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An Emg Study To Evaluate Chewing Efficiency And Maximum Voluntary Clenching (Mvc) For Different Malocclusion Groups Before And During Orthodontic Treatment, Vivek Reddy 2024 Manipal Academy of Higher Education

An Emg Study To Evaluate Chewing Efficiency And Maximum Voluntary Clenching (Mvc) For Different Malocclusion Groups Before And During Orthodontic Treatment, Vivek Reddy

Annual Research Symposium

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of chewing and maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) of patients with different malocclusion types by measuring the EMG activity in the masseter and temporalis muscles before and during orthodontic treatment.


Zika Virus Microcephaly: Predicting The Symptoms Of Microcephaly So Families Can Prepare, Eleanor J. Wind 2024 Nova Southeastern University

Zika Virus Microcephaly: Predicting The Symptoms Of Microcephaly So Families Can Prepare, Eleanor J. Wind

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

Microcephaly is a rare congenital defect where the circumference of an infants head is smaller than average. The cause is unknown and the risk factors and symptoms of microcephaly are wide ranging. One risk factor is exposure during pregnancy to viruses such as the Zika virus.. A recent study was conducted on infants who were born with Zika virus Microcephaly following the Zika outbreak in Brazil. The researchers conducted MRI scans and developmental testing. Then an algorithm to predict behavioral outcomes of Zika Virus Microcephaly was successfully created. This research will benefit caretakers of infants with Zika virus Microcephaly by …


End Of Life In The Ed – Brain Death And Organ Transplantation, Madison Cohen, Donald Penney 2023 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Georgia

End Of Life In The Ed – Brain Death And Organ Transplantation, Madison Cohen, Donald Penney

The Journal of Integrated Primary Care

Every year thousands of Americans die awaiting an organ transplant. While our knowledge and experience with organ transplantation has only improved, organ availability continues to be a major issue due to a lack of suitable donor organs. A large population of organ donors are those who have been clinically diagnosed as brain dead. Brain death is defined as the irreversible loss of all brain and brainstem functions. Despite brainstem functions being lost, mechanical ventilation and perfusion techniques allow for proper organ maintenance. This gives brain-dead individuals a unique opportunity to serve as multiple organ donors. However, due to mistrust of …


Cytomegalovirus And Varicella Zoster Virus Coinfection-Associated Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (Ondine's Curse), Marine Isakadze, Benjamin Zwain, Alan J. Velander, Jesus Lovera 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Cytomegalovirus And Varicella Zoster Virus Coinfection-Associated Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (Ondine's Curse), Marine Isakadze, Benjamin Zwain, Alan J. Velander, Jesus Lovera

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Central hypoventilation syndrome (CHS) is a rare condition resulting from damage to the respiratory centers in the central nervous system (CNS). It can be congenital or acquired and can cause hypoventilation, inadequate gas exchange, and respiratory failure, often during sleep but sometimes even while awake. CHS can lead to respiratory failure and life-threatening complications if not identified promptly. In this report, we present a rare case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who developed CHS likely due to an opportunistic infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV), manifesting as a lesion in the …


Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections For Refractory Abdominal Dystonia: A Case Report, William J. Naber II, Jodi M. Wilhelm, Kurt A. Kuhlman, Gabriel Howard 2023 University of Michigan

Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections For Refractory Abdominal Dystonia: A Case Report, William J. Naber Ii, Jodi M. Wilhelm, Kurt A. Kuhlman, Gabriel Howard

Graduate Medical Education Research Journal

Background: A 58-year-old male with chronic bilateral treatment resistant abdominal spasms secondary complications of ascites/ alcoholic cirrhosis. Spasms would occur 4-5 times/day, lasting minutes to hours despite a 2-year course of therapeutic and pharmacological interventions. Due to treatment refraction, 6 uniformly spaced botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections were placed per side, using electromyography for audible intramuscular syringe placement confirmation, while visual confirmation was made via ultrasound. During the initial trial, 6 evenly spaced injections were performed bilaterally, uniformly distributing 80U/side. Injections began bilaterally just medial to the junction of the inferior rib cage border/ anterior axillary line and progressed …


Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Possess A Second Cilium That Arises From The Daughter Centriole, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Ankan Gupta, Francisco Nunez, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Amy Y. Pan, Surya M. Nauli, Ramani Ramchandran 2023 Medical College of Wisconsin

Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Possess A Second Cilium That Arises From The Daughter Centriole, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Ankan Gupta, Francisco Nunez, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Amy Y. Pan, Surya M. Nauli, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia from the brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are specialized cell-surface organelles involved in mediating sensory perception, cell signaling, and vascular stability. Immunofluorescence (IF) analysis of human primary brain microvascular ECs reveals two cilia per cell. To confirm the in vitro observation of the two-cilia phenotype in human primary brain ECs, ECs isolated from mouse brain were cultured and stained for cilium. Indeed, brain ECs from a ciliopathic mouse (polycystic kidney disease or Pkd2−/−) also possess more than one cilium. Primary cilium emerges from the mother centriole. Centriole analysis by IF suggests that in brain ECs, markers …


Prevalent Distribution Of Conscious Processes On Either Side Of The Brain, Sohail Adnan, Mubasher Shah, Muhammad Fateen Rashed, Sadaf Nawab 2023 District Headquarter Teaching Hospital KDA, Kohat, Pakistan

Prevalent Distribution Of Conscious Processes On Either Side Of The Brain, Sohail Adnan, Mubasher Shah, Muhammad Fateen Rashed, Sadaf Nawab

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Objectives. The brain has an intrinsic tendency for the lateralization of its functions. For instance, the left hemisphere assists in the comprehension and motor expression of language. What remains uncertain is whether conscious processes are also more prevalent in one hemisphere of the brain than the other. The epistemic goal of this research was to address this particular issue. Materials and Methods. We observed the rare pathological event of proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), which halts blood flow to the central two-thirds of a hemisphere, and examined its effects on consciousness. We aggregated individual scores for eyes-opening …


Ca2+-Regulated Expression Of High Affinity Methylaminoisobutryic Acid Transport In Hippocampal Neurons Inhibited By Riluzole And Novel Neuroprotective Aminothiazoles, Jeffrey D. Erickson, Thomas Kyllo, Heike Wulff 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Ca2+-Regulated Expression Of High Affinity Methylaminoisobutryic Acid Transport In Hippocampal Neurons Inhibited By Riluzole And Novel Neuroprotective Aminothiazoles, Jeffrey D. Erickson, Thomas Kyllo, Heike Wulff

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

High affinity methylaminoisobutyric acid(MeAIB)/glutamine(Gln) transport activity regulated by neuronal firing occurs at the plasma membrane in mature rat hippocampal neuron-enriched cultures. Spontaneous Ca2+-regulated transport activity was similarly inhibited by riluzole, a benzothiazole anticonvulsant agent, and by novel naphthalenyl substituted aminothiazole derivatives such as SKA-378. Here, we report that spontaneous transport activity is stimulated by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and that phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA) increases high K+ stimulated transport activity that is inhibited by staurosporine. 4-AP-stimulated spontaneous and PMA-stimulated high K+-induced transport is not present at 7 days in vitro (DIV) and is maximal by DIV∼21. The relative affinity for MeAIB is similar …


A Neurodevelopmental Perspective To Improve Innovation In Preventive Treatment Of Substance Use Disorders, Ismael Perez, John Vandeberg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

A Neurodevelopmental Perspective To Improve Innovation In Preventive Treatment Of Substance Use Disorders, Ismael Perez, John Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Symposium

Background: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons have been associated with substance use disorders (Blaess & Ang, 2015). Understanding their neurodevelopment during early stages of life is fundamental for innovating preventive care treatments. The animal model Monodelphis domestica has been proposed as an excellent candidate to study neurodevelopmental changes due to the ease of access to see changes in their embryonic development (Mate et al., 1994). The purpose of our study is to inform how brain cells, including and especially dopaminergic neurons, mature by quantifying their number during early development. Additionally, the study aims to compare different midbrain areas and track neurodevelopmental changes …


Synlight: A Bicistronic Strategy For Simultaneous Active Zone And Cell Labeling In The Drosophila Nervous System, Michael A. Aimino, Jesse Humenik, Michael J. Parisi, Juan Carlos Duhart, Timothy J. Mosca 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Synlight: A Bicistronic Strategy For Simultaneous Active Zone And Cell Labeling In The Drosophila Nervous System, Michael A. Aimino, Jesse Humenik, Michael J. Parisi, Juan Carlos Duhart, Timothy J. Mosca

Farber Institute for Neuroscience Faculty Papers

At synapses, chemical neurotransmission mediates the exchange of information between neurons, leading to complex movement, behaviors, and stimulus processing. The immense number and variety of neurons within the nervous system make discerning individual neuron populations difficult, necessitating the development of advanced neuronal labeling techniques. In Drosophila, Bruchpilot-Short and mCD8-GFP, which label presynaptic active zones and neuronal membranes, respectively, have been widely used to study synapse development and organization. This labeling is often achieved via the expression of 2 independent constructs by a single binary expression system, but expression can weaken when multiple transgenes are expressed by a single driver. Recent …


Integrated Inflammatory Signaling Landscape Response After Delivering Elovanoid Free-Fatty-Acid Precursors Leading To Experimental Stroke Neuroprotection, Madigan M. Reid, Ludmila Belayev, Larissa Khoutorova, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Andre Obenaus, Kierany Shelvin, Stacey Knowles, Sung Ha Hong, Nicolas G. Bazan 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Integrated Inflammatory Signaling Landscape Response After Delivering Elovanoid Free-Fatty-Acid Precursors Leading To Experimental Stroke Neuroprotection, Madigan M. Reid, Ludmila Belayev, Larissa Khoutorova, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Andre Obenaus, Kierany Shelvin, Stacey Knowles, Sung Ha Hong, Nicolas G. Bazan

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Despite efforts to identify modulatory neuroprotective mechanisms of damaging ischemic stroke cascade signaling, a void remains on an effective potential therapeutic. The present study defines neuroprotection by very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) Elovanoid (ELV) precursors C-32:6 and C-34:6 delivered intranasally following experimental ischemic stroke. We demonstrate that these precursors improved neurological deficit, decreased T2WI lesion volume, and increased SMI-71 positive blood vessels and NeuN positive neurons, indicating blood–brain barrier (BBB) protection and neurogenesis modulated by the free fatty acids (FFAs) C-32:6 and C-34:6. Gene expression revealed increased anti-inflammatory and pro-homeostatic genes and decreases in expression of pro-inflammatory genes in …


The Level Of Functionality Of The Affected Upper Limb In Stroke Patients Depends On The Type Of Therapy Used And The Lateralization Of The Subjects' Body - A Randomized Observational Study., Anna Olczak, Marcin Dornowski 2023 Military Institute of Medicine - National Research Institute, Warsaw

The Level Of Functionality Of The Affected Upper Limb In Stroke Patients Depends On The Type Of Therapy Used And The Lateralization Of The Subjects' Body - A Randomized Observational Study., Anna Olczak, Marcin Dornowski

Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity

Introduction: Impairment of the functions of the upper limb and hand is a major problem in stroke patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate various therapies in terms of their influence on changes in the activity of the affected, dominant, and non-dominant upper limb in patients after ischemic stroke. Material/Methods: This is a randomized, double-blinded study. The research was carried out in a rehabilitation clinic on a group of 60 stroke patients who were randomly assigned to groups differing in the rehabilitation program. The study group had physiotherapy based on the NDT Bobath concept and the control group …


Identification Of Structural Brain Alterations In Adolescents With Depressive Symptomatology, J. Bashford‑Largo, R. James R. Blair, Karina S. Blair, Matthew Dobbertin, Ahria Dominguez, Melissa Hatch, Sahil Bajaj 2023 Boys Town National Research Hospital, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Identification Of Structural Brain Alterations In Adolescents With Depressive Symptomatology, J. Bashford‑Largo, R. James R. Blair, Karina S. Blair, Matthew Dobbertin, Ahria Dominguez, Melissa Hatch, Sahil Bajaj

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Faculty and Staff Publications

Introduction: Depressive symptoms can emerge as early as childhood and may lead to adverse situations in adulthood. Studies have examined structural brain alternations in individuals with depressive symptoms, but findings remain inconclusive. Furthermore, previous studies have focused on adults or used a categorical approach to assess depression. The current study looks to identify grey matter volumes (GMV) that predict depressive symptomatology across a clinically concerning sample of adolescents.

Methods: Structural MRI data were collected from 338 clinically concerning adolescents (mean age = 15.30 SD=2.07; mean IQ = 101.01 SD=12.43; 132 F). Depression symptoms were indexed via the Mood …


Novel Insights Into Oligodendrocyte Biology From Developmental Myelination Studies In Autophagy Deficient Mice And Analysis Of Oligodendrocyte Translatome Response To Contusive Spinal Cord Injury., Michael David Forston 2023 University of Louisville

Novel Insights Into Oligodendrocyte Biology From Developmental Myelination Studies In Autophagy Deficient Mice And Analysis Of Oligodendrocyte Translatome Response To Contusive Spinal Cord Injury., Michael David Forston

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Loss of myelin causes severe neurological disorders and functional deficits in white matter injuries (WMI) such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). This dissertation is focused on autophagy in OL development and the OL translatome after SCI. Chapter I describes the history of myelin, OL development, and their involvement in neurodegenerative diseases and SCI. The proteostasis network, in particular autophagy, and its contributions to white matter pathology is discussed. It concludes examining advantages and disadvantages of unbiased omics tools, like RiboTag, to study transcriptional/translational landscapes after SCI. Chapter II focuses on autophagy in OPC/OL differentiation, survival, and proper myelination in …


Specialized Late Cingulo-Opercular Network Activation Elucidates The Mechanisms Underlying Decisions About Ambiguity, Jordan E. Pierce, Nathan M. Petro, Elizabeth Clancy, Caterina Gratton, Steven E. Petersen, Maital Neta 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Specialized Late Cingulo-Opercular Network Activation Elucidates The Mechanisms Underlying Decisions About Ambiguity, Jordan E. Pierce, Nathan M. Petro, Elizabeth Clancy, Caterina Gratton, Steven E. Petersen, Maital Neta

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Faculty and Staff Publications

Cortical task control networks, including the cingulo-opercular (CO) network play a key role in decision-making across a variety of functional domains. In particular, the CO network functions in a performance reporting capacity that supports successful task performance, especially in response to errors and ambiguity. In two studies testing the contribution of the CO network to ambiguity processing, we presented a valence bias task in which masked clearly and ambiguously valenced emotional expressions were slowly revealed over several seconds. This slow reveal task design provides a window into the decision-making mechanisms as they unfold over the course of a trial. In …


Stellate Ganglion Block For Refractory Raynaud’S Phenomenon- A Case Report, William J. Naber II, Derik J. Scribner, Gabriel Howard 2023 Trinity Health Ann Arbor Mercy Health-Saint Rita's Medical Center

Stellate Ganglion Block For Refractory Raynaud’S Phenomenon- A Case Report, William J. Naber Ii, Derik J. Scribner, Gabriel Howard

Graduate Medical Education Research Journal

Introduction: Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) is predominately a sympathetically mediated ischemic vasospastic disease involving the distal limbs and is associated with sharp pains, numbness, and dermatological color changes. The symptoms are commonly induced by cold weather, stress, and trauma and it is known to affect 4.85% of the population. There are few well-defined treatments for patients with RP that are refractory to 1st-line therapies. We present a case of intractable RP with corresponding response to stellate ganglion block (SGB) which demonstrates the efficacy profile and safety of SNS blocks in treatment of resistant RP.

Methods: Per Bon Secours Mercy Health …


Journal Club: Glymphatic System In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ronald G. Lott III, Xavier Zonna, Samuel Wlasowicz 2023 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine

Journal Club: Glymphatic System In Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ronald G. Lott Iii, Xavier Zonna, Samuel Wlasowicz

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease impact a multitude of individuals worldwide. The neural Glymphatic system is a relatively newly discovered cellular transport pathway within the brain that has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. This article serves to provide a journal club review of current literature on the Glymphatic system to raise awareness of this system and its potential for future treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative conditions.


Investigating The Mammillary Bodies As An Early Target Of Alzheimer's Disease, Cole Martinson 2023 Portland State University

Investigating The Mammillary Bodies As An Early Target Of Alzheimer's Disease, Cole Martinson

University Honors Theses

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. With minimal treatment options and no cure, developing a deeper understanding of the pathology of the disease is crucial. For nearly four decades, the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques has been correlated with the disease and its progression. Previous studies mapping this accumulation show that the mammillary bodies (MB) are an early target of the disease. Glutamatergic neurons are of key interest due to their prevalence in the central nervous system, specifically the MB. To understand the effects of AD on the glutamatergic system, we used vesicular glutamate transporter 2 …


The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon 2023 University of Kentucky

The Last Of Us In Therapy: How Mind-Controlling Fungi And Gut Bacteria Affect Your Mental Health, Anastasia Lyon

Journal of Pharmacology & Nutritional Sciences

The "psilocybiome" represents the mutually beneficial relationship between ourselves, our bacteria, and psychedelic drugs. This short review briefly discusses the benefits and limitations surrounding the potential for psychedelic therapy to synergize with gut bacteria to help regulate and maintain proper balance in the immune system, diet, and stress levels. Psychedelic therapy is a novel treatment strategy that has the potential to improve patient mental health, and, by identifying the types of gut bacteria present in patients, it can aid in personalizing medicine by determining how well their "psilocybiome" may respond.


Variations In Source And Pattern Of Arterial Supply To The Trigeminal Ganglion With Clinical Relevance, William S. Srinivasan 2023 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Variations In Source And Pattern Of Arterial Supply To The Trigeminal Ganglion With Clinical Relevance, William S. Srinivasan

Theses & Dissertations

The trigeminal ganglion (TG) is known to receive its arterial supply from branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA), middle meningeal artery (MMA), accessory meningeal artery (AMA), or superior cerebellar artery (SCA). Existing information about the prevalence and patterns of blood supply to the TG is limited despite their high clinical relevance to basicranial surgeries. The objective of this study is to investigate the source and pattern of arterial supply to TG and discuss their clinical relevance. Left and right TG were examined on 75 embalmed human cadavers from an ethically approved anatomical donor program. A literature review was conducted, …


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