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Improving Anatomical Knowledge Retention In Medical Students Entering The Surgery And Obstetrics And Gynecology Clinical Rotations By Nesting Interactive Modules, Samantha Ahle, Jill Krapf, Kirsten Marie Brown, Juliet Lee, Gisela Butera, Ellen Goldman, Myriam Ferzli, Rosalyn A. Jurjus 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Improving Anatomical Knowledge Retention In Medical Students Entering The Surgery And Obstetrics And Gynecology Clinical Rotations By Nesting Interactive Modules, Samantha Ahle, Jill Krapf, Kirsten Marie Brown, Juliet Lee, Gisela Butera, Ellen Goldman, Myriam Ferzli, Rosalyn A. Jurjus

GW Research Days 2014

Background: It is well documented in the medical education literature that students retain minimal anatomy knowledge when transitioning from pre-clinical didactics to clinical application on the wards. In a previous study at our own institution we were able to quantify this knowledge deficit in students on surgical clerkships, specifically surgery and obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN). Using our previous data, we designed an integrated, nested clinical teaching model utilizing e-modules to review clinically relevant surgical anatomy during their clinical rotations.

Objective: The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of a newly designed method of teaching clinically relevant ...


Mechanisms Associated With The Regulation Of Vascular Structure And Function In Humans, Lisa Cotie 2014 McMaster University

Mechanisms Associated With The Regulation Of Vascular Structure And Function In Humans, Lisa Cotie

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating vascular structure and function may assist in designing effective strategies to decrease cardiovascular disease risk. The current studies were designed to investigate a) relationships between collagen markers and arterial stiffness and markers of vasoconstriction and inflammation and endothelial function in humans with a wide range of vascular health, including overweight women, elderly healthy men, individuals with coronary artery disease, individuals with spinal cord injury and young healthy men and b) changes in arterial structure and function and circulating serum markers of type I collagen synthesis and degradation, vasoconstriction and inflammation in overweight pre-menopausal ...


Implementation Of Do Not Attempt Resuscitate Orders In A Japanese Nursing Home, Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Lonny Ashworth, Norihiro Kaneko 2014 Boise State University

Implementation Of Do Not Attempt Resuscitate Orders In A Japanese Nursing Home, Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Lonny Ashworth, Norihiro Kaneko

Respiratory Therapy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Objective: To investigate whether do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders can be implemented in a standard nursing home in Japan, where routine DNAR orders are not yet common in many facilities including hospitals.

Method: Ninety-eight residents in a 100-bed nursing home were evaluated. All of the eligible residents and/or their family members were asked whether they wanted to receive resuscitation, including mechanical ventilation.

Result: The residents were 54 to 101 years of age (mean 83.3), with 27 males and 71 females. After administering the questionnaire, 92 (94%) patients did not want resuscitation and mechanical ventilation.

Conclusion: In a ...


Dysphagia And Disrupted Cranial Nerve Development In A Mouse Model Of Digeorge/22q11 Deletion Syndrome, Beverly A. Karpinski, Thomas M. Maynard, Matthew S. Fralish, Samar Nuwayhid, Irene Zohn, Sally Ann Moody, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Dysphagia And Disrupted Cranial Nerve Development In A Mouse Model Of Digeorge/22q11 Deletion Syndrome, Beverly A. Karpinski, Thomas M. Maynard, Matthew S. Fralish, Samar Nuwayhid, Irene Zohn, Sally Ann Moody, Anthony-Samuel Lamantia

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of Chromosome 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia - debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward - within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and ...


Extracting Vessel Structure From 3d Image Data, Yuchen Zhong 2014 Western University

Extracting Vessel Structure From 3d Image Data, Yuchen Zhong

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is focused on extracting the structure of vessels from 3D cardiac images. In many biomedical applications it is important to segment the vessels preserving their anatomically-correct topological structure. That is, the final result should form a tree. There are many technical challenges when solving this image analysis problem: noise, outliers, partial volume. In particular, standard segmentation methods are known to have problems with extracting thin structures and with enforcing topological constraints. All these issues explain why vessel segmentation remains an unsolved problem despite years of research.

Our new efforts combine recent advances in optimization-based methods for image analysis ...


Fatigue Failure Of Osteocyte Cellular Processes: Implications For The Repair Of Bone., Clodagh Dooley, Daniel Cafferky, T Clive Lee, David Taylor 2014 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Fatigue Failure Of Osteocyte Cellular Processes: Implications For The Repair Of Bone., Clodagh Dooley, Daniel Cafferky, T Clive Lee, David Taylor

Anatomy Articles

The physical effects of fatigue failure caused by cyclic strain are important and for most materials well understood. However, nothing is known about this mode of failure in living cells. We developed a novel method that allowed us to apply controlled levels of cyclic displacement to networks of osteocytes in bone. We showed that under cyclic loading, fatigue failure takes place in the dendritic processes of osteocytes at cyclic strain levels as low as one tenth of the strain needed for instantaneous rupture. The number of cycles to failure was inversely correlated with the strain level. Further experiments demonstrated that ...


A Review Of “An Ethical Market In Human Organs,” By Charles A. Erin And John Harris, And A Proposed Solution To The Current Organ Shortage, Rachel Rattenni FCRH '14 2013 Fordham University

A Review Of “An Ethical Market In Human Organs,” By Charles A. Erin And John Harris, And A Proposed Solution To The Current Organ Shortage, Rachel Rattenni Fcrh '14

Fordham Undergraduate Research Journal

In 2005, an Israeli man named Nick Rosen answered an ad in his local Tel Aviv newspaper searching for someone interested in selling a kidney. Through funding from the broker who placed the ad, Rosen was flown to New York and set up with a dialysis patient from Brooklyn. After Rosen and the dialysis patient passed a simple procedure for the screening of illegal organ sales by saying the two were old friends, the successful transplant surgery was performed at the esteemed Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. The Brooklyn resident walked away never again needing to go on ...


Proteomic Profiling Of Burkholderia Cenocepacia Clonal Isolates With Different Virulence Potential Retrieved From A Cystic Fibrosis Patient During Chronic Lung Infection., Siobhan McClean, Máire Callaghan, Jean Tyrrell, Isabelle Sa Correia 2013 Dublin Institute of Technology

Proteomic Profiling Of Burkholderia Cenocepacia Clonal Isolates With Different Virulence Potential Retrieved From A Cystic Fibrosis Patient During Chronic Lung Infection., Siobhan Mcclean, Máire Callaghan, Jean Tyrrell, Isabelle Sa Correia

Articles

Respiratory infections with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria in cystic fibrosis (CF) are associated with a worse prognosis and increased risk of death. In this work, we assessed the virulence potential of three B. cenocepacia clonal isolates obtained from a CF patient between the onset of infection (isolate IST439) and before death with cepacia syndrome 3.5 years later (isolate IST4113 followed by IST4134), based on their ability to invade epithelial cells and compromise epithelial monolayer integrity. The two clonal isolates retrieved during late-stage disease were significantly more virulent than IST439. Proteomic profiling by 2-D DIGE of the last isolate ...


Arterial Stiffness During The Early Years: Relationship With Adiposity And Physical Activity, Ninette Shenouda 2013 McMaster University

Arterial Stiffness During The Early Years: Relationship With Adiposity And Physical Activity, Ninette Shenouda

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Arterial stiffness is a natural and inevitable process for an ageing artery. In adults and school-aged children, increased stiffness of the central arteries is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors. Arterial stiffness, and its relationship with adiposity and physical activity (PA), has not been studied in preschool-aged children (3-5 years) despite the high prevalence of obesity and inactivity in this age group. Ninety-eight healthy preschoolers (4.4 ± 0.9 years; 50% boys) participated in this thesis, completing baseline and follow up assessments 12.5 ± 1.1 months apart. Whole-body PWV (carotid to dorsalis pedis; m/s) was ...


Six-Minute Walk Test Performance In Healthy Adult Pakistani Volunteers, Nisar Ahmed Rao, Muhammad Irfan, Ahmed Suleman Haque, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Safia Awan 2013 The Aga Khan University

Six-Minute Walk Test Performance In Healthy Adult Pakistani Volunteers, Nisar Ahmed Rao, Muhammad Irfan, Ahmed Suleman Haque, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Safia Awan

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

Objective: To determine the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) for healthy Pakistanis, identify factors affecting 6MWD, compare published equations with the local data and derive an equation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Two medical institutes of Karachi, from January to May 2011. Methodology: Subjects between 15 and 65 years were prospectively enrolled after screening. A standardized 6MWT was administered. SpO2, HR, BP and dyspnoea scores were determined pre- and post-test. Results: Two hundred and eleven (71%) men and 85 (29%) women participated. Mean 6MWD was 469.88 ± 101.24 m: men walked 502.35 ± 92 ...


Development And Assessment Of An Impact Apparatus And High-Speed Camera Motion Tracking System To Quantify The Effect Of Static Muscle Loads On Fracture Threshold Measures In The Distal Radius, Jacob M. Reeves 2013 Western University

Development And Assessment Of An Impact Apparatus And High-Speed Camera Motion Tracking System To Quantify The Effect Of Static Muscle Loads On Fracture Threshold Measures In The Distal Radius, Jacob M. Reeves

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Distal radius fractures are prevalent, debilitating, and costly. This thesis conducts an in vitro investigation of these injuries, examining the role of static muscle loading on fracture threshold measures (i.e., force, impulse, energy). Initially, an impact apparatus and custom LabVIEW colour-thresholding program were designed and assessed for repeatability and accuracy in quantifying fracture measures and impact kinematics. These tools were then used to test six pairs of cadaveric forearms, with static muscle loads simulated in one specimen from each pair. Distal radius fractures were achieved in 5 pairs, with perilunate dislocations in the remaining pair. None of the fracture ...


Effects Of Prenatal Testosterone On The Reproductive And Metabolic Neurons Of The Sheep Hypothalamus, Maria Cernea 2013 Western University

Effects Of Prenatal Testosterone On The Reproductive And Metabolic Neurons Of The Sheep Hypothalamus, Maria Cernea

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting reproductively aged women. Women with PCOS and ewes prenatally exposed to testosterone (T) show similar reproductive and metabolic defects, including anovulatory dysfunctions stemming from abnormal gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and insulin resistance. For this dissertation, I examined the effects of prenatal T treatment on androgen receptor (AR) and insulin receptor (IR) expression with the reproductive and metabolic neurons of the hypothalamus, the ARC KNDy (co-expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B/dynorphin), AgRP (agouti-related peptide) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, and the preoptic area (POA) kisspeptin neurons, and the GnRH ...


Association Between Iliotibial Band Syndrome Status And Running Biomechanics In Women, Eric Henri Foch 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Association Between Iliotibial Band Syndrome Status And Running Biomechanics In Women, Eric Henri Foch

Doctoral Dissertations

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is common knee overuse injury that is twice as likely to afflict women compared to men. Etiological factors associated with ITBS include atypical biomechanics during running, as well as iliotibial band flexibility and hip abductor muscle weakness. This dissertation implemented a combination of discrete and continuous analyses to identify lower-extremity and trunk movement patterns that may be associated with ITBS injury status in female runners with current ITBS, previous ITBS, and controls. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 examined discrete joint and segment biomechanics during running, iliotibial band mechanics via musculoskeletal modeling and dynamic simulation, and ...


Prefrontal Cortical Microcircuits Bind Perception To Executive Control, Ioan Opris, Lucas Santos, Greg A. Gerhardt, Dong Song, Theodore W. Berger, Robert E. Hampson, Sam A. Deadwyler 2013 University of Kentucky

Prefrontal Cortical Microcircuits Bind Perception To Executive Control, Ioan Opris, Lucas Santos, Greg A. Gerhardt, Dong Song, Theodore W. Berger, Robert E. Hampson, Sam A. Deadwyler

Anatomy and Neurobiology Faculty Publications

During the perception-to-action cycle, our cerebral cortex mediates the interactions between the environment and the perceptual-executive systems of the brain. At the top of the executive hierarchy, prefrontal cortical microcircuits are assumed to bind perceptual and executive control information to guide goal-driven behavior. Here, we tested this hypothesis by comparing simultaneously recorded neuron firing in prefrontal cortical layers and the caudate-putamen of rhesus monkeys, trained in a spatial-versus-object, rule-based match-to-sample task. We found that during the perception and executive selection phases, cell firing in the localized prefrontal layers and caudate-putamen region exhibited similar location preferences on spatial-trials, but less on ...


The Role Of Kisspeptin And Kndy Cells In The Reproductive Neuroendocrine System, Christina M. Merkley 2013 Western University

The Role Of Kisspeptin And Kndy Cells In The Reproductive Neuroendocrine System, Christina M. Merkley

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus represent the final common output in the central control of reproduction. GnRH secretion is modulated indirectly by steroid feedback action of gonadal steroids on afferent interneurons. In recent years, the neuropeptide, kisspeptin, has emerged as a key mediator of steroid feedback onto GnRH neurons and the reproductive system. Kisspeptin neurons located in the preoptic area (POA) mediate estradiol (E2) positive feedback leading to the preovulatory surge, and kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) have been shown to mediate the negative feedback actions of E2 on pulsatile GnRH secretion. ARC kisspeptin neurons ...


The Effect Of Shear Stress, Potassium, And Adenosine On Α-1 Adrenergic Vasoconstriction Of Rat Soleus Feed Arteries, Tanner J. Heckle, Jeffrey Jasperse 2013 Pepperdine University

The Effect Of Shear Stress, Potassium, And Adenosine On Α-1 Adrenergic Vasoconstriction Of Rat Soleus Feed Arteries, Tanner J. Heckle, Jeffrey Jasperse

All Undergraduate Student Research

During exercise, blood flow increases to the working skeletal muscle primarily because of dilation of the arteries and arterioles feeding the muscle. Sympathetic nerve activity also increases during exercise, augmenting the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) at the arterial wall and into the blood. NE acts to constrict blood vessels; however, arteries and arterioles within contracting skeletal muscle dilate despite the increased NE present. This has led to the concept of functional sympatholysis (4), the idea that a chemical released from contracting skeletal muscle interferes with NE signaling. NE acts by binding to adrenergic (alpha and beta) receptors, and ...


Examination Of Osteoarthritis And Subchondral Bone Alterations Within The Stifle Joint Of An Ovariectomised Ovine Model., Jane C. Holland, Orlaith Brennan, O D. Kennedy, N J. Mahony, S Rackard, Fergal O'Brien, T Clive Lee 2013 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Examination Of Osteoarthritis And Subchondral Bone Alterations Within The Stifle Joint Of An Ovariectomised Ovine Model., Jane C. Holland, Orlaith Brennan, O D. Kennedy, N J. Mahony, S Rackard, Fergal O'Brien, T Clive Lee

Anatomy Articles

The exact relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis is still a matter for debate for many. The ovariectomised ewe is frequently used as a model for osteoporosis, resulting in significant alterations in bone morphometry and turnover in both trabecular and subchondral bone after 1 year. This study examines whether ovariectomy has any impact on development of osteoarthritis within the ovine stifle joint at the same time point. In addition, we investigate whether there are any significant correlations present between articular cartilage degeneration and alterations in microstructural parameters or turnover rates in the underlying bone. Twenty-two sheep were examined in this study ...


Evaluation Of The Anterior Talofibular And Calcaneofibular Ligament In Relation To Supination Ankle Sprains, Peter Tran 2013 California Polytechnic State University

Evaluation Of The Anterior Talofibular And Calcaneofibular Ligament In Relation To Supination Ankle Sprains, Peter Tran

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

Ankle injuries have always posed an issue to a number of athletes. Sports that involve running and jumping accumulate about 25% of injuries correlating to ankle sprains. In most ankle sprains the inversion (supination) of the ankle cause damage to lateral ligaments. The two most common lateral ligaments to experience damage are the anterior talofibular (ATFL) and calcaneofibular (CFL) ligaments. The methods of taping and ankle braces have allowed athletes to prevent recurring sprains from occurring. However, sprains can still occur even when one or both methods are applied. The purpose of each method is to restrict the range of ...


A Descriptive Study To Find Possible Correlation Between Mri Findings Of Pituitary Gland And Serum Prolactin Level, Muhammad Azeemuddin, Rohana Naqi, Mohammad Wasay 2013 The Aga Khan University

A Descriptive Study To Find Possible Correlation Between Mri Findings Of Pituitary Gland And Serum Prolactin Level, Muhammad Azeemuddin, Rohana Naqi, Mohammad Wasay

Department of Medicine

Objective: To explore equation, if any, between findings of magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary gland and serum prolactin level.

Methods: The retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and related to patients\' records from April 19, 2006 to April 23, 2009. Seventy patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of brain for pituitary gland. Inclusion criteria were all patients referred with relevant clinical symptoms or deranged serum prolactin level. Patients who were claustrophobic or had a pacemaker, aneurysm clip, metallic foreign body in the orbit or with no laboratory investigation were excluded from the ...


Artistic Anatomy: Utilizing Dancer's Individual Physicality Within The Choreographic Process, Erin E. Finn 2013 Western Kentucky University

Artistic Anatomy: Utilizing Dancer's Individual Physicality Within The Choreographic Process, Erin E. Finn

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

As curious people, we find ourselves asking “how?” My research investigates the “how” of dance by exploring the individual and natural abilities of a dancer’s anatomy and utilizing them through movement. Challenging the individual limits of the human body is a vital aspect of what makes a dancer a thinking artist. For example, recognizing the uniqueness of the hip socket as it relates to a dancer’s turn out and flexibility can help in understanding its effect on movement from one dancer to the next. This provides insight into the challenges each dancer can face when working with a ...


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