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Brain Imaging In Older Patients With Delirium, Laila M. Hasan, Ariba Khan, Maharaj Singh, Michael L. Malone 2017 Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center

Brain Imaging In Older Patients With Delirium, Laila M. Hasan, Ariba Khan, Maharaj Singh, Michael L. Malone

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Delirium is a common, serious and costly condition in older patients admitted to the hospital. This study describes the prevalence and results of brain imaging among a cohort of older hospitalized patients with and without delirium.

Purpose: Investigate the frequency and results of brain imaging in older patients with delirium as compared to those without delirium.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected on hospitalized patients age 65 years or older who were admitted to 3 hospitals in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during a 1-month period in the fall of 2013. Subjects were tested for delirium via the “Confusion ...


Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman

Psychology and Neuroscience Undergraduate Contributions

Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 282,000 people in the United States alone. Individuals often suffer from partial paralysis and chronic pain along with physiological impairments, such as abnormal thermoregulation, decreased motor function, and poor sleep quality. Current clinical therapies focus on symptomatic treatments. Despite extensive research, all of the physiologic effects and the molecular mechanism underlying spinal cord injury, and how they affect each other, remains elusive. Here, we tested whether spinal cord injury disrupted circadian rhythms, which could prolong the recovery process. We used implanted transmitters in male and female rats to measure a marker, body temperature, and ...


Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich McLeod 2017 New Hampshire Musculoskeletal Institute, Manchester, NH

Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich Mcleod

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

We sought to investigate the one-week and within-session reliability of the instrumented balance error scoring system test and the concurrent validity/one-week reliability of two neurocognitive assessments available through C3 Logix. (n = 37) Participants completed two balance error scoring system tests separated by the Trails A, Trails B, and Symbol Digit Modality test available through C3 Logix, and with paper and pencil. We found that the instrumented balance error scoring system test demonstrated strong one-week reliability and that neuropsychological tests available through C3 Logix show acceptable concurrent validity with standard (comparable) paper and pencil measures.


Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2017 University of Toledo

Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ependymal cilia protrude into the central canal of the brain ventricles and spinal cord to circulate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cilia dysfunction can hinder the movement of CSF leading to an abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain known as hydrocephalus. Although the etiology of hydrocephalus was studied before, the effects of ethanol ingestion on ependymal cilia function have not been investigated in vivo. Here, we report three distinct types of ependymal cilia, type-I, type-II and type-III classified based upon their beating frequency, their beating angle, and their distinct localization within the mouse brain-lateral ventricle. Our studies show ...


Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors.

Methods: The presence of dimeric components of the amylin receptor (calcitonin receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 3) were ...


Pontine Haemorrhage Due To Chondrosarcoma Of The Skull Base, Maliha Iqbal Jumani, Roomasa Channa, Sayed Nabeel Zafar, S. Ather Enam 2017 Aga Khan University

Pontine Haemorrhage Due To Chondrosarcoma Of The Skull Base, Maliha Iqbal Jumani, Roomasa Channa, Sayed Nabeel Zafar, S. Ather Enam

Ather Enam

A young adult presented with acute weakness of right side of body and slurring of speech. An initial brain CT scan showed a pontine haemorrhage, however MRI done a few days later revealed a mass in the left parapharyngeal space. Histopathology of the mass revealed that it was a chondrosarcoma. Subsequently the patient was initially treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and later surgery. Skull base chondrosarcomabe is to be included in the differentials of a young patient presenting with signs consistent with pontine haemorrhage.


Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski 2017 Brown University

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...


A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor thalamo-cortico-cerebellar fibre path integrity and overt responsiveness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Additionally, we investigated the potential of imaging these motor tracts at ultra-high fields. Study I and II aimed to map the white matter connections of motor execution fibres in DOC patients. Our results showed significant reductions in motor fibre path integrity across DOC diagnostic categories. Study III and IV aimed to develop a 7T MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) sequence. We optimized this sequence to image motor fibre paths in DOC patients. We concluded that, in healthy controls, probabilistic ...


Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole McCleery 2017 Otterbein University

Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole Mccleery

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Local anesthesia (LA) provides a way to relieve temporary pain in a small part of the body and has been used for over 100 years (Fencl, 2015). LA also prevents the passage of surgical stimuli into the central nervous system (CNS) making a surgical procedure less painful for the patient (Noble, 2015). According to Noble, “altering the passage of stimuli from smaller diameter neurons in a confined area with lower drug dosages is called LA, such as the injection of LA around a surgical incision” (Noble, 2015, p.325). LA can be used in a variety of settings, such as ...


Abnormal Dendritic Maturation Of Developing Cortical Neurons Exposed To Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (Crh): Insights Into Effects Of Prenatal Adversity?, Megan M. Curran, Curt A. Sandman, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Laura M. Glynn, Tallie Z. Baram 2017 University of California, Irvine

Abnormal Dendritic Maturation Of Developing Cortical Neurons Exposed To Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (Crh): Insights Into Effects Of Prenatal Adversity?, Megan M. Curran, Curt A. Sandman, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Laura M. Glynn, Tallie Z. Baram

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown. In this study, we ...


Anatomical Variations Of The Sciatic Nerve Divisions In Relation To The Piriformis Muscle And Clinical Implications, Jonathan I. Van Erdewyk 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Anatomical Variations Of The Sciatic Nerve Divisions In Relation To The Piriformis Muscle And Clinical Implications, Jonathan I. Van Erdewyk

Theses & Dissertations

The goal of this project was to identify and quantify the anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve divisions in relation to the piriformis muscle and compare the data collected to the primary literature. This was done in an effort to provide awareness of sciatic nerve entrapments within the subgluteal space that may be responsible for posterior hip and buttock pain. While the current means of diagnosis are through physical examination, imaging techniques, and surgery, the results of this present study indicate that new methods of diagnosis need to be explored.


The Effects Of Spondylolisthesis On The Human Body, Kayla L. Govoni 2017 The University of Rhode Island

The Effects Of Spondylolisthesis On The Human Body, Kayla L. Govoni

Senior Honors Projects

Spondylolisthesis is a rare and unknown disorder to many. The anatomical perplexity beneath its diagnosis is extensive yet crucial to truly understanding this unique anomaly. As a condition that is too often undistinguished and unexplained to countless, it warrants and demands undisputed attention. Spondylolisthesis is an atypical spinal disorder characterized by one vertebra sliding forward in position over the vertebra below it (Rodts, 2017). The victim of this condition faces excruciating pain radiating throughout one’s lower back and frequently into the lower extremities. In cases of increased severity, individuals pursue a variety of treatment modalities ranging from conservative measures ...


Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele DeVeau 2017 University of Louisville

Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele Deveau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is a general consensus that the level and the severity of spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts chronic cardiac abnormalities such that high thoracic and cervical SCI are the most severely affected. Furthermore, the extreme degree of immobility/inactivity experienced by the persons with SCI has implications on cardiac decline. Yet it has been difficult to separate the relative contributions of the decentralized autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the immediate and profound inactivity to chronic cardiac abnormalities. As such, this body of work sought to characterize a contusion SCI that results in persistent CV dysfunction. Echocardiography, Dobutamine stress echocardiography and ...


High School Student Concussion Recovery Program: Teacher Involvement In Student Academic Transitions To Classroom And To Sports, Brittany Diego 2017 Dominican University of California

High School Student Concussion Recovery Program: Teacher Involvement In Student Academic Transitions To Classroom And To Sports, Brittany Diego

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2018

Many symptoms of concussions can greatly interfere with the cognitive abilities and skills students use in school. Although students may have similar symptoms, they experience concussions differently. Students returning to the classroom from a concussion often have different needs and abilities.

Research shows that a formal, individualized protocol to treat suspected concussions, both academically and physically, is vital to the successful recovery of each student. Much research is available on concussions for professional athletes, specifically related to recovery and returning to their sport. However, there is little research about high school students regarding concussions. Concussion recovery programs for high school ...


Changes In Balance And Joint Position Sense During A 12-Day High Altitude Trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition, Sarah B. Clarke 2017 Northern Michigan University

Changes In Balance And Joint Position Sense During A 12-Day High Altitude Trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition, Sarah B. Clarke

Datasets

Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years). Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform) during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m), and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m) on a 12-day high altitude trek in the ...


On The Brain Structure Heterogeneity Of Autism: Parsing Out Acquisition Site Effects With Significance-Weighted Principal Component Analysis, Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M. H. Young, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V. Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G. M. Murphy, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Anthony J. Bailey, Simon Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, Edward T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Michael C. Craig, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Meng Chuan Lai, Michael V. Lombardo, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan G. M. Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Sally J. Wheelwright, Steven C. Williams 2017 Australian Catholic University

On The Brain Structure Heterogeneity Of Autism: Parsing Out Acquisition Site Effects With Significance-Weighted Principal Component Analysis, Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M. H. Young, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V. Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G. M. Murphy, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Anthony J. Bailey, Simon Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, Edward T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Michael C. Craig, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Meng Chuan Lai, Michael V. Lombardo, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan G. M. Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Sally J. Wheelwright, Steven C. Williams

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ASD ). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres. In this work we analysed the differences found in the multisite, multi-modal neuroimaging database from the UK ...


Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci 2017 Bard College

Distortion In Body Schema: The Influence Of Body Fat And Mass On Perceptions Of Personal Size, Katarina Ann Ferrucci

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Obesity has been linked with a myriad of negative outcomes for both physical and mental health including feeding and eating disorders and cognitive impairments that affect perception of body size. Understanding the cognitive mechanisms and physiological factors that contribute to perception of body size may help us to comprehend how obesity impacts the construction and development of one’s mental body representations. Previous research by Scarpina, Castelnuovo, and Molinari (2014) suggests that, compared to those with a normal Body Mass Index, individuals with a BMI greater than 30 (obese) not only inaccurately estimate tactile and mental distances on their own ...


Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman 2017 University of Kentucky

Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

It was once believed that the brain was immunologically privileged with no resident or infiltrating immune cells; however, now it is understood that the cells of the brain are capable of a wide range of inflammatory processes and phenotypes. Inflammation in the brain has been implicated in several disease processes such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID); however, the role of inflammation in these two dementias is poorly understood.

When we stimulated a pro-inflammatory phenotype with an adeno-associated viral vector in a transgenic mouse model of AD that develops Aβ plaques, we saw a ...


Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez 2017 CUNY City College

Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez

Master's Theses

Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...


Morphometrics In Developmental Neurobiology: Quantitative Analysis Of Growth Cone Motility In Vivo, Anokh Sohal, James Ha, Manuel Zhu, Fayha Lakhani, Lauren Olszewski, Raagav Mohanakrishnan, Tamira Elul 2017 Touro University California

Morphometrics In Developmental Neurobiology: Quantitative Analysis Of Growth Cone Motility In Vivo, Anokh Sohal, James Ha, Manuel Zhu, Fayha Lakhani, Lauren Olszewski, Raagav Mohanakrishnan, Tamira Elul

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

In order for the nervous system to function properly, neurons in the brain must establish specific connections during embryonic development. Formation of neuronal circuits involves axons extending from cell bodies and navigating through diverse tissues to reach their targets in the brain. Once axons reach their target tissues, they arborize and make synaptic connections. Axon pathfinding is driven by dynamic motility behaviors expressed by terminal growth cones at the tips of the axons. Here, we applied morphometrics to determine quantitative values for six morphological and motility parameters for growth cones of optic axons navigating through the optic tract of a ...


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