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Breastfeeding Practices Among Native Hawaiians And Pacific Islanders, Ingrid K. Adams, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Akilah Dulin Keita, Ana Maria Linares, Keiko Tanaka, Joshua R. Polanin, Annie Koempel 2017 University of Kentucky

Breastfeeding Practices Among Native Hawaiians And Pacific Islanders, Ingrid K. Adams, Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Akilah Dulin Keita, Ana Maria Linares, Keiko Tanaka, Joshua R. Polanin, Annie Koempel

Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli

Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models. Results. Few studies disaggregated NHPI populations when examining breastfeeding practices. Most studies were cross-sectional and our search yielded no randomized or quasirandomized control ...


Validation Of Verbal Autopsy Tool For Ascertaining The Causes Of Stillbirth, Sidrah Nausheen, Sajid B. Soofi, Kamran Sadiq, Atif Habib, Ali Turab, Zamir Suhag, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Zahid Memon, Rajiv Bahl, M. Imran Khan, Shireen Bhutta 2017 Aga Khan University

Validation Of Verbal Autopsy Tool For Ascertaining The Causes Of Stillbirth, Sidrah Nausheen, Sajid B. Soofi, Kamran Sadiq, Atif Habib, Ali Turab, Zamir Suhag, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Zahid Memon, Rajiv Bahl, M. Imran Khan, Shireen Bhutta

Atif Habib

Objective: To assess performance of the WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of still birth in comparison with reference standard cause of death ascertained by standardized clinical and supportive data. Methods: All stillbirths at a tertiary hospital in Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recruited into study from August 2006- February 2008. The reference standard cause of death was established by two senior obstetricians within 48 hours using the ICD coding system. Verbal autopsy interviews using modified WHO tool were conducted by trained health workers within 2- 6 weeks of still birth and the cause of death was assigned ...


Immune Responses To Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine In Children 2 To 16 Years Old In Karachi, Pakistan, And Kolkata, India, R. Leon Ochiai, M. Imran Khan, Sajid B. Soofi, Dipika Sur, Suman Kanungo, Young Ae You, Atif Habib, Shah Muhammad Sahito, Byomkesh Manna, Camilo J. Acosta, Mohammad Ali, Sujit K. Bhattacharya, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, John D. Clemens 2017 International Vaccine Institute, Republic of Korea

Immune Responses To Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine In Children 2 To 16 Years Old In Karachi, Pakistan, And Kolkata, India, R. Leon Ochiai, M. Imran Khan, Sajid B. Soofi, Dipika Sur, Suman Kanungo, Young Ae You, Atif Habib, Shah Muhammad Sahito, Byomkesh Manna, Camilo J. Acosta, Mohammad Ali, Sujit K. Bhattacharya, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, John D. Clemens

Atif Habib

The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 μg of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the ...


Immune Responses To Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine In Children 2 To 16 Years Old In Karachi, Pakistan, And Kolkata, India, R. Leon Ochiai, M. Imran Khan, Sajid B. Soofi, Dipika Sur, Suman Kanungo, Young Ae You, Atif Habib, Shah Muhammad Sahito, Byomkesh Manna, Camilo J. Acosta, Mohammad Ali, Sujit K. Bhattacharya, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, John D. Clemens 2017 International Vaccine Institute, Republic of Korea

Immune Responses To Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine In Children 2 To 16 Years Old In Karachi, Pakistan, And Kolkata, India, R. Leon Ochiai, M. Imran Khan, Sajid B. Soofi, Dipika Sur, Suman Kanungo, Young Ae You, Atif Habib, Shah Muhammad Sahito, Byomkesh Manna, Camilo J. Acosta, Mohammad Ali, Sujit K. Bhattacharya, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, John D. Clemens

Mohammad Imran Khan

The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 μg of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the ...


Validation Of Verbal Autopsy Tool For Ascertaining The Causes Of Stillbirth, Sidrah Nausheen, Sajid B. Soofi, Kamran Sadiq, Atif Habib, Ali Turab, Zamir Suhag, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Zahid Memon, Rajiv Bahl, M. Imran Khan, Shireen Bhutta 2017 Aga Khan University

Validation Of Verbal Autopsy Tool For Ascertaining The Causes Of Stillbirth, Sidrah Nausheen, Sajid B. Soofi, Kamran Sadiq, Atif Habib, Ali Turab, Zamir Suhag, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Zahid Memon, Rajiv Bahl, M. Imran Khan, Shireen Bhutta

Mohammad Imran Khan

Objective: To assess performance of the WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of still birth in comparison with reference standard cause of death ascertained by standardized clinical and supportive data. Methods: All stillbirths at a tertiary hospital in Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recruited into study from August 2006- February 2008. The reference standard cause of death was established by two senior obstetricians within 48 hours using the ICD coding system. Verbal autopsy interviews using modified WHO tool were conducted by trained health workers within 2- 6 weeks of still birth and the cause of death was assigned ...


Validation Of Verbal Autopsy Tool For Ascertaining The Causes Of Stillbirth, Sidrah Nausheen, Sajid B. Soofi, Kamran Sadiq, Atif Habib, Ali Turab, Zamir Suhag, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Zahid Memon, Rajiv Bahl, M. Imran Khan, Shireen Bhutta 2017 Aga Khan University

Validation Of Verbal Autopsy Tool For Ascertaining The Causes Of Stillbirth, Sidrah Nausheen, Sajid B. Soofi, Kamran Sadiq, Atif Habib, Ali Turab, Zamir Suhag, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Zahid Memon, Rajiv Bahl, M. Imran Khan, Shireen Bhutta

Zahid Ali Memon

Objective: To assess performance of the WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of still birth in comparison with reference standard cause of death ascertained by standardized clinical and supportive data.

Methods: All stillbirths at a tertiary hospital in Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recruited into study from August 2006- February 2008. The reference standard cause of death was established by two senior obstetricians within 48 hours using the ICD coding system. Verbal autopsy interviews using modified WHO tool were conducted by trained health workers within 2- 6 weeks of still birth and the cause of death was assigned ...


Addressing Barriers To Maternal Nutrition In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review Of The Evidence And Programme Implications., Justine A Kavle, Megan Landry 2017 George Washington University

Addressing Barriers To Maternal Nutrition In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review Of The Evidence And Programme Implications., Justine A Kavle, Megan Landry

Prevention and Community Health Faculty Publications

Adequate maternal nutrition during the “first 1,000 days” window is critical from conception through the first 6 months of life to improve nutritional status and reduce the risk of poor birth outcomes, such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Unfortunately, many programmes have targeted implementation and monitoring of nutrition interventions to infants and young children, rather than to women during pregnancy or post-partum. A literature review was conducted to identify barriers to food choice and consumption during pregnancy and lactation and to examine how low- and middle-income countries have addressed maternal nutrition in programmes. A literature review of peer-reviewed ...


Results Of A Pilot Study In The U.S. And Vietnam To Assess The Utility And Acceptability Of A Multi-Level Pregnancy Test (Mlpt) For Home Monitoring Of Hcg Trends After Assisted Reproduction., Tara Shochet, Ioanna A Comstock, Nguyen Thi Nhu Ngoc, Lynn M Westphal, Wendy R Sheldon, Ly Thai Loc, Jennifer Blum, Beverly Winikoff, Paul D Blumenthal 2017 George Washington University

Results Of A Pilot Study In The U.S. And Vietnam To Assess The Utility And Acceptability Of A Multi-Level Pregnancy Test (Mlpt) For Home Monitoring Of Hcg Trends After Assisted Reproduction., Tara Shochet, Ioanna A Comstock, Nguyen Thi Nhu Ngoc, Lynn M Westphal, Wendy R Sheldon, Ly Thai Loc, Jennifer Blum, Beverly Winikoff, Paul D Blumenthal

Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty Publications

Background

To evaluate the utility and acceptability of using multi-level pregnancy tests (MLPTs) at home to monitor hCG trends following assisted reproductive technology (ART).

Methods

One hundred and four women presenting for ART at either Stanford Medicine Fertility and Reproductive Health Clinic (Stanford, CA) or Hung Vuong Hospital (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) participated in this pilot study. Women were asked to perform the MLPT at home, primarily on days when they were also scheduled to receive standard clinic-based serum hCG testing. These tests were administered up to 6 times over the 6-week period following embryo transfer or intrauterine insemination ...


Maternal Intuition Of Fetal Gender, Michael McFadzen, David P. Dielentheis, Ronda Kasten, Maharaj Singh, Joe Grundle 2017 Obstetrics/Gynecology, Aurora Sheboygan Clinic, Aurora Health Care

Maternal Intuition Of Fetal Gender, Michael Mcfadzen, David P. Dielentheis, Ronda Kasten, Maharaj Singh, Joe Grundle

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Fetal gender speculation is a preoccupation of many expecting parents, and pregnant women commonly profess to intuitively know the gender of their unborn babies. This study objectively compared pregnant mothers’ perceptions of fetal gender to sonographically proven gender determinations. Also, success rates from previously published studies, noninvasive prenatal testing and a myriad of gender determination methods were observed and reported for context.

Methods: All pregnant women presenting for second-trimester screening ultrasound (at 17–23 weeks gestation) in the obstetrics department of a single health center were asked to participate. A medical sonographer described the ultrasound examination, obtained appropriate consent ...


Child Sexual Abuse And The Impact Of Rurality On Foster Care Outcomes: An Exploratory Analysis, Austin G. Griffiths, April L. Murphy, Whitney Harper 2017 Western Kentucky University

Child Sexual Abuse And The Impact Of Rurality On Foster Care Outcomes: An Exploratory Analysis, Austin G. Griffiths, April L. Murphy, Whitney Harper

Austin Griffiths

Given the cost of long-term foster care placement in both human and economic terms, few studies have specifically explored if any factors help to predict why this vulnerable population spends significantly more time in foster care. The overarching goal of this exploratory study was to use binary logistic regression to investigate whether any child demographic or environmental characteristics predicted the discharge of a child placed in Kentucky's foster care system for child sexual abuse. Results indicated that children in the most rural areas of the state were over 10 times more likely to be discharged from foster care during ...


The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, Michal Gilad 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, Michal Gilad

Faculty Scholarship

The article is the first to take an inclusive look at the monumental problem of crime exposure during childhood, which is estimated to be one of the most damaging and costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. It takes-on the challenging task of ‘naming’ the problem by coining the term Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact or in short the Triple-C Impact. Informed by scientific findings, the term embodies the full effect of direct and indirect crime exposure on children due to their unique developmental characteristics, and the spillover effect the problem has on our society as a ...


A Delphi Study: Guidelines For Researchers Working With Teenage Mothers, Alison M. Chamberlain 2017 The University of Texas at Tyler

A Delphi Study: Guidelines For Researchers Working With Teenage Mothers, Alison M. Chamberlain

Nursing Theses and Dissertations

Problem: It is difficult to get teenage mothers to participate in studies, yet some researchers have been successful. Researchers who understand the barriers to conducting studies with a vulnerable population and are guided in ways to overcome these barriers, will experience greater success when doing studies with this group. Improved study methods can lead to larger numbers of teenage mothers who participate in studies. Researchers who follow developmentally appropriate guidelines are more likely to conduct and replicate studies with this population. Access is essential to advance the science related to care for teenage mothers who are at risk for many ...


Heat Exposure And Maternal Health In The Face Of Climate Change., Leeann Kuehn, Sabrina McCormick 2017 George Washington University

Heat Exposure And Maternal Health In The Face Of Climate Change., Leeann Kuehn, Sabrina Mccormick

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Climate change will increasingly affect the health of vulnerable populations, including maternal and fetal health. This systematic review aims to identify recent literature that investigates increasing heat and extreme temperatures on pregnancy outcomes globally. We identify common research findings in order to create a comprehensive understanding of how immediate effects will be sustained in the next generation. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guide, we systematically reviewed articles from PubMed and Cochrane Reviews. We included articles that identify climate change-related exposures and adverse health effects for pregnant women. There is evidence that temperature extremes adversely ...


Maternal Choline Supplementation Alters Fetal Growth Patterns In A Mouse Model Of Placental Insufficiency, Julia H. King, Sze Ting (Cecilia) Kwan, Jian Yan, Kevin C. Klatt, Xinyin Jiang, Mark S. Roberson, Marie A. Caudill 2017 Cornell University

Maternal Choline Supplementation Alters Fetal Growth Patterns In A Mouse Model Of Placental Insufficiency, Julia H. King, Sze Ting (Cecilia) Kwan, Jian Yan, Kevin C. Klatt, Xinyin Jiang, Mark S. Roberson, Marie A. Caudill

Publications and Research

Impairments in placental development can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. The bioactive nutrient choline may mitigate some of these impairments, as suggested by data in humans, animals, and human trophoblasts. Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on parameters of fetal growth in a Dlx3+/− (distal-less homeobox 3) mouse model of placental insufficiency. Dlx3+/− female mice were assigned to 1X (control), 2X, or 4X choline intake levels during gestation. Dams were sacrificed at embryonic days E10.5, 12.5, 15.5, and 18.5. At E10.5, placental weight, embryo weight, and placental efficiency were higher in 4X ...


Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women: Preliminary Results From A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Errol Norwitz, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Nirupa R. Matthan, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women: Preliminary Results From A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Errol Norwitz, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Nirupa R. Matthan, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman

Tiffany A. Moore Simas

Background: Previous evidence suggests that soy containing foods may have beneficial effects on lipid and glycemic metabolism. Pregnancy is associated with a progressive deterioration in glucose and lipid metabolism, partially attributable to elevated estrogen concentrations. Little is known about the effects of soy intake on cardiometabolic risk factors in pregnant women. Methods: A pilot RCT was conducted in 30 pregnant women who were randomized to receive counseling to consume a high-soy or low-soy foods containing diet. Assessments (physical measurements, food frequency questionnaires, fasting blood samples) were conducted at 14 and 28 weeks of pregnancy, and 6 weeks’ postpartum. Monthly follow-up ...


Addressing The Racial Disparity In Birth Outcomes: Implications For Maternal Racial Identity On Birthweight, Wanda M. Burton, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Brad Lian 2017 University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa

Addressing The Racial Disparity In Birth Outcomes: Implications For Maternal Racial Identity On Birthweight, Wanda M. Burton, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Brad Lian

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: As a widely used marker of health, birthweight has been a persistent racialized disparity with the low birthweight rate of Blacks in Alabama nearly doubling the national average. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of racial identity and acculturation on birthweight in a sample of Black women living in Alabama.

Methods: Black women (n=72) in West Alabama were surveyed about the birthweight of their first born child. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted.

Results: Racial identity was the only significant predictor of birthweight. Mothers with a strong racial identity reported having low ...


Residential Segregation, Neighborhood Social And Physical Context In Obesity Disparities In Hispanic Preschoolers: A Conceptual Model, Catherina Chang Martinez PhD(c), Nasar U. Ahmed PhD, Ruby A. Natale PhD, PsyD 2017 Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University

Residential Segregation, Neighborhood Social And Physical Context In Obesity Disparities In Hispanic Preschoolers: A Conceptual Model, Catherina Chang Martinez Phd(C), Nasar U. Ahmed Phd, Ruby A. Natale Phd, Psyd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

During the last decade, there has been a significant inclusion in obesity prevention studies from individual characteristics to household factors then neighborhood factors. The study of place in the context of early childhood obesity studies has been limited to the food and physical built environment. With the persistent disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity, and Hispanic minorities being increasingly affected, there is a need to reexamine existing models and develop new model conceptual frameworks to examine the role of place and residential segregation in the context of race, ethnicity, social position, and socioeconomic disparities. In the context of place ...


Community-Level Characteristics Of High Infant Mortality: A Tool To Identify At-Risk Communities, Brandi M. White, Lee S. Horton, Kit N. Simpson 2017 Medical University of South Carolina

Community-Level Characteristics Of High Infant Mortality: A Tool To Identify At-Risk Communities, Brandi M. White, Lee S. Horton, Kit N. Simpson

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Infant mortality (IM) rate is a key indicator of population health and has been gradually improving in the United States. However, it is still a public health problem among minority and low-income communities. Maternal factors explain some of the variation, but community-level factors may also be a contributor. This study examines measures to identify a set of indicators that explain variations in IM at the community-level. Data for 77 communities in a city were obtained from local health databases. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the strength of the association between IM and maternal, population, community wealth, and ...


Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon 2017 Medical University of Vienna

Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon

Economics Faculty Publications

Background:

Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario.

Methodology/Principal Findings:

We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including ...


Predictors Of Gestational Weight Gain Among White And Latina Women And Associations With Birth Weight, Milagros C. Rosal, Monica L. Wang, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Jamie S. Bodenlos, Sybil L. Crawford, Katherine Leung, Heather Z. Sankey 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Predictors Of Gestational Weight Gain Among White And Latina Women And Associations With Birth Weight, Milagros C. Rosal, Monica L. Wang, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Jamie S. Bodenlos, Sybil L. Crawford, Katherine Leung, Heather Z. Sankey

Heather Z Sankey MD

This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8-6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3-9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8-8.8 ...


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