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The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez 2022 University of South Alabama

The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a ubiquitous expressed protein tyrosine kinase. In growing cells, FAK localizes to the plasma membrane where it interacts with several components of the focal adhesion complex and coordinates integrin signaling. Early studies using genetic mouse models revealed that deletion or catalytic inactivation of FAK resulted in early embryonic lethality with vascular, cell proliferation, and cell survival defects. As a result, FAK was coined as a vital mediator of cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival and multiple small molecule FAK inhibitors (FAK-I) had been designed to inactivate FAK catalytic functions in multiple pathologies, particularly in cancer ...


Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee 2022 Aga Khan University

Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee

Section of Haematology/Oncology

Lenalidomide mechanism of action has been shown to modulate the different components of the immune system. A 68-year-old lady presented to us with severe backache and was then diagnosed with MM. Lenalidomide started as per protocol along with dexamethasone. Later, she presented with complaints of generalized weakness and her workup showed significant blast cells with Pan-B-cell markers consistent with secondary B-ALL. The reported incidence of secondary Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia is 2.3%. The development of more aggressive neoplasm in a patient with prior malignancy dictates a poor outcome and hence such patients should be enrolled in a clinical trial whenever ...


Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells 2022 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells

Student Academic Conference

Studies have configured immunological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in mice, leading to advanced understandings. However, the comparisons of the immune responses between juvenile (younger than 6 weeks) male and female C57BL/6J mice after A. fumigatus exposure, remains uninvestigated. In this study, we intranasally inoculated 3 week old male and female mice with Aspergillus fumigatus spores dilution of 2 106spores per 40 l. They were exposed to the allergen once a week for 8 consecutive weeks and euthanized on day 28 post the last inoculation. As compared to our last report, we increased the sample size for each group in ...


Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir uddin 2022 Aga Khan University

Paratesticular Solitary Fibrous Tumour Mimicking Cellular Angiofibroma: An Unusual Morphology And Rare Site, Madiha Bilal Qureshi, Muhammad Usman, Qurratulain Chundriger, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a ubiquitous benign mesenchymal tumour of fibroblastic origin, which occurs most often in middle-aged adults. It usually presents as lung mass originating from pleura, but extrapleural occurrence is also common. Tumour is characterised by hypo- and hyper-cellular areas of spindle-shaped cells, arranged in haphazard manner with dispersed staghorn-shaped vessels. Surgical excision is the curative treatment. SFTs of the primary testicular or paratesticular region are extremely rare, but they exhibit histologic findings similar to SFTs originating at other body sites. Here, we report the case of a paratesticular SFT in a 37-year male, who presented with ...


High Cd44 Immunoexpression Correlates With Poor Overall Survival: Assessing The Role Of Cancer Stem Cell Markers In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients From The High-Risk Population Of Pakistan, Yumna Mirza, Syed Adnan Ali, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui, Hammad A. Kayani, Romana Idress, Mohammad Sohail Awan 2022 Aga Khan University

High Cd44 Immunoexpression Correlates With Poor Overall Survival: Assessing The Role Of Cancer Stem Cell Markers In Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients From The High-Risk Population Of Pakistan, Yumna Mirza, Syed Adnan Ali, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui, Hammad A. Kayani, Romana Idress, Mohammad Sohail Awan

Department of Surgery

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a top-ranked cancer in the Pakistani population, and patient survival has remained unchanged at ∼50% for several decades. Recent advances have claimed that a subset of tumour cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumour progression, treatment resistance, and metastasis, which leads to a poor prognosis. This study investigated the impact of CSC markers expression on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of OSCC patients. Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate CD44, CD133, L1CAM, and SOX2 expression in a well-characterized cohort of 100 Pakistani patients with primary treatment naïve ...


Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo 2022 Institute of Neurosciences

Covid-19 In Cns And Pns: Basic And Clinical Focus On The Mechanisms Of Infection And New Tools For The Therapeutic Approach, Jorge Matias-Guiu, Jordi A. Matias-Guiu, Carmen Garrido, Genaro Pimienta, Patricio F. Reyes, Abdul Mannan Baig, Ulises Gomez-Pinedo

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


What Stops Us From Eating: A Qualitative Investigation Of Dietary Barriers During Pregnancy In Punjab, Pakistan, Muhammad Asim, Zarak Hussain Ahmed, Amy R. Nichols, Rachel Rickman, Elena Neiterman, Anita Mahmood, Elizabeth M. Widen 2022 Aga Khan University

What Stops Us From Eating: A Qualitative Investigation Of Dietary Barriers During Pregnancy In Punjab, Pakistan, Muhammad Asim, Zarak Hussain Ahmed, Amy R. Nichols, Rachel Rickman, Elena Neiterman, Anita Mahmood, Elizabeth M. Widen

Community Health Sciences

Objective: Adequate dietary intake during pregnancy is vital for the health and nutritional status of both mother and fetus. The nutritional status of reproductive age women in Pakistan is poor, with 14 % being underweight (BMI < 18·5) and 42 % experiencing Fe deficiency anaemia. This may stem from beliefs, practices and other barriers influencing dietary intake. This qualitative study seeks to determine which factors impact dietary intake during pregnancy in rural Punjab.
Design: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted and then analysed using thematic analysis.
Setting: Three purposively selected rural districts (Sahiwal, Okara and Pakpatan) with the highest prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition in the province of Punjab, Pakistan.
Participants: Mothers with children under age two (n 29) and healthcare providers with at least 5 years of experience working in the district (n 12 ...


Perspective On Newborn Screening (Nbs): Evidence Sharing On Conditions To Be Included In Nbs In Pakistan, Hafsa Majid, Lena Jafri, Sibtain Ahmed, Khadija Humayun, Salman Kirmani, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Bushra Moiz, Aysha Habib, Bushra Afroze 2022 Aga Khan University

Perspective On Newborn Screening (Nbs): Evidence Sharing On Conditions To Be Included In Nbs In Pakistan, Hafsa Majid, Lena Jafri, Sibtain Ahmed, Khadija Humayun, Salman Kirmani, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Bushra Moiz, Aysha Habib, Bushra Afroze

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Newborn screening aims at detecting treatable disorders early so that the treatment can be initiated to prevent mortality and morbidity. Such programmes are well established in most developed countries, and all newborns are screened for selected metabolic, endocrine and other disorders based on disease epidemiology, testing and treatment availability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Even in developing countries, such screening programmes are initiated using heel prick capillary blood collected on filter paper. The current narrative review was planned to provide a perspective with evidence in favour of starting newborn screening for different disorders. The programme project should be initiated nationwide, taking one ...


Lymphoma With Tuberculous Granulomas, Jyoti Mohan Lal, Anila Rashid 2022 Aga Khan University

Lymphoma With Tuberculous Granulomas, Jyoti Mohan Lal, Anila Rashid

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Chronic granulomatous inflammation is a common finding in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), but it is important to exclude coexisting mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) especially in patients from areas of high endemicity. This case emphasizes the relevance of performing MTB culture on bone marrow exhibiting LPD and concomitant granulomas


Diagnostic Accuracy Of Axillary Nodal Ultrasound After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy In Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients: A Validation Study, Syeda Sakina Abidi, Lubna Mushtaque Vohra, Asad Ali Kerawala, Imrana Masroor, Muhammad Umair Tahseen 2022 Aga Khan University

Diagnostic Accuracy Of Axillary Nodal Ultrasound After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy In Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients: A Validation Study, Syeda Sakina Abidi, Lubna Mushtaque Vohra, Asad Ali Kerawala, Imrana Masroor, Muhammad Umair Tahseen

Section of General Surgery

Objective: To determine the accuracy and false negative rate of axillary ultrasound compared to sentinel node biopsy.
Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from February 1 to March 31, 2021, and comprised data of breast cancer patients who had undergone neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection or axillary disease diagnosed using lymph node biopsy or sentinel lymph node biopsy between January 1, 2016, and December 30, 2020. After receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, axillary ultrasound findings were compared with histopathology of lymph nodes. Data was analysed using SPSS 22.
Results: Of the 155 ...


Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Presenting Late With Intrapericardial Extension: Case Report, Manzar Abbas, Usama Qamar, Syeda Maria Ahmad Zaidi, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Ali Aahil Noorali, Haseeb Ur Rahman, Saulat Hasnain Fatimi 2022 Aga Khan University

Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Presenting Late With Intrapericardial Extension: Case Report, Manzar Abbas, Usama Qamar, Syeda Maria Ahmad Zaidi, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Ali Aahil Noorali, Haseeb Ur Rahman, Saulat Hasnain Fatimi

Medical College Documents

Adenoid cystic carcinoma, also known as cylindroma, is one of the rare and unexplored clinical presentations of lung cancer, for which existing knowledge is scarce. This case report discusses a presentation of this tumor in the right lung, which subsequently extended to the left atrium through the right superior pulmonary vein. The extension of this rare tumor into the left atrium makes this case both uniquely distinctive and clinically relevant. The management strategy opted for this case was a right posterolateral thoracotomy and right pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium. The desired outcome of this report is to ...


Electroporation And Cell Killing By Milli- To Nanosecond Pulses And Avoiding Neuromuscular Stimulation In Cancer Ablation, Emily Gudvangen, Vitalii Kim, Vitalij Novickij, Federico Battista, Andrei G. Pakhomov 2022 Old Dominion University

Electroporation And Cell Killing By Milli- To Nanosecond Pulses And Avoiding Neuromuscular Stimulation In Cancer Ablation, Emily Gudvangen, Vitalii Kim, Vitalij Novickij, Federico Battista, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Ablation therapies aim at eradication of tumors with minimal impact on surrounding healthy tissues. Conventional pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments cause pain and muscle contractions far beyond the ablation area. The ongoing quest is to identify PEF parameters efficient at ablation but not at stimulation. We measured electroporation and cell killing thresholds for 150 ns–1 ms PEF, uni- and bipolar, delivered in 10- to 300-pulse trains at up to 1 MHz rates. Monolayers of murine colon carcinoma cells exposed to PEF were stained with YO-PRO-1 dye to detect electroporation. In 2–4 h, dead cells were labeled with propidium ...


Angiogenesis' Effect Overall On Health And Disease, Wendy Tang 2021 University of Louisville

Angiogenesis' Effect Overall On Health And Disease, Wendy Tang

The Cardinal Edge

Angiogenesis plays a major role in the development of diseases and cancer. The development of illnesses like metastatic breast cancer, cell carcinomas, tumors and various other illnesses, originate from the activation of endothelial cells. When the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is released from hypoxic tissues, they bind to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR). The binding of VEGF and VEGFR allows for cellular proliferation, increased migration of lattice networks, and the invasion of endothelial cells, which stimulate the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. As a result, it can be concluded that the inhibition of VEGFs would ...


Understanding The Role Of Rhamm In Tumor Load– Mediated Tumor Invasiveness Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Ashwin Sritharan, Britney Messam 2021 Western University

Understanding The Role Of Rhamm In Tumor Load– Mediated Tumor Invasiveness Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Ashwin Sritharan, Britney Messam

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

1.Compare the levels of proliferation between RHAMM+/+ and RHAMM -/- MDA-MB-231 spheroids as determined by ki67 and Caspase 3 signaling 2.Compare levels of RHAMM, CD44, Has2, and p-ERK activation between RHAMM+/+ and RHAMM -/- MDA-MB-231 spheroids


Mechanisms Of Smoothened Regulation In Hedgehog Signaling, Jie Zhang, Zulong Liu, Jianhang Jia 2021 University of Kentucky

Mechanisms Of Smoothened Regulation In Hedgehog Signaling, Jie Zhang, Zulong Liu, Jianhang Jia

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The seven-transmembrane protein, Smoothened (SMO), has shown to be critical for the hedgehog (HH) signal transduction on the cell membrane (and the cilium in vertebrates). SMO is subjected to multiple types of post-translational regulations, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, which alter SMO intracellular trafficking and cell surface accumulation. Recently, SMO is also shown to be regulated by small molecules, such as oxysterol, cholesterol, and phospholipid. The activity of SMO must be very well balanced by these different mechanisms in vivo because the malfunction of SMO will not only cause developmental defects in early stages, but also induce cancers in late ...


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


Notch Signaling Represses Cone Photoreceptor Formation Through The Regulation Of Retinal Progenitor Cell States, Xueqing Chen, Mark M. Emerson 2021 CUNY City College

Notch Signaling Represses Cone Photoreceptor Formation Through The Regulation Of Retinal Progenitor Cell States, Xueqing Chen, Mark M. Emerson

Publications and Research

Notch signaling is required to repress the formation of vertebrate cone photoreceptors and to maintain the proliferative potential of multipotent retinal progenitor cells. However, the mechanism by which Notch signaling controls these processes is unknown. Recently, restricted retinal progenitor cells with limited proliferation capacity and that preferentially generate cone photoreceptors have been identified. Thus, there are several potential steps during cone genesis that Notch signaling could act. Here we use cell type specific cis-regulatory elements to localize the primary role of Notch signaling in cone genesis to the formation of restricted retinal progenitor cells from multipotent retinal progenitor cells. Localized ...


Ripk1 Activation Mediates Neuroinflammation And Disease Progression In Multiple Sclerosis, Matija Zelic, Boyao Zhang, M. Pontus A. Orning, Egil Lien, Dimitry Ofengeim 2021 Sanofi

Ripk1 Activation Mediates Neuroinflammation And Disease Progression In Multiple Sclerosis, Matija Zelic, Boyao Zhang, M. Pontus A. Orning, Egil Lien, Dimitry Ofengeim

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) mediates cell death and inflammatory signaling and is increased in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain samples. Here, we investigate the role of glial RIPK1 kinase activity in mediating MS pathogenesis. We demonstrate RIPK1 levels correlate with MS disease progression. We find microglia are susceptible to RIPK1-mediated cell death and identify an inflammatory gene signature that may contribute to the neuroinflammatory milieu in MS patients. We uncover a distinct role for RIPK1 in astrocytes in regulating inflammatory signaling in the absence of cell death and confirm RIPK1-kinase-dependent regulation in human glia. Using a murine MS model ...


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the ...


Necroptosis, Pyroptosis And Apoptosis: An Intricate Game Of Cell Death, Damien Bertheloot, Eicke Latz, Bernardo S. Franklin 2021 University of Bonn

Necroptosis, Pyroptosis And Apoptosis: An Intricate Game Of Cell Death, Damien Bertheloot, Eicke Latz, Bernardo S. Franklin

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Cell death is a fundamental physiological process in all living organisms. Its roles extend from embryonic development, organ maintenance, and aging to the coordination of immune responses and autoimmunity. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms orchestrating cellular death and its consequences on immunity and homeostasis has increased substantially. Different modalities of what has become known as 'programmed cell death' have been described, and some key players in these processes have been identified. We have learned more about the intricacies that fine tune the activity of common players and ultimately shape the different types of cell death. These studies ...


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