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Cognitive And Microbiome Impacts Of Experimental Ancylostoma Ceylanicum Hookworm Infections In Hamsters, Samuel C. Pan, Doyle V. Ward, Yunqiang Yin, Yan Hu, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Robert E. Clark, Raffi V. Aroian 2019 University of California - San Diego

Cognitive And Microbiome Impacts Of Experimental Ancylostoma Ceylanicum Hookworm Infections In Hamsters, Samuel C. Pan, Doyle V. Ward, Yunqiang Yin, Yan Hu, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Robert E. Clark, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Articles

Hookworms are one of the most prevalent and important parasites, infecting ~500 million people worldwide. Hookworm disease is among the leading causes of iron-deficiency anemia in the developing world and is associated with significant growth stunting and malnutrition. In humans, hookworms appear to impair memory and other forms of cognition, although definitive data are hard to come by. Here we study the impact of a human hookworm parasite, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, on cognition in hamsters in a controlled laboratory setting. We developed tests that measure long-term memory in hamsters. We find that hookworm-infected hamsters were fully capable of detecting a novel ...


Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation As An Adjunctive Treatment For Negative Symptoms And Cognitive Impairment In Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial, Kaiming Zhuo, Yingying Tang, Zhenhua Song, Yingchan Wang, Junjie Wang, Zhenying Qian, Hui Li, Qiong Xiang, Tianyi Chen, Zhilei Yang, Yifeng Xu, Xiaoduo Fan, Jijun Wang, Dengtang Liu 2019 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation As An Adjunctive Treatment For Negative Symptoms And Cognitive Impairment In Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial, Kaiming Zhuo, Yingying Tang, Zhenhua Song, Yingchan Wang, Junjie Wang, Zhenying Qian, Hui Li, Qiong Xiang, Tianyi Chen, Zhilei Yang, Yifeng Xu, Xiaoduo Fan, Jijun Wang, Dengtang Liu

Open Access Articles

Purpose: Effective treatment options for negative symptoms and cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia are still to be developed. The present study was to examine potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve negative symptoms and cognition in this patient population.

Methods: The study was a 4-week, randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial. Patients with schizophrenia were treated with adjunctive 20-Hz rTMS for 4 weeks or sham condition to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Negative symptoms were measured using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS) negative subscale at ...


Alzheimer's Disease Microbiome Is Associated With Dysregulation Of The Anti-Inflammatory P-Glycoprotein Pathway, John P. Haran, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Sage Foley, Protiva Dutta, Doyle V. Ward, Vanni Bucci, Beth A. McCormick 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Alzheimer's Disease Microbiome Is Associated With Dysregulation Of The Anti-Inflammatory P-Glycoprotein Pathway, John P. Haran, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Sage Foley, Protiva Dutta, Doyle V. Ward, Vanni Bucci, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is poorly understood. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, has long been associated with bacterial infections and inflammation-causing immunosenescence. Recent studies examining the intestinal microbiota of AD patients revealed that their microbiome differs from that of subjects without dementia. In this work, we prospectively enrolled 108 nursing home elders and followed each for up to 5 months, collecting longitudinal stool samples from which we performed metagenomic sequencing and in vitro T84 intestinal epithelial cell functional assays for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, a critical mediator of intestinal homeostasis. Our ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky 2019 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

This document contains a list with all the Anatomy and Physiology I expected learning outcomes organized by topics, and grouped into ten units: 1. Introduction to A&P: body plan & organization; 2. Introduction to A&P: homeostasis; 3. The chemical level of organization; 4. Levels of organization: the cellular level of organization; 5. Levels of organization: the tissue level of organization; 6. Support and movement: integumentary system; 7. Support and movement: skeletal system & articulations; 8. Support and movement: muscular system; 9. Regulation, integration, and control: nervous system; 10. Regulation, integration, and control: special senses

Each learning outcome is referred to a section in the textbook “Anatomy and ...


Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre 2019 University of Connecticut

Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

Abnormal ocular motility is a common manifestation of many underlying pathologies particularly those that are neurological. Dynamics of saccades, when the eye rapidly changes its point of fixation, have been characterized for many neurological disorders including concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and Parkinson’s disease. However, widespread saccade analysis for diagnostic and research purposes requires the recognition of certain eye movement parameters. Key information such as velocity and duration must be determined from data based on a wide set of patients’ characteristics that may range in eye shapes and iris, hair and skin pigmentation [36]. Previous work on saccade analysis ...


Art Therapy And Alzheimer's Disease, Kaylee Warren, Bailey Soiseth 2019 Carroll College

Art Therapy And Alzheimer's Disease, Kaylee Warren, Bailey Soiseth

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Many families struggle everyday, dealing with the effects of Alzheimer’s disease since no cure has been found and treatments are limited. Currently, there are 5.7 million Americans suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (Alzheimer’s Association, 2018). According to the National Institute on Aging (2018), Alzheimer’s disease is, “an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. It is the most common cause of dementia in older adults.” Although there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, art therapy has been used as an alternative ...


Uhthoff Phenomenon, Sreelakshmi Panginikkod, Lokesh A.. Rukmangadachar 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Uhthoff Phenomenon, Sreelakshmi Panginikkod, Lokesh A.. Rukmangadachar

Open Access Articles

Uhthoff's phenomenon (also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome) is described as temporary, short-lived (less than 24 hours) and stereotyped worsening of neurological function among multiple sclerosis patients in response to increases in core body temperature. This phenomenon is named after Wilhelm Uhthoff, a German ophthalmologist who described it. In 1890, Uhthoff first described exercise-induced amblyopia in multiple sclerosis patients. In 1961, this phenomenon was given his surname, Uhthoff's Phenomenon (UP), by G. Ricklefs[1]. In four out of 100 MS patients, Uhthoff observed the appearance of reversible optic symptoms induced by an increase in body temperature ...


A Visual Exploration Of Walking In Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Mtbi), Bryana Popa 2019 Portland State University

A Visual Exploration Of Walking In Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Mtbi), Bryana Popa

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Annual Conference

Visual exploration of the environment is vital for safe and effective walking, and is influenced by cognitive load. Eye movement deficits can occur following mTBI and may impact visual exploration when walking, leading to issues with mobility. This study aims to examine visual exploration when walking under single and dual-task in mTBI and controls.

Sixteen people with mTBI (Age: 30.1±12.8 yrs, days since injury: 39.5±21.7) and 10 healthy controls (Age: 26.3±5.2 yrs) walked for 1 minute while wearing a mobile eye tracker under single and dual-task conditions. The primary outcome was ...


Complement Targets Newborn Retinal Ganglion Cells For Phagocytic Elimination By Microglia, Sarah R. Anderson, Jianmin Zhang, Michael R. Steele, Cesar O. Romero, Amanda G. Kautzman, Dorothy P. Schafer, Monica L. Vetter 2019 University of Utah

Complement Targets Newborn Retinal Ganglion Cells For Phagocytic Elimination By Microglia, Sarah R. Anderson, Jianmin Zhang, Michael R. Steele, Cesar O. Romero, Amanda G. Kautzman, Dorothy P. Schafer, Monica L. Vetter

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Microglia play important roles in shaping the developing CNS, and at early stages they have been proposed to regulate progenitor proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal survival. However, these studies reveal contradictory outcomes, highlighting the complexity of these cell-cell interactions. Here, we investigate microglia function during embryonic mouse retina development, where only microglia, progenitors, and neurons are present. In both sexes, we determine that microglia primarily interact with retinal neurons and find that depletion of microglia via conditional KO of the Csf1 receptor results in increased density of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Pharmacological inhibition of microglia also results in an increase in ...


Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Renders Ageing Microglia Inhibitory To Oligodendrocyte Generation By Cns Progenitors, Roey Baror, Bjorn Neumann, Michael Segel, Kevin J. Chalut, Stephen P.J. Fancy J, Dorothy P. Schafer, Robin J.M. Franklin 2019 University of Cambridge

Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Renders Ageing Microglia Inhibitory To Oligodendrocyte Generation By Cns Progenitors, Roey Baror, Bjorn Neumann, Michael Segel, Kevin J. Chalut, Stephen P.J. Fancy J, Dorothy P. Schafer, Robin J.M. Franklin

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

It is now well-established that the macrophage and microglial response to CNS demyelination influences remyelination by removing myelin debris and secreting a variety of signaling molecules that influence the behaviour of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have shown that changes in microglia contribute to the age-related decline in the efficiency of remyelination. In this study, we show that microglia increase their expression of the proteoglycan NG2 with age, and that this is associated with an altered micro-niche generated by aged, but not young, microglia that can divert the differentiation OPCs from oligodendrocytes into astrocytes in vitro. We further show ...


Adenosine Triphosphate Is Co-Secreted With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 To Modulate Intestinal Enterocytes And Afferent Neurons, Van B. Lu, Juraj Rievaj, Elisabeth A. O'Flaherty, Christopher A. Smith, Ramona Pais, Luke A. Pattison, Gwen Tolhurst, Andrew B. Leiter, David C. Bulmer, Fiona M. Gribble, Frank Reimann 2019 University of Cambridge

Adenosine Triphosphate Is Co-Secreted With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 To Modulate Intestinal Enterocytes And Afferent Neurons, Van B. Lu, Juraj Rievaj, Elisabeth A. O'Flaherty, Christopher A. Smith, Ramona Pais, Luke A. Pattison, Gwen Tolhurst, Andrew B. Leiter, David C. Bulmer, Fiona M. Gribble, Frank Reimann

Open Access Articles

Enteroendocrine cells are specialised sensory cells located in the intestinal epithelium and generate signals in response to food ingestion. Whilst traditionally considered hormone-producing cells, there is evidence that they also initiate activity in the afferent vagus nerve and thereby signal directly to the brainstem. We investigate whether enteroendocrine L-cells, well known for their production of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), also release other neuro-transmitters/modulators. We demonstrate regulated ATP release by ATP measurements in cell supernatants and by using sniffer patches that generate electrical currents upon ATP exposure. Employing purinergic receptor antagonists, we demonstrate that evoked ATP release from ...


The Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte And Monocyte-To-Lymphocyte Ratios Are Independently Associated With Neurological Disability And Brain Atrophy In Multiple Sclerosis, Christopher C. Hemond, Bonnie I. Glanz, Rohit Bakshi, Tanuja Chitnis, Brian C. Healy 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte And Monocyte-To-Lymphocyte Ratios Are Independently Associated With Neurological Disability And Brain Atrophy In Multiple Sclerosis, Christopher C. Hemond, Bonnie I. Glanz, Rohit Bakshi, Tanuja Chitnis, Brian C. Healy

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Serum hematological indices such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have been used as biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation and prognostication in multiple areas of medicine; recent evidence shows correlation with psychological parameters as well.

OBJECTIVES/AIMS: To characterize clinical, neuroimaging, and psycho-neuro-immunological associations with NLR and MLR in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).

METHODS: We identified a large cohort of clinically well-defined patients from our longitudinal database that included MS-related outcomes, disease-modifying therapy, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, and quantified cerebral MRI at 1.5 T. We queried hospital records for complete blood counts within 2 months ...


No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez

Open Access Articles

Macrophage (mac)-tropic human immnunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immnunodeficiency virus (SIV) in brain are associated with neurological disease. Mac-tropic HIV-1 evolves enhanced CD4 interactions that enable macrophage infection via CD4, which is in low abundance. In contrast, mac-tropic SIV is associated with CD4-independent infection via direct CCR5 binding. Recently, mac-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) from macaque brain was also reported to infect cells via CCR5 without CD4. Since SHIV envelope proteins (Envs) are derived from HIV-1, we tested more than 100 HIV-1 clade B Envs for infection of CD4-negative, CCR5(+) Cf2Th/CCR5 cells. However, no infection was ...


Diapause Induces Functional Axonal Regeneration After Necrotic Insult In C. Elegans, Mauricio Caneo, Victoria Julian, Alexandra B. Byrne, Mark J. Alkema, Andrea Calixto 2019 Universidad Mayor

Diapause Induces Functional Axonal Regeneration After Necrotic Insult In C. Elegans, Mauricio Caneo, Victoria Julian, Alexandra B. Byrne, Mark J. Alkema, Andrea Calixto

Open Access Articles

Many neurons are unable to regenerate after damage. The ability to regenerate after an insult depends on life stage, neuronal subtype, intrinsic and extrinsic factors. C. elegans is a powerful model to test the genetic and environmental factors that affect axonal regeneration after damage, since its axons can regenerate after neuronal insult. Here we demonstrate that diapause promotes the complete morphological regeneration of truncated touch receptor neuron (TRN) axons expressing a neurotoxic MEC-4(d) DEG/ENaC channel. Truncated axons of different lengths were repaired during diapause and we observed potent axonal regrowth from somas alone. Complete morphological regeneration depends on ...


Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This study reports on the use of ten knowledge competencies related to the behavioral management of concussion in schools. Trainings using these competencies as learning objectives were delivered to school personnel. This aims of the use of competencies in this way are to streamline the education of key stakeholders, to establish clear roles and responsibilities for constituents and equip individuals working with students following a concussion with the relevant knowledge to optimize outcomes. The majority of participants, primarily speech language pathologists working as related service providers in the schoolswhere the trainings occurred, judged the use of the competencies to be ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging: In Vivo White Matter Structural And Connectivity Evaluation Of Glioma Pathophysiology For Future Clinical Application, Shawn D'souza 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Diffusion Tensor Imaging: In Vivo White Matter Structural And Connectivity Evaluation Of Glioma Pathophysiology For Future Clinical Application, Shawn D'Souza

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gliomas account for 26.5% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Histopathological observation has been the gold standard for diagnosing and studying gliomas, however, this method has several limitations. Recent studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to extract white matter fibers and the diffusion coefficients derived from the magnetic resonance processing to provide non-invasive insights into the extent of tumor invasion, axonal integrity, and pathophysiological differentiation of glioma from metastasis. This work extends the capabilities of DTI by examining whether a tract-based analysis can improve non-invasive localization of tumor impact on white matter integrity. This study also examines ...


Different Effects Of Static And Vibrating Foam Rollers On Ankle Plantar Flexion Flexibility And Neuromuscular Activation, Brianna G. Mazzei 2019 Georgia Southern University

Different Effects Of Static And Vibrating Foam Rollers On Ankle Plantar Flexion Flexibility And Neuromuscular Activation, Brianna G. Mazzei

University Honors Program Theses

The relatively new implementation of vibration into foam rollers was developed in response to the positive feedback of whole-body vibration treatment and foam rolling therapy. The purpose of the study is to research the changes in range of motion and myoelectric activity of the ankle dorsiflexors in female NCAA Division I swimmers when using a vibrating foam roller in comparison to a static foam roller. Combining the self-myofascial release with the increased blood flow and muscle temperature exerted from vibration could possibly enhance the effects of foam-rolling treatment. The different effects of ankle flexibility and motor unit activation after static ...


Functional Source Separation For Eeg-Fmri Fusion: Application To Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials, Hong Ji, Badong Chen, Nathan M. Petro, Zejian Yuan, Nanning Zheng, Andreas Keil 2019 Xi'an Jiaotong University

Functional Source Separation For Eeg-Fmri Fusion: Application To Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials, Hong Ji, Badong Chen, Nathan M. Petro, Zejian Yuan, Nanning Zheng, Andreas Keil

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Neurorobotics is one of the most ambitious fields in robotics, driving integration of interdisciplinary data and knowledge. One of the most productive areas of interdisciplinary research in this area has been the implementation of biologically-inspired mechanisms in the development of autonomous systems. Specifically, enabling such systems to display adaptive behavior such as learning from good and bad outcomes, has been achieved by quantifying and understanding the neural mechanisms of the brain networks mediating adaptive behaviors in humans and animals. For example, associative learning from aversive or dangerous outcomes is crucial for an autonomous system, to avoid dangerous situations in the ...


A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef 2019 University of New Hampshire

A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef

Honors Theses and Capstones

Cephalopods can participate in complex navigation using landmarks that show context due to their statocysts. Statocysts are analogous to the vertebrate vestibular and auditory system encased in cartilage rather than bone making them more easily accessible. Age and anatomical dysfunctions are the reasons for many human vestibular malfunctions. Two of these sources are endolymph hydrops and aging. In the past, endolymph pressure changes were attributed to the ineffectual ion transport. Recent studies have illuminated the possibility of histamine receptors in the semicircular canal could be responsible for patients’ endolymph pressure changes rather than the previous belief that the pressure changes ...


Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse

Open Access Articles

Group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) mediates GPCR-stimulated arachidonic acid (AA) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) located in plasma membranes. We previously found in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons that PLA2 activity is required for voltage-independent N-type Ca2+ (N-) current inhibition by M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs). These findings are at odds with an alternative model, previously observed for M-current inhibition, where PIP2 dissociation from channels and subsequent metabolism by phospholipase C suffices for current inhibition. To resolve cPLA2alpha's importance, we have investigated its role in mediating voltage-independent N-current inhibition (~40%) that follows application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M ...


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