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A Meta-Analysis: A Functional Neuroanatomical Comparison Of Self-Esteem-Related And Postpartum Depression-Related Processing, Meghana Damaraju 2018 Union College

A Meta-Analysis: A Functional Neuroanatomical Comparison Of Self-Esteem-Related And Postpartum Depression-Related Processing, Meghana Damaraju

Honors Theses

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric mood disorder that effects 1 in 10 women in the United States. There are relatively few behavioral studies looking at the association between PPD and self-esteem. There are even fewer studies looking at neuroimaging comparisons between PPD and self-esteem.. The goal of this study was to look at the neuroanatomical overlap of activated brain regions involved in both self-esteem and PPD processing. We hypothesized that the right amygdala, PCC, and insula would be involved in both processes.

Methods: Maps were created using the MKDA program in MATLAB. These images were extent-based cluster-wise activation ...


Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett 2018 University of Wyoming

Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett

Honors Theses AY 17/18

One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith 2018 University of Connecticut

Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith

Honors Scholar Theses

The ability of the brain to extract meaningful information from complex sounds is what allows mammals to understand species-specific communication as well as important environmental cues such as the sound of water or of potential predators or prey. The auditory cortex of humans and other mammals contains multiple cortical regions that unique sensitivities to both spectral and temporal sound cues. This discourse will explore three main factors proposed to determine these distinct processing capabilities in regard to temporal sound cues; the distribution of glutamate transporters in the thalamus, the architecture of afferent pathways between the thalamus and auditory cortex, and ...


Immunodeficient R2g2 Mouse Strain Yields Spleens With Unusual Cytoarchitecture And Sympathetic Innervation, Nicholas Mason Britt, Madeleine Kate Miller, Donald B. Hoover Ph.D., John B. Schweitzer M.D. 2018 East Tennessee State University

Immunodeficient R2g2 Mouse Strain Yields Spleens With Unusual Cytoarchitecture And Sympathetic Innervation, Nicholas Mason Britt, Madeleine Kate Miller, Donald B. Hoover Ph.D., John B. Schweitzer M.D.

Appalachian Student Research Forum

The nervous system and immune system contact one another through two-way communication in order to establish and preserve homeostasis. The sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine has an impact on how the immune system responds by affecting regional blood flow and activation of adrenergic receptors on leukocytes. Former studies showed that immune cells are capable of releasing nerve growth factor allowing for the establishment and continuation of sympathetic nerves in targeted tissues. From this gathered information, it was hypothesized that sympathetic nerves would prove to be less frequent in spleens from the immunodeficient R2G2 mouse strain (Envigo) when compared to 129P3/J (129 ...


Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This volume grew out of many years of clinical practice, research, and program projects. It is the culmination of more than 50 years of work with kids, brains, and schools. While there is research behind the Competencies and the underlying content, the intent was to create a user-friendly manual that cut across levels of responsibility and care. Concussion Competencies was not intended to be a textbook in the traditional manner; however, the Competencies have been shown to be a useful approach to teaching this material.

This volume is organized around a set of Competencies that have been shown to be ...


Ccl11 As A Biomarker For The In Vivo Diagnosis Of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Robert Weissenfels 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Ccl11 As A Biomarker For The In Vivo Diagnosis Of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Robert Weissenfels

CMC Senior Theses

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is the neurodegenerative disease that is ascribed to the long term development of cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and motor deficits as a result of the exposure to high amounts of sub concussive traumatic brain injuries. The disease has gained recent popularity in the media for its prevalence in American football as a response to recent research that has suggested the prominence of the disease in nearly every NFL player that is examined post mortem. This has produced a growing concern for the consequences of head impact and participation in contact sports. Despite media attention, little is currently known ...


Vapocoolant Spray’S Effect On Peripheral Inserted Venous Catheter Pain In Adult Patients, Zachary Krol, Fiona Flaherty, Ryan Williams 2018 U Of A

Vapocoolant Spray’S Effect On Peripheral Inserted Venous Catheter Pain In Adult Patients, Zachary Krol, Fiona Flaherty, Ryan Williams

Honors Research Projects

Intravenous (IV) cannulation is required to administer medications and fluids to patients. In addition, it is also a recognized source of pain and anxiety in over one-half of all patients requiring IV insertion (Page & Taylor, 2010). Pain management is within nurses’ scope of practice, therefore it’s important to identify effective pain management strategies. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect that a topical vapocoolant spray has on pain in pre-operative adults during IV cannulation. The gate control theory of pain will guide this randomized, experimental study of a convenience sample of adults in an outpatient endoscopic ...


Changes In Balance And Joint Position Sense During A 12-Day High Altitude Trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition, Sarah B. Clarke, Kevin Deighton, Caroline Newman, Gareth Nicholson, Liam Gallagher, Christopher J. Boos, Adrian Mellor, David R. Woods, John P. O'Hara 2018 Northern Michigan University

Changes In Balance And Joint Position Sense During A 12-Day High Altitude Trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition, Sarah B. Clarke, Kevin Deighton, Caroline Newman, Gareth Nicholson, Liam Gallagher, Christopher J. Boos, Adrian Mellor, David R. Woods, John P. O'Hara

Journal Articles

Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years). Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform) during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m elevation) and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m) on a 12-day high altitude trek in ...


Factor Structure And Gender Invariance Testing For The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Sas-2), Leilani Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur C. Maerlender, Debra Hope 2018 California State University Long Beach

Factor Structure And Gender Invariance Testing For The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Sas-2), Leilani Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur C. Maerlender, Debra Hope

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This study aimed to provide further psychometric validation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) by assessing the factor structure, invariance across gender, and convergent and divergent validity of the SAS-2 by correlating both related (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, brief fear of negative evaluation, intolerance of uncertainty, and negative affect) and unrelated constructs (i.e., positive affect, self-confidence). A total of 542 current and former competitive athletes completed a questionnaire through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk system. All data were collected via online survey. Participants were randomly assigned to an exploratory factor analysis (n = 271) and confirmatory factor analysis group (n = 271 ...


Mesotocin Influences Pinyon Jay Prosociality, J. F. Duque, W. Leichner, H. Ahmann, Jeffrey R. Stevens 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mesotocin Influences Pinyon Jay Prosociality, J. F. Duque, W. Leichner, H. Ahmann, Jeffrey R. Stevens

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Many species exhibit prosocial behavior , in which one individual’s actions benefit another individual, often without an immediate benefit to itself. The neuropeptide oxytocin is an important hormonal mechanism influencing prosociality in mammals, but it is unclear whether the avian homologue mesotocin plays a similar functional role in birds. Here, we experimentally tested prosociality in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), a highly social corvid species that spontaneously shares food with others. First, we measured prosocial preferences in a prosocial choice task with two different pay-off distributions: Prosocial trials delivered food to both the subject and either an empty cage or a ...


Effects Of Lower Extremity Aerobic Exercise And Conditioned Pain Modulation On Evoked Shoulder Pain, Logan Lumpkins, Craig Wassinger 2017 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Lower Extremity Aerobic Exercise And Conditioned Pain Modulation On Evoked Shoulder Pain, Logan Lumpkins, Craig Wassinger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that aerobic exercise and conditioned pain modulation may be advocated in treating patients with musculoskeletal pain. The effects of lower extremity aerobic exercise and conditioned pain modulation on evoked shoulder pain are not known.

Purpose: To determine the acute effects of lower extremity aerobic exercise and conditioned pain modulation on outcomes of evoked shoulder pain from pain pressure threshold measurements.

Study Design: Repeated measures.

Methods: Thirty (30) healthy volunteers were tested over the course of two sessions. Session 1 consisted of collecting pain pressure threshold measurements over the infraspinatus before and immediately following a conditioned pain ...


Brain Imaging In Older Patients With Delirium, Laila M. Hasan, Ariba Khan, Maharaj Singh, Michael L. Malone 2017 Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center

Brain Imaging In Older Patients With Delirium, Laila M. Hasan, Ariba Khan, Maharaj Singh, Michael L. Malone

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Delirium is a common, serious and costly condition in older patients admitted to the hospital. This study describes the prevalence and results of brain imaging among a cohort of older hospitalized patients with and without delirium.

Purpose: Investigate the frequency and results of brain imaging in older patients with delirium as compared to those without delirium.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected on hospitalized patients age 65 years or older who were admitted to 3 hospitals in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during a 1-month period in the fall of 2013. Subjects were tested for delirium via the “Confusion ...


Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman

Psychology and Neuroscience Undergraduate Contributions

Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 282,000 people in the United States alone. Individuals often suffer from partial paralysis and chronic pain along with physiological impairments, such as abnormal thermoregulation, decreased motor function, and poor sleep quality. Current clinical therapies focus on symptomatic treatments. Despite extensive research, all of the physiologic effects and the molecular mechanism underlying spinal cord injury, and how they affect each other, remains elusive. Here, we tested whether spinal cord injury disrupted circadian rhythms, which could prolong the recovery process. We used implanted transmitters in male and female rats to measure a marker, body temperature, and ...


Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich McLeod 2017 New Hampshire Musculoskeletal Institute, Manchester, NH

Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich Mcleod

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

We sought to investigate the one-week and within-session reliability of the instrumented balance error scoring system test and the concurrent validity/one-week reliability of two neurocognitive assessments available through C3 Logix. (n = 37) Participants completed two balance error scoring system tests separated by the Trails A, Trails B, and Symbol Digit Modality test available through C3 Logix, and with paper and pencil. We found that the instrumented balance error scoring system test demonstrated strong one-week reliability and that neuropsychological tests available through C3 Logix show acceptable concurrent validity with standard (comparable) paper and pencil measures.


Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2017 University of Toledo

Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ependymal cilia protrude into the central canal of the brain ventricles and spinal cord to circulate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cilia dysfunction can hinder the movement of CSF leading to an abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain known as hydrocephalus. Although the etiology of hydrocephalus was studied before, the effects of ethanol ingestion on ependymal cilia function have not been investigated in vivo. Here, we report three distinct types of ependymal cilia, type-I, type-II and type-III classified based upon their beating frequency, their beating angle, and their distinct localization within the mouse brain-lateral ventricle. Our studies show ...


Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors.

Methods: The presence of dimeric components of the amylin receptor (calcitonin receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 3) were ...


Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski 2017 Brown University

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...


A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction On Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms And Brain Response To Traumatic Reminders Of Combat In Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, James Douglas Bremner, Sanskriti Mishra, Carolina Campanella, Majid Shah, Nicole Kasher, Sarah Evans, Negar Fani, Amit Jasvant Shah, Collin Reiff, Lori L. Davis, Viola Vaccarino, James F. Carmody 2017 Emory University

A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction On Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms And Brain Response To Traumatic Reminders Of Combat In Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, James Douglas Bremner, Sanskriti Mishra, Carolina Campanella, Majid Shah, Nicole Kasher, Sarah Evans, Negar Fani, Amit Jasvant Shah, Collin Reiff, Lori L. Davis, Viola Vaccarino, James F. Carmody

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Brain imaging studies in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have implicated a circuitry of brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, parietal cortex, and insula. Pharmacological treatment studies have shown a reversal of medial prefrontal deficits in response to traumatic reminders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a promising non-pharmacologic approach to the treatment of anxiety and pain disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of MBSR on PTSD symptoms and brain response to traumatic reminders measured with positron-emission tomography (PET) in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans with ...


A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor thalamo-cortico-cerebellar fibre path integrity and overt responsiveness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Additionally, we investigated the potential of imaging these motor tracts at ultra-high fields. Study I and II aimed to map the white matter connections of motor execution fibres in DOC patients. Our results showed significant reductions in motor fibre path integrity across DOC diagnostic categories. Study III and IV aimed to develop a 7T MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) sequence. We optimized this sequence to image motor fibre paths in DOC patients. We concluded that, in healthy controls, probabilistic ...


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