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Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, Muhammad Yahya, Aliya Ahmed, Iayla Fatima, Muhammad Nasir 2023 South West Acute Hospital, United Kingdom

Relationship Of Abdominal Circumference And Trunk Length With Spinal Anesthesia Block Height In Geriatric Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection Of Prostate, Muhammad Yahya, Aliya Ahmed, Iayla Fatima, Muhammad Nasir

Department of Anaesthesia

Introduction: Spinal anesthesia is commonly used for various surgical procedures. Prediction of spinal anesthesia block height is always a challenging task for anesthetists. Higher than desired levels of spinal anesthesia blocks are associated with serious side effects, while inadequate block height does not provide satisfactory surgical anesthesia. In this study, we observed the relationship between the ratio of trunk length (TL) and square of the abdominal circumference (AC2) and spinal anesthesia sensory block height in geriatric patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
Material & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University …


Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, Asra Khan Pahore, Shagufta Khan, Nasim Karim 2022 Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Pakistan

Anticancer Effect Of Illicium Verum (Star Anise Fruit) Against Human Breast Cancer Mcf-7 Cell Line, Asra Khan Pahore, Shagufta Khan, Nasim Karim

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objective: To investigate the anticancer effect of Illicium verum against human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
Methods: An experimental study was conducted in Multidisciplinary and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Aga Khan University in collaboration with Pharmacology Department of Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2021 to June 2021. MCF-7 cells of Luminal-A breast cancer were seeded in 96-well plate and treated with I.verum methanol extract. After incubation, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) dye was used for cell viability and cell proliferation assays to determine the number of dead and viable cells, and the absorbance was measured using an enzyme-linked …


Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir uddin 2022 Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg, Germany

Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the most common cause of cancer-related death in children aged 0-14 years. They differ from their adult counterparts, showing extensive clinical and molecular heterogeneity as well as a challenging histopathological spectrum that often impairs accurate diagnosis. Here, we use DNA methylation-based CNS tumor classification in combination with copy number, RNA-seq, and ChIP-seq analysis to characterize a newly identified CNS tumor type. In addition, we report histology, patient characteristics, and survival data in this tumor type. We describe a biologically distinct pediatric CNS tumor type (n = 31 cases) that is characterized by focal …


Chronic Diarrhea: A Rare Presentation Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Saira Furqan, Sajjad Ali Khan, Dania Ali, Kaleemullah Badini 2022 Aga Khan University

Chronic Diarrhea: A Rare Presentation Of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Saira Furqan, Sajjad Ali Khan, Dania Ali, Kaleemullah Badini

Section of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism

Hodgkin's Lymphoma is a cancer affecting the lymphatic system. There are two subtypes of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Nodular lymphocyte predominant (NLPHL) and classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma which has further four types. It has a bimodal distribution and is more common among males. The most common presentation is painless swelling in the neck, armpit or groin region. Associated Symptoms include night sweats, unintentional weight loss, fever, persistent cough or dyspnea. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence. Diagnosis is based on hematological, radiological and histochemical studies. Here we report a rare presentation of a 47-year-old male who presented with symptoms of …


Gutka Consumption And Dietary Partialities Explaining Anemia In Women Of A Coastal Slum Of Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed-Method Study, Ameer Muhammad, Sarah Saleem, Daniyaal Ahmad, Eleze Tariq, Yasir Shafiq 2022 VITAL Pakistan Trust, Pakistan

Gutka Consumption And Dietary Partialities Explaining Anemia In Women Of A Coastal Slum Of Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed-Method Study, Ameer Muhammad, Sarah Saleem, Daniyaal Ahmad, Eleze Tariq, Yasir Shafiq

Community Health Sciences

Background: Limited literature is available on the dietary pattern and its consequences on health of women living in coastal slums of Karachi, Pakistan.
Material and methods: The study employed a mixed-method approach where concurrent quantitative and qualitative assessments were carried out. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on demographic, household, obstetrics characteristics, and dietary pattern of married women of reproductive age (MWRA). Blood samples were collected to identify the hemoglobin level to determine anemia. For the qualitative component, focus group discussions were carried out with women and in-depth interviews with shopkeepers to understand the availability of food …


Immunohistochemical Detection And Prognostic Significance Of P53, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Murine Double Minute 2, And Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 In Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Of Pakistan, Syed Muhammad Adnan Ali, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Syed Ather Enam, Zubair Ahmad, Yumna Adnan, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui 2022 Aga Khan University

Immunohistochemical Detection And Prognostic Significance Of P53, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Murine Double Minute 2, And Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 In Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Of Pakistan, Syed Muhammad Adnan Ali, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Syed Ather Enam, Zubair Ahmad, Yumna Adnan, Hasnain Ahmed Farooqui

Department of Surgery

Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest cranial tumors occurring in adults. Various biomarkers have been tested for their significance in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of GBM. Some well-studied markers in GBM are Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), Murine double minute 2 (MDM2), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and p53. The aim of this study was to investigate the protein expression of these markers in GBM patients of Pakistan.
Methods: A total of 102 surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients diagnosed and treated at Aga Khan University Hospital were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for IDH1, MDM2, …


Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak 2022 Western University

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these …


Association Between The Baseline Gene Expression Profile In Periapical Granuloma And Periapical Wound Healing After Surgical Endodontic Treatment, Muhammad Adeel Ahmed, Fizza Nazim, Khalid Ahmed, Muhammad Furqan Bari, Abdulaziz Abdulwahed, Ahmed A. AlMokhatieb, Yaseen Alalvi, Tariq Abduljabbar, Muhammad Nouman Mughal, Syed Hani Abidi 2022 King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

Association Between The Baseline Gene Expression Profile In Periapical Granuloma And Periapical Wound Healing After Surgical Endodontic Treatment, Muhammad Adeel Ahmed, Fizza Nazim, Khalid Ahmed, Muhammad Furqan Bari, Abdulaziz Abdulwahed, Ahmed A. Almokhatieb, Yaseen Alalvi, Tariq Abduljabbar, Muhammad Nouman Mughal, Syed Hani Abidi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

In this study, we have investigated the association between the baseline gene expression profile in periapical granuloma and periapical wound healing after surgical endodontic treatment. Twenty-seven patients aged between 15 and 57 years underwent periapical surgery. The retrieved periapical tissue sample was used for mRNA expression analysis of COL1A1, VTN, ITGA5, IL-4, TNF, ANGPT, VEGFA, and CTGF. All patients were recalled after 6 and 12 months for periapical healing evaluation. Healing was then correlated with baseline gene expression. Healing was observed in 15 patients at the end of 6 months, which increased to 21 patients after 12 months. Six patients …


Reporting Of Mycetoma Cases From Skin And Soft Tissue Biopsies Over A Period Of Ten Years: A Single Center Report And Literature Review From Pakistan, Mohammad Zeeshan, Saira Fatima, Joveria Farooqi, Kauser Jabeen, Arsalan Ahmed, Afreen Haq, Muhammad Omer Arif, Afia Zafar 2022 Aga Khan University

Reporting Of Mycetoma Cases From Skin And Soft Tissue Biopsies Over A Period Of Ten Years: A Single Center Report And Literature Review From Pakistan, Mohammad Zeeshan, Saira Fatima, Joveria Farooqi, Kauser Jabeen, Arsalan Ahmed, Afreen Haq, Muhammad Omer Arif, Afia Zafar

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Mycetoma is an important neglected tropical disease associated with debilitation, disfigurement and death if not diagnosed and treated adequately. In Pakistan, mycetoma cases have frequently been diagnosed in histopathology and microbiology laboratories. However, there is scarcity of published data from this country. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency and type of mycetoma reported in skin and soft tissue biopsies from a single center over 10 years and review of published literature from Pakistan.
Method: This descriptive observational retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan. Laboratory data from 2009-2018 …


The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez 2022 University of South Alabama

The Role Of Nuclear Focal Adhesion Kinase In Tumor And The Tumor Microenvironment, Yelitza Angelica Rodriguez-Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a ubiquitous expressed protein tyrosine kinase. In growing cells, FAK localizes to the plasma membrane where it interacts with several components of the focal adhesion complex and coordinates integrin signaling. Early studies using genetic mouse models revealed that deletion or catalytic inactivation of FAK resulted in early embryonic lethality with vascular, cell proliferation, and cell survival defects. As a result, FAK was coined as a vital mediator of cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival and multiple small molecule FAK inhibitors (FAK-I) had been designed to inactivate FAK catalytic functions in multiple pathologies, particularly in cancer. …


Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee 2022 Aga Khan University

Lenalidomide Induced Secondary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia In A Multiple Myeloma Patient: A Case-Report, Saqib Raza Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Sidra Malik Fayyaz, Salman Muhammad Soomar, Munira Moosajee

Section of Haematology/Oncology

Lenalidomide mechanism of action has been shown to modulate the different components of the immune system. A 68-year-old lady presented to us with severe backache and was then diagnosed with MM. Lenalidomide started as per protocol along with dexamethasone. Later, she presented with complaints of generalized weakness and her workup showed significant blast cells with Pan-B-cell markers consistent with secondary B-ALL. The reported incidence of secondary Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia is 2.3%. The development of more aggressive neoplasm in a patient with prior malignancy dictates a poor outcome and hence such patients should be enrolled in a clinical trial whenever available


Telemedicine For Rheumatology Patients In Covid-19 Pandemic: Perspectives Of Patients, Muhammad Mehmood Riaz, Saad Bin Zafar Mahmood, Noreen Nasir 2022 Aga Khan University

Telemedicine For Rheumatology Patients In Covid-19 Pandemic: Perspectives Of Patients, Muhammad Mehmood Riaz, Saad Bin Zafar Mahmood, Noreen Nasir

Section of Internal Medicine

Telemedicine use for patients with autoimmune rheumatic conditions during the pandemic mandates better characterization. We conducted a telephonic survey on patients who consulted rheumatologists remotely to determine their attitudes toward telemedicine. The study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan which is a lower-middle-income country. Descriptive analyses were performed. Fifty patients visited tele-rheumatology clinic, 35 (70.0%) were female with a mean (SD) age of 47.6 (18.1) years. Majority (27, 54.0%) learned about telemedicine from hospital website and outpatient clinic desk or helpline. Lack of examination was the biggest concern with teleconsultation (18, 22.2%). Most …


Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani 2022 Aga Khan University

Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Methanolic Extract On Isolated Smooth Muscles And Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: An In Vitro And Mechanistic In Silico Investigation, Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur, Mohnad Abdalla, Asaad Khalid, Saeed Ahmad, Anwar Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Results: When tested on the baseline of isolated tissues, Tfg.Cr was devoid of any activity (stimulant or relaxant) till 10 mg/ml. This is an interesting finding, keeping in mind that the fenugreek seeds are used to alleviate constipation and diarrhoea. When Tfg.Cr was tried for any potential AChE inhibitory activity, it did show an inhibitory effect in increasing concentrations (47-380 μg/ml). This inhibitory effect was comparable to the effect produced by a standard AChE inhibitor physostigmine. One of the known fenugreek constituents, diosgenin, was also tested, and it also showed an AChE inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner (11-190 …


Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells 2022 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells

Student Academic Conference

Studies have configured immunological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in mice, leading to advanced understandings. However, the comparisons of the immune responses between juvenile (younger than 6 weeks) male and female C57BL/6J mice after A. fumigatus exposure, remains uninvestigated. In this study, we intranasally inoculated 3 week old male and female mice with Aspergillus fumigatus spores dilution of 2 106spores per 40 l. They were exposed to the allergen once a week for 8 consecutive weeks and euthanized on day 28 post the last inoculation. As compared to our last report, we increased the sample size for each group in this …


The Tin Man Needs A Heart: A Proposed Framework For The Regulation Of Bioprinted Organs, Linda Foit 2022 Fordham University School of Law

The Tin Man Needs A Heart: A Proposed Framework For The Regulation Of Bioprinted Organs, Linda Foit

Fordham Law Review

Each day, seventeen people die in the United States while waiting for an organ transplant. At least part of this need could be met by bioprinting, a technology that allows the on-demand production of custom-sized organs from a patient’s own cells. The field of bioprinting is progressing rapidly: the first bioprinted organs have already entered the clinic. Yet, developers of bioprinted organs face significant uncertainty as to how their potentially lifesaving products will be regulated—and by which government agency. Such regulatory uncertainty has the potential to decrease investment and stifle innovation in this promising technological field. This Note examines how …


18 Fdg Pet/Ct Imaging In Carcinoma Cesophagus, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima 2022 Aga Khan University

18 Fdg Pet/Ct Imaging In Carcinoma Cesophagus, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Nosheen Fatima

Department of Radiology

No abstract provided.


Effective Emodule Design For First-Year Medical Student Anatomy Curricula, Taylor J. Kratochvil MS, Kaeli K. Samson MA, MPH, Kari L. Nelson PhD, Travis L. McCumber PhD 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Effective Emodule Design For First-Year Medical Student Anatomy Curricula, Taylor J. Kratochvil Ms, Kaeli K. Samson Ma, Mph, Kari L. Nelson Phd, Travis L. Mccumber Phd

EMET Projects

Introduction: It is critical to evaluate student experience with any newly integrated educational resource. In 2018, a Distal Upper Limb (DUL) Anatomy eModule was developed for first-year medical students at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, who have historically identified the DUL as a region of difficulty. This mixed methods study sought to (1) evaluate learner perception of the eModule relative to other resources, and (2) identify eModule content and features that students found valuable.

Methods: The DUL eModule was made available to first-year medical students in 2019 (n= 132), 2020 (n=131), and 2021 (n=131) as a voluntary, …


Design And Development Of Software With A Graphical User Interface To Display And Convert Multiple Microscopic Histology Images, Sayed Ahmadreza Razian, Majid Jadidi, ALEXEY KAMENSKIY 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Design And Development Of Software With A Graphical User Interface To Display And Convert Multiple Microscopic Histology Images, Sayed Ahmadreza Razian, Majid Jadidi, Alexey Kamenskiy

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Histological images are widely used to assess the microscopic anatomy of biological tissues. Recent advancements in image analysis allow the identification of structural features on histological sections that can help advance medical device development, brain and cancer research, drug discovery, vascular mechanobiology, and many other fields. Histological slide scanners create images in SVS and TIFF formats that were designed to archive image blocks and high-resolution textual information. Because these formats were primarily intended for storage, they are often not compatible with conventional image analysis software and require conversion before they can be used in research. We have developed a user-friendly …


The Impact Of Preoperative Breast Characteristics On Immediate Breast Reconstruction Complications: A Multivariate Analysis Of Tissue Expander And Autologous Reconstruction, Jeffrey N. Li, Sumeer S. Teotia, Nicholas T. Haddock 2022 Providence St. Joseph Health

The Impact Of Preoperative Breast Characteristics On Immediate Breast Reconstruction Complications: A Multivariate Analysis Of Tissue Expander And Autologous Reconstruction, Jeffrey N. Li, Sumeer S. Teotia, Nicholas T. Haddock

View All Washington/Montana GME

Presented at the 2022 Virtual Northwest Medical Research Symposium


Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy 2022 Missouri State University

Effectiveness Of Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid In Acute Peritonitis Treatment: A Murine Surgical Study, Benjamin Michael Pomeroy

MSU Graduate Theses

Peritonitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the mesothelial cells that line the peritoneal cavity and is commonly induced by bowel perforations. This medical emergency is treated through antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention followed by tissue irrigation (lavage). Acute treatments aim to remove the bacterial burden, however recurring peritoneal infections occur at high rates and contribute to patient morbidity. These recurring infections are likely due to the inability of lavage solutions to remove the entire massive intra-abdominal bacterial load due to intestinal perforation. Numerous antiseptic solutions and antibiotic additives have been evaluated in their ability to improve source control by abdominal …


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