Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Nervous System Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

263 Full-Text Articles 727 Authors 19771 Downloads 46 Institutions

All Articles in Nervous System

Faceted Search

263 full-text articles. Page 1 of 10.

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski 2017 Brown University

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...


A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor thalamo-cortico-cerebellar fibre path integrity and overt responsiveness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Additionally, we investigated the potential of imaging these motor tracts at ultra-high fields. Study I and II aimed to map the white matter connections of motor execution fibres in DOC patients. Our results showed significant reductions in motor fibre path integrity across DOC diagnostic categories. Study III and IV aimed to develop a 7T MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) sequence. We optimized this sequence to image motor fibre paths in DOC patients. We concluded that, in healthy controls, probabilistic ...


Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole McCleery 2017 Otterbein University

Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole Mccleery

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Local anesthesia (LA) provides a way to relieve temporary pain in a small part of the body and has been used for over 100 years (Fencl, 2015). LA also prevents the passage of surgical stimuli into the central nervous system (CNS) making a surgical procedure less painful for the patient (Noble, 2015). According to Noble, “altering the passage of stimuli from smaller diameter neurons in a confined area with lower drug dosages is called LA, such as the injection of LA around a surgical incision” (Noble, 2015, p.325). LA can be used in a variety of settings, such as ...


Abnormal Dendritic Maturation Of Developing Cortical Neurons Exposed To Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (Crh): Insights Into Effects Of Prenatal Adversity?, Megan M. Curran, Curt A. Sandman, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Laura M. Glynn, Tallie Z. Baram 2017 University of California, Irvine

Abnormal Dendritic Maturation Of Developing Cortical Neurons Exposed To Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (Crh): Insights Into Effects Of Prenatal Adversity?, Megan M. Curran, Curt A. Sandman, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Laura M. Glynn, Tallie Z. Baram

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown. In this study, we ...


Anatomical Variations Of The Sciatic Nerve Divisions In Relation To The Piriformis Muscle And Clinical Implications, Jonathan I. Van Erdewyk 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Anatomical Variations Of The Sciatic Nerve Divisions In Relation To The Piriformis Muscle And Clinical Implications, Jonathan I. Van Erdewyk

Theses & Dissertations

The goal of this project was to identify and quantify the anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve divisions in relation to the piriformis muscle and compare the data collected to the primary literature. This was done in an effort to provide awareness of sciatic nerve entrapments within the subgluteal space that may be responsible for posterior hip and buttock pain. While the current means of diagnosis are through physical examination, imaging techniques, and surgery, the results of this present study indicate that new methods of diagnosis need to be explored.


Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele DeVeau 2017 University of Louisville

Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele Deveau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is a general consensus that the level and the severity of spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts chronic cardiac abnormalities such that high thoracic and cervical SCI are the most severely affected. Furthermore, the extreme degree of immobility/inactivity experienced by the persons with SCI has implications on cardiac decline. Yet it has been difficult to separate the relative contributions of the decentralized autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the immediate and profound inactivity to chronic cardiac abnormalities. As such, this body of work sought to characterize a contusion SCI that results in persistent CV dysfunction. Echocardiography, Dobutamine stress echocardiography and ...


The Effects Of Spondylolisthesis On The Human Body, Kayla L. Govoni 2017 The University of Rhode Island

The Effects Of Spondylolisthesis On The Human Body, Kayla L. Govoni

Senior Honors Projects

Spondylolisthesis is a rare and unknown disorder to many. The anatomical perplexity beneath its diagnosis is extensive yet crucial to truly understanding this unique anomaly. As a condition that is too often undistinguished and unexplained to countless, it warrants and demands undisputed attention. Spondylolisthesis is an atypical spinal disorder characterized by one vertebra sliding forward in position over the vertebra below it (Rodts, 2017). The victim of this condition faces excruciating pain radiating throughout one’s lower back and frequently into the lower extremities. In cases of increased severity, individuals pursue a variety of treatment modalities ranging from conservative measures ...


High School Student Concussion Recovery Program: Teacher Involvement In Student Academic Transitions To Classroom And To Sports, Brittany Diego 2017 Dominican University of California

High School Student Concussion Recovery Program: Teacher Involvement In Student Academic Transitions To Classroom And To Sports, Brittany Diego

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2018

Many symptoms of concussions can greatly interfere with the cognitive abilities and skills students use in school. Although students may have similar symptoms, they experience concussions differently. Students returning to the classroom from a concussion often have different needs and abilities.

Research shows that a formal, individualized protocol to treat suspected concussions, both academically and physically, is vital to the successful recovery of each student. Much research is available on concussions for professional athletes, specifically related to recovery and returning to their sport. However, there is little research about high school students regarding concussions. Concussion recovery programs for high school ...


The Neuropsychology Of Sport And Performance, Arthur C. Maerlender 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Neuropsychology Of Sport And Performance, Arthur C. Maerlender

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Neuropsychological theory has been a mainstay for understanding pathology within the brain-behavior context. However, our theories for predicting superior behavior are not as well developed. Sport neuropsychology was developed on the presumption that athletes represent a population in a relatively well-controlled environment for studying brain pathology due to injury. This study of pathology within a high-performance environment has been responsible for identifying the effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on individual functioning. Far less attention has been paid to the other end of the performance continuum, and yet, viable brain-behavior hypotheses should hold true across the spectrum of function ...


Validity And Reliability Of Baseline Testing In A Standardized Environment, Kathryn L. Higgins, Todd Caze, Arthur C. Maerlender 2017 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Validity And Reliability Of Baseline Testing In A Standardized Environment, Kathryn L. Higgins, Todd Caze, Arthur C. Maerlender

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Objective — The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery commonly used to determine cognitive recovery from concussion based on comparing post-injury scores to baseline scores. This model is based on the premise that ImPACT baseline test scores are a valid and reliable measure of optimal cognitive function at baseline. Growing evidence suggests that this premise may not be accurate and a large contributor to invalid and unreliable baseline test scores may be the protocol and environment in which baseline tests are administered. This study examined the effects of a standardized environment and administration protocol ...


Changes In Balance And Joint Position Sense During A 12-Day High Altitude Trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition, Sarah B. Clarke 2017 Northern Michigan University

Changes In Balance And Joint Position Sense During A 12-Day High Altitude Trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition, Sarah B. Clarke

Datasets

Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years). Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform) during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m), and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m) on a 12-day high altitude trek in the ...


Morphometrics In Developmental Neurobiology: Quantitative Analysis Of Growth Cone Motility In Vivo, Anokh Sohal, James Ha, Manuel Zhu, Fayha Lakhani, Lauren Olszewski, Raagav Mohanakrishnan, Tamira Elul 2017 Touro University California

Morphometrics In Developmental Neurobiology: Quantitative Analysis Of Growth Cone Motility In Vivo, Anokh Sohal, James Ha, Manuel Zhu, Fayha Lakhani, Lauren Olszewski, Raagav Mohanakrishnan, Tamira Elul

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

In order for the nervous system to function properly, neurons in the brain must establish specific connections during embryonic development. Formation of neuronal circuits involves axons extending from cell bodies and navigating through diverse tissues to reach their targets in the brain. Once axons reach their target tissues, they arborize and make synaptic connections. Axon pathfinding is driven by dynamic motility behaviors expressed by terminal growth cones at the tips of the axons. Here, we applied morphometrics to determine quantitative values for six morphological and motility parameters for growth cones of optic axons navigating through the optic tract of a ...


On The Brain Structure Heterogeneity Of Autism: Parsing Out Acquisition Site Effects With Significance-Weighted Principal Component Analysis, Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M. H. Young, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V. Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G. M. Murphy, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Anthony J. Bailey, Simon Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, Edward T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Michael C. Craig, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Meng Chuan Lai, Michael V. Lombardo, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan G. M. Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Sally J. Wheelwright, Steven C. Williams 2017 Australian Catholic University

On The Brain Structure Heterogeneity Of Autism: Parsing Out Acquisition Site Effects With Significance-Weighted Principal Component Analysis, Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M. H. Young, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V. Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G. M. Murphy, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Anthony J. Bailey, Simon Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, Edward T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Michael C. Craig, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Meng Chuan Lai, Michael V. Lombardo, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan G. M. Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Sally J. Wheelwright, Steven C. Williams

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ASD ). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres. In this work we analysed the differences found in the multisite, multi-modal neuroimaging database from the UK ...


Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez 2017 CUNY City College

Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez

Master's Theses

Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...


Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci 2017 Bard College

Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Obesity has been linked with a myriad of negative outcomes for both physical and mental health including feeding and eating disorders and cognitive impairments that affect perception of body size. Understanding the cognitive mechanisms and physiological factors that contribute to perception of body size may help us to comprehend how obesity impacts the construction and development of one’s mental body representations. Previous research by Scarpina, Castelnuovo, and Molinari (2014) suggests that, compared to those with a normal Body Mass Index, individuals with a BMI greater than 30 (obese) not only inaccurately estimate tactile and mental distances on their own ...


Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman 2017 University of Kentucky

Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

It was once believed that the brain was immunologically privileged with no resident or infiltrating immune cells; however, now it is understood that the cells of the brain are capable of a wide range of inflammatory processes and phenotypes. Inflammation in the brain has been implicated in several disease processes such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID); however, the role of inflammation in these two dementias is poorly understood.

When we stimulated a pro-inflammatory phenotype with an adeno-associated viral vector in a transgenic mouse model of AD that develops Aβ plaques, we saw a ...


Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. McDonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. McAllister 2016 Indiana University School of Medicine

Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. Mcdonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. Mcallister

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (i.e., with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19 ...


Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth

Frozen Brain Atlas

The Frozen Brain Atlas provides students, educators, and scientists with a tool to further explore the architecture of the brain. Current brain atlases allow users to navigate sectioned brain tissue using histological staining; however, they fail to capture naturally visible structures post sectioning. Through immediate post sectioning image collection, the natural contrast of the brain reveals unique structural details that are rarely seen by traditional staining procedures. By utilizing indexing and interactive labeling, the Nova Southeastern University Frozen Brain Atlas will allow identification of brain regions when used as a correlative tool for modalities including receptor autoradiography, immunofluorescence, and other ...


The Role Of Glutaminase And Extracellular Vesicles In Macrophages And Microglia, Beiqing Wu 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Glutaminase And Extracellular Vesicles In Macrophages And Microglia, Beiqing Wu

Theses & Dissertations

Glutamate serves as a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter that is essential for the proper functioning of the brain. However, excess levels of glutamate are neurotoxic and contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, inducing HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Glutaminase 1 (GLS1) is an important mitochondrial enzyme responsible for producing glutamate from glutamine. GLS1 is upregulated during HAND and released from mitochondria to cytosol and extracellular space. However, why and how GLS1 is released remains unknown. In chapter II, we demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry GLS1 as cargos from cytosol to extracellular space during HIV infection and innate immune ...


Unravelling The Subfields Of The Hippocampal Head Using 7-Tesla Structural Mri, Jordan M. K. DeKraker 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Unravelling The Subfields Of The Hippocampal Head Using 7-Tesla Structural Mri, Jordan M. K. Dekraker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Probing the functions of human hippocampal subfields is a promising area of research in cognitive neuroscience. However, defining subfield borders in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. Here, we present a user-guided, semi-automated protocol for segmenting hippocampal subfields on T2-weighted images obtained with 7-Tesla MRI. The protocol takes advantage of extant knowledge about regularities in hippocampal morphology and ontogeny that have not been systematically considered in prior related work. An image feature known as the hippocampal ‘dark band’ facilitates tracking of subfield continuities, allowing for unfolding and segmentation of convoluted hippocampal tissue. Initial results suggest that this protocol offers sufficient ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress