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Embryonic Transcription Factor Expression In Mice Predicts Medial Amygdala Neuronal Identity And Sex-Specific Responses To Innate Behavioral Cues., Julieta E Lischinsky, Katie Sokolowski, Li Peijun, Shigeyuki Esumi, Yasmin Kamal, Meredith Goodrich, Livio Oboti, Timothy R Hammond, Meera Krishnamoorthy, Daniel Feldman, Molly Huntsman, Judy Liu, Joshua G Corbin 2017 George Washington University

Embryonic Transcription Factor Expression In Mice Predicts Medial Amygdala Neuronal Identity And Sex-Specific Responses To Innate Behavioral Cues., Julieta E Lischinsky, Katie Sokolowski, Li Peijun, Shigeyuki Esumi, Yasmin Kamal, Meredith Goodrich, Livio Oboti, Timothy R Hammond, Meera Krishnamoorthy, Daniel Feldman, Molly Huntsman, Judy Liu, Joshua G Corbin

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

The medial subnucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a central role in processing sensory cues required for innate behaviors. However, whether there is a link between developmental programs and the emergence of inborn behaviors remains unknown. Our previous studies revealed that the telencephalic preoptic area (POA) embryonic niche is a novel source of MeA destined progenitors. Here, we show that the POA is comprised of distinct progenitor pools complementarily marked by the transcription factors Dbx1 and Foxp2. As determined by molecular and electrophysiological criteria this embryonic parcellation predicts postnatal MeA inhibitory neuronal subtype identity. We further find that Dbx1-derived and ...


Mechanism For Generation Of Left Isomerism In Ccdc40 Mutant Embryos, Kelsey Sugrue, Irene E. Zohn 2017 George Washington University

Mechanism For Generation Of Left Isomerism In Ccdc40 Mutant Embryos, Kelsey Sugrue, Irene E. Zohn

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Leftward fluid flow in the mouse node is generated by cilia and is critical for initiating asymmetry of the left-right axis. Coiled-coil domain containing-40 (Ccdc40) plays an evolutionarily conserved role in the assembly of motile cilia and establishment of the left-right axis. Approximately one-third of Ccdc40lnks mutant embryos display situs defects and here we investigate the underlying mechanism. Ccdc40lnks mutants show delayed induction of markers of the left-lateral plate mesoderm (L-LPM) including Lefty1, Lefty2 and Nodal. Consistent with defective cilia motility compromising fluid flow across the node, initiation of asymmetric perinodal Cerberus like-2 (Cerl2) expression is delayed and ...


A Low-Cost Time-Lapse Imaging System Developed For Documentation Of Human Pre-Implantation Embryogenesis In Clinical Ivf Settings, Christine E. Hennigan Miss 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

A Low-Cost Time-Lapse Imaging System Developed For Documentation Of Human Pre-Implantation Embryogenesis In Clinical Ivf Settings, Christine E. Hennigan Miss

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system that affects many women of various ages, races, and socioeconomic factors across the world (CDC, WHO, 2017). The expensive nature of treatments for infertility, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), has been combated with a simplified culture system (SCS) developed in the Van Blerkom lab (Van Blerkom et al., 2013). This recent advancement in clinical IVF procedures has prompted an effort to develop additional, low-cost technology able to help assess pre-implantation embryogenesis development and competence. This study examines the development and application of a low-cost, simplified, time-lapse imaging system that has shown ...


Human Oocytes And Embryos Viewed By Time-Lapse Videography, And The Development Of An Embryo Deselection Model, Yanhe Liu 2016 Edith Cowan University

Human Oocytes And Embryos Viewed By Time-Lapse Videography, And The Development Of An Embryo Deselection Model, Yanhe Liu

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Despite its wide application today, in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment continues to have relatively low efficacy, largely due to inaccuracy in selecting the best quality embryo(s) from the cohort for transfer. Novel methodologies for improved selection are being developed, and time-lapse observation of human embryos is gaining increasing popularity due to the more detailed morphokinetic information obtained plus uninterrupted culture conditions. The morphokinetic information enables the use of quantitative timings in developmental milestones of embryos and qualitative measures of abnormal biological events, to assist embryo selection/deselection. This project aimed to identify current limitations in the use of such ...


Do Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Resolve The Ethical And Legal Issues Generated By Human Embryonic Stem Cells?, Samantha J. Henson 2015 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Do Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Resolve The Ethical And Legal Issues Generated By Human Embryonic Stem Cells?, Samantha J. Henson

Masters theses/dissertations - taught courses

The field of stem cell technology has seen an exponential growth over the last decade. Due to this, little attention has been paid as to whether this new technology adequately improves on previous research models, or indeed if it causes any ethical or legal issues itself. Of particular interest is whether Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells resolve the ethical and legal issues which have been generated by Human Embryonic Stem Cells. The ethical issues of note relate to the definition of personhood and moral status, the debate on when these can be ascribed, the consequences of utilising embryos for research, and ...


Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes 2014 George Washington University

Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Xenopus laevis eggs are used as a biological model system for studying fertilization and early embryonic development in vertebrates. Most methods used for their molecular analysis require elaborate sample preparation including separate protocols for the water soluble and lipid components. In this study, laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), an ambient ionization technique, was used for direct mass spectrometric analysis of X. laevis eggs and early stage embryos up to five cleavage cycles. Single unfertilized and fertilized eggs, their animal and vegetal poles, and embryos through the 32-cell stage were analyzed. Fifty two small metabolite ions, including glutathione, GABA and amino ...


Investigating A Role For The Ccaat/Enhancer-Binding Protein Δ In The Developing Zebrafish, Alisha Jennifer Beirl 2014 Portland State University

Investigating A Role For The Ccaat/Enhancer-Binding Protein Δ In The Developing Zebrafish, Alisha Jennifer Beirl

Dissertations and Theses

The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) is a highly conserved transcription factor capable of regulating numerous cell fate processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. C/EBPδ is inducible during cellular stress responses, including inflammation and responses to growth factor deprivation or thermal stress. C/EBPδ is stress-inducible in a diversity of fishes, including the zebrafish Danio rerio; however, little is known about its role in fish development. Here I show that overexpression of C/EBPδ leads to severe developmental defects, including reduced body length, edema, liver malformation and retinal abnormalities. The proportion of individuals that display ...


The Dn2 Myeloid-T (Dn2mt) Progenitor Is A Target Cell For Leukemic Transformation By The Tlx1 Oncogene, Lynnsey A. Zweier-Renn, Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley 2013 George Washington University

The Dn2 Myeloid-T (Dn2mt) Progenitor Is A Target Cell For Leukemic Transformation By The Tlx1 Oncogene, Lynnsey A. Zweier-Renn, Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Introduction: Inappropriate activation of the TLX1 (T-cell leukemia homeobox 1) gene by chromosomal translocation is a recurrent event in human T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). Ectopic expression of TLX1 in murine bone marrow progenitor cells using a conventional retroviral vector efficiently yields immortalized cell lines and induces T-ALL-like tumors in mice after long latency.

Methods: To eliminate a potential contribution of retroviral insertional mutagenesis to TLX1 immortalizing and transforming function, we incorporated the TLX1 gene into an insulated self-inactivating retroviral vector.

Results: Retrovirally transduced TLX1-expressing murine bone marrow progenitor cells had a growth/survival advantage and readily gave rise to ...


Basic Concepts In Understanding Recovery Of Function In Vestibular Reflex Networks During Vestibular Compensation, Kenna D. Peusner, Mei Shao, Rebecca Reddaway, June C. Hirsch 2012 George Washington University

Basic Concepts In Understanding Recovery Of Function In Vestibular Reflex Networks During Vestibular Compensation, Kenna D. Peusner, Mei Shao, Rebecca Reddaway, June C. Hirsch

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output ...


The Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol (Ee2) On Gonadal Development And Differentiation In The Estuarine Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Ibrahim Chehade 2012 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol (Ee2) On Gonadal Development And Differentiation In The Estuarine Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Ibrahim Chehade

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Endocrine disrupting substances (EDSs) comprise a wide variety of chemicals that perturb normal endocrine function including developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates. The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly-used model EDS because of its environmental relevance and its effects on the reproductive endocrine system. Early life-stage exposure of fish to estrogenic EDSs causes effects such as intersex (ovotestes in males) and feminization. This study aims to confirm the period of gonadal differentiation in the estuarine killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and to determine the sensitivity of gonadal development to EE2. Artificially-regressed mummichog were spawned, and fertilized eggs ...


The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE REQUIREMENT OF SONIC HEDGEHOG IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

Solsire E. Zevallos

Douglas J. Epstein

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a morphogen secreted during early development that is required for the formation of the ventral neural tube, including the ventral forebrain. The prechordal source of Shh underlying the forebrain is required early to bifurcate the cerebral hemispheres and eye vesicles as well as to specify a rostroventral forebrain region, the hypothalamus. We hypothesized that Shh expressed later in the hypothalamus may be required for other known functions of Shh, such as patterning within a region, cell proliferation, cell specification, and axon ...


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