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The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: Tracheal occlusion (TO) reverses pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung development remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to a) confirm the CDH rabbit model produced PH which was reversed by TO and b) determine the effects of CDH +/- TO on EMT pathways.

Methods: CDH was created at 23 days, TO at 28 days and lung collection at 31 days gestation in fetal rabbits. Lung body weight ratio (LBWR), mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD), and expression of mRNA and micro-RNA was determined.

Results: Fifteen CDH, 15 ...


Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Measurement And Protection Of Lung Health In Poultry Farmers Of Southwestern Ontario, Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), develops gradually, and tends to be noticed by farmers only after there has been a significant loss of lung function. People with symptoms of COPD often present for health care in later stages of disease, because they accept cough or breathlessness as “normal”.

Measurement of lung health for those at risk of developing COPD provides an opportunity for early detection of lung disease, and deter the progression toward irreversible damage to the lungs. COPD is, however, under-diagnosed.

The importance of bringing primary care providers and farmers together, and acknowledging the high-risk nature of occupational exposures ...


Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Il-16/Mir-125a Axis Controls Neutrophil Recruitment In Pristane-Induced Lung Inflammation, Siobhan Smith, Hardy Kornfeld, Caroline A. Jefferies

Open Access Articles

Severe lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage can be life-threatening in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients if not treated early and aggressively. Neutrophil influx is the driver key of this pathology, but little is known regarding the molecular events regulating this recruitment. Here, we uncover a role for IL-16/mir-125a in this pathology and show not only that IL-16 is a target for miR-125a but that reduced miR-125a expression in SLE patients associates with lung involvement. Furthermore, in the pristane model of acute "SLE-like" lung inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage, we observed reduced pulmonary miR-125a and enhanced IL-16 expression. Neutrophil infiltration was ...


The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano

Voice and Opera Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In order to better serve singers who identify as trans men or gender queer, voice teachers must understand the vocal effects of hormone replacement therapy, specifically that of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy is the only type of hormone replacement therapy that permanently changes the voice and eventually results in a full octave drop or more of a person’s spoken fundamental frequency. Due to such a dramatic shift, the voice change process can be turbulent.

This dissertation is designed to educate both cis gender voice teachers and trans and gender queer singers on the process of vocal change during the ...


Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Tuberculosis And Lung Damage: From Epidemiology To Pathophysiology, Shruthi Ravimohan, Hardy Kornfeld, Drew Weissman, Gregory P. Bisson

Open Access Articles

A past history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognised, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. Importantly, specific host and pathogen factors causing lung impairment remain unclear. Host immune responses probably play a dominant role in lung damage, as excessive inflammation and elevated expression of lung matrix-degrading proteases are common during TB. Variability in host genes that modulate these immune responses may determine the severity of lung impairment, but this hypothesis remains largely untested. In this review, we provide an overview of ...


Mobile Critical Care Recovery Program (M-Ccrp) For Acute Respiratory Failure Survivors: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sikandar Khan, Ashok Biju, Sophia Wang, Sujuan Gao, Omar Irfan, Amanda Harrawood, Stephanie Martinez, Anthony Perkins, Frederick W. Unverzagt, Sue Lasiter 2018 Indiana University School of Medicine

Mobile Critical Care Recovery Program (M-Ccrp) For Acute Respiratory Failure Survivors: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sikandar Khan, Ashok Biju, Sophia Wang, Sujuan Gao, Omar Irfan, Amanda Harrawood, Stephanie Martinez, Anthony Perkins, Frederick W. Unverzagt, Sue Lasiter

Medical College Documents

Background: Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with acute respiratory failure (ARF) face chronic complications that can impede return to normal daily function. A mobile, collaborative critical care model may enhance the recovery of ARF survivors.
Methods: The Mobile Critical Care Recovery Program (m-CCRP) study is a two arm, randomized clinical trial. We will randomize 620 patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in a 1:1 ratio to one of two arms (310 patients per arm) – m-CCRP intervention versus attention control. Those in the intervention group will meet with a care coordinator after ...


Clinical Management Of Pressure Control Ventilation: An Algorithmic Method Of Patient Ventilatory Management To Address “Forgotten But Important Variables”, Lonny Ashworth, Yasuhiro Norisue, Megan Koster, Jeff Anderson, Junko Takada, Hatsuyo Ebisu 2018 Boise State University

Clinical Management Of Pressure Control Ventilation: An Algorithmic Method Of Patient Ventilatory Management To Address “Forgotten But Important Variables”, Lonny Ashworth, Yasuhiro Norisue, Megan Koster, Jeff Anderson, Junko Takada, Hatsuyo Ebisu

Respiratory Therapy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Pressure controlled ventilation is a common mode of ventilation used to manage both adult and pediatric populations. However, there is very little evidence that distinguishes the efficacy of pressure controlled ventilation over that of volume controlled ventilation in the adult population. This gap in the literature may be due to the absence of a consistent and systematic algorithm for managing pressure controlled ventilation. This article provides a brief overview of the applications of both pressure controlled ventilation and volume controlled ventilation and proposes an algorithmic approach to the management of patients receiving pressure controlled ventilation. This algorithmic approach highlights the ...


The South Sudan: Tuberculosis, Blake Schwarz 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The South Sudan: Tuberculosis, Blake Schwarz

Global Public Health

The South Sudan is a country that recently gained independence from the Sudan after a bloody twenty year civil war. They lost nearly two million lives during the war, and are now ravaged by Tuberculosis, or TB. After gaining their independence in 2011, the South Sudan has an average of 18,000 cases of TB at any time. This would consider TB in the South Sudan an endemic, as it always has a base level of TB cases that does not vary. There is medication for TB that is available to the citizens on the South Sudan, but the prescription ...


Increase In Intra-Abdominal Pressure During Airway Suctioning-Induced Cough After A Successful Spontaneous Breathing Trial Is Associated With Extubation Outcome, Lonny Ashworth 2018 Boise State University

Increase In Intra-Abdominal Pressure During Airway Suctioning-Induced Cough After A Successful Spontaneous Breathing Trial Is Associated With Extubation Outcome, Lonny Ashworth

Respiratory Therapy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: A patient’s ability to clear secretions and protect the airway with an effective cough is an important part of the pre-extubation evaluation. An increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is important in generating the flow rate necessary for a cough. This study investigated whether an increase from baseline in IAP during a coughing episode induced by routine pre-extubation airway suctioning is associated with extubation outcome after a successful spontaneous breathing trial (SBT).

Methods: Three hundred thirty-five (335) mechanically ventilated patients who passed an SBT were enrolled. Baseline IAP and peak IAP during successive suctioning-induced coughs were measured with a ...


Increasing The Use Of Waveform Capnography In Neonatal And Pediatric Patients, Sherry McCool, Lisa Pruitt, Olivia Kaullen 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Increasing The Use Of Waveform Capnography In Neonatal And Pediatric Patients, Sherry Mccool, Lisa Pruitt, Olivia Kaullen

Posters

No abstract provided.


Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Ventilation encompasses both active and passive processes. Air is initially drawn into the lungs due to a negative intrathoracic pressure created using the respiratory muscles, most importantly the diaphragm. In contrast, expiration is the passive relaxation of the respiratory muscles. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen diffuses across the alveolar-capillary membrane. The ability to oxygenate without ventilation has been termed apneic diffusion oxygenation or apneic oxygenation. We believe it is crucial to keep alveoli open in order for adequate oxygenation to occur. This can be achieved with the aid of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We investigated this concept in patients who ...


Impact Of Physician Education And Availability Of Parameters Regarding Esophageal Pressure And Transpulmonary Pressure On Clinical Decisions Involving Ventilator Management, Lonny Ashworth 2017 Boise State University

Impact Of Physician Education And Availability Of Parameters Regarding Esophageal Pressure And Transpulmonary Pressure On Clinical Decisions Involving Ventilator Management, Lonny Ashworth

Respiratory Therapy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Purpose: This study investigated the effects of physician education and the availability of Peso and PL data on physicians' decisions regarding ventilator management during specific simulated clinical conditions.

Materials and methods: The study was a prospective, before–after study using a case scenario–based questionnaire and a case simulator device comprising an Avea ventilator and an artificial lung and esophagus, which was connected to a Series 1101 Electronic Breathing Simulator. The 99 physicians participating in the study were provided with five simulated cases with on-time ventilator graphics without Peso and PL and completed a questionnaire on ...


Global Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Mortality In Young Children (Rsv Gold): A Retrospective Case Series, Nienke M. Scheltema, Angela Gentile, Florencia Lucion, D James Nokes, Patrick K. Munywoki, Shabir A. Madhi, Michelle J. Groome, Cheryl Cohen, Jocelyn Moyes, Syed Asad Ali 2017 University Medical Centre Utrecht,Netherlands

Global Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Mortality In Young Children (Rsv Gold): A Retrospective Case Series, Nienke M. Scheltema, Angela Gentile, Florencia Lucion, D James Nokes, Patrick K. Munywoki, Shabir A. Madhi, Michelle J. Groome, Cheryl Cohen, Jocelyn Moyes, Syed Asad Ali

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of pneumonia mortality in young children. However, clinical data for fatal RSV infection are scarce. We aimed to identify clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years with RSV-related mortality using individual patient data.

Methods: In this retrospective case series, we developed an online questionnaire to obtain individual patient data for clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years who died with community-acquired RSV infection between Jan 1, 1995, and Oct 31, 2015, through leading research groups for child pneumonia identified through a comprehensive ...


The Role Of Heterogeneity In Asthma: A Structure-To-Function Perspective, Justin K. Lui, Kenneth R. Lutchen 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Heterogeneity In Asthma: A Structure-To-Function Perspective, Justin K. Lui, Kenneth R. Lutchen

Open Access Articles

A number of methods have evolved through the years in probing the dysfunction that impacts mechanics and ventilation in asthma. What has been consistently found is the notion of heterogeneity that is not only captured in the frequency dependence of lung mechanics measurements but also rendered on imaging as patchy diffuse areas of ventilation defects. The degree of heterogeneity has been linked to airway hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark feature of asthma. How these heterogeneous constriction patterns lead to functional impairment in asthma have only been recently explored using computational airway tree models. By synthesizing measurements of lung mechanics and advances in ...


Measuring The Energy Of Ventilation And Circulation During Human Walking Using Induced Hypoxia, Masahiro Horiuchi, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Yoko Handa, Daijiro Abe, Herman Pontzer 2017 Mt. Fuji Research Institute

Measuring The Energy Of Ventilation And Circulation During Human Walking Using Induced Hypoxia, Masahiro Horiuchi, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Yoko Handa, Daijiro Abe, Herman Pontzer

Publications and Research

Energy expenditure (EE) during walking includes energy costs to move and support the body and for respiration and circulation. We measured EE during walking under three different oxygen concentrations. Eleven healthy, young, male lowlanders walked on a treadmill at seven gait speeds (0.67–1.83 m s−1) on a level gradient under normobaric normoxia (room air, 21% O2), moderate hypoxia (15% O2), and severe hypoxia (11% O2). By comparing the hypoxia-induced elevation in heart rate (HR [bpm]), ventilation (VE [L min−1]) with the change in energy expenditure (EE [W]) at each speed, we were able to determine ...


Hypersensitivity Of Vagal Pulmonary Afferents Induced By Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Mice, Ruei-Lung Lin, Qihai Gu, Lu-Yuan Lee 2017 University of Kentucky

Hypersensitivity Of Vagal Pulmonary Afferents Induced By Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Mice, Ruei-Lung Lin, Qihai Gu, Lu-Yuan Lee

Physiology Faculty Publications

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Inhalation of TNFα also induces airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy human subjects, and the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A recent study reported that TNFα caused airway inflammation and a sustained elevation of pulmonary chemoreflex responses in mice, suggesting a possible involvement of heightened sensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers. To investigate this possibility, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a pretreatment with TNFα on the sensitivity of vagal pulmonary afferents in anesthetized mice. After TNFα (10 μg/ml, 0 ...


Determining The Gaps Between Cochrane Reviews And Trials Of Effectiveness Of Interventions For Acute Respiratory Infections: An Audit, Jasmin Alloo, Sanya Vallath, Chris Del Mar, Matt Carter, Sarah Thorning, Justin Clark 2017 Bond University

Determining The Gaps Between Cochrane Reviews And Trials Of Effectiveness Of Interventions For Acute Respiratory Infections: An Audit, Jasmin Alloo, Sanya Vallath, Chris Del Mar, Matt Carter, Sarah Thorning, Justin Clark

Christopher Del Mar

BACKGROUND:

Cochrane primarily aims to systematically review trials of effectiveness that are important to inform clinical decisions. Editorial groups support authors to achieve high-quality reviews and prioritise review proposals in their clinical domain that are submitted or elicited. Prioritising proposals requires two approaches, identifying (1) clinical practises for which the evidence of effectiveness is uncertain and (2) interventions in which there are trials of effectiveness (especially randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) not systematically reviewed. This study addresses this second approach for the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group (CARIG) in order to identify RCTs of acute respiratory infections that have not been ...


May 2017, SWOSU Bulldog Wellness Committee 2017 Southwestern Oklahoma State University

May 2017, Swosu Bulldog Wellness Committee

SWOSU BULLDOG WELLNESS

No abstract provided.


Determining The Gaps Between Cochrane Reviews And Trials Of Effectiveness Of Interventions For Acute Respiratory Infections: An Audit, Jasmin Alloo, Sanya Vallath, Chris Del Mar, Matt Carter, Sarah Thorning, Justin Clark 2017 Bond University

Determining The Gaps Between Cochrane Reviews And Trials Of Effectiveness Of Interventions For Acute Respiratory Infections: An Audit, Jasmin Alloo, Sanya Vallath, Chris Del Mar, Matt Carter, Sarah Thorning, Justin Clark

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

BACKGROUND:

Cochrane primarily aims to systematically review trials of effectiveness that are important to inform clinical decisions. Editorial groups support authors to achieve high-quality reviews and prioritise review proposals in their clinical domain that are submitted or elicited. Prioritising proposals requires two approaches, identifying (1) clinical practises for which the evidence of effectiveness is uncertain and (2) interventions in which there are trials of effectiveness (especially randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) not systematically reviewed. This study addresses this second approach for the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group (CARIG) in order to identify RCTs of acute respiratory infections that have not been ...


Cigarette Smoke Impairs A2a Adenosine Receptor Mediated Wound Repair Through Up-Regulation Of Duox-1 Expression., Zhi Tian, Hui Zhang, Jendayi Dixon, Nicole Traphagen, Todd A. Wyatt, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Samantha Simet, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Diane S Allen-Gipson 2017 University of South Florida

Cigarette Smoke Impairs A2a Adenosine Receptor Mediated Wound Repair Through Up-Regulation Of Duox-1 Expression., Zhi Tian, Hui Zhang, Jendayi Dixon, Nicole Traphagen, Todd A. Wyatt, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Samantha Simet, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Diane S Allen-Gipson

Journal Articles: Pulmonary & Critical Care Med

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and intrinsic factors such as the NADPH oxidases produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ensuing inflammatory tissue injury. We previously demonstrated that CS-generated ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), impaired adenosine stimulated wound repair. We hypothesized that CS exposure modulates expression of Dual oxidase 1 (Duox-1), a NADPH oxidases known to generate H2O2. To test this hypothesis, we used human bronchial epithelial cell line Nuli-1 and C57BL/6 mice. Cells were treated with 5% CS extract (CSE) for various periods of time, and mice were exposed to whole body CS for six weeks. Both CSE ...


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