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Full-Text Articles in Epidemiology

Evaluation Of Geographic Disparities In Cervical Cancer Survival Across Maine, Kaylee Underkofler, Jason Lachance Jul 2020

Evaluation Of Geographic Disparities In Cervical Cancer Survival Across Maine, Kaylee Underkofler, Jason Lachance

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction. National data exists suggesting the existence of geographic disparities in oncology care within the United States. It is unknown whether geographic disparities present a problem for women with gynecologic malignancies locally in Maine.

Methods. Data for each cervical cancer case diagnosed or treated under the MaineHealth system between 2007 and 2011 were acquired from the MaineHealth Network Registry. Average annual incidence and 5-year survival were calculated for each county in Maine and were mapped using geographic information systems (GIS) software. Next, cases were divided into 2 groups: those residing less than or equal to 60 miles from the sole ...


Prescription Analgesia And Adjuvant Use By Pain Severity At Admission Among Nursing Home Residents With Non-Malignant Pain, Kate L. Lapane, Anne L. Hume, Reynolds A. Morrison, William M. Jesdale Jul 2020

Prescription Analgesia And Adjuvant Use By Pain Severity At Admission Among Nursing Home Residents With Non-Malignant Pain, Kate L. Lapane, Anne L. Hume, Reynolds A. Morrison, William M. Jesdale

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

OBJECTIVE: We estimated the use of prescribed analgesics and adjuvants among nursing home residents without cancer who reported pain at their admission assessment, in relation to resident-reported pain severity.

METHODS: Medicare Part D claims were used to define 3 classes of analgesics and 7 classes of potential adjuvants on the 21st day after nursing home admission (or the day of discharge for residents discharged before that date) among 180,780 residents with complete information admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 9, 2016, with no cancer diagnosis.

RESULTS: Of these residents, 27.9% reported mild pain, 46.6% moderate pain ...


A Comparison Efficacy Study Of Commercial Nasopharyngeal Swabs Versus A Novel 3d Printed Swab For The Detection Of Sars-Cov-2, Forest W. Arnold, Gerald Grant, Phillip F. Bressoud, Stephen P. Furmanek, Donghoon Chung, Nadine Sbaih, Dipan Karmali, Meredith Cahill, George Pantalos Jul 2020

A Comparison Efficacy Study Of Commercial Nasopharyngeal Swabs Versus A Novel 3d Printed Swab For The Detection Of Sars-Cov-2, Forest W. Arnold, Gerald Grant, Phillip F. Bressoud, Stephen P. Furmanek, Donghoon Chung, Nadine Sbaih, Dipan Karmali, Meredith Cahill, George Pantalos

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The large volume of diagnostic tests required by the response to the pandemic of COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a shortage of commercial nasopharyngeal swabs. In an effort to alleviate the shortage, swabs created by 3D printing may be a solution. We designed and produced 3D printed swabs and sought to compare their ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in patients admitted for COVID-19 or who were suspected of having COVID-19. A total of 30 patients were swabbed with a commercial and printed 3D swab. Results matched in 28 of 31 patients (90%). Two patients were discordant with a positive commercial swab and ...


Characterization Of Molecular Pattern In Sensory Pain Signaling Following Mustard Exposure On Mouse Ear Vesicant Model, Hong-Duck Kim, Diane E. Heck Jun 2020

Characterization Of Molecular Pattern In Sensory Pain Signaling Following Mustard Exposure On Mouse Ear Vesicant Model, Hong-Duck Kim, Diane E. Heck

Annual SHSP Student Research and Scholarship Day

No abstract provided.


Stroke Management In The Time Of Covid, Marwa Elnazeir, Siddharth Narayanan, Kerri Remmel Jun 2020

Stroke Management In The Time Of Covid, Marwa Elnazeir, Siddharth Narayanan, Kerri Remmel

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Covid-19 Radiological Library, Forest W. Arnold, Tracy Vanmeter, Lachlan Smith, Danny Mcgrath, Matthew Grassman, Nishant Patel, William Mattingly Jun 2020

Covid-19 Radiological Library, Forest W. Arnold, Tracy Vanmeter, Lachlan Smith, Danny Mcgrath, Matthew Grassman, Nishant Patel, William Mattingly

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


A Patient With Escherichia Coli Bacteremia And Covid-19 Co-Infection: A Case Report For The Louisville Covid-19 Epidemiology Study, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Ashley M. Wilde Pharmd, Bcps-Aqid, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Clayton J. Patross Pharmd, Bcps, Bryan Denham Md, Paul Schulz, Julio A. Ramirez Jun 2020

A Patient With Escherichia Coli Bacteremia And Covid-19 Co-Infection: A Case Report For The Louisville Covid-19 Epidemiology Study, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Ashley M. Wilde Pharmd, Bcps-Aqid, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Clayton J. Patross Pharmd, Bcps, Bryan Denham Md, Paul Schulz, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Patients with COVID-19 may have co-infections with other microorganisms. Here we report a case of a patient with an E. coli bacteremia secondary to a urinary tract infection, who experienced fevers while on active antimicrobial therapy. The patient was eventually tested for COVID-19 and found to be positive. This case emphasizes the need to suspect COVID-19 even in patients with documented bacterial infection.


Sars-Cov-2 And Bacterial Co-Infection, Rodrigo Cavallazzi Jun 2020

Sars-Cov-2 And Bacterial Co-Infection, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


An Assessment Of Potential Causal Pathways Between Two Autoimmune Diseases: Mendelian Randomization Studies Of Rheumatoid Arthritis And Crohn’S Disease; And A Phenome-Wide Association Study To Assess Potential New Targets For Tocilizumab, An Interleukin-6 Inhibitor, Staci Abramsky Risman Jun 2020

An Assessment Of Potential Causal Pathways Between Two Autoimmune Diseases: Mendelian Randomization Studies Of Rheumatoid Arthritis And Crohn’S Disease; And A Phenome-Wide Association Study To Assess Potential New Targets For Tocilizumab, An Interleukin-6 Inhibitor, Staci Abramsky Risman

Dissertations and Theses

Background

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are two among a group of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). These diseases are common, collectively affecting as many as two million Americans and as many as 28 million people worldwide. They have different clinical presentations but may have a common pathogenesis. An over-expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been proffered as a causal factor for IMIDs. These and other IMIDs may co-occur in patients, and it has been shown that patients with one IMID may have an increased risk of another IMID. What is not clear is ...


Life In The Time Of Covid, Julio A. Ramirez Jun 2020

Life In The Time Of Covid, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Healthcare Workers In The Time Of Covid, Julio A. Ramirez, Ruth Carrico Jun 2020

Healthcare Workers In The Time Of Covid, Julio A. Ramirez, Ruth Carrico

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Differential Relationships Between Waist Circumference And Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among People With And Without Type 2 Diabetes, Andrew Ortaglia, Samantha M. Mcdonald, Christina Supino, Michael D. Wirth, Xuem Sui, Matteo Bottai Jun 2020

Differential Relationships Between Waist Circumference And Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among People With And Without Type 2 Diabetes, Andrew Ortaglia, Samantha M. Mcdonald, Christina Supino, Michael D. Wirth, Xuem Sui, Matteo Bottai

Faculty Publications

Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus tend to exhibit an increased level of central adiposity, augmenting their risk of further non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Importantly, consistent evidence demonstrates a significant, negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and waist circumference (WC). However, no previous studies have investigated differences in these CRF-related reductions in WC between adults with and without diabetes.

This study used data from the Aerobic Center for Longitudinal Studies, conducted between 1970 and 2006 among predominately Non-Hispanic White, middle-to-upper class adults in Texas. Quantile regression models were used to estimate CRF-related differences in WC between persons with and without diabetes ...


Abo Blood Group Type And Susceptibility To Covid-19 Infection, G. Rafael Fernandez-Botran May 2020

Abo Blood Group Type And Susceptibility To Covid-19 Infection, G. Rafael Fernandez-Botran

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Since December 2019, the SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) pandemic has continued to extend over most of the world, infecting over four million people and causing well over 300,000 deaths so far (https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html, accessed on May 14, 2020). A significant percentage of infected patients develop severe symptoms and life-threatening conditions. While COVID-19 infection can affect all ages, available evidence points to older age and pre-existing comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease, as important risk factors related to increased mortality rates. [1-3] Moreover, recent reports from China and the U.S. have suggested that the ...


Psychosocial And Cognitive Multimorbidity And Health-Related Quality Of Life And Symptom Burden In Older Adults With Atrial Fibrillation: The Systematic Assessment Of Geriatric Elements In Atrial Fibrillation (Sage-Af) Cohort Study, Benita A. Bamgbade, Saket Sanghai, David D. Mcmanus, Darleen M. Lessard, Molly E. Waring, Sarah N. Forrester, Isabelle Pierre-Louis, Jane S. Saczynski May 2020

Psychosocial And Cognitive Multimorbidity And Health-Related Quality Of Life And Symptom Burden In Older Adults With Atrial Fibrillation: The Systematic Assessment Of Geriatric Elements In Atrial Fibrillation (Sage-Af) Cohort Study, Benita A. Bamgbade, Saket Sanghai, David D. Mcmanus, Darleen M. Lessard, Molly E. Waring, Sarah N. Forrester, Isabelle Pierre-Louis, Jane S. Saczynski

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairments occur in up to 40 % of adults with AF and are associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and higher symptom burden. However, it is unknown how often these impairments co-occur, or multimorbidity, and how multimorbidity effects HRQoL and symptom burden.

METHODS: Patients with AF age > /=65 years with a CHA2DS2VASC risk score > /= 2 and eligible for oral anticoagulation therapy were recruited from five clinics in a prospective cohort study. Participants completed validated measures of depression (PHQ9) and anxiety (GAD7), cognitive impairment (MoCA), and HRQOL and AF symptom burden (AFEQT). Multinomial logistic regression ...


Ua3/10/2 Wku Announces Big Red Restart Plan, Wku President's Office - Caboni May 2020

Ua3/10/2 Wku Announces Big Red Restart Plan, Wku President's Office - Caboni

WKU Archives Records

Email from WKU president Timothy Caboni to faculty & staff regarding Covid-19.


Implementation Of The Louisville Covid-19 Surveillance Protocol: Experiences From The University Of Louisville Center Of Excellence For Research In Infectious Diseases [Cerid], Ruth Carrico, Dawn Balcom, William Johnson, Amr Aboelnasr, Mutasem Abuhalaweh, Stephen Furmanek, Montray Smith, Amanda Lasnik, Donghoon Chung, Julio A. Ramirez May 2020

Implementation Of The Louisville Covid-19 Surveillance Protocol: Experiences From The University Of Louisville Center Of Excellence For Research In Infectious Diseases [Cerid], Ruth Carrico, Dawn Balcom, William Johnson, Amr Aboelnasr, Mutasem Abuhalaweh, Stephen Furmanek, Montray Smith, Amanda Lasnik, Donghoon Chung, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The lack of available testing for SARS-CoV-2 has been one of the primary challenges in the development and implementation of a comprehensive approach to infection prevention and transmission in the United States (US). In response to the need for increased testing capacities and capabilities, the University of Louisville (UofL) Division of Infectious Diseases, Center of Excellence for Research in Infectious Diseases (CERID) initiated the Louisville Coronavirus Surveillance Program, a comprehensive approach to surveillance and testing of patients and healthcare workers. The first specimens were accepted on March 12, 2020 and parallel testing was done using a high-capacity testing process and ...


Integrated Multiple Mediation Analysis: A Robustness–Specificity Trade-Off In Causal Structure, An-Shun Tai, Sheng-Hsuan Lin May 2020

Integrated Multiple Mediation Analysis: A Robustness–Specificity Trade-Off In Causal Structure, An-Shun Tai, Sheng-Hsuan Lin

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Recent methodological developments in causal mediation analysis have addressed several issues regarding multiple mediators. However, these developed methods differ in their definitions of causal parameters, assumptions for identification, and interpretations of causal effects, making it unclear which method ought to be selected when investigating a given causal effect. Thus, in this study, we construct an integrated framework, which unifies all existing methodologies, as a standard for mediation analysis with multiple mediators. To clarify the relationship between existing methods, we propose four strategies for effect decomposition: two-way, partially forward, partially backward, and complete decompositions. This study reveals how the direct and ...


Ua3/10/2 Budget Update, Wku President's Office - Caboni May 2020

Ua3/10/2 Budget Update, Wku President's Office - Caboni

WKU Archives Records

Email from WKU president Timothy Caboni to faculty & staff regarding the budget.


Odds Of Autism At 5 To 10 Years Of Age For Children Who Did Not Pass Their Aabr Newborn Hearing Screen, But Were Diagnosed With Normal Hearing, Shihfen Tu, Craig A. Mason, Deborah L. Rooks-Ellis, Patricia Lech May 2020

Odds Of Autism At 5 To 10 Years Of Age For Children Who Did Not Pass Their Aabr Newborn Hearing Screen, But Were Diagnosed With Normal Hearing, Shihfen Tu, Craig A. Mason, Deborah L. Rooks-Ellis, Patricia Lech

Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention

Background: Research has found atypical Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) activity in some children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study examined whether an association may also be found between ASD and pass/refer results obtained via Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR) screening. As stewards of large-scale AABR data, an AABR – ASD association may be of interest to EHDI programs.

Methods: State EHDI data for 29,350 children born in Maine between 2003 and 2005 were linked with education records, including special education status, for the 2010/2011 and 2013/2014 school years.

Results: Children who did not pass their ...


Secure Messaging, Diabetes Self-Management, And The Importance Of Patient Autonomy: A Mixed Methods Study, Stephanie A. Robinson, Mark S. Zocchi, Dane Netherton, Arlene S. Ash, Carolyn M. Purington, Samantha L. Connolly, Varsha G. Vimalananda, Timothy P. Hogan, Stephanie L. Shimada May 2020

Secure Messaging, Diabetes Self-Management, And The Importance Of Patient Autonomy: A Mixed Methods Study, Stephanie A. Robinson, Mark S. Zocchi, Dane Netherton, Arlene S. Ash, Carolyn M. Purington, Samantha L. Connolly, Varsha G. Vimalananda, Timothy P. Hogan, Stephanie L. Shimada

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a complex, chronic disease that requires patients' effective self-management between clinical visits; this in turn relies on patient self-efficacy. The support of patient autonomy from healthcare providers is associated with better self-management and greater diabetes self-efficacy. Effective provider-patient secure messaging (SM) through patient portals may improve disease self-management and self-efficacy. SM that supports patients' sense of autonomy may mediate this effect by providing patients ready access to their health information and better communication with their clinical teams.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between healthcare team-initiated SM and diabetes self-management and self-efficacy, and whether this association was mediated ...


Phase-Adjusted Estimation Of The Covid-19 Outbreak In South Korea Under Multi-Source Data And Adjustment Measures: A Modelling Study, Xiaomei Feng, Jing Chen, Kai Wang, Lei Wang, Fengqin Zhang, Zhen Jin, Lan Zou, Xia Wang May 2020

Phase-Adjusted Estimation Of The Covid-19 Outbreak In South Korea Under Multi-Source Data And Adjustment Measures: A Modelling Study, Xiaomei Feng, Jing Chen, Kai Wang, Lei Wang, Fengqin Zhang, Zhen Jin, Lan Zou, Xia Wang

Mathematics Faculty Articles

Based on the reported data from February 16, 2020 to March 9, 2020 in South Korea including confirmed cases, death cases and recovery cases, the control reproduction number was estimated respectively at different control measure phases using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and presented using the resulting posterior mean and 95% credible interval (CrI). At the early phase from February 16 to February 24, we estimate the basic reproduction number R0 of COVID-19 to be 4.79(95% CrI 4.38 - 5.2). The estimated control reproduction number dropped rapidly to Rc ≈ 0.32 ...


Modified Cha2ds2-Vasc Score Predicts In-Hospital Mortality And Procedural Complications In Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Ashraf Abugroun, Abdalla Hassan, Safwan Gaznabi, Hakeem Ayinde, Ahmed Subahi, Mohammed Samee, Adhir Shroff, Lloyd W. Klein May 2020

Modified Cha2ds2-Vasc Score Predicts In-Hospital Mortality And Procedural Complications In Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Ashraf Abugroun, Abdalla Hassan, Safwan Gaznabi, Hakeem Ayinde, Ahmed Subahi, Mohammed Samee, Adhir Shroff, Lloyd W. Klein

Open Access Articles

Background: Current risk prediction models in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI are mathematically complex. This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of a modified CHA2DS2-VASc score, comprised of easily accessible clinical factors in predicting adverse events.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for ACS patients who underwent PCI between 2010 and 2014. We developed a modified CHA2DS2-VASc score for risk prediction in ACS patients. Multivariate mixed effect logistic regression was utilized to study the adjusted risk for adverse outcomes based on the score. The primary outcome evaluated was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes assessed were stroke ...


Impact Of Dogs With Deltamethrin-Impregnated Collars On Prevalence Of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Mondal H. Zahid May 2020

Impact Of Dogs With Deltamethrin-Impregnated Collars On Prevalence Of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Mondal H. Zahid

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Variation In Mate Choice And Wolbachia Infection On Aedes Aegypti Population Dynamics, Bernardo Ameneyro May 2020

The Role Of Variation In Mate Choice And Wolbachia Infection On Aedes Aegypti Population Dynamics, Bernardo Ameneyro

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Class Of 2020, Srinivasan Ragothaman May 2020

The Class Of 2020, Srinivasan Ragothaman

Creative Work

The is a poem written in honor of the class of 2020. The coronavirus pandemic has robbed them of many fun activities in their final semester in college. The graduating seniors missed out on so many rites of passage such as march madness, commencement, award banquets, sports, labs, practice, face-to-face classes etc. for the last two months. Seniors are encouraged to have fortitude, practice patience, be grateful and show grit. The class of 2020 will conquer the world in due course. It is hoped that graduates will have imagination, will innovate and transform the world.


Validation And Preliminary Data From A Health-Related Quality Of Life Questionnaire For Owners Of Dogs With Cardiac Disease, Lisa M. Freeman, John E. Rush, Melissa A. Clark, Barret J. Bulmer May 2020

Validation And Preliminary Data From A Health-Related Quality Of Life Questionnaire For Owners Of Dogs With Cardiac Disease, Lisa M. Freeman, John E. Rush, Melissa A. Clark, Barret J. Bulmer

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Cardiac disease in dogs impacts the quality of life (QoL) of their owners, but owners' QoL has not been comprehensively assessed in this population.

OBJECTIVES: To develop, validate, and provide preliminary data from a health-related QoL (hrQoL) questionnaire for owners of dogs with cardiac disease.

SUBJECTS: A total of 141 owners of dogs with cardiac disease were studied.

METHODS: An owner hrQoL (O-hrQoL) questionnaire containing 20 items related to areas of a person's life that could be impacted by caring for a dog with cardiac disease was developed and administered to owners of dogs with cardiac disease. The ...


Understanding Pediatric Injury In Collier County, Florida: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Carmen T. Ramos-Irizarry May 2020

Understanding Pediatric Injury In Collier County, Florida: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Carmen T. Ramos-Irizarry

Florida Public Health Review

Background: The current trauma system in Collier County disperses injured pediatric patients to trauma centers outside the County. There is a critical gap in knowledge in the epidemiology of the County’s pediatric trauma patients.

Purpose: To understand injury patterns in children ages 0-17 years in Collier County and identify challenges in transporting injured children to definitive care.

Methods: This is a cross sectional, descriptive study using a sequential mixed-methods design. A thorough review of the literature and interviews of key stakeholders were conducted in August 2017. Data obtained from the interviews was used to develop a causal loop diagram ...


Applying Modern Immunology To The Plague Of Ancient Athens, Juhi C. Patel May 2020

Applying Modern Immunology To The Plague Of Ancient Athens, Juhi C. Patel

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

During the 5th century BCE, ancient Athens and Sparta were involved in a major war during which an epidemic disease broke out in Athens, claiming the lives of a substantial part of the population. Although the ancient Greek historian Thucydides provides a first-hand account of the symptoms of the plague, modern historians have not been able to definitively identify the pathogen that caused the deadly epidemic. In 1994, a burial tomb of Athens was unearthed that unveiled the likely remains of plague victims. In 2005, scientists conducted molecular testing on the dental remains and used suicide PCR to compare ...


How Misinformation And Mistrust Compound The Threat Of Epidemics, William Boyd May 2020

How Misinformation And Mistrust Compound The Threat Of Epidemics, William Boyd

Honors Theses

This thesis was conducted to study the effects of misinformation and medical mistrust on the public health field. I use the events of the Chapare Virus outbreak in Bolivia in the summer of 2019 and the public dialogue during that time period to discuss these themes. I used data from market survey's in La Paz, newspaper articles from Página Siete, and Tweets from the time period of the outbreak. My findings suggest that misinformation and medical mistrust affected public health measures, which has major implications for the way the public health field should address future public health events.


Life During A Pandemic, Srinivasan Ragothaman May 2020

Life During A Pandemic, Srinivasan Ragothaman

Creative Work

This is a short poem (6 stanzas) about the current pandemic and the trials and tribulations people are going through. This describes the heroic efforts by the doctors, nurses, and other frontline warriors in tackling the virus related illnesses and pays a rich tribute to all heroes from every walk of life who are in the front fighting this disease. It hopes for a plan, a vaccine, and a cure soon. This poem also describes the switchover to remote instruction at a reginal University, student and faculty adjustments to the pandemic and pokes gentle fun at the opportunity to watch ...