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Functionality Of The Kidneys, Amber Jourdan 2019 Grand Valley State University

Functionality Of The Kidneys, Amber Jourdan

Honors Projects

This project is an informative research paper on the role of the kidneys in the urinary system, as well as issues that arise in the kidneys. A brief introduction is given to explain the general function of the urinary system and the importance of the kidneys. Following that, a section of Acute Kidney Injury explains the disease and possible treatments. Additionally, there is a section on kidney stones, how they are formed, and how treatments are administered when a patient presents with this ailment. This paper is not the only piece of this project. In addition, a visual aid will ...


The Influence Of Pre- And Post Meal Exercise In Relation To Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels In Type Ii Diabetics, Jessica Johnson 2019 Fort Hays State University

The Influence Of Pre- And Post Meal Exercise In Relation To Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels In Type Ii Diabetics, Jessica Johnson

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of pre and post evening meal exercise in relation to postprandial blood glucose levels in type II diabetics. Fifteen participants diagnosed with type II diabetes volunteered to participate in this 21 day study. During the first seven days, participants were told to change nothing about their daily routine. Throughout the study they were asked to track all food consumption in the MyFitnessPal application and to record their blood glucose levels fasting, before their evening meal, and 120 minutes after their evening meal. At the end of day seven, each participant ...


Hdl In Endocrine Carcinomas: Biomarker, Drug Carrier, And Potential Therapeutic, Emily E. Morin, Xiang-An Li, Anna Schwendeman 2018 University of Michigan

Hdl In Endocrine Carcinomas: Biomarker, Drug Carrier, And Potential Therapeutic, Emily E. Morin, Xiang-An Li, Anna Schwendeman

Physiology Faculty Publications

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) have long been studied for their protective role against cardiovascular diseases, however recently relationship between HDL and cancer came into focus. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and cancer risk, and some have even implied that HDL-C can be used as a predictive measure for survival prognosis in for specific sub-population of certain types of cancer. HDL itself is an endogenous nanoparticle capable of removing excess cholesterol from the periphery and returning it to the liver for excretion. One of the main receptors for HDL, scavenger receptor type B-I (SR-BI), is highly ...


Glimepiride Administered In Chow Reversibly Impairs Glucose Tolerance In Mice, Dana M. Niedowicz, Sabire Özcan, Peter T. Nelson 2018 University of Kentucky

Glimepiride Administered In Chow Reversibly Impairs Glucose Tolerance In Mice, Dana M. Niedowicz, Sabire Özcan, Peter T. Nelson

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Sulfonylureas are a class of antidiabetes medications prescribed to millions of individuals worldwide. Rodents have been used extensively to study sulfonylureas in the laboratory. Here, we report the results of studies treating mice with a sulfonylurea (glimepiride) in order to understand how the drug affects glucose homeostasis and tolerance. We tested the effect of glimepiride on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion, using glimepiride sourced from a local pharmacy. We also examined the effect on glucagon, gluconeogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. Unexpectedly, glimepiride exposure in mice was associated with fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and decreased insulin. There was no ...


The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano

Voice and Opera Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In order to better serve singers who identify as trans men or gender queer, voice teachers must understand the vocal effects of hormone replacement therapy, specifically that of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy is the only type of hormone replacement therapy that permanently changes the voice and eventually results in a full octave drop or more of a person’s spoken fundamental frequency. Due to such a dramatic shift, the voice change process can be turbulent.

This dissertation is designed to educate both cis gender voice teachers and trans and gender queer singers on the process of vocal change during the ...


Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, Nathaniel J. Hart, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. DeNicola, Sally C. Kent, Alvin C. Powers 2018 Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Is Caused By Islet Loss And Inflammation, Nathaniel J. Hart, Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. Denicola, Sally C. Kent, Alvin C. Powers

Open Access Articles

Cystic fibrosis-related (CF-related) diabetes (CFRD) is an increasingly common and devastating comorbidity of CF, affecting approximately 35% of adults with CF. However, the underlying causes of CFRD are unclear. Here, we examined cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) islet expression and whether the CFTR participates in islet endocrine cell function using murine models of beta cell CFTR deletion and normal and CF human pancreas and islets. Specific deletion of CFTR from murine beta cells did not affect beta cell function. In human islets, CFTR mRNA was minimally expressed, and CFTR protein and electrical activity were not detected. Isolated CF/CFRD ...


Regulation Of Extra-Pituitary Prolactin In Monocytes And Macrophages, Richard Barrett 2018 University of Central Florida

Regulation Of Extra-Pituitary Prolactin In Monocytes And Macrophages, Richard Barrett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recently it has been shown that leukocytes are capable of producing prolactin (PRL). Evidence of extra-pituitary PRL (ePRL) production is so far been limited to primates and is not shared across other mammal species such as mice and rats. While ePRL is characterized as an identical protein to traditional pituitary PRL, it is controlled under an alternative promoter and is thus regulated differently from pituitary PRL. Little is known about what regulates ePRL or its direct role in human physiology, but given that PRL has well over 300 described functions, it is likely that the autocrine and paracrine effects of ...


The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey 2017 Dominican University of California

The Effects Of Continuous Insulin Pump Therapy On Glycemic Control In Pregnant Type 1 Diabetics, Kimberly Kelsey

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Type 1 Diabetics have various ways of managing their diabetes that have been studied for their effectiveness. Pregnancy in the Type 1 Diabetic has been understudied. It is known that Diabetics in general have poorer pregnancy outcomes because of poor glycemic control. This coupled with the fact that the body needs 3-4 times more insulin as pregnancy comes to an end makes managing blood glucose levels challenging for diabetics (Lowdermilk, 2016, p. 689). For the Type 1 Diabetic, there are two main ways to control diabetes: multiple daily injections using at least two type of insulin and continuous subcutaneous insulin ...


Epigenetic Impact Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals On Lipid Homeostasis And Atherosclerosis: A Pregnane X Receptor-Centric View, Robert N. Helsley, Changcheng Zhou 2017 University of Kentucky

Epigenetic Impact Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals On Lipid Homeostasis And Atherosclerosis: A Pregnane X Receptor-Centric View, Robert N. Helsley, Changcheng Zhou

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Despite the major advances in developing diagnostic techniques and effective treatments, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. While considerable progress has been achieved to identify gene variations and environmental factors that contribute to CVD, much less is known about the role of “gene–environment interactions” in predisposing individuals to CVD. Our chemical environment has significantly changed in the last few decades, and there are more than 100,000 synthetic chemicals in the market. Recent large-scale human population studies have associated exposure to certain chemicals including many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with increased ...


Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci 2017 Bard College

Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Obesity has been linked with a myriad of negative outcomes for both physical and mental health including feeding and eating disorders and cognitive impairments that affect perception of body size. Understanding the cognitive mechanisms and physiological factors that contribute to perception of body size may help us to comprehend how obesity impacts the construction and development of one’s mental body representations. Previous research by Scarpina, Castelnuovo, and Molinari (2014) suggests that, compared to those with a normal Body Mass Index, individuals with a BMI greater than 30 (obese) not only inaccurately estimate tactile and mental distances on their own ...


Sugar Consumption Alters Perception Of And Response To Stress In Undergraduate Students: Understanding The "Freshmen Fifteen", Katherine M Keever 2016 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Sugar Consumption Alters Perception Of And Response To Stress In Undergraduate Students: Understanding The "Freshmen Fifteen", Katherine M Keever

Honors Theses

Psychological stress is a common part in everyday life that directly affects the body through the nervous system and neuroendocrine hormones. A perceived stressor leads to the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and the synthesis and release of the glucocorticoid hormone cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Studies have linked the release of cortisol during high-stress periods to an increased intake of sugary and fatty foods, consistent with a suspected glucocorticoid-metabolic-brain- negative pathway, with high sugar consumption leading to lower stress and subsequently cortisol levels. In this study, undergraduate students’ diets were supplemented with either a high sugar drink or ...


Point Mutations Of The Putative Follitropin Receptor Caveolin Interaction Motif Do Not Disrupt Receptor Function, Stanley Soroka 2016 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Point Mutations Of The Putative Follitropin Receptor Caveolin Interaction Motif Do Not Disrupt Receptor Function, Stanley Soroka

Honors Theses

Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) is a hormone found in humans that is synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary and targets the ovaries and testes. This specificity of targeting is accomplished by the interaction of hFSH with its receptor (hFSHR) on target cells. hFSHR is a G protein-coupled receptor that localizes to domains in the cell membrane known as lipid rafts. The mechanism of translocation of the hFSHR into lipid rafts is unknown. Our hypothesis is that translocation occurs through interaction of hFSHR with the protein caveolin via a specific sequence in the hFSHR; a putative caveolin interaction motif ...


Measurement Of The Absolute Magnitude And Time Courses Of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In Primary And Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells, Akos Gerencser, Shona A. Mookerjee, Martin Jastroch, Martin D. Brand 2016 Touro University California

Measurement Of The Absolute Magnitude And Time Courses Of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In Primary And Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells, Akos Gerencser, Shona A. Mookerjee, Martin Jastroch, Martin D. Brand

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion ...


Capillary Endothelia From Two Adpkd Patients Are Polyploidy, Sarmed H. Kathem, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi, Xiaolin Zi, Surya M. Nauli 2016 Chapman University

Capillary Endothelia From Two Adpkd Patients Are Polyploidy, Sarmed H. Kathem, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, Xiaolin Zi, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Bilateral renal cyst formation is the main feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We and other laboratories have previously shown that cystlining epithelia of kidneys from ADPKD patients are characterized by polyploidy. In this report, we show that endothelia from the renal capillary beds of two ADPKD patients are also polyploidy. Spectral karyotyping study further confirms our flow cytometry analyses. We suggest that polyploidy may be used as a potential cellular marker in ADPKD.


Gating Of The Polycystin Ion Channel Signaling Complex In Neurons And Kidney Cells, Patrick Delmas, Surya Nauli, Xiaogang Li, Bertrand Coste, Nancy Osorio, Marcel Crest, David Brown, Jing Zhou 2015 IFR Jean Roche

Gating Of The Polycystin Ion Channel Signaling Complex In Neurons And Kidney Cells, Patrick Delmas, Surya Nauli, Xiaogang Li, Bertrand Coste, Nancy Osorio, Marcel Crest, David Brown, Jing Zhou

David C. Brown

Mutations in either polycystin-2 (PC2) or polycystin-1 (PC1) proteins cause severe, potentially lethal, kidney disorders and multiple extrarenal (including brain) disease phenotypes. PC2, a member of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily, and PC1, an orphan membrane receptor of largely unknown function, are thought to be part of a common signaling pathway. Here, we show that in rat sympathetic neurons and kidney cells, coassembly of full-length PC1 with PC2 forms a plasmalemmal ion channel signaling complex in which PC1 stimulation simultaneously activates PC2 ion channels and G(i/o)-proteins. PC2 activation occurs through a structural rearrangement of PC1, independent ...


Posterior Approach To Kidney Dissection: An Old Surgical Approach For Integrated Medical Curricula, Frank J. Daly, David L. Bolender, Deepali Jain, Sheryl Uyeda, Todd M. Hoagland 2015 University of New England

Posterior Approach To Kidney Dissection: An Old Surgical Approach For Integrated Medical Curricula, Frank J. Daly, David L. Bolender, Deepali Jain, Sheryl Uyeda, Todd M. Hoagland

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications

Integrated medical curricular changes are altering the historical regional anatomy approach to abdominal dissection. The renal system is linked physiologically and biochemically to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, yet anatomist often approach the urinary system as part of the abdomen and pelvic regions. As part of an integrated curriculum, the renal system must be covered relatively quickly after the thorax in the cadaver lab, often without the opportunity to fully appreciate the rest of the abdominal contents. This paper provides dissection instructions that follow the one of the historical surgical approaches for nephrectomy, including preservation of the posterior abdominal wall ...


Empagliflozin In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence To Date, Jay H. Shubrook, Babak Baradar Bokaie, Sarah E. Adkins 2015 Touro University California

Empagliflozin In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence To Date, Jay H. Shubrook, Babak Baradar Bokaie, Sarah E. Adkins

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

In the last decade, researchers have gained a greater understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of type 2 diabetes as a chronic and progressive disease. One of the more recent treatment targets is the kidney. The kidneys become maladaptive in diabetes by increasing the reabsorption of glucose above the normal physiologic renal threshold. This discovery has led to the development of the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2). These agents readjust the renal threshold for glucose reabsorption to a lower level and decrease glucose reabsorption, while increasing urinary glucose when the glucose is above the renal threshold and subsequently lowering plasma ...


Dopaminergic Signaling Within The Primary Cilia In The Renovascular System, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Samred H. Kathem, Xingjian Jin, Brian S. Muntean, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli 2015 Chapman University

Dopaminergic Signaling Within The Primary Cilia In The Renovascular System, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Samred H. Kathem, Xingjian Jin, Brian S. Muntean, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Activation of dopamine receptor type-5 (DR5) has been known to reduce systemic blood pressure, most likely by increasing renal vasodilation and enhancing natriuresis in the kidney. However, the mechanism of DR5 in natriuresis and vasodilation was not clearly known. We have previously shown that DR5 is localized to primary cilia of proximal renal epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. We here show that selective activation of DR5 specifically induces calcium influx only in the primary cilia, whereas non-selective activation of dopamine receptor induces calcium fluxes in both cilioplasm and cytoplasm. Cilia-independent signaling induced by thrombin only shows calcium signaling within cytoplasm ...


Ideology Masquerading As Science: The Case Of Endocrine Disrupter Screening Programmes, Troy Seidle 2014 People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Ideology Masquerading As Science: The Case Of Endocrine Disrupter Screening Programmes, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, Ph.D.

The global move to develop novel testing methods and strategies to identify suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals offers a unique opportunity to move away from traditional animal testing paradigms in this new area of regulatory concern. Regrettably, the programmes under development, both in the USA and internationally through the OECD, have thus far failed to consider in vitro and other nonanimal test methods as more than “pre-screening” or “priority-setting” tools in a larger, animal-based testing strategy. Validation efforts to date have focused almost exclusively on the modification of existing animal tests to detect “endocrine effects”, with no demonstrable effort to promote ...


Enteroendocrine Cells Support Intestinal Stem-Cell-Mediated Homeostasis In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Wei Song, Qi Li, Yingchao Nie, Ivan Bragatto, Dominique Ferrandon, Norbert Perrimon, Y. Tony Ip 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Enteroendocrine Cells Support Intestinal Stem-Cell-Mediated Homeostasis In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Wei Song, Qi Li, Yingchao Nie, Ivan Bragatto, Dominique Ferrandon, Norbert Perrimon, Y. Tony Ip

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut are regulated by growth factors produced from the surrounding niche cells including enterocytes and visceral muscle. The role of the other major cell type, the secretory enteroendocrine cells, in regulating intestinal stem cells remains unclear. We show here that newly eclosed scute loss-of-function mutant flies are completely devoid of enteroendocrine cells. These enteroendocrine cell-less flies have normal ingestion and fecundity but shorter lifespan. Moreover, in these newly eclosed mutant flies, the diet-stimulated midgut growth that depends on the insulin-like peptide 3 expression in the surrounding muscle is defective. The depletion of Tachykinin-producing ...


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