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The Relationship Between Feeding Type And Temporomandibular Joint Morphology In Superfamily Musteloidea, Travis L. Garvin 2018 Grand Valley State University

The Relationship Between Feeding Type And Temporomandibular Joint Morphology In Superfamily Musteloidea, Travis L. Garvin

Masters Theses

Many studies have focused on the soft tissue analysis of carnivores and have demonstrated a relationship between feeding biomechanics and feeding types. Herbivores and omnivores rely heavily on anteroposterior and helical movement of the mandible and teeth for the breakdown of fibrous foods resulting in a flat mandibular fossa while the function of the carnivore TMJ is different, as they need a much stable joint for ripping and tearing of the flesh. I aim to look at whether the bony morphology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be directly related to feeding type, specifically in the superfamily Musteloidea. I sampled ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix 2018 University of North Georgia

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: Tracheal occlusion (TO) reverses pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung development remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to a) confirm the CDH rabbit model produced PH which was reversed by TO and b) determine the effects of CDH +/- TO on EMT pathways.

Methods: CDH was created at 23 days, TO at 28 days and lung collection at 31 days gestation in fetal rabbits. Lung body weight ratio (LBWR), mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD), and expression of mRNA and micro-RNA was determined.

Results: Fifteen CDH, 15 ...


Primary Cardiac Lymphoma: Importance Of Tissue Diagnosis, Lauren Mendelson, Emily Hsu, Hojune Chung, Andrew Hsu 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Primary Cardiac Lymphoma: Importance Of Tissue Diagnosis, Lauren Mendelson, Emily Hsu, Hojune Chung, Andrew Hsu

Open Access Articles

Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare disease entity that can present with severe cardiac and cardioembolic symptoms. We present a 79-year-old male with history of polymalgia rheumatica on chronic prednisone who presented with a two-week history of progressively worsening dyspnea, cough, and a 10 pound weight loss. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed a large mediastinal mass with invasion of the pericardium. A biopsy of an abdominal soft-tissue mass confirmed the diagnosis of PCL. The patient was treated with two cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) which was complicated by ...


Methods For High-Dimensonal Analysis Of Cells Dissociated From Cyropreserved Synovial Tissue, Laura T. Donlin, Ellen M. Gravallese, Jennifer H. Anolik 2018 Weill Cornell Medical College

Methods For High-Dimensonal Analysis Of Cells Dissociated From Cyropreserved Synovial Tissue, Laura T. Donlin, Ellen M. Gravallese, Jennifer H. Anolik

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Detailed molecular analyses of cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium hold promise in identifying cellular phenotypes that drive tissue pathology and joint damage. The Accelerating Medicines Partnership RA/SLE Network aims to deconstruct autoimmune pathology by examining cells within target tissues through multiple high-dimensional assays. Robust standardized protocols need to be developed before cellular phenotypes at a single cell level can be effectively compared across patient samples.

METHODS: Multiple clinical sites collected cryopreserved synovial tissue fragments from arthroplasty and synovial biopsy in a 10% DMSO solution. Mechanical and enzymatic dissociation parameters were optimized for viable cell extraction and surface ...


A Leap To Hybrid Governance For European Union Healthcare On Organ Donations, Tasnim Ahmed 2018 Liverpool John Moores University

A Leap To Hybrid Governance For European Union Healthcare On Organ Donations, Tasnim Ahmed

Journal of Law and Health

This article evaluates two proposals that the Organs Directive along with the commission’s Action Plan 2009-2015 can be viewed as a form of hybrid governance. The Organs Directive is the first legally-binding supranational risk regulation devised in the field of organ donation and transplantation. The Directive is modelled on the earlier Directive dealing with blood, tissue, and cells. The Action Plan, which is soft law, will complement the Directive. The Directive and Action Plan requires additional administration procedures from the Member States with the EU Commission regularly monitoring the implementation of the work programme to ensure it is manageable ...


The Systemic Quantification Of Immune Cell Populations In Various Murine Models: How Age, Tumor Burden, And Immunotherapy Affect The Immune Response, Kavita Sinha 2018 University of Connecticut

The Systemic Quantification Of Immune Cell Populations In Various Murine Models: How Age, Tumor Burden, And Immunotherapy Affect The Immune Response, Kavita Sinha

Honors Scholar Theses

Immunotherapy as a form of cancer treatment has become increasingly popular in the past few decades. Researchers have worked to figure out how to best use the body’s natural defense mechanism, the immune system, to fight off and destroy cancer cells. In particular, the goal has been to manipulate checkpoint blockades such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 in order to take the breaks off of the immune system, allowing for a prolonged immune response to the cancer. This work has led to the development of human versions of anti-CTLA4 antibodies (ipilimumab, tremelimumab) and anti-PD1 antibodies (pembrolizumab and Nivolumab) that are ...


'No Pink Ribbons': How Women's Lived Experiences With Breast Atypia Inform Decisions Involving Risk-Reducing Medications, Sarah L. Goff, Reva Kleppel, Grace Makari-Judson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School - Baystate

'No Pink Ribbons': How Women's Lived Experiences With Breast Atypia Inform Decisions Involving Risk-Reducing Medications, Sarah L. Goff, Reva Kleppel, Grace Makari-Judson

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Atypical hyperplasia (AH) is associated with a nearly 4-fold elevation of lifetime risk for breast cancer, and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is associated with a 7- to 8-fold risk. Women with AH/LCIS make numerous decisions in the course of treatment, including whether to take a risk-reducing medication, an option relatively few women pursue. We explored women’s decision-making processes through patient narratives in an effort to inform decision supports for AH/LCIS.

Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 20 English-speaking women with AH/LCIS and no subsequent diagnosis of invasive breast cancer who had enrolled in the ...


Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The palmaris longus (PL) and palmaris brevis (PB) are upper limb muscles considered atavistic remnants of those found in animal species. Despite their use in surgical grafting and tendon transfer procedures, the functional role of the PL and PB have not been investigated comprehensively in vivo. Using a multi-modal experimental approach consisting of indwelling fine wire electromyography (EMG), ultrasonography and immunohistochemical muscle staining techniques, the function of the PL and PB in the hand was evaluated both in in vivo and in situ.

The purpose of Study 1 was to determine whether the PL provides synergistic contributions to thenar contractions ...


A Synthetic, Three-Dimensional Bone Marrow Hydrogel, Lauren Jansen, Thomas McCarthy, Michael J. Lee, Shelly Peyton 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Synthetic, Three-Dimensional Bone Marrow Hydrogel, Lauren Jansen, Thomas Mccarthy, Michael J. Lee, Shelly Peyton

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Three-dimensional (3D) synthetic hydrogels have recently emerged as desirable in vitro cell culture platforms capable of representing the extracellular geometry, elasticity, and water content of tissue in a tunable fashion. However, they are critically limited in their biological functionality. Hydrogels are typically decorated with a scant 1-3 peptide moieties to direct cell behavior, which vastly underrepresents the proteins found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of real tissues. Further, peptides chosen are ubiquitous in ECM, and are not derived from specific proteins. We developed an approach to incorporate the protein complexity of specific tissues into the design of biomaterials, and created ...


A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, Weijie Guo, Zhixiang Hu, Yichao Bao, Yuchen Li, Shengli Li, Qiupeng Zheng, Dongbin Lyu, Di Chen, Tao Yu, Yan Li, Xiaodong Zhu, Jie Ding, Yingjun Zhao, Xianghuo He, Shenglin Huang 2018 University of Kentucky

A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, Weijie Guo, Zhixiang Hu, Yichao Bao, Yuchen Li, Shengli Li, Qiupeng Zheng, Dongbin Lyu, Di Chen, Tao Yu, Yan Li, Xiaodong Zhu, Jie Ding, Yingjun Zhao, Xianghuo He, Shenglin Huang

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The diversity and complexity of the cancer transcriptome may contain transcripts unique to the tumor environment. Here, we report a LIN28B variant, LIN28B-TST, which is specifically expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and many other cancer types. Expression of LIN28B-TST is associated with significantly poor prognosis in HCC patients. LIN28B-TST initiates from a de novo alternative transcription initiation site that harbors a strong promoter regulated by NFYA but not c-Myc. Demethylation of the LIN28B-TST promoter might be a prerequisite for its transcription and transcriptional regulation. LIN28B-TST encodes a protein isoform with additional N-terminal amino acids and is critical for cancer cell ...


Investigations Into Higher Order Assemblies Of Rna And Protein In Health And Disease, Joshua Riley Wheeler 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Investigations Into Higher Order Assemblies Of Rna And Protein In Health And Disease, Joshua Riley Wheeler

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations

RNA and proteins (RNPs) can form highly ordered aggregates in living organisms with functional or toxic properties. Clumps of toxic, cytoplasmic RNP aggregates are steeped in an association with neuronal (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and skeletal muscle (e.g. inclusion body myositis) degenerative diseases. The role of these aggregates in disease pathology is unknown; however, these aggregates may arise from molecularly similar RNP aggregates, called stress granules, which form naturally in all cells. Stress granules are conserved higher order RNP assemblies that form during physiologic stress when RNA translation is decreased. Clarifying the properties of higher order RNP assemblies ...


Biomimetic Hydrogels To Support Bone Development For Osteochondral Tissue Engineering Applications, Aaron H. Aziz 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Biomimetic Hydrogels To Support Bone Development For Osteochondral Tissue Engineering Applications, Aaron H. Aziz

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Osteochondral tissue engineering using multilayer hydrogel scaffolds to recapitulate the native layered structure serves as a promising strategy to repair and regenerate osteochondral defects due to joint trauma, injuries, and long-term diseases. The gold standard of clinical therapies relies on replacing the defect with autologous tissue from a non load-bearing site, yet these techniques often fail due to a lack of mechanical anchoring, donor site morbidity and tissue availability. Multilayered photopolymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels, with a bony layer that facilitates osteoconductivity and osseointegration present an opportunity to overcome these issues. Ensuring multilayer hydrogels supported bone growth within the ...


A Breast Prosthesis Infection Update: Two-Year Incidence, Risk Factors And Management At Single Institution, Ashley Nadia Boustany, Shady Elmaraghi, Nneamaka Agochukwu, Benjamin Cloyd, Adam J. Dugan, Brian Rinker 2018 University of Kentucky

A Breast Prosthesis Infection Update: Two-Year Incidence, Risk Factors And Management At Single Institution, Ashley Nadia Boustany, Shady Elmaraghi, Nneamaka Agochukwu, Benjamin Cloyd, Adam J. Dugan, Brian Rinker

Surgery Faculty Publications

Background: Infection following augmentation and prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can cause significant physical and psychological distress for patients. It may delay adjuvant therapies and compromise aesthetic outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify modifiable risk factors for infection and identify common bacterial isolates to achieve optimal outcomes for patients.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction over a 2-year period. In each case, we documented demographics, co-morbidities, complications and antibiotic use. We reviewed treatments, infectious species cultured where applicable and all outcomes.

Results: A total of 292 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-five ...


Alloimmune Responses Of Humanized Mice To Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapeutics, Nigel G. Kooreman, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Joseph C. Wu 2017 Stanford University

Alloimmune Responses Of Humanized Mice To Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapeutics, Nigel G. Kooreman, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Joseph C. Wu

Open Access Articles

There is growing interest in using embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives for tissue regeneration. However, an increased understanding of human immune responses to stem cell-derived allografts is necessary for maintaining long-term graft persistence. To model this alloimmunity, humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic and immune cells could prove to be useful. In this study, an in-depth analysis of graft-infiltrating human lymphocytes and splenocytes revealed that humanized mice incompletely model human immune responses toward allogeneic stem cells and their derivatives. Furthermore, using an "allogenized" mouse model, we show the feasibility of reconstituting immunodeficient mice with ...


Nanocellulose Fibers As A Potential Material For Orthopedic Implantation Application, David Gregg Holomakoff 2017 David Gregg Holomakoff

Nanocellulose Fibers As A Potential Material For Orthopedic Implantation Application, David Gregg Holomakoff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The field of biomaterials is of immense importance and will continue to grow and develop in the coming years. Novel materials, as well as new approaches for use of existing materials, are sought after now more than ever. Current metal orthopedic implants have an over engineered stiffness and Young’s modulus, causing a phenomenon called stress shielding. Metal implants absorb the majority of force typically exerted on bone and the osteocytes within. When osteocytes fail to sense mechanical forces bones become less dense and weaken, causing possible fracture and other complications. A new orthopedic material is needed matching Young’s ...


Germ-Line Gene Editing And Congressional Reaction In Context: Learning From Almost 50 Years Of Congressional Reactions To Biomedical Breakthroughs, Russell A. Spivak, J.D., I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., Eli Y. Adashi, M.D., M.S. 2017 Harvard Law School

Germ-Line Gene Editing And Congressional Reaction In Context: Learning From Almost 50 Years Of Congressional Reactions To Biomedical Breakthroughs, Russell A. Spivak, J.D., I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., Eli Y. Adashi, M.D., M.S.

Journal of Law and Health

On December 18, 2015, President Obama signed into law a policy rider forestalling the therapeutic modification of the human germ line. The rider, motivated by the science’s potential unethical ends, is only the most recent instance in which the legislature cut short the ongoing national conversation on the acceptability of a developing science. This essay offers historical perspective on what bills were proposed and passed surrounding four other then-developing scientific breakthroughs—Recombinant DNA, in vitro fertilization, Cloning, Stem Cells—to better analyze how Congress is, and should, regulate this exciting and promising science.


Epigenetic Modifications Of Human Placenta Associated With Preterm Birth, Drissa Toure 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Epigenetic Modifications Of Human Placenta Associated With Preterm Birth, Drissa Toure

Theses & Dissertations

Preterm birth is a complex multifactorial process. Despite the well-known role of the placenta in supporting the fetal development and maternal-fetal tolerance, the placental epigenetic modifications and preterm birth (PTB) remains poorly understood and under investigated. Various maternal and environment factors can influence epigenetic programming during fetal development to affect the functioning and structures of organs, including the placenta, which can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB. The understanding of the placental epigenetic alterations and maternal determinants associated with PTB are apparently indispensable for the development of actual diagnosis and methods of prevention and treatment of premature labor. The ...


Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci 2017 Bard College

Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Obesity has been linked with a myriad of negative outcomes for both physical and mental health including feeding and eating disorders and cognitive impairments that affect perception of body size. Understanding the cognitive mechanisms and physiological factors that contribute to perception of body size may help us to comprehend how obesity impacts the construction and development of one’s mental body representations. Previous research by Scarpina, Castelnuovo, and Molinari (2014) suggests that, compared to those with a normal Body Mass Index, individuals with a BMI greater than 30 (obese) not only inaccurately estimate tactile and mental distances on their own ...


Identification Of Barriers To Organ Donation: A Primary Care Interventional Approach, Brittany L. Rocque MSc 2017 UVM

Identification Of Barriers To Organ Donation: A Primary Care Interventional Approach, Brittany L. Rocque Msc

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

Organ transplantation provides a potentially life saving intervention for patient with end-organ failure as well as substantial cost-benefit with relation to Medicare expenditure. Despite the advantages of transplantation, deceased organ donors are in short supply and many patients die or lose quality years while awaiting transplantation. Registered organ donor rates are relatively low in our opt-in system being 52% nationwide and only 44% in Vermont, which is below the >50% per state goal. Non-organ donor patients were given and informational brochure and surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs toward organ donation.


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