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A Differential Geometry-Based Machine Learning Algorithm For The Brain Age Problem, Justin Asher, Khoa Tan Dang, Maxwell Masters 2020 Purdue University Fort Wayne

A Differential Geometry-Based Machine Learning Algorithm For The Brain Age Problem, Justin Asher, Khoa Tan Dang, Maxwell Masters

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Upregulating Beta-Hexosaminidase Activity In Rodents Prevents Alpha-Synuclein Lipid Associations And Protects Dopaminergic Neurons From Alpha-Synuclein-Mediated Neurotoxicity, Oeystein R. Brekk, Joanna A. Korecka, Cecile C. Crapart, Mylene Huebecker, Zachary K. MacBain, Sara Ann Rosenthal, Miguel Sena-Esteves, David A. Priestman, Frances M. Platt, Ole Isacson, Penelope J. Hallett 2020 Harvard Medical School

Upregulating Beta-Hexosaminidase Activity In Rodents Prevents Alpha-Synuclein Lipid Associations And Protects Dopaminergic Neurons From Alpha-Synuclein-Mediated Neurotoxicity, Oeystein R. Brekk, Joanna A. Korecka, Cecile C. Crapart, Mylene Huebecker, Zachary K. Macbain, Sara Ann Rosenthal, Miguel Sena-Esteves, David A. Priestman, Frances M. Platt, Ole Isacson, Penelope J. Hallett

Open Access Articles

Sandhoff disease (SD) is a lysosomal storage disease, caused by loss of beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) activity resulting in the accumulation of ganglioside GM2. There are shared features between SD and Parkinson's disease (PD). alpha-synuclein (aSYN) inclusions, the diagnostic hallmark sign of PD, are frequently found in the brain in SD patients and HEX knockout mice, and HEX activity is reduced in the substantia nigra in PD. In this study, we biochemically demonstrate that HEX deficiency in mice causes formation of high-molecular weight (HMW) aSYN and ubiquitin in the brain. As expected from HEX enzymatic function requirements, overexpression in vivo of ...


Anatomical Organization And Distinction Of The Sympathetic Inputs To Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue And Inguinal White Adipose Tissue In The Mouse, Clara Jane Huesing 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Anatomical Organization And Distinction Of The Sympathetic Inputs To Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue And Inguinal White Adipose Tissue In The Mouse, Clara Jane Huesing

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that contains both the problem and the solution to discovering new therapies for individuals with obesity. Excessive adipose tissue disrupts energy balance and causes a host of comorbidities like insulin resistance and hypertension. On the other hand, adipose tissue is essential for life. During periods of energy demand, sympathetic nerve activity in brown and white adipose tissue stimulates thermogenesis and lipolysis; both of which decrease body weight and improve metabolic health. Therefore, comprehensive insight into the organization of sympathetic innervation and how it communicates with adipocytes is critical in order to utilize its ...


Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir 2020 The Francis Crick Institute

Yap1/Taz Drives Ependymoma-Like Tumour Formation In Mice, Noreen Eder, Federico Roncaroli, Marie-Charlotte Dolmart, Stuart Horswell, Felipe Andreiuolo, Helen R. Flynn, Andre T. Lopes, Suzanne Claxton, John-Paul Kilday, Lucy Collinson, Junhao Mao, Torsten Pietsch, Barry Thompson, Ambrosius P. Snijders, Sila K. Ultanir

Open Access Articles

YAP1 gene fusions have been observed in a subset of paediatric ependymomas. Here we show that, ectopic expression of active nuclear YAP1 (nlsYAP5SA) in ventricular zone neural progenitor cells using conditionally-induced NEX/NeuroD6-Cre is sufficient to drive brain tumour formation in mice. Neuronal differentiation is inhibited in the hippocampus. Deletion of YAP1's negative regulators LATS1 and LATS2 kinases in NEX-Cre lineage in double conditional knockout mice also generates similar tumours, which are rescued by deletion of YAP1 and its paralog TAZ. YAP1/TAZ-induced mouse tumours display molecular and ultrastructural characteristics of human ependymoma. RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics of ...


The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Psychological Stress On Episodic Memory, Lauren Koehler 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Psychological Stress On Episodic Memory, Lauren Koehler

Honors Theses

Research has suggested that exercise has an effect on memory function. Studies have also shown that exercise mitigates the effects of stress. The relationship between exercise and stress in regard to memory function is noteworthy. There has been little research on this relationship in young adults. This thesis discusses the effects of acute exercise on the episodic memory of young adults when they are exposed to a psychosocial stressor. The results of the research study show that acute aerobic exercise before memory encoding or consolidation was not associated with memory function after exposure to a stressor. Future research in this ...


Neuroligin3 Splice Isoforms Shape Inhibitory Synaptic Function In The Mouse Hippocampus, Motokazu Uchigashima, Ming Leung, Takuya Watanabe, Amy Cheung, Timmy Le, Sabine Pallat, Alexandre Luis Marques Dinis, Masahiko Watanabe, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Kensuke Futai 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neuroligin3 Splice Isoforms Shape Inhibitory Synaptic Function In The Mouse Hippocampus, Motokazu Uchigashima, Ming Leung, Takuya Watanabe, Amy Cheung, Timmy Le, Sabine Pallat, Alexandre Luis Marques Dinis, Masahiko Watanabe, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Kensuke Futai

Open Access Articles

Synapse formation is a dynamic process essential for the development and maturation of the neuronal circuitry in the brain. At the synaptic cleft, transsynaptic protein-protein interactions are major biological determinants of proper synapse efficacy. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission (E-I balance) stabilizes synaptic activity, and dysregulation of the E-I balance has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the E-I balance remain to be elucidated. Here, using single-cell transcriptomics, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to murine CA1 pyramidal neurons obtained from organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, we investigate Neuroligin (Nlgn) genes that ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Alexithymia is associated with difficulties in emotional self-regulation, and alexithymia is specifically associated with an absence of emotional experience and cognition of emotion. Past research has indicated a potential association between alexithymia and the CRHR1 gene . Situational factors may also impact the expression of the CRHR1 gene within an individual. Berenbaum (1996) found associations between PTSD/childhood trauma and alexithymia. This study examined these associations using the Online Alexithymia Questionnaire-G2 (OAQ-G2) as well as DNA samples gathered from 657 participants at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (72% women; 78.6% white; mean age= 20.34; standard deviation of 2.6). It ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Premature Termination Codon Readthrough Upregulates Progranulin Expression And Improves Lysosomal Function In Preclinical Models Of Grn Deficiency, Jonathan Frew, Fen-Biao Gao, Haakon B. Nygaard 2020 University of British Columbia

Premature Termination Codon Readthrough Upregulates Progranulin Expression And Improves Lysosomal Function In Preclinical Models Of Grn Deficiency, Jonathan Frew, Fen-Biao Gao, Haakon B. Nygaard

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a devastating and progressive disorder, and a common cause of early onset dementia. Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency due to autosomal dominant mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) is an important cause of FTLD (FTLD-GRN), and nearly a quarter of these genetic cases are due to a nonsense mutation. Premature termination codons (PTC) can be therapeutically targeted by compounds allowing readthrough, and aminoglycoside antibiotics are known to be potent PTC readthrough drugs. Restoring endogenous PGRN through PTC readthrough has not previously been explored as a therapeutic intervention in FTLD.

METHODS: We studied whether the aminoglycoside G418 ...


Jc Virus Infected Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Produce Extracellular Vesicles That Infect Glial Cells Independently Of The Virus Attachment Receptor, Bethany A. O'Hara, Jenna Morris-Love, Gretchen V. Gee, Sheila A. Haley, Walter J. Atwood 2020 Brown University

Jc Virus Infected Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Produce Extracellular Vesicles That Infect Glial Cells Independently Of The Virus Attachment Receptor, Bethany A. O'Hara, Jenna Morris-Love, Gretchen V. Gee, Sheila A. Haley, Walter J. Atwood

Open Access Articles

The human polyomavirus, JCPyV, is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed and immunomodulated patients. Initial infection with JCPyV is common and the virus establishes a long-term persistent infection in the urogenital system of 50-70% of the human population worldwide. A major gap in the field is that we do not know how the virus traffics from the periphery to the brain to cause disease. Our recent discovery that human choroid plexus epithelial cells are fully susceptible to virus infection together with reports of JCPyV infection of choroid plexus in vivo has led us to hypothesize that ...


Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Inhibit Homology-Directed Dna Double Strand Break Repair In C9orf72 Als/Ftd, Nadja S. Andrade, Abbas Abdallah, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier 2020 University of Miami

Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Inhibit Homology-Directed Dna Double Strand Break Repair In C9orf72 Als/Ftd, Nadja S. Andrade, Abbas Abdallah, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion is the most common known genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), two fatal age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The C9ORF72 expansion encodes five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) that are produced through a non-canonical translation mechanism. Among the DPRs, proline-arginine (PR), glycine-arginine (GR), and glycine-alanine (GA) are the most neurotoxic and increase the frequency of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). While the accumulation of these genotoxic lesions is increasingly recognized as a feature of disease, the mechanism(s) of DPR-mediated DNA damage are ill-defined and the effect of DPRs on the efficiency ...


Ubiquitous Neurocognitive Dysfunction In Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Proof-Of-Concept Of The Role Of Apc Protein In Neurocognitive Function, Marcia Roxana Cruz-Correa, Ana Cecilia Sala, Beatriz Cintron, Jessica Hernandez, Myrta Olivera, Adrian Cora, Constance M. Moore, Carlos A. Luciano, Marievelisse Soto-Salgado, Francis M. Giardiello, Stephen R. Hooper 2020 University of Puerto Rico

Ubiquitous Neurocognitive Dysfunction In Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Proof-Of-Concept Of The Role Of Apc Protein In Neurocognitive Function, Marcia Roxana Cruz-Correa, Ana Cecilia Sala, Beatriz Cintron, Jessica Hernandez, Myrta Olivera, Adrian Cora, Constance M. Moore, Carlos A. Luciano, Marievelisse Soto-Salgado, Francis M. Giardiello, Stephen R. Hooper

Open Access Articles

Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in the APC gene. Patients with FAP have multiple extraintestinal manifestations that follow a genotype-phenotype pattern; however, few data exist characterizing their cognitive abilities. Given the role of the APC protein in development of the central nervous system, we hypothesized that patients with FAP would show differences in cognitive functioning compared to controls.

Methods: Matched case-control study designed to evaluate cognitive function using the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-4, the Bateria III Woodcock-Munoz, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions-Adult. Twenty-six individuals with FAP (mean age ...


Data On Enrichment Of Chitosan Nanoparticles For Intranasal Delivery Of Oligonucleotides To The Brain, Vasyl Sava, Oksana Fihurka, Anastasia Khvorova, Juan Sanchez-Ramos 2020 University of South Florida

Data On Enrichment Of Chitosan Nanoparticles For Intranasal Delivery Of Oligonucleotides To The Brain, Vasyl Sava, Oksana Fihurka, Anastasia Khvorova, Juan Sanchez-Ramos

Open Access Articles

Data on preparation and characterization of chitosan-based nanoparticles (NP) carrying small interfering RNA (siRNA) for non-invasive gene therapy is presented. Polyelectrolyte complexation method was carried out in diluted concentrations to obtain relatively small (less than 200 nm) NP. To provide substantial dose of siRNA within tolerable volume of intranasal administration the NP were subjected to enrichment process. Offered here NP fabrication does two steps process comprise provisional and enriched preparations? The differences between these preparations were analyzed with hydrodynamic size distribution and zeta potential measurements. The effect of siRNA lipophilicity on NP physical instability was also tested. Biological evaluation of ...


A Feasibility Study Of Lavender Aromatherapy In An Awake Craniotomy Environment, Kailah Cathey, Nichole Gunyon, Nancy Chung, Nancy Conway, Diane Ames, Maharaj Singh, Amin B. Kassam, Richard A. Rovin 2020 Leuzinger High School

A Feasibility Study Of Lavender Aromatherapy In An Awake Craniotomy Environment, Kailah Cathey, Nichole Gunyon, Nancy Chung, Nancy Conway, Diane Ames, Maharaj Singh, Amin B. Kassam, Richard A. Rovin

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Integrative medicine interventions are needed for awake craniotomies, as many patients experience anxiety. Lavender aromatherapy significantly reduces anxiety or pain in a variety of surgical procedures. This feasibility study used lavender aromatherapy during awake craniotomies to determine the number of patients who would consent and complete the study, the technicality of lavender aromatherapy use, and acceptance by operating room (OR) staff.

Methods: We approached 40 consecutive patients (≥18 years old). Exclusion criteria were pulmonary issues or sensitivity to lavender. Outcome measures in consented patients were enrollment and completion rates, anxiety and pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal 2020 The University of Akron

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Modulation Of Parasympathetic Reactivation Post-Exercise Via Slow Breathing, Brent Burg 2020 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Modulation Of Parasympathetic Reactivation Post-Exercise Via Slow Breathing, Brent Burg

CSBSJU Distinguished Thesis

During exercise sympathetic nervous activity increases and parasympathetic nervous activity decreases to fuel energy demands. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicates activity of the autonomic nervous system and the balance of its two branches. Slow breathing (SB) (6 breaths/minute) increases parasympathetic activity both spontaneously during practice and at rest after long-term practice. Thus, SB may increase parasympathetic activity after exercise. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether post-exercise SB increases parasympathetic activity as measured by HRV. METHODS: Ten recreationally active college aged males (21 +/-1 years old) completed the study. A VO2max test was used to determine 70% of VO2max ...


Recovery From Visual Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Is Associated With Adaptive Reorganization Of Retinal Inputs To Lateral Geniculate Nucleus In The Mouse Model Utilizing Central Fluid Percussion Injury., Vishal C. Patel 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Recovery From Visual Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Is Associated With Adaptive Reorganization Of Retinal Inputs To Lateral Geniculate Nucleus In The Mouse Model Utilizing Central Fluid Percussion Injury., Vishal C. Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality nationwide. Prevalence of mild TBI (mTBI) vastly outnumbers more severe forms however the associated morbidity has only recently gained public attention. Visual dysfunction is a significant component of mTBI associated morbidity with recovery of function linked with improvement in global outcomes. Examination of sensory and motor pathways in other brain injury paradigms support that recovery is largely dependent on adaptive plasticity of remaining connections. Current examinations of visual function recovery following mTBI is limited to identifying evidence for recovery and objective evidence for adaptive plasticity is limited. Therefore ...


Sleep And Stress In The Acute Phase Of Concussion In Youth, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin Masterson, Jessica L. Calvi, Todd Caze, Ross Mathiasen, Dennis Molfese 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sleep And Stress In The Acute Phase Of Concussion In Youth, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin Masterson, Jessica L. Calvi, Todd Caze, Ross Mathiasen, Dennis Molfese

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This study sought to address the complex interplay between both biological and psychological perceptions of stress and sleep in the acute stages following a mild traumatic brain injury. A secondary goal was to identify potential targets for intervention. Eleven acutely injured youth (mean age 12 years) were studied at home with overnight actigraphy, salivary cortisol and melatonin assays, and subjective ratings of stress and fatigue (injured group). Nine matched control youth also were assessed (control group). Results suggested longer sleep latencies (time to fall asleep) and higher levels of fatigue in the injured group exist (p ¼ 0.025 and ...


Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the psychometrics (reliability, validity) of the original Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) in a youth sample (ages 11 to 13). Demographic factors of race, level of vocabulary knowledge, mother’s level of education were also considered. Over 150 youth football athletes completed the SAC and a brief battery of NIH Toolbox cognitive tests as part of a larger study on biomechanical factors in youth sport concussion. This was a within-subjects design (pre-season, post-season assessments), and correlational analysis of convergent and discriminant validity. Between groups analysis based on demographic differences was also employed ...


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