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Influenza Virus Vaccines Commons

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Covid-19 Vaccination In Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Modelling Study Of Health Impact And Cost-Effectiveness, Carl A B. Pearson, Fiammetta Bozzani, Simon R. Procter, Nicholas G. Davies, Maryam Huda, Henning Tarp Jensen, Marcus Keogh-Brown, Muhammad Khalid, Sedona Sweeney, Sergio Torres-Rueda 2021 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Covid-19 Vaccination In Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Modelling Study Of Health Impact And Cost-Effectiveness, Carl A B. Pearson, Fiammetta Bozzani, Simon R. Procter, Nicholas G. Davies, Maryam Huda, Henning Tarp Jensen, Marcus Keogh-Brown, Muhammad Khalid, Sedona Sweeney, Sergio Torres-Rueda

Community Health Sciences

Background: Multiple Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines appear to be safe and efficacious, but only high-income countries have the resources to procure sufficient vaccine doses for most of their eligible populations. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for vaccine prioritisation, but most vaccine impact projections have focused on high-income countries, and few incorporate economic considerations. To address this evidence gap, we projected the health and economic impact of different vaccination scenarios in Sindh Province, Pakistan (population: 48 million).
Methods and findings: We fitted a compartmental transmission model to COVID-19 cases and deaths in Sindh from 30 April to 15 ...


Simulating Influenza Epidemics With Waning Vaccine Immunity, Chun-Miin Chen, Alia C. Stanciu 2021 Bucknell University

Simulating Influenza Epidemics With Waning Vaccine Immunity, Chun-Miin Chen, Alia C. Stanciu

Faculty Journal Articles

In this study, we simulate an influenza epidemic that considers the effects of waning immunity by fitting epidemiological models to CDC secondary historical data aggregated on a weekly basis, and derive the transmission rates at which susceptible individuals become infected over the course of the influenza season. Using a system of differential equations, we define four groups of individuals in a population: susceptible, vaccinated, infected, and recovered. We show that a larger number of initially infected individuals might not only bring the influenza season to an end sooner but also reduce the epidemic size. Moreover, any influenza virus that entails ...


Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen 2021 Aga Khan University

Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pakistan's immunization uptake rates are still significantly lower than anticipated despite several initiatives. Lack of awareness, forgetting about vaccination schedule, and vaccine misconception/misinformation are a few of the major drivers that mitigate the rates of immunization. The current COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of immunization. The significant reductions in regular childhood vaccination during pandemic have increased the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Concerns among parents over possibly exposing their children to COVID-19 during child visits may have contributed to the reported declines. Innovative and cost-effective mHealth interventions must be implemented in order to address the problem ...


Acceptance Rates And Beliefs Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among The General Population Of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Farah Yasmin, Waleed Asghar, Maryam Salma Babar, Hiba Khan, Shoaib Ahmad, Zaid Hameed, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Hamza Nauman, Abdullah Khan Khattak 2021 Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

Acceptance Rates And Beliefs Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among The General Population Of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Farah Yasmin, Waleed Asghar, Maryam Salma Babar, Hiba Khan, Shoaib Ahmad, Zaid Hameed, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Hamza Nauman, Abdullah Khan Khattak

Medical College Documents

Developing countries like Pakistan have previously suffered from barriers to acceptance of vaccination by the public because of financial and belief barriers. This study aims to explore these beliefs and highlight concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy in the general population of Pakistan since they are a hindrance to an effective coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) immunization in the country. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 1,778 participants from all four provinces of Pakistan. Results from the study showed more than half of the participants to be unsure of the safety (50%) and efficacy (51%) of the vaccine, whereas 42% were concerned about ...


Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Mortality Among Young Infants In Karachi, Pakistan: A Prospective Postmortem Surveillance Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Obianuju G. Aguolu, Waliyah Mughis, Nazia Ahsan, Saima Jamal, Ayub Khan, Hanya M. QureshI, Inci Yildirim, Fauzia A. Malik, Saad B. Omer 2021 Aga Khan University

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Mortality Among Young Infants In Karachi, Pakistan: A Prospective Postmortem Surveillance Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Obianuju G. Aguolu, Waliyah Mughis, Nazia Ahsan, Saima Jamal, Ayub Khan, Hanya M. Qureshi, Inci Yildirim, Fauzia A. Malik, Saad B. Omer

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a potential target for maternal immunization strategies. However, data on the role of RSV in young infant deaths in developing countries are limited.
Methods: We conducted a community-based mortality surveillance from August 2018-March 2020 for infants ≤6 months in Karachi, Pakistan. We tested (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) nasopharyngeal swabs from deceased infants for presence of RSV. We performed verbal autopsies and calculated odds of RSV-associated mortality with 95% CIs and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations.
Results: We collected 490 nasopharyngeal specimens from 1280 ...


Effectiveness Of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Against Culture-Confirmed Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhi In An Extensively Drug-Resistant Outbreak Setting Of Hyderabad, Pakistan: A Cohort Study, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sultan Karim, Sonia Qureshi, Abdul Momin Kazi, Hina Memon, Amber Junejo, Zohra Khawaja, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Ansari, Rafey Ali, Heera Mani Lohana, Farah Naz Qamar 2021 Aga Khan University

Effectiveness Of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Against Culture-Confirmed Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhi In An Extensively Drug-Resistant Outbreak Setting Of Hyderabad, Pakistan: A Cohort Study, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sultan Karim, Sonia Qureshi, Abdul Momin Kazi, Hina Memon, Amber Junejo, Zohra Khawaja, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Ansari, Rafey Ali, Heera Mani Lohana, Farah Naz Qamar

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) is a major public health problem in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and impact of the typhoid conjugate vaccine Typbar-TCV against S Typhi among children in an outbreak setting of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S Typhi in Pakistan.
Methods: This cohort study was done from Feb 21, 2018, to Dec 31, 2019. A census survey of all households located in the Qasimabad and Latifabad subdistricts of Hyderabad, Pakistan, was done at baseline, and 174 005 households were registered in the census. The Typbar-TCV immunisation campaign was initiated at temporary ...


Determinants Of Vaccine Hesitancy In Indonesia: A Scoping Review, Nuril Hanifah, Ike Herdiana, Rahkman Ardi 2021 Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Kota Surabaya 60286, Indonesia

Determinants Of Vaccine Hesitancy In Indonesia: A Scoping Review, Nuril Hanifah, Ike Herdiana, Rahkman Ardi

Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia

Complete children immunization coverage in Indonesia declined from 59.2% in 2013 to 57.9% in 2016. Therefore, a study on understanding the vaccination barrier is necessary to improve future coverage. This scoping review aims to identify the determinants of vaccine hesitancy using the model of the World Health Organization-Strategic Advisory Group of Expert (WHO-SAGE) working group and to map them on the basis of region, target population, and vaccine. This research used publications from seven databases (Science Direct, Wiley, Scopus, SAGE, PubMed, Springer, and Taylor & Francis) from 2015 to 2020. A total of 10,212 publications were identified and ...


Acceptance Of Covid-19 Vaccine In Pakistan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study, Mohammad Aadil Qamar, Omar Irfan, Rubaid A. Dhillon, Areesh Bhatti, Mir Ibrahim Sajid, Safia Awan, Wajiha Rizwan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Zouina Sarfraz, Javaid Ahmed Khan 2021 Ziauddin University, Karachi, PAK.

Acceptance Of Covid-19 Vaccine In Pakistan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study, Mohammad Aadil Qamar, Omar Irfan, Rubaid A. Dhillon, Areesh Bhatti, Mir Ibrahim Sajid, Safia Awan, Wajiha Rizwan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Zouina Sarfraz, Javaid Ahmed Khan

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is available across various countries worldwide, with public-private partnerships ensuring all individuals are vaccinated through a phased approach. Irrespective of the geographical spread, several myths pertaining to the COVID-19 vaccine have stemmed, ultimately limiting the national administration of vaccines and rollouts. This study assessed the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among the general public in Pakistan.
Methods: A pre-validated questionnaire was administered from January 2021 to February 2021 to assess the public attitude and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Logistic regression analyses were run to identify factors associated with the acceptance among the ...


Multi-Subunit Sars-Cov-2 Vaccine Design Using Evolutionarily Conserved T- And B- Cell Epitopes, Burkitkan Akbay, Syed Hani Abidi, Mahmoud A A. Ibrahim, Zhussipbek Mukhatayev, Syed Ali 2021 Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan

Multi-Subunit Sars-Cov-2 Vaccine Design Using Evolutionarily Conserved T- And B- Cell Epitopes, Burkitkan Akbay, Syed Hani Abidi, Mahmoud A A. Ibrahim, Zhussipbek Mukhatayev, Syed Ali

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a public health crisis worldwide. Although vaccines against the virus are efficiently being rolled out, they are proving to be ineffective against certain emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The high degree of sequence similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses (HCoV) presents the opportunity for designing vaccines that may offer protection against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants, with cross-protection against other HCoVs. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analyses to identify T and B cell epitopes originating from spike, membrane, nucleocapsid, and envelope protein sequences found to be evolutionarily conserved among seven major HCoVs. Evolutionary conservation of ...


Forum 10: Covid Vaccines: How Did You Get Here?, David Dobrzykowski, Sarah Nurre Pinkley 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Forum 10: Covid Vaccines: How Did You Get Here?, David Dobrzykowski, Sarah Nurre Pinkley

Vaccine Course

We consider the supply chains for the distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine and other routine vaccines. We first outline new product development, manufacturing flow management, order fulfillment and vaccine distribution. Next, we focus on the vaccine supply chains in low and middle-income countries. We discuss the cold supply chain and challenges in these countries. Lastly, we discuss current drone delivery capabilities and how drones are being used to delivery the COVID-19 vaccine.


Meeting Minutes, WKU Council of Academic Deans 2021 Western Kentucky University

Meeting Minutes, Wku Council Of Academic Deans

Council of Academic Deans

Meeting regarding post-COVID instructional modality and international travel.


Forum 8: Logistics And The Vaccine, Ashlea Milburn 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Forum 8: Logistics And The Vaccine, Ashlea Milburn

Vaccine Course

This presentation summarizes the goals of the COVID-19 vaccination program and provides an overview of its status as of May 2021. Next, the logistics requirements of Community Vaccination Centers (CVCs), which are common venues for mass vaccine dispensing, are presented. According to this dispensing method, people travel to where the vaccine is being administered (people-to-shots). Finally, the logistics requirements of an alternative dispensing method that brings the vaccine to people in their homes (shots-to-people) are addressed. This dispensing method can increase vaccine access for homebound individuals.


Forum 6: Humanistic Health And The History Of Vaccine Hesitancy: Lessons From Then And Now, Casey Kayser, Kaitlyn Akel 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Forum 6: Humanistic Health And The History Of Vaccine Hesitancy: Lessons From Then And Now, Casey Kayser, Kaitlyn Akel

Vaccine Course

Kayser introduces and defines humanistic health, focusing on the need for this approach in healthcare, the qualities of practitioners who practice humanistic medicine, and the outcomes it provides for patients and practitioners alike. She discusses why COVID-19 has laid bare the need for humanistic approaches, and how they help us to understand issues surrounding the virus and the vaccine. Akel discusses parallels between historical vaccine hesitancy and that during the COVID-19 pandemic. She illustrates the public health significance of vaccination as a public health intervention as well as what professionals in the field are doing to measure and intervene on ...


Forum 5: Understanding Vaccine Efficacy And Effectiveness: A Statistician's Perspective/Open Access Stem Research, Jyotishka Datta, Angie Ohler 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Forum 5: Understanding Vaccine Efficacy And Effectiveness: A Statistician's Perspective/Open Access Stem Research, Jyotishka Datta, Angie Ohler

Vaccine Course

In the first part of this presentation, Jyotishka Datta discusses the concepts and calculations behind the efficacy and effectiveness for vaccines from a statistician’s perspective, as well as the different factors contributing to it. Prof. Datta also offers a brief tour through the history of vaccines in preventing infectious diseases and the development of statistical tools such as randomized controlled trials. Lastly, Prof. Datta discusses the direct and indirect effects, the inherent uncertainties involved with the efficacy and efficiency numbers and remark on their comparison. In the second part of this presentation, Angie Ohler discusses the vital role of ...


Forum 1: Social Inequality, Justice, And Vaccine Intent And Distribution In The United States, Grant Drawve, Kevin Fitzpatrick, Casey Harris 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Forum 1: Social Inequality, Justice, And Vaccine Intent And Distribution In The United States, Grant Drawve, Kevin Fitzpatrick, Casey Harris

Vaccine Course

The key issues for the distribution of the COVID vaccine are shared. These issues include funding, racial and ethnic disparities, supply and logistics, communication and trust, federal, state and local roles, and coverage and costs.


Vaccine Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Vaccine Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon

Vaccine Course

This forum zooms in on the race to develop a vaccine for the COVID-19 Coronavirus through a diversity of academic and professional disciplines: medicine, medical history, sociology, statistics, social media studies, public health, immunology, political science, industrial engineering, supply chain management, and chemical engineering. In so doing, the forum’s instructors situate the COVID-19 vaccine within a broader narrative of the science of immunization, the history of vaccines, the social and economic inequalities produced by deploying a vaccine, and the challenges presented to the global supply chain.


Eradicating Polio In Pakistan: A Systematic Review Of Programs And Policies, Anushka Ataullahjan, Hanaa Ahsan, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Atif Habib, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2021 The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada

Eradicating Polio In Pakistan: A Systematic Review Of Programs And Policies, Anushka Ataullahjan, Hanaa Ahsan, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Atif Habib, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

Introduction: Established in 1994, Pakistan's polio program demonstrated early success. However, despite over 120 supplementary immunization activities in the last decade, polio eradication efforts in Pakistan have been unable to achieve their objective of halting polio transmission. Variable governance, and inconsistent leadership and accountability have hindered the success of the polio program and the quality of the campaigns. Insecurity and terrorism has interrupted polio activities, and community fears and misbeliefs about polio vaccinations continue to persist.
Areas covered: The article consists of a systematic review of the barriers and facilitators associated with the delivery of polio eradication activities in ...


Hpv Vaccine Hesitancy, Ellen Fountain 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hpv Vaccine Hesitancy, Ellen Fountain

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus spread through close contact, often sexual contact. Those infected will be at high risk of developing HPV-related cancers later in life. In 2006, the HPV vaccine was approved for use in the United States, but many were, and continue to be, hesitant to vaccinate their children. While other factors come into play, many times there are misconceptions contributing to hesitancy and ultimate refusal of the vaccine. The goal of this analysis is to review these factors and misconceptions and explore education-based interventions designed to minimize HPV vaccine hesitancy.


Exploring Equity In Health And Poverty Impacts Of Control Measures For Sars-Cov-2 In Six Countries, Sedona Sweeney, Theo Prudencio Juhani Capeding, Rosalind Eggo, Maryam Huda, Mark Jit, Don Mudzengi, Nichola R. Naylor, Simon Procter, Matthew Quaife, Lela Serebryakova 2021 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Exploring Equity In Health And Poverty Impacts Of Control Measures For Sars-Cov-2 In Six Countries, Sedona Sweeney, Theo Prudencio Juhani Capeding, Rosalind Eggo, Maryam Huda, Mark Jit, Don Mudzengi, Nichola R. Naylor, Simon Procter, Matthew Quaife, Lela Serebryakova

Community Health Sciences

Background: Policy makers need to be rapidly informed about the potential equity consequences of different COVID-19 strategies, alongside their broader health and economic impacts. While there are complex models to inform both potential health and macro-economic impact, there are few tools available to rapidly assess potential equity impacts of interventions.
Methods: We created an economic model to simulate the impact of lockdown measures in Pakistan, Georgia, Chile, UK, the Philippines and South Africa. We consider impact of lockdown in terms of ability to socially distance, and income loss during lockdown, and tested the impact of assumptions on social protection coverage ...


Structural Basis Of Blastomyces Endoglucanase-2 Adjuvancy In Anti-Fungal And -Viral Immunity, Lucas Dos Santos Dias, Christina L. Gomez, Charles A. Specht, Stuart M. Levitz, Marcel Wuthrich 2021 University of Wisconsin

Structural Basis Of Blastomyces Endoglucanase-2 Adjuvancy In Anti-Fungal And -Viral Immunity, Lucas Dos Santos Dias, Christina L. Gomez, Charles A. Specht, Stuart M. Levitz, Marcel Wuthrich

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The development of safe subunit vaccines requires adjuvants that augment immunogenicity of non-replicating protein-based antigens. Current vaccines against infectious diseases preferentially induce protective antibodies driven by adjuvants such as alum. However, the contribution of antibody to host defense is limited for certain classes of infectious diseases such as fungi, whereas animal studies and clinical observations implicate cellular immunity as an essential component of the resolution of fungal pathogens. Here, we decipher the structural bases of a newly identified glycoprotein ligand of Dectin-2 with potent adjuvancy, Blastomyces endoglucanase-2 (Bl-Eng2). We also pinpoint the developmental steps of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T ...


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