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Inside The Juvenile Justice System, Megan Phalon 2016 University of San Francisco

Inside The Juvenile Justice System, Megan Phalon

Master's Projects

The United States of America is known for freedom and integrity and being a nation that stands for justice and equality for all. Within the United States there are systems in place to better the people and communities in order to provide safety and order. However, just as any nation, there is a struggle with violent behavior and tendencies among adults and adolescents. Within the last three decades, the United States has created a correctional system that specifically targets adolescents, and that acknowledges the differences between adult and juvenile development and deviant behavior. Within this literature review, academic databases were ...


Zika Virus And Global Health Security, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge Jr. 2016 Georgetown University Law Center

Zika Virus And Global Health Security, Lawrence O. Gostin, James G. Hodge Jr.

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Americans are largely apathetic about the risks of Zika virus and Congress cannot agree on preparedness funding. Strategies to counter the spread of Zika by the World Health Organisation (WHO) grossly underestimate the disease’s impact. WHO and member countries lack sufficient resources to respond. Consequences of fiscal apathy can be measured in lives lost and long-term disabilities. Zika prevention is a matter of global health security.

The epidemiologic brunt of Zika in South America falls largely on vulnerable women at heightened risk of exposure through mosquitoes and sexual transmission. Resulting transmission to fetuses and infants will have generational impacts ...


Perceptions Of Fidelity And Adaptation In Evidence-Informed Interventions By Women Of Color Sexuality Health Educators, Sara C. Flowers 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Perceptions Of Fidelity And Adaptation In Evidence-Informed Interventions By Women Of Color Sexuality Health Educators, Sara C. Flowers

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sexuality health educators (SHEs) adapt interventions to the participants’ needs in the dissemination and implementation of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) programming. However, there is a lack of understanding of how, why and when SHEs make such adaptations. Success or failure of the transfer of prevention technology to practitioners occurs by determining community capacities and preparedness to adopt/adapt high-impact interventions to effectively manage implementation. Experts argue for evidence-informed interventions (EII), as opposed to evidence-based interventions (EBI), as the best way to incorporate research in applied settings. EBIs are solely guided by recommendations from current evidence, whereas EIIs recognize and incorporate ...


Systematic Identification Of Coordination Gaps In Pediatric Care, Diana M. Prieto, Anil Kumar, Catherine L. Kothari, Cheryl Dickson 2016 Western Michigan University

Systematic Identification Of Coordination Gaps In Pediatric Care, Diana M. Prieto, Anil Kumar, Catherine L. Kothari, Cheryl Dickson

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

In the United States, the status of coordination among pediatric care services is not well understood. Through the use of quality improvement (QI) techniques, coordination gaps were systematically identified in the interagency network of pediatric services in Kalamazoo MI. Gaps were found in transportation resources, follow-up procedures, awareness of services, interagency communication, insurance limitations, population behaviors, and resource utilization. This preliminary study reveals the need for (1) protocols for intra- and inter-agency communication, (2) mechanisms for easy and fast retrieval of pediatric resources, and (3) health information exchange.


Using Process Mining To Assess The Fidelity Of A Home Visiting Program, Riyad Haq, Sofia Campos Vidal Pires, Julie M. Kapp, Sara Schlemper, Eduardo J. Simoes 2016 University of Missouri School of Medicine

Using Process Mining To Assess The Fidelity Of A Home Visiting Program, Riyad Haq, Sofia Campos Vidal Pires, Julie M. Kapp, Sara Schlemper, Eduardo J. Simoes

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

Background: The Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program is a federal public health initiative which supports at-risk families through evidence-based programs and promising approaches for pregnant women, and childhood development for children aged 0 to 5. These public health program funding mechanisms commonly include process evaluation mandates.

Purpose: The use of process mining was explored as a methodology to assess the fidelity of the MIECHV programs’ actual workflow to that of their intended models.

Methods: Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) data files that were populated with program process data elements from the local implementing agencies were mined ...


Unicef Kid Power: Empowering Kids To Get Active And Save Lives, Emily L. Gudaitis 2016 University of San Francisco

Unicef Kid Power: Empowering Kids To Get Active And Save Lives, Emily L. Gudaitis

Master's Projects

UNICEF Kid Power is a program aimed at increasing U.S. children’s activity levels by tapping into children’s intrinsic desire to do good. Through their activity levels, kids earn points, which unlocks funding from partners that will support treatment for a malnourished child. This one-of-a-kind program was implemented in the Bay Area in Spring 2016 with 7,800 youth participants. The attached paper is a summary of a 300-hour fieldwork experience at the U.S. Fund for UNICEF assisting with the UNICEF Kid Power implementation in the Bay Area. The fieldwork included program implementation and evaluation, presentations at ...


The Complexity Of Non-Profit Administration In Global Development: A Case-Study On Neonatal Mortality, Paul D. Glantz 2016 University of San Francisco

The Complexity Of Non-Profit Administration In Global Development: A Case-Study On Neonatal Mortality, Paul D. Glantz

Master's Projects

In 2015, 5.9 million children died with 44% of those deaths occurring in the most vulnerable period of life: the neonatal period (first 28 days of life). Because this is such a pervasive problem, in order to meet the United Nation’s third Sustainable Development Goal of reducing the global neonatal mortality rate down from 27 to 12 deaths per 1,000 live births, there needs to be more evidence-based, effective interventions. Thrive Networks addresses newborn mortality by improving facility-based care in low-resource settings via intensive training and lifesaving medical equipment built to operate in these conditions. Despite all ...


Mater: Innovative Programs For Maternal Addiction Education Treatment And Research, Meghan Gannon PhD MSPH 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

Mater: Innovative Programs For Maternal Addiction Education Treatment And Research, Meghan Gannon Phd Msph

Population Health Matters (Formerly Health Policy Newsletter)

No abstract provided.


A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman

Tiffany A. Moore Simas

Background: Diet plays an important role in the prevention and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Previous studies suggest that soy protein and isoflavones may have beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Little is known regarding the cardiometabolic effects of soy intake during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, safety and acceptability of daily consumption of soy foods during pregnancy in women at high risk for GDM, and participant adherence to their assigned treatment.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted among pregnant women at high risk for GDM. The Soy group were counseled to consume a ...


Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar

Jeroan J. Allison

Introduction: In 2013, approximately 2.8 million children worldwide died within the neonatal period. India is at the epicenter of this tragedy, accounting for one-third of all neonatal mortalities. Prematurity and/or with low birth weight are the leading cause of neonatal mortality and India has the highest number of neonates born preterm and weighing less than 2,500 grams worldwide. It is estimated that Kangaroo Care can avert up to 48% of all neonatal deaths among premature babies by 2025. However, the promise of Kangaroo Care as a low-cost, safe, and efficacious intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in India ...


Retention Of Mothers And Infants In The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme Is Associated With Individual And Facility-Level Factors In Rwanda., Godfrey B Woelk, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Sally Behan, Martha Mukaminega, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Heather J. Hoffman, Placidie Mugwaneza, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Anouk Amzel, B Ryan Phelps 2016 George Washington University

Retention Of Mothers And Infants In The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv Programme Is Associated With Individual And Facility-Level Factors In Rwanda., Godfrey B Woelk, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Sally Behan, Martha Mukaminega, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Heather J. Hoffman, Placidie Mugwaneza, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Anouk Amzel, B Ryan Phelps

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Investigate levels of retention at specified time periods along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade among mother-infant pairs as well as individual- and facility-level factors associated with retention.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants attending five health centres from November 2010 to February 2012 in the Option B programme in Rwanda was established. Data were collected from several health registers and patient follow-up files. Additionally, informant interviews were conducted to ascertain health facility characteristics. Generalized estimating equation methods and modelling were utilized to estimate the number of mothers attending each antenatal care visit ...


Injury-Related Infant Deaths: A State Analysis Of A Public Health, Health Care, Policy Network, Sharla Smith, Xi Zhu, Mary Aitken 2016 University of Kansas Medical Center

Injury-Related Infant Deaths: A State Analysis Of A Public Health, Health Care, Policy Network, Sharla Smith, Xi Zhu, Mary Aitken

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

Introduction: This research examines a state-level public health, health care, and policy network focused on efforts to reduce unintentional childhood injuries. The network is composed of 12 organizations: four public health, four health care, and four policy.

Methods: A 23-item survey was administered to the 12 organizations between January and June 2015. Analyses were conducted using HyperResearch and UCInet 6.

Results: More organizations worked together on assessment and planning efforts that identify and quantify the nature of at-risk infants in the community and strategies for reducing injury-related infant deaths. The Injury Prevention Center, the most central organization, interacted most frequently ...


The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: An Examination Of Obesity Prevention Behavioral Change In Children Who Participated In The Afterschool Program Virginia Beach Let’S Move, Marilyn Miroshlava Bartholmae 2016 Old Dominion University

The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: An Examination Of Obesity Prevention Behavioral Change In Children Who Participated In The Afterschool Program Virginia Beach Let’S Move, Marilyn Miroshlava Bartholmae

Health Services Research Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model (IMB) as a foundation to design childhood obesity prevention afterschool programs. This study employed a secondary analysis of pre (n=172), post (n=170), and 1-year follow-up (n=32) evaluations of the obesity prevention afterschool program Virginia Beach Let’s Move for children ages 5-11 years. Independent variables included demographic characteristics for the participating children and their parents. Dependent variables used in this study were the IMB constructs information and motivation. Motivation was measured by the attitudes of the children and information was measured by ...


Discovery And Development Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies To Block Rhd Alloimmunization During Pregnancy, Tushar Gupta, Melissa Gawron, Colby A. Souders, Michael A. Brehm, Dale Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Smita Jaiswal, Sean McCauley, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban, Lisa Cavacini 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Discovery And Development Of Human Monoclonal Antibodies To Block Rhd Alloimmunization During Pregnancy, Tushar Gupta, Melissa Gawron, Colby A. Souders, Michael A. Brehm, Dale Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Smita Jaiswal, Sean Mccauley, Ann Dauphin, Jeremy Luban, Lisa Cavacini

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Exposure of an Rh negative mother to red blood cells (RBCs) of an Rh positive fetus results in alloimmunization and development of anti-RhD antibodies. The anti-RhD antibodies cause hemolytic disease of the new born babies during subsequent pregnancies. Current prophylactic treatment involves polyclonal anti-RhD IgG purified from plasma of humans and is administered in approximately 20% of pregnancies. While the current prophylaxis is effective, it involves the use of human plasma and non-RhD specific antibodies, thus posing a risk of transmitting infections and undesired antibody reactions. Moreover, there is a serious scarcity of plasma donors to meet the requirement of ...


Predisposed Health Conditions Of Children Exposed To Methamphetamine In Utero, Seth Peters 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Predisposed Health Conditions Of Children Exposed To Methamphetamine In Utero, Seth Peters

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Methamphetamine (MA) use and abuse is a growing problem worldwide [United Nations World Drug Report]. It is common knowledge that MA use affects not only the user, but also friends, family, and the communities close to them [NIDA]. One area of impact that is lacking sufficient study is the effects of MA use by expectant mothers on her child later in life. That is to say, a child who was exposed to MA in utero may be more likely than an unexposed fetus to have predispositions to a variety of health conditions. After an extensive PubMed database search, it is ...


Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Can Physician Champions Improve Kangaroo Care? Trends Over 5 Years In Rural Western India, Apurv Soni, Amee Amin, Dipen V. Patel, Nisha Fahey, Ajay G. Phatak, Jeroan Allison, Somashekhar M. Nimbalkar

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: In 2013, approximately 2.8 million children worldwide died within the neonatal period. India is at the epicenter of this tragedy, accounting for one-third of all neonatal mortalities. Prematurity and/or with low birth weight are the leading cause of neonatal mortality and India has the highest number of neonates born preterm and weighing less than 2,500 grams worldwide. It is estimated that Kangaroo Care can avert up to 48% of all neonatal deaths among premature babies by 2025. However, the promise of Kangaroo Care as a low-cost, safe, and efficacious intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in India ...


A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Diet plays an important role in the prevention and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Previous studies suggest that soy protein and isoflavones may have beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Little is known regarding the cardiometabolic effects of soy intake during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, safety and acceptability of daily consumption of soy foods during pregnancy in women at high risk for GDM, and participant adherence to their assigned treatment.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted among pregnant women at high risk for GDM. The Soy group were counseled to consume a ...


Association Between First Trimester Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein–A And The Development Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Aylin Sert, Katherine Leung, Molly E. Waring, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Silvia Corvera, Tiffany A. Moore Simas 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between First Trimester Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein–A And The Development Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Aylin Sert, Katherine Leung, Molly E. Waring, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Silvia Corvera, Tiffany A. Moore Simas

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication with significant cardiometabolic consequences for mothers and offspring. Previous research from our group suggests that adipose tissue IGFBP-5 and its unique metalloprotease PAPP-A (Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A) may play mechanistic roles in GDM development by regulating functional IGF-1 levels and lipid storage and metabolism.

Aim: To examine the relationship between circulating PAPP-A levels and GDM development. We hypothesized that high first trimester PAPP-A levels would be associated with decreased GDM risk.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of women delivering singleton gestations at UMass Memorial Healthcare (2009, 2010, 2014, 2015) was assembled by ...


Beyond The Three Delays: A Case Study Of Haiti's Maternal Health Sector, Stephanie Rapp 2016 SIT Graduation Institute

Beyond The Three Delays: A Case Study Of Haiti's Maternal Health Sector, Stephanie Rapp

Capstone Collection

This research seeks to understand how the maternal health sector in Haiti can be understood and perhaps improved through the framework of the Three Delays, developed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994). These delays are (1) the delay in the decision to seek care, (2) the delay in reaching a health facility, and (3) the delay in receiving adequate care at a health facility. The findings of this capstone strongly demonstrated that global health practitioners in Haiti often opt for technical solutions, but in fact there are numerous shadow delays preventing these solutions from taking hold and ameliorating maternal mortality. Tensions ...


Use Of Mobile Phones For Infant And Young Child Feeding Counseling In Sri Lankan Tea Estates: A Formative Study, Manuj C. Weerasinghe, Upul Senerath, Sanjeeva Godakandage, Hiranya Jayawickrama, Aravinda Wickramasinghe, Indika Siriwardena, Srisothinathan Nimalan, Michael J. Dibley, Ashraful Alam 2016 Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

Use Of Mobile Phones For Infant And Young Child Feeding Counseling In Sri Lankan Tea Estates: A Formative Study, Manuj C. Weerasinghe, Upul Senerath, Sanjeeva Godakandage, Hiranya Jayawickrama, Aravinda Wickramasinghe, Indika Siriwardena, Srisothinathan Nimalan, Michael J. Dibley, Ashraful Alam

The Qualitative Report

Despite the availability of free health services, children residing in Sri Lanka’s less developed plantation sector are more likely to be undernourished than children in urban and rural sectors. Hence, we need new approaches to improve their nutritional status. One promising approach involves mobile health initiatives, which is used effectively in other countries in primary health care settings. We studied the nature of mobile phone use in this community, and their perceptions on using m-health counseling for infant and young child feeding. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were the study methods. We found that mobile phone usage is ...


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