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The Who Global Tuberculosis 2021 Report - Not So Good News And Turning The Tide Back To End Tb, Chakaya Jeremiah, Eskild Petersen, Rebecca Nantanda, Brenda N. Mungai, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Farhana Amanullah, Patrick Lungu, Francine Ntoumi, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy 2022 Kenyatta University, Nairobi

The Who Global Tuberculosis 2021 Report - Not So Good News And Turning The Tide Back To End Tb, Chakaya Jeremiah, Eskild Petersen, Rebecca Nantanda, Brenda N. Mungai, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Farhana Amanullah, Patrick Lungu, Francine Ntoumi, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Objective: To review the data presented in the 2021 WHO global TB report and discuss the current constraints in the global response.
Introduction and methods: The WHO global TB reports, consolidate TB data from countries and provide up to date assessment of the global TB epidemic. We reviewed the data presented in the 2021 report.
Results: We noted that the 2021 WHO global TB report presents a rather grim picture on the trajectory of the global epidemic of TB including a stagnation in the annual decline in TB incidence, a decline in TB notifications and an increase in estimated TB …


Assessing Burnout And Resiliency In Online Degree Advancement Respiratory Care Students During A Pandemic, Kristen L. McHenry, Thomas J. Wing, Jody Lester, Lanny Inabnit, Yong Gao 2022 Boise State University

Assessing Burnout And Resiliency In Online Degree Advancement Respiratory Care Students During A Pandemic, Kristen L. Mchenry, Thomas J. Wing, Jody Lester, Lanny Inabnit, Yong Gao

Respiratory Therapy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the presence of burnout in online degree advancement Respiratory Care students during a pandemic and characteristics/strategies of resiliency. Method: The design of the study was quantitative; non-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional survey research. The Maslach Burnout Inventory for Medical Personnel (MBI-HSS (MP) and Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) were used to measure these constructs. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine (129) students completed components of the survey for a response rate of approximately 28%. Relevant findings include a somewhat higher level of depersonalization for those who practice in adult acute care. Emotional exhaustion …


Hsp90 Inhibitors Modulate Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Subunit 1-Induced Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Activation And Barrier Dysfunction, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Pavel Solopov, Betsy W. Gregory, Yara Khodour, John D. Catravas 2022 Old Dominion University

Hsp90 Inhibitors Modulate Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Subunit 1-Induced Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Activation And Barrier Dysfunction, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Pavel Solopov, Betsy W. Gregory, Yara Khodour, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 5 million deaths worldwide. Multiple reports indicate that the endothelium is involved during SARS-Cov-2-related disease (COVID-19). Indeed, COVID-19 patients display increased thrombophilia with arterial and venous embolism and lung microcapillary thrombotic disease as major determinants of deaths. The pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 is not completely understood. We have investigated the role of subunit 1 of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1SP) in eliciting endothelial barrier dysfunction, characterized dose and time relationships, and tested the hypothesis that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors would prevent and repair such injury. S1SP …


Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Presenting Late With Intrapericardial Extension: Case Report, Manzar Abbas, Usama Qamar, Syeda Maria Ahmad Zaidi, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Ali Aahil Noorali, Haseeb Ur Rahman, Saulat Hasnain Fatimi 2022 Aga Khan University

Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Presenting Late With Intrapericardial Extension: Case Report, Manzar Abbas, Usama Qamar, Syeda Maria Ahmad Zaidi, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Ali Aahil Noorali, Haseeb Ur Rahman, Saulat Hasnain Fatimi

Medical College Documents

Adenoid cystic carcinoma, also known as cylindroma, is one of the rare and unexplored clinical presentations of lung cancer, for which existing knowledge is scarce. This case report discusses a presentation of this tumor in the right lung, which subsequently extended to the left atrium through the right superior pulmonary vein. The extension of this rare tumor into the left atrium makes this case both uniquely distinctive and clinically relevant. The management strategy opted for this case was a right posterolateral thoracotomy and right pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium. The desired outcome of this report is to …


Risk Factors For Acute Respiratory Infections In Children Between 0 And 23 Months Of Age In A Peri-Urban District In Pakistan: A Matched Case–Control Study, Fatima Mir, Shabina Ariff, Maria Asif Bhura, Suhail Chanar, Aspara Ali, Muhammad Jawwad, A Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Muhammad Umer, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2022 Aga Khan University

Risk Factors For Acute Respiratory Infections In Children Between 0 And 23 Months Of Age In A Peri-Urban District In Pakistan: A Matched Case–Control Study, Fatima Mir, Shabina Ariff, Maria Asif Bhura, Suhail Chanar, Aspara Ali, Muhammad Jawwad, A Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Muhammad Umer, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) accounts for nearly 15% of all childhood mortality in South Asia, with children from rural areas at higher risk due to inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. We therefore aimed to identify risk factors associated with ARI in children under 2 years of age in rural Pakistan.
Methods: A retrospective 1:2 matched case-control study was conducted between October and December 2018 in Taluka Kotri, Jamshoro District of Pakistan. Cases were identified as children between 0 and 23 months of age with a history of fever, cough, sore throat, fast breathing, difficulty breathing, or chest indrawing in the …


Optimizing Antidotal Treatment With The Oral Hsp90 Inhibitor Tas-116 Against Hydrochloric Acid-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis In Mice, Pavel A. Solopov, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Christiana Dimitropolou, Tierney Day, John Catravas 2022 Old Dominion University

Optimizing Antidotal Treatment With The Oral Hsp90 Inhibitor Tas-116 Against Hydrochloric Acid-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis In Mice, Pavel A. Solopov, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Christiana Dimitropolou, Tierney Day, John Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Exposure to high concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl) can lead to severe acute and chronic lung injury. In the aftermath of accidental spills, victims may be treated for the acute symptoms, but the chronic injury is often overlooked. We have developed a mouse model of acute and chronic lung injury, in which the peak of acute lung injury occurs on the day 4 after HCl exposure. We have also demonstrated that HSP90 inhibitors are effective antidotes when administered starting 24 h after HCl. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the novel oral HSP90 inhibitor TAS-116 can effectively ameliorate …


Relationships Of Serum Cc16 Levels With Smoking Status And Lung Function In Copd, Kelli C. Gribben, Jill A. Poole, Amy J. Nelson, Paraskevi A. Farazi, Christopher S. Wichman, Art J. Heires, Debra J. Romberger, Tricia D. LeVan 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Relationships Of Serum Cc16 Levels With Smoking Status And Lung Function In Copd, Kelli C. Gribben, Jill A. Poole, Amy J. Nelson, Paraskevi A. Farazi, Christopher S. Wichman, Art J. Heires, Debra J. Romberger, Tricia D. Levan

Journal Articles: Pulmonary & Critical Care Med

Background: The club cell secretory protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and low CC16 serum levels have been associated with both risk and progression of COPD, yet the interaction between smoking and CC16 on lung function outcomes remains unknown.

Methods: Utilizing cross-sectional data on United States veterans, CC16 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA and log transformed for analyses. Spirometry was conducted and COPD status was defined by post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.7. Smoking measures were self-reported on questionnaire. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were employed to examine associations between CC16 levels and COPD, and lung function with adjustment for covariates. Unadjusted Pearson correlations described relationships between CC16 level and lung function measures, pack-years smoked, and years since smoking cessation.

Results: The study population (N = 351) was mostly male, white, with an average age over 60 years. An interaction between CC16 and smoking status on …


Activation Of Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Protects Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Induced Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Nagaraja Nagre, Gregory Nicholson, Xiaofei Cong, Janette Lockett, Andrew C. Pearson, Vincent Chan, Woong-Ki Kim, K. Yaragudri Vinod, John D. Catravas 2022 Eastern Virginia Medical School

Activation Of Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Protects Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Induced Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Nagaraja Nagre, Gregory Nicholson, Xiaofei Cong, Janette Lockett, Andrew C. Pearson, Vincent Chan, Woong-Ki Kim, K. Yaragudri Vinod, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Background

Bacterial pneumonia is a major risk factor for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), an opportunistic pathogen with an increasing resistance acquired against multiple drugs, is one of the main causative agents of ALI and ARDS in diverse clinical settings. Given the anti-inflammatory role of the cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2R), the effect of CB2R activation in the regulation of PA-induced ALI and inflammation was tested in a mouse model as an alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy.

Methods

In order to activate CB2R, a selective synthetic agonist, JWH133, was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to C57BL/6J …


Longitudinal Changes Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Performance In High School: Association With Individual And School-Based Variables, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Jinting Shao, Summer Davis 2022 Old Dominion University

Longitudinal Changes Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Performance In High School: Association With Individual And School-Based Variables, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Jinting Shao, Summer Davis

Human Movement Sciences & Special Education Faculty Publications

This study aimed to model adolescents’ cardiorespiratory fitness performance change trajectories longitudinally across high school years and its relation to school- and individual/student-level factors. We employed hierarchical linear modeling to examine longitudinal cardiorespiratory fitness performance changes, as measured by the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER), over the years, between sexes, and in association with the school-level variables. Participants were 76,227 adolescents from 80 high schools in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. School-level academic performance (SAP), the percent of students eligible for free and reduced-price meals (FARM), and physical education student-faculty ratio were obtained with permission from the …


Assessment Of Combined Modality Therapy For Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: A Simulation Study Concerning Concurrent Chemo-Brachytherapy, Hadi Rezaei, Hesameddin Mostaghimi, Ali Reza Mehdizadeh 2022 Old Dominion University

Assessment Of Combined Modality Therapy For Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: A Simulation Study Concerning Concurrent Chemo-Brachytherapy, Hadi Rezaei, Hesameddin Mostaghimi, Ali Reza Mehdizadeh

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Although surgery is the treatment of choice for early-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma, almost two-thirds of patients do not have acceptable pulmonary function for extensive surgeries. The alternative approach for this large group of patients is sublobar resection along with low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy (BT). However, patients with resected lungs have a high risk of recurrence and are often treated with platinum-based (Pt-based) chemotherapy (CT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the absorbed doses of lung and other thoracic organs, considering concurrent chemo-BT with LDR sources in two modalities: conventional vs. unconventional Pt-based CT. We used the MCNPX code for simulations …


Observations Of Delayed Changes In Respiratory Function Among Allergy Clinic Patients Exposed To Wildfire Smoke, James Blando, Michael Allen, Hadiza Galadima, Timothy Tolson, Muge Akpinar-Elci, Mariana Szklo-Coxe 2022 Old Dominion University

Observations Of Delayed Changes In Respiratory Function Among Allergy Clinic Patients Exposed To Wildfire Smoke, James Blando, Michael Allen, Hadiza Galadima, Timothy Tolson, Muge Akpinar-Elci, Mariana Szklo-Coxe

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Wildfires have increased in frequency and magnitude and pose a significant public health challenge. The principal objective of this study was to assess the impact of wildfire smoke on respiratory peak flow performance of patients exposed to two different wildfire events. This longitudinal study utilized an observational approach and a cohort study design with a patient-level clinical dataset from a local outpatient allergy clinic (n = 842). Meteorological data from a local weather station served as a proxy for smoke exposure because air quality measurements were not available. This study found that there were decreases in respiratory peak flow among …


Patient And Therapist Perceptions Of Respiratory Functioning Due To Spinal Cord Injury: Implications For Music Therapists, A'Marie Dotson 2022 University of Kentucky

Patient And Therapist Perceptions Of Respiratory Functioning Due To Spinal Cord Injury: Implications For Music Therapists, A'Marie Dotson

Theses and Dissertations--Music

Decreased respiratory functioning is a common symptom of spinal cord injury (SCI) and can impact individuals’ personal, professional, and social lives. In spite of this, researchers have not explored the use of music in the lives of individuals with SCIs or music’s role in their healthcare professionals’ treatment plans to improve respiratory functioning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand how decreased respiratory functioning affects individuals with SCIs and healthcare professionals through a multiple case study design. Participants were two individuals with SCIs and three healthcare professionals (physical therapist, recreational therapist, and music therapist) who worked with …


Endotracheal Tube Dislodgment In A High Risk Pulmonary Hypertensive Patient Due To Undiagnosed Tracheomegaly: A Case Report, Andrew Peck, Tammer N. Ghaly, Austin J. Adams, Daniel W. Johnson, Rebecca A. Aron 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Endotracheal Tube Dislodgment In A High Risk Pulmonary Hypertensive Patient Due To Undiagnosed Tracheomegaly: A Case Report, Andrew Peck, Tammer N. Ghaly, Austin J. Adams, Daniel W. Johnson, Rebecca A. Aron

Graduate Medical Education Research Journal

Introduction

Airway enlargement was first described histologically in 1872, but it was not clinically reported until 1932, when Dr. Mounier-Kuhn published his seminal radiographic studies.1 Since then, it is estimated that several hundred case reports have been published on congenital Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome (MKS), acquired tracheomegaly, and tracheobronchomegaly (TBM), yet only a few comprehensive literature reviews exist.2

Case

This case report details an elective nasal procedure for a patient with a history of significant pulmonary hypertension ad COPD on 5L home O2 who had a symptomatic facial trauma. He was considered high risk secondary to his pulmonary disease, …


Disability Injustice: A Latino’S Creative Autoethnographic Testimonio On The Organizational Culture Of Higher Education, Leonel A. Diaz Jr. 2021 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Disability Injustice: A Latino’S Creative Autoethnographic Testimonio On The Organizational Culture Of Higher Education, Leonel A. Diaz Jr.

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

Using creative autoethnographic testimonio (CAT), a story is told about the injustices within the learning environment and work environment of higher education toward a person with disabilities: sleep apnea, learning disabilities, negative mental health. The author explores the health difficulties of addressing sleep deprivation while attending graduate school and working full-time as a professional. With sleep apnea impacting his health, his mental health declines. As his health declines, there is an increase in discrimination, hostility, oppression, bullying, and toxic masculinity. Initially, the medical system dismisses his declining health and refuses to look further into it. Once he receives medical care …


Emerging Advances Of Nanotechnology In Drug And Vaccine Delivery Against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (Varid), Amir Seyfoori, Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough, Pooneh Mokarram, Mazaher Ahmadi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Alireza Sheidary, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Mohammad Kiumarsi, Tavia Walsh, Kielan D McAlinden, Chandra C Ghosh, Pawan Sharma, Amir A Zeki, Saeid Ghavami, Mohsen Akbari 2021 University of Victoria

Emerging Advances Of Nanotechnology In Drug And Vaccine Delivery Against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (Varid), Amir Seyfoori, Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough, Pooneh Mokarram, Mazaher Ahmadi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Alireza Sheidary, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Mohammad Kiumarsi, Tavia Walsh, Kielan D Mcalinden, Chandra C Ghosh, Pawan Sharma, Amir A Zeki, Saeid Ghavami, Mohsen Akbari

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and …


Informing The Pathway Of Copd Treatment (Impact) Trial: Fibrinogen Levels Predict Risk Of Moderate Or Severe Exacerbations, Dave Singh, Gerard J. Criner, Mark T. Dransfield, David M. G. Halpin, MeiLan K. Han, Peter Lange, Sally Lettis, David A. Lipson, David M. Mannino, Neil Martin, Fernando J. Martinez, Bruce E. Miller, Robert Wise, Chang-Qing Zhu, David Lomas 2021 University of Manchester, UK

Informing The Pathway Of Copd Treatment (Impact) Trial: Fibrinogen Levels Predict Risk Of Moderate Or Severe Exacerbations, Dave Singh, Gerard J. Criner, Mark T. Dransfield, David M. G. Halpin, Meilan K. Han, Peter Lange, Sally Lettis, David A. Lipson, David M. Mannino, Neil Martin, Fernando J. Martinez, Bruce E. Miller, Robert Wise, Chang-Qing Zhu, David Lomas

Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Background: Fibrinogen is the frst qualifed prognostic/predictive biomarker for exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The IMPACT trial investigated futicasone furoate/umeclidinium/ vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) triple therapy versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic COPD at risk of exacer‑ bations. This analysis used IMPACT trial data to examine the relationship between fbrinogen levels and exacerbation outcomes in patients with COPD.

Methods: 8094 patients with a fbrinogen assessment at Week 16 were included, baseline fbrinogen data were not measured. Post hoc analyses were performed by fbrinogen quartiles and by 3.5 g/L threshold. Endpoints included on-treatment exacerbations and adverse events …


Gold In Practice: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment And Management In The Primary Care Setting, Barbara P. Yawn, Matthew L. Mintz, Dennis E. Doherty 2021 University of Minnesota

Gold In Practice: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment And Management In The Primary Care Setting, Barbara P. Yawn, Matthew L. Mintz, Dennis E. Doherty

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Early detection and appropriate treatment and management of COPD can lower morbidity and perhaps mortality. Clinicians in the primary care setting provide the majority of COPD care and are pivotal in the diagnosis and management of COPD. In this review, we provide an overview of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2020 report, with a focus on the management of COPD in the primary care setting. We discuss the pathophysiology of COPD; describe COPD risk factors, signs, and symptoms that may facilitate earlier diagnosis …


A Scoring System Derived From Electronic Health Records To Identify Patients At High Risk For Noninvasive Ventilation Failure, Mihaela S. Stefan, Aruna Priya, Penelope S. Pekow, Jay S. Steingrub, Nicholas S. Hill, Tara Lagu, Karthik Raghunathan, Anusha G. Bhat, Peter K. Lindenaur 2021 UMass Chan Medical School

A Scoring System Derived From Electronic Health Records To Identify Patients At High Risk For Noninvasive Ventilation Failure, Mihaela S. Stefan, Aruna Priya, Penelope S. Pekow, Jay S. Steingrub, Nicholas S. Hill, Tara Lagu, Karthik Raghunathan, Anusha G. Bhat, Peter K. Lindenaur

Public Health Department Faculty Publication Series

Objective To develop and validate a clinical risk prediction score for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure defined as intubation after a trial of NIV in non-surgical patients. Design Retrospective cohort study of a multihospital electronic health record database. Patients Non-surgical adult patients receiving NIV as the first method of ventilation within two days of hospitalization. Measurement Primary outcome was intubation after a trial of NIV. We used a non-random split of the cohort based on year of admission for model development and validation. We included subjects admitted in years 2010-2014 to develop a risk prediction model and built a parsimonious risk …


Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Caused Protein Damage In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Cells In Biofilms, Li Guo, Lu Yang, Yu Qi, Gulimire Niyazi, Lingling Huang, Lu Gou, Zifeng Wang, Lei Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong 2021 Old Dominion University

Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Caused Protein Damage In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Cells In Biofilms, Li Guo, Lu Yang, Yu Qi, Gulimire Niyazi, Lingling Huang, Lu Gou, Zifeng Wang, Lei Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is attractive for sterilization, especially to disrupt biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. In this study, CAP effectively reduced the living cells in the biofilms formed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 6 min treatment with CAP reduced the S. aureus cells in biofilms by 3.5 log10. The treatment with CAP caused the polymerization of SaFtsZ and SaClpP proteins in the S. aureus cells of the biofilms. In vitro analysis demonstrated that recombinant SaFtsZ lost …


The Hsp90 Inhibitor, Auy-922, Protects And Repairs Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells From Hydrochloric Acid-Induced Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction, Ruben M.L. Colunga Biancatelli, Pavel Solopov, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas 2021 Old Dominion University

The Hsp90 Inhibitor, Auy-922, Protects And Repairs Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells From Hydrochloric Acid-Induced Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction, Ruben M.L. Colunga Biancatelli, Pavel Solopov, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Exposure to hydrochloric acid (HCl) leads acutely to asthma-like symptoms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including compromised alveolo-capillary barrier, and respiratory failure. To better understand the direct effects of HCl on pulmonary endothelial function, we studied the characteristics of HCl-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction in primary cultures of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC), defined the involved molecular pathways, and tested the potentially beneficial effects of Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors. HCl impaired barrier function in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and was associated with activation of Protein Kinase B (AKT), Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and myosin light …


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