Pannexin3 In Exercise, Obesity, And Osteoarthritis, 2023 Western University
Pannexin3 In Exercise, Obesity, And Osteoarthritis, Brent Wakefield
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Pannexin 3 (PANX3), is a glycoprotein that oligomerizes to form mechano-sensitive channels expressed in musculoskeletal tissues, and has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of obesity and osteoarthritis (OA). Obesity and OA are two of the most prevalent diseases worldwide, leading to disability and even death. These conditions are thought to originate from a complex interaction between genetics, aging, sex, and modifiable lifestyle factors, such as exercise. Investigating the interactions between genetic and exercise may provide a more comprehensive, context-specific understanding of gene function. This thesis aimed to understand the interactions between PANX3 and exercise interventions on …
Control Of The Electroporation Efficiency Of Nanosecond Pulses By Swinging The Electric Field Vector Direction, 2023 Old Dominion University
Control Of The Electroporation Efficiency Of Nanosecond Pulses By Swinging The Electric Field Vector Direction, Vitalii Kim, Iurii Semenov, Allen S. Kiester, Mark A. Keppler, Bennett L. Ibey, Joel N. Bixler, Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, Andrei G. Pakhomov
Reversing the pulse polarity, i.e., changing the electric field direction by 180°, inhibits electroporation and electrostimulation by nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs). This feature, known as “bipolar cancellation,” enables selective remote targeting with nsEPs and reduces the neuromuscular side effects of ablation therapies. We analyzed the biophysical mechanisms and measured how cancellation weakens and is replaced by facilitation when nsEPs are applied from different directions at angles from 0 to 180°. Monolayers of endothelial cells were electroporated by a train of five pulses (600 ns) or five paired pulses (600 + 600 ns) applied at 1 Hz or 833 kHz. Reversing …
The Effect Of Running On The Onset And Development Of Osteoarthritis, 2023 Liberty University
The Effect Of Running On The Onset And Development Of Osteoarthritis, Jordan Hekman
Senior Honors Theses
Osteoarthritis is a prominent and debilitating form of joint disease characterized by pain and deterioration of the articular cartilage and other tissues in the affected joint. Research has identified a variety of risk factors for osteoarthritis, including age, obesity, gender, previous injury, and occupation. The relationship between running and osteoarthritis is a topic of particular interest because of the prevalence of running as a simple and physiologically beneficial form of exercise. Increasing evidence suggests that recreational running has at worst no effect and at best a protective effect on joint and articular cartilage health in contrast to high-intensity professional/elite-level running …
Effects Of Diet On Lcn2 Expression And Onset Of Neuroinflammation In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mice Model, Abdirahman A. Hayir
Neuroscience Honors Projects
This project covers the findings regarding the impact of diet on lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and the effects it has on neuroinflammation Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). LCN2 is a protein that is critical to the functionality of mitochondria and inflammatory responses. Evidence has shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is a potential central event in driving AD pathogenesis and contributing to formation of pathological hallmarks such as chronic inflammation. Furthermore, studies have shown that LCN2 can be deficient under metabolic conditions such as high-fat-diet (HFD). This study investigates if HFD induces LCN2 deficiency and increased neuroinflammation in an AD mice model.
Comparison Of Dna Extraction Methods For Soft Tissue Samples, 2023 , Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine
Comparison Of Dna Extraction Methods For Soft Tissue Samples, Steve Guzman, Nathaniel E. Hill, Mujtaba Shah, Jonathon Reynolds, Cole Farnsworth, Molly Henley, Alfred Amendolara, Laura Minor, John Dougherty Jr., John A. Kriak, Kyle B. Bills, David W. Sant
Annual Research Symposium
No abstract provided.
Testing Extraction Of Dna From Lipid-Rich Tissues Using Various Reagents And Commercially Available Kits, 2023 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine
Testing Extraction Of Dna From Lipid-Rich Tissues Using Various Reagents And Commercially Available Kits, Ryan V. Powers, Walker C. Kay, Jonathon C. Reynolds, Nathaniel E. Hill, Cole J. Farnsworth, Molly E. Henley, Alfred B. Amendolara, Noah D. Boekweg, John A. Kriak, Kyle B. Bills, David W. Sant
Annual Research Symposium
No abstract provided.
H2s, Sg-1002, Protects Against Myocardial Oxidative Damage And Hypertrophy In Vitro Via Induction Of Cystathionine Β-Synthase And Antioxidant Proteins, 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans
H2s, Sg-1002, Protects Against Myocardial Oxidative Damage And Hypertrophy In Vitro Via Induction Of Cystathionine Β-Synthase And Antioxidant Proteins, Rahib K. Islam, Erinn Donnelly, Erminia Donnarumma, Fokhrul Hossain, Jason D. Gardner, Kazi N. Islam
School of Medicine Faculty Publications
Endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is critical for cardiovascular homeostasis. Therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing H2S levels have proven cardioprotective in models of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a novel H2S prodrug, SG-1002, on stress induced hypertrophic signaling in murine HL-1 cardiac muscle cells. Treatment of HL-1 cells with SG-1002 under serum starvation without or with H2O2 increased the levels of H2S, H2S producing enzyme, and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), as well as antioxidant protein levels, such as super oxide dismutase1 (SOD1) and catalase, and additionally decreased oxidative …
Frequency Of Von Willebrand Disease And Its Types: Data From A Tertiary Care Hospital Of Karachi, Pakistan, Jyoti Mohan Lal, Anila Rashid, Natasha Ali
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Introduction: von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. It is classified into 3 main types, type I and III are quantitative defects whereas type II is qualitative defect which is further sub-classified in to II-A, II-B, II-M, II-N. The aim of the present study is to see frequency and types of von Willebrand disease in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan.
Materials and methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the section of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, the Aga Khan University hospital, Karachi, from May 2020 to April 2021 …
Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Derived Microvascular Perfusion Modeling To Assess Peripheral Artery Disease, 2023 Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Derived Microvascular Perfusion Modeling To Assess Peripheral Artery Disease, Olga A. Gimnich, Tatiana Belousova, Christina M. Short, Addison A. Taylor, Vijay Nambi, Joel D. Morrisett, Christie M. Ballantyne, Jean Bismuth, Dipan J. Shah, Gerd Brunner
School of Medicine Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics has shown good agreement with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging measurements in cardiovascular disease applications. We have developed a biomechanical model of microvascular perfusion using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities derived from skeletal calf muscles to study peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: The computational microvascular model was used to study skeletal calf muscle perfusion in 56 in-dividuals (36 patients with PAD, 20 matched controls). The recruited participants underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and ankle-brachial index testing at rest and after 6-minute treadmill walking. We have determined associations of microvascular model parameters including the transfer …
Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, 2023 South West Acute Hospital, United Kingdom
Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, Muhammad Yahya, Aliya Ahmed, Iayla Fatima, Muhammad Nasir
Department of Anaesthesia
Introduction: Spinal anesthesia is commonly used for various surgical procedures. Prediction of spinal anesthesia block height is always a challenging task for anesthetists. Higher than desired levels of spinal anesthesia blocks are associated with serious side effects, while inadequate block height does not provide satisfactory surgical anesthesia. In this study, we observed the relationship between the ratio of trunk length (TL) and square of the abdominal circumference (AC2) and spinal anesthesia sensory block height in geriatric patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
Material & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University …
Testicular Choriocarcinoma With Small Bowel Metastasis And Active Gastrointestinal Bleeding, 2023 Aga Khan University
Testicular Choriocarcinoma With Small Bowel Metastasis And Active Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Asad Saulat Fatimi, Khizer Masroor Anns, Faheemullah Khan, Wasim Ahmed Memon, Junaid Iqbal, Muhammad Aman, Izaz Ahmad, Sahar Fatima
Medical College Documents
Testicular choriocarcinomas make up less than 1% of all germ-cell tumors and are highly malignant, attributable to hematogenous spread. While the most common sites of metastasis are the lungs and liver, metastatic spread to the gastrointestinal tract is rare wherein patients may present with GI distress or even an upper GI bleed. In this report, we present a case of known testicular choriocarcinoma in a 40-year-old male who presented to the emergency room with severe anemia and a suspected upper GI bleed.
TCf21 Marks Visceral Adipose Mesenchymal Progenitors And Functions As A Rate-Limiting Factor During Visceral Adipose Tissue Development, Qianglin Liu, Chaoyang Li, Buhao Deng, Peidong Gao, Leshan Wang, Yuxia Li, Mohammad Shiri, Fozi Alkaifi, Junxing Zhao, Jacqueline M. Stephens, Constantine A. Simintiras, Joseph Francis, Jiangwen Sun, Xing Fu
Computer Science Faculty Publications
Distinct locations of different white adipose depots suggest anatomy-specific developmental regulation, a relatively understudied concept. Here, we report a population of Tcf21 lineage cells (Tcf21 LCs) present exclusively in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) that dynamically contributes to VAT development and expansion. During development, the Tcf21 lineage gives rise to adipocytes. In adult mice, Tcf21 LCs transform into a fibrotic or quiescent state. Multiomics analyses show consistent gene expression and chromatin accessibility changes in Tcf21 LC, based on which we constructed a gene-regulatory network governing Tcf21 LC activities. Furthermore, …
Glucocentric Drugs In Cardiovascular Disease Protection And Heart Failure, 2022 University of Mississippi Medical Center, United States
Glucocentric Drugs In Cardiovascular Disease Protection And Heart Failure, Khawaja M. Talha, Gregg C. Fonarow, Salim S. Virani, Javed Butler
Office of the Provost
Evidence for cardiovascular outcomes with older-generation antihyperglycemic drugs in the management of type 2 diabetes is based on aggregated data from prior randomized controlled trials and observational studies that were not focused on prespecified cardiovascular end points. Newer antihyperglycemic medications have undergone a rigorous evaluation of cardiovascular outcomes through randomized controlled trials since the US Food and Drug Administration imposed a mandatory requirement for all glucose-lowering drugs in 2008. The three classes of drugs that have been most extensively studied are dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the latter two reporting significant …
Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, 2022 Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Pakistan
Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, Asra Khan Pahore, Shagufta Khan, Nasim Karim
Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Objective: To investigate the anticancer effect of Illicium verum against human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
Methods: An experimental study was conducted in Multidisciplinary and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Aga Khan University in collaboration with Pharmacology Department of Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2021 to June 2021. MCF-7 cells of Luminal-A breast cancer were seeded in 96-well plate and treated with I.verum methanol extract. After incubation, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) dye was used for cell viability and cell proliferation assays to determine the number of dead and viable cells, and the absorbance was measured using an enzyme-linked …
Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, 2022 Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg, Germany
Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir Uddin
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the most common cause of cancer-related death in children aged 0-14 years. They differ from their adult counterparts, showing extensive clinical and molecular heterogeneity as well as a challenging histopathological spectrum that often impairs accurate diagnosis. Here, we use DNA methylation-based CNS tumor classification in combination with copy number, RNA-seq, and ChIP-seq analysis to characterize a newly identified CNS tumor type. In addition, we report histology, patient characteristics, and survival data in this tumor type. We describe a biologically distinct pediatric CNS tumor type (n = 31 cases) that is characterized by focal …
Chronic Diarrhea: A Rare Presentation Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, 2022 Aga Khan University
Chronic Diarrhea: A Rare Presentation Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Saira Furqan, Sajjad Ali Khan, Dania Ali, Kaleemullah Badini
Section of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hodgkin's Lymphoma is a cancer affecting the lymphatic system. There are two subtypes of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Nodular lymphocyte predominant (NLPHL) and classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma which has further four types. It has a bimodal distribution and is more common among males. The most common presentation is painless swelling in the neck, armpit or groin region. Associated Symptoms include night sweats, unintentional weight loss, fever, persistent cough or dyspnea. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence. Diagnosis is based on hematological, radiological and histochemical studies. Here we report a rare presentation of a 47-year-old male who presented with symptoms of …
Temporal Trends In Lipoprotein(A) Concentrations: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study, 2022 Baylor College of Medicine, United States
Temporal Trends In Lipoprotein(A) Concentrations: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study, Matthew R. Deshotels, Caroline Sun, Vijay Nambi, Salim S. Virani, Kunihiro Matsushita, Bing Yu, Christie . M. Ballantyne, Ron C. Hoogeveen
Office of the Provost
Background: Plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) concentrations are primarily determined by genetic factors and are believed to remain stable throughout life. However, data are scarce on longitudinal trends in Lp(a) concentrations over time. Therefore, it is unclear whether measurement of Lp(a) once in a person's life is sufficient for cardiovascular risk assessment in all adults.
Methods and Results: Lp(a) concentrations, specifically apolipoprotein(a) concentrations, were measured at visits 4 and 5, ≈15 years apart, in 4734 adult participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study (mean age at visits 4 and 5, 60.7±5.1 and 75.5±5.2 years, respectively). Participants were categorized by baseline …
Gutka Consumption And Dietary Partialities Explaining Anemia In Women Of A Coastal Slum Of Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed-Method Study, 2022 VITAL Pakistan Trust, Pakistan
Gutka Consumption And Dietary Partialities Explaining Anemia In Women Of A Coastal Slum Of Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed-Method Study, Ameer Muhammad, Sarah Saleem, Daniyaal Ahmad, Eleze Tariq, Yasir Shafiq
Community Health Sciences
Background: Limited literature is available on the dietary pattern and its consequences on health of women living in coastal slums of Karachi, Pakistan.
Material and methods: The study employed a mixed-method approach where concurrent quantitative and qualitative assessments were carried out. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on demographic, household, obstetrics characteristics, and dietary pattern of married women of reproductive age (MWRA). Blood samples were collected to identify the hemoglobin level to determine anemia. For the qualitative component, focus group discussions were carried out with women and in-depth interviews with shopkeepers to understand the availability of food …
Role Of Decorin At The Fetal-Maternal Interface, 2022 The University of Western Ontario
Role Of Decorin At The Fetal-Maternal Interface, Chidambra D. Halari
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The human placenta is an invasive tumor-like structure, this invasion being physiological. A subset of placental trophoblast called extra-villous trophoblast invades the uterine decidua and remodels uterine arteries into low-resistance, high-flow tubes to permit adequate flow of maternal blood to nourish the fetus. A poor extra-villous trophoblast invasion and uterine arterial remodeling can lead to fetal growth restriction and a serious pregnancy-associated maternal disease preeclampsia. Decorin, a leucine-rich proteoglycan produced by uterine decidual cells restrains multiple trophoblast functions: self-renewal and differentiation of trophoblast stem cells, migration, invasion, proliferation and endovascular differentiation. Additionally, decidual overproduction of decorin was associated with preeclampsia, …
Immunohistochemical Detection And Prognostic Significance Of P53, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Murine Double Minute 2, And Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 In Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Of Pakistan, 2022 Aga Khan University
Immunohistochemical Detection And Prognostic Significance Of P53, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Murine Double Minute 2, And Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 In Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Of Pakistan, Syed Muhammad Adnan Ali, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Syed Ather Enam, Zubair Ahmad, Yumna Adnan, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui
Department of Surgery
Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest cranial tumors occurring in adults. Various biomarkers have been tested for their significance in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of GBM. Some well-studied markers in GBM are Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), Murine double minute 2 (MDM2), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and p53. The aim of this study was to investigate the protein expression of these markers in GBM patients of Pakistan.
Methods: A total of 102 surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients diagnosed and treated at Aga Khan University Hospital were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for IDH1, MDM2, …