Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Community Health and Preventive Medicine Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3570 Full-Text Articles 6998 Authors 610159 Downloads 146 Institutions

All Articles in Community Health and Preventive Medicine

Faceted Search

3570 full-text articles. Page 1 of 146.

Inside The Juvenile Justice System, Megan Phalon 2016 University of San Francisco

Inside The Juvenile Justice System, Megan Phalon

Master's Projects

The United States of America is known for freedom and integrity and being a nation that stands for justice and equality for all. Within the United States there are systems in place to better the people and communities in order to provide safety and order. However, just as any nation, there is a struggle with violent behavior and tendencies among adults and adolescents. Within the last three decades, the United States has created a correctional system that specifically targets adolescents, and that acknowledges the differences between adult and juvenile development and deviant behavior. Within this literature review, academic databases were ...


Chna: The Role Of The Hospital In Addressing Specific Community Health Needs, Yesmina L. Zavala 2016 University of San Francisco

Chna: The Role Of The Hospital In Addressing Specific Community Health Needs, Yesmina L. Zavala

Master's Projects

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) added a requirement for nonprofit hospitals to keep their tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue System Code 501(c) 3. This code requires all nonprofit hospitals to complete Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA) reports every three years and must include input from community stakeholders and underserved individuals representing the low-income, minority and chronically ill population.

In addition to the CHNA, implementation strategies are required to be executed in the geographic areas served in order to meet the identified prioritized needs from the CHNA. Oftentimes, CHNAs are difficult to conceptualize and operationalize within ...


Self-Perceived Coordinated School Health Coordinator Leadership Styles And Practices, Heather R. Ledbetter 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Self-Perceived Coordinated School Health Coordinator Leadership Styles And Practices, Heather R. Ledbetter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

School-aged children’s health needs have changed over the last several decades to the present day population of many overweight and obese children with health complications (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2015). Tennessee has implemented the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) model for Coordinated School Health (CSH) in all public schools. Leading each school district’s program is a CSH Coordinator. The role of CSH Coordinators is to provide leadership to district and school administrators while effectively and efficiently implementing the CSH program (Wechsler, 2012).

The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the self-perceived leadership ...


Quality Management: A Global Case Study In Organ Transplantation, Cassie L. Rodriguez 2016 University of San Francisco

Quality Management: A Global Case Study In Organ Transplantation, Cassie L. Rodriguez

Master's Projects

Every year the US and European countries face an epidemic of organ failure from a multitude of reasons: cancer, genetic predisposition, exposure to harmful chemicals in home or surrounding areas or through drinking, drugs and smoking. Another problem faced, is the ratio of organ donors to organ recipients. Over 121,000 patients are on the waiting for an organ transplant, and a fraction of those waiting will die because of time. The Hanover Medical school and department of quality management, have created an integrated approach to organ transplant avenues. Quality management is a systematic guide for organ transplantation that allows ...


Peaceful Ninjas: Merging Mindfulness Education With Holistic Arts, Zachariah Z. Fisher, April Tucker 2016 Peaceful Ninjas

Peaceful Ninjas: Merging Mindfulness Education With Holistic Arts, Zachariah Z. Fisher, April Tucker

The STEAM Journal

Peaceful Ninjas is a Holistic Peace Education Movement Empowering Youth to Co Create World Peace by Merging Ancient and Modern Mindfulness Practices. This piece provides an overview of the activities and approach we use.


Review Of: Bonnie L. Walker, Injury Prevention For The Elderly- A Research Guide (Greenwood Press 1995), David E. Belfort 2016 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: Bonnie L. Walker, Injury Prevention For The Elderly- A Research Guide (Greenwood Press 1995), David E. Belfort

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: Bonnie L. Walker, Injury Prevention for the Elderly- A Research Guide (Greenwood Press 1995). Acknowledgments, appendices, author index, bibliographical references, foreword, preface, subject index. LC 95-32989; ISSN 0743-7560 [328 pp. Cloth $75.00. 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881.]


Healthy Native Community Fellowship: An Indigenous Leadership Program To Enhance Community Wellness, Rebecca Rae, Marita Jones, Alexis J. Handal, Marge Bluehorse-Anderson, Shelley Frazier, Kristine Maltrud, Chris Percy, Tina Tso, Frances Varela, Nina Wallerstein 2016 University of New Mexico

Healthy Native Community Fellowship: An Indigenous Leadership Program To Enhance Community Wellness, Rebecca Rae, Marita Jones, Alexis J. Handal, Marge Bluehorse-Anderson, Shelley Frazier, Kristine Maltrud, Chris Percy, Tina Tso, Frances Varela, Nina Wallerstein

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

The Healthy Native Communities Fellowship (HNCF) is a grassroots evidence-based mentorship and leadership program that develops the skills and community-building capacities of leaders and community teams to improve health status through several intermediate social and cultural mechanisms: (a) strengthening social participation (also known as social capital or cohesion); (b) strengthening cultural connectedness and revitalization of cultural identity; and (c) advocating for health-enhancing policies, practices, and programs that strengthen systems of prevention and care, as well as address the structural social determinants of health. This leadership program uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and participatory evaluation to investigate how the ...


Assets And Barriers To Infection Control On A College Campus, Kimberly A. Whitaker, Matthew Allen, Chelsey Delaney 2016 Murray State University

Assets And Barriers To Infection Control On A College Campus, Kimberly A. Whitaker, Matthew Allen, Chelsey Delaney

Scholars Week

An abstract about a photovoice done concerning infection control on college campus.


Cost-Effectiveness Of Genomic-Based Warfarin Therapy, John Weissert, Kourosh Ravvaz 2016 Aurora Research Institute

Cost-Effectiveness Of Genomic-Based Warfarin Therapy, John Weissert, Kourosh Ravvaz

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: With over 40 years of demonstrated clinical efficacy, warfarin remains the world’s most used pharmaceutical to prevent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, warfarin has many challenges. Thus, despite known effectiveness, warfarin is a leading cause to drug-induced morbidity and mortality. Over 50 different warfarin therapy protocols, including a number of pharmacogenomic-based (PG) protocols, with as many as 14 independent variables, have been developed to improve safety and efficacy, thereby reducing ischemic strokes and intracranial hemorrhages (ICH).

Purpose: To conduct a preliminary cost-effectiveness study to determine the price point at which using warfarin PG dosing ...


Identifying Disparities In Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates In Milwaukee-Based Academic And Nonacademic Clinics, Jasmine Wiley, Jonathan J. Blaza, Will Lehmann, Deborah Simpson, Jeffrey A. Stearns, Shelby L. Pischke, Tracy L. Greiten 2016 Department of Family Medicine, Aurora Health Care

Identifying Disparities In Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates In Milwaukee-Based Academic And Nonacademic Clinics, Jasmine Wiley, Jonathan J. Blaza, Will Lehmann, Deborah Simpson, Jeffrey A. Stearns, Shelby L. Pischke, Tracy L. Greiten

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: The Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Triple Aim focuses on improving the patient’s experience of care, improving population health and reducing the per capita cost of health care. Health care systems and providers continuously seek to improve quality of care through understanding what percentage of their patients are achieving quality-of-care standards for various indicators, including immunizations, tobacco cessation, asthma and cancer screening. As health care moves toward reimbursing for value-based care, deepening our understanding of patient population characteristics within each of these conditions is vital to continuous quality improvement.

Purpose: To determine if there are race/ethnicity/age ...


Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora Health Care

Evaluation Of Patient Opinions And Experiences With Electronic Cigarettes At A Family Medicine Residency Clinic, Ima D. Tanner, Breana C. Cummens, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Since 2003, electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have grown in popularity. E-cigs are often marketed as a safer, healthier alternative to smoking traditional cigarettes or as an aid for smoking cessation. However, the risks and benefits of e-cig use, as well as the beliefs that influence use or avoidance, are poorly understood.

Purpose: To assess our patient population’s perception or beliefs as they relate to e-cig use.

Methods: A 13-question survey regarding nicotine and e-cig use was distributed to English-speaking adult patients at Aurora St. Luke’s Family Practice Clinic from August 2015 to January 2016. Questions assessed patient demographics ...


Cervical Cancer Infrastructure, Knowledge And Attitudes In Kabale, Uganda, Nicole Robertson 2016 Murray State University

Cervical Cancer Infrastructure, Knowledge And Attitudes In Kabale, Uganda, Nicole Robertson

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Cervical Cancer Infrastructure, Knowledge and Attitudes in Kabale, Uganda

Nicole Robertson1, ShaCoria Winston2, Kara Miller3, Julia Hanebrink4

1University of Louisville 2Washington University in St. Louis 3University of California Riverside 4Christian Brothers University, Department of Anthropology

Cervical cancer has increasing prevalence in southwestern Uganda and is the most common cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this increased prevalence, the biomedical infrastructure in Uganda lacks support for cervical cancer screening and treatment. At the same time, cervical cancer carries a stigma as an incurable sexually transmitted disease similar to the history of HIV ...


How We Care: Provider Perspectives On Services For Vietnamese Elderly In Boston’S Dorchester Neighborhood, Loan Thi Dao 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

How We Care: Provider Perspectives On Services For Vietnamese Elderly In Boston’S Dorchester Neighborhood, Loan Thi Dao

Institute for Asian American Studies Publications

The need for culturally competent care for the elderly is of growing concern for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities and health providers. In 2012, a preliminary study was conducted to ascertain the perspectives of service providers about the cultural competency of services for elderly Vietnamese Americans in Boston, Massachusetts. The study includes interviews with key informants representing the five major community health centers (CHC) programs in Boston’s Vietnamese enclave in the Dorchester neighborhood. Secondary data collection from field observations and informal communications with other staff and elderly clients also inform the findings. While the study recognizes the ...


Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Trial Of A Pharmacist-Delivered Intervention For Improving Lipid-Lowering Medication Adherence Among Patients With Coronary Heart Disease, Yunsheng Ma, Ira S. Ockene, Milagros C. Rosal, Philip A. Merriam, Judith K. Ockene, Pritesh J. Gandhi

Ira S. Ockene

A randomized trial of a pharmacist-delivered intervention (PI) versus usual care (UC) was conducted; 689 subjects with known coronary heart disease were recruited from cardiac catheterization laboratories. Participants in the PI condition received 5 pharmacist-delivered telephone counseling calls post-hospital discharge. At one year, 65% in the PI condition and 60% in the UC condition achieved an LDL-C level <100 mg/dL (P=.29); mean statin adherence was 0.88 in the PI, and 0.90 in the UC (P=.51). The highest percentage of those who reached the LDL-C goal were participants who used statins as opposed to those who did not use statins (67% versus 58%, P=.05). However, only 53% and 56% of the patients in the UC and PI conditions, respectively, were using statins. We conclude that a pharmacist-delivered intervention aimed only at improving patient adherence is unlikely to positively affect outcomes. Efforts must be oriented towards influencing physicians to increase statin prescription rates.


Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Methodology Of A Diabetes Prevention Translational Research Project Utilizing A Community-Academic Partnership For Implementation In An Underserved Latino Community, Philip A. Merriam, Trinidad Tellez, Milagros C. Rosal, Barbara C. Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Sherry L. Pagoto, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2-3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians.

METHODS AND DESIGN: The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP) is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a >/= 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to ...


Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods For Testing A Simple Dietary Message To Improve Weight Loss And Dietary Quality, Philip A. Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kristin L. Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S. Ockene, Sherry L. Pagoto

Ira S. Ockene

BACKGROUND: The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health.

METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one ...


Community Engagement & Research Section, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Community Engagement & Research Section, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

This presentation describes the ongoing programs and initiatives of the Community Engagement and Research Section of the UMCCTS.


Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Depression And C-Reactive Protein, Yunsheng Ma, David E. Chiriboga, Sherry L. Pagoto, Milagros C. Rosal, Wenjun Li, Philip A. Merriam, James R. Hebert, Matthew Whited, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

Objective: Depression has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, and a depression–related elevation of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been proposed as a possible mechanism. The objective of this study was to examine association between 27 depression and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Methods: Subjects consisted of 508 healthy adults (mean age 48.5 years; 49% women, 88% white) residing in central Massachusetts. Data were collected at baseline and at quarterly intervals over a one-year period per individual. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association for the entire sample and by gender.

Results: The ...


Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Associations Of Daily Eating Episodes, And Eating Away-From-Home With Blood Level Of Total Cholesterol, Yunsheng Ma, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Edward J. Stanek, Nancy L. Cohen, Ira S. Ockene

Ira S. Ockene

The objective of this investigation is to describe the associations of number of eating episodes and proportion of meals eaten away from home with total serum cholesterol. Data from 499 participants, recruited from a health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts, aged 20-70, were used for this analysis. Dietary information and total blood cholesterol were obtained at five sampling points (baseline and four consecutive quarters) during the one-year follow-up. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The results from the study do not support the hypothesis that the number of eating episodes per day is associated with total blood cholesterol. However, we noted ...


Risk For Type 2 Diabetes Among Snap Participants With Prediabetes, Diana L. Malkin-Washeim, PhD, MPH, R.D., CDE, Shirley Gerrior, PhD, R.D. 2016 Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center

Risk For Type 2 Diabetes Among Snap Participants With Prediabetes, Diana L. Malkin-Washeim, Phd, Mph, R.D., Cde, Shirley Gerrior, Phd, R.D.

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

This study explored food security status among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with prediabetes in relation to food choice decisions over a 30-day benefit cycle that potentially increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional, quantitative design based on food choice process model constructs was used. SNAP participants (n = 36) with prediabetes, aged 21–70 years, were recruited as outpatients from Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center and completed self-reported questionnaires on demographics and health, food security, and food frequency over time. Descriptive statistics, Pearson chi square tests, and regression analysis were performed using SPSS. Two post-hoc tests, the Friedman ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress