provided.


Discordant Documentation Of Obesity Body Mass Index And Obesity Diagnosis In Electronic Medical Records, Jennifer T. Fink, George L. Morris III, Maharaj Singh, David A. Nelson, Renee E. Walker, Ron A. Cisler 2016 Aurora Health Care

Discordant Documentation Of Obesity Body Mass Index And Obesity Diagnosis In Electronic Medical Records, Jennifer T. Fink, George L. Morris Iii, Maharaj Singh, David A. Nelson, Renee E. Walker, Ron A. Cisler

Maharaj Singh

Purpose: This study examined concordance between presence of obesity body mass index (BMI), defined as BMI ≥ 30, in the patient’s electronic medical record (EMR) and a documented diagnosis of obesity.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the EMR in a large health care system for a 1-year period (2012). A total of 397,313 patients met the study criteria of having at least one physician visit, being at least 18 years of age, and not being pregnant. Of those, 158,327 (40%) had a recorded BMI ≥ 30. We examined the EMR of these obese patients to determine whether ...


Impact Of The Heart Watch Program On Patients At Risk Of Developing Metabolic Syndrome, Prediabetes Or Cardiovascular Disease, Jennifer T. Fink, Kathryn K. Havens, Julia A. Schumacher, Renee E. Walker, George L. Morris III, David A. Nelson, Maharaj Singh, Ron A. Cisler 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Impact Of The Heart Watch Program On Patients At Risk Of Developing Metabolic Syndrome, Prediabetes Or Cardiovascular Disease, Jennifer T. Fink, Kathryn K. Havens, Julia A. Schumacher, Renee E. Walker, George L. Morris Iii, David A. Nelson, Maharaj Singh, Ron A. Cisler

Maharaj Singh

Purpose

Metabolic syndrome is a set of metabolic risk factors associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program (Heart WATCH) geared toward reducing development of chronic disease in women deemed at risk for metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

Methods

Our institution’s Heart WATCH program consists of screening sessions with a multidisciplinary team (physician/nurse, nutritionist and psychologist), a minimum of three visits with a nurse practitioner and weekly follow-up phone calls for a 14-week period. Sociodemographic variables were obtained at initial visit ...


Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...


Socratic Dialogue As A Framework For Understanding Activist Music During The Ebola Outbreak In Liberia, Evan Slaney 2016 Memorial University

Socratic Dialogue As A Framework For Understanding Activist Music During The Ebola Outbreak In Liberia, Evan Slaney

Nota Bene: Canadian Undergraduate Journal of Musicology

This paper argues that Plato’s Socratic Dialogues can effectively model the process through which musical activism is understood by listeners. The Socratic Dialogues, as an abstract model, are first analyzed for advantages and disadvantages when using them to understand musical activism. This analysis breaks the dialogues into two stages: “Deconstruction” and “Collaboration.” The model is then applied to the song “Ebola is Real” by F. A., Soul Fresh, and DenG, a work that arose from the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Liberia in March 2014. The song was supported by UNICEF and has a clear activist agenda. The ...


Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence In Teens (Ndit) Study, Jennifer O'Loughlin, Joseph R. DiFranza, Robert J. Wellman 2016 University of Montreal

Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence In Teens (Ndit) Study, Jennifer O'Loughlin, Joseph R. Difranza, Robert J. Wellman

Robert J. Wellman

The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and ...


Geographic Distribution Of Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization And Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J. F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley B. Vander Wyst, Melissa A. Lemke 2016 Aurora Health Care

Geographic Distribution Of Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization And Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J. F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley B. Vander Wyst, Melissa A. Lemke

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

Purpose

Maternal group B Streptococcus (GBS) can be transmitted from a colonized mother to newborn during vaginal delivery and may or may not contribute to infant death. This study aimed to explore the geographic distribution and risk factors of maternal GBS colonization and infant death during birth hospitalization.

Methods

We retrospectively studied mothers with live birth(s) in a large eastern Wisconsin hospital system from 2007 through 2013. Associations between maternal and neonatal variables, GBS colonization and infant death were examined using chi-squared, Mann-Whitney U and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression models also were developed.

Results

Study population (N = 99,305 ...


An Evaluation Of A Sexual Health Education Program For Adolescents In A Residential Treatment Program In The Philadelphia Area, Rachel Powell (student), P. Smith, Amy Leader 2016 Jefferson College of Population Health, Thomas Jefferson University

An Evaluation Of A Sexual Health Education Program For Adolescents In A Residential Treatment Program In The Philadelphia Area, Rachel Powell (Student), P. Smith, Amy Leader

Jefferson College of Population Health Posters

BACKGROUND

The US is currently experiencing an epidemic; millions of American adolescents are affected by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), teen pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV), costing the country both socially and economically:

  • Adolescents 15-24 years of age account for 50% of the 20 million new STD cases each year
  • US birth rates are significantly higher than countries in Europe
    • 6.8 times higher than teens living in the UK
    • 13.9 times higher than teens living the EU
  • In 2010 18.7% of adolescents ages 11-17 experienced IPV for the first time
  • Adolescents who are diagnosed with an STD ...


Effect Of Using Culturally Sensitive Education In Increasing Mammogram Use And Breast Cancer Awareness: African Female Immigrants, Gertrude Mumba-Kaunda 2016 Valparaiso University

Effect Of Using Culturally Sensitive Education In Increasing Mammogram Use And Breast Cancer Awareness: African Female Immigrants, Gertrude Mumba-Kaunda

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Despite the advances in medical technology, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second leading cause of death in African-American and Caucasian women in the United States. Mammography has shown to be one of the best methods to reduce late detection of breast cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends monthly self-breast examination (SBE), clinical breast examinations every 3 years, and yearly mammography starting at the age of 40. Despite the recommendations, there is still significant disparity among different racial groups, when it comes to death rates, which can be attributed to low screening rates. The ...


Addressing Gaps To Promote Co-Learning And Bidirectional Capacity Building In Community Engaged Research: Challenges And Untapped Opportunities, Stephenie C. Lemon, Linda Silka, Lauren R. Powell, Phillip Granberry, Marie Boone 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Addressing Gaps To Promote Co-Learning And Bidirectional Capacity Building In Community Engaged Research: Challenges And Untapped Opportunities, Stephenie C. Lemon, Linda Silka, Lauren R. Powell, Phillip Granberry, Marie Boone

Stephenie C. Lemon

Moderator: Stephenie Lemon, Ph.D., UMass Worcester Prevention Research Center

Session Titles and Presenters

-Learning From Each Other: Other Partnerships, Other Experiences - Linda Silka, Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions, University of Maine

-What is Research Literacy? - Lauren R. Powell, PhD Candidate Clinical and Population Health Research, UMass Medical School

-Learning by Doing to Enhance a Community-University Partnership - TBN, The Puerto Rican Cultural Center - Phil Granberry, PhD, The Gaston Institute, UMass Boston

-Enhancing Cultural Competency in Research Teams: The Promise of Simulation-based Training - Marie Boone, Executive Vice President of Planning, Mosaic Cultural Complex

Session Description: Community engagement is ...


Local Health Department Engagement In Community Physical Activity Policy, Karin V. Goins, Jiali Ye, Carolyn J. Leep, Nathalie Robin, Stephenie C. Lemon 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Local Health Department Engagement In Community Physical Activity Policy, Karin V. Goins, Jiali Ye, Carolyn J. Leep, Nathalie Robin, Stephenie C. Lemon

Stephenie C. Lemon

INTRODUCTION: This study assessed correlates of self-reported local health department (LHD) participation in community policy/advocacy activities that support physical activity.

METHODS: In 2014, cross-sectional data from the nationally representative 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments study administered by the National Association of County and City Health Officials were analyzed. Outcomes were participation in policy/advocacy activities related to urban design/land use, active transportation, and access to recreational facilities. Independent variables included structural characteristics, performance improvement efforts, and collaboration. Multivariate logistic regression models were computed.

RESULTS: Representatives of 490 LHDs participated (79% response rate). Respondents reported similar participation ...


Prevalence And Correlates Of Indoor Tanning In Nonsalon Locations Among A National Sample Of Young Women, Joel Hillhouse, Jerod L. Stapleton, L. Carter Florence, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 East Tennessee State University

Prevalence And Correlates Of Indoor Tanning In Nonsalon Locations Among A National Sample Of Young Women, Joel Hillhouse, Jerod L. Stapleton, L. Carter Florence, Sherry L. Pagoto

Sherry L. Pagoto

Indoor tanning is a public health threat, and the Surgeon General has called for its reduction in adolescents and young adults. Research on indoor tanning has not distinguished between tanning-only salons vs other businesses and private residences that provide tanning (ie, nonsalon tanning). For example, gyms often offer free tanning, which may lead to riskier tanning habits. Better understanding of nonsalon tanning could have policy, prevention, and clinical implications. Our study addresses this literature gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of nonsalon tanning in a nationally representative sample of young women, who have the highest rates of indoor tanning ...


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