Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cardiovascular System Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

185 Full-Text Articles 406 Authors 19789 Downloads 43 Institutions

All Articles in Cardiovascular System

Faceted Search

185 full-text articles. Page 1 of 7.

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known and may relate to alterations in brain structure (e.g. cortical atrophy) and/or altered neural function, particularly in regions related to the cortical autonomic network, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), insula cortex (IC), and hippocampus (HC). Exercise exerts beneficial effects on brain structure and, in the case of cognition, neurologic function; however, how exercise affects regions of the brain related to autonomic function are not known. This ...


The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen 2016 Northern Arizona University

The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen

Skyline - The Big Sky Undergraduate Journal

Background: As the intensity of exercise increases, the risk of incidences for exertional heat illness (EHI) continues to climb. The National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) has set an official position statement; stating a “gold standard” for obtaining core body temperature is via rectal thermometry. It has been reported that other field-expedient methods of obtaining core body temperature (oral, axillary, tympanic, temporal) are invalid or unreliable sources after intense exercise in hot temperature regions. Purpose: To determine if a relationship exists between rectal temperature measurements and tympanic temperature measurements during intensive long bouts of exercise. Design: Controlled Laboratory Study. Setting: Human ...


Lead Burden As A Factor For Higher Complication Rate In Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices, Christopher Kolibash, Naoyo Mori, Jasbir Sra, Masood Akhtar, M. Eyman Mortada 2016 Aurora Sinai/Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Centers, Aurora Health Care

Lead Burden As A Factor For Higher Complication Rate In Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices, Christopher Kolibash, Naoyo Mori, Jasbir Sra, Masood Akhtar, M. Eyman Mortada

Masood Akhtar

Purpose

Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 ...


Numerical Study Of The Effect Of Blood Vessel Geometry On Plaque Formation, Lindsey R. Fox 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Numerical Study Of The Effect Of Blood Vessel Geometry On Plaque Formation, Lindsey R. Fox

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Burden Of Adverse Metabolic Factors Is Associated With Increased Left Ventricular Concentricity In Adults With Normal-Range Body Mass Index: The Framingham Heart Study, Philimon Gona, Jane Lee, Carol J. Salton, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Warren J. Manning, Michael L. Chuang 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

Burden Of Adverse Metabolic Factors Is Associated With Increased Left Ventricular Concentricity In Adults With Normal-Range Body Mass Index: The Framingham Heart Study, Philimon Gona, Jane Lee, Carol J. Salton, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Warren J. Manning, Michael L. Chuang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: Persons with normal-range body mass index (BMI) but adverse metabolic characteristics associated with obesity have been described as metabolically-obese normal weight (MONW). We sought to determine whether adverse metabolic profile is associated with alterations in left ventricular (LV) structure or function among adults with normal BMI. Methods: From the 1794 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort adults who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) , we identified 446 free of non-skin cancer and prevalent clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) who had 18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m2 and complete covariates. We calculated a metabolic score (MS) where 1 point was assigned for each of: a) fasting glucose≥100 mg/dL or diabetes; b) SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mmHg or antihypertensive treatment; c) TG≥150 or HDL_C <40(M)/<50(W) mg/dL or lipid treatment; d) HOMA-IR≥2.5; e) waist circumference ≥102/88cm for M/W. Participants were classified as MS0 (no points), MS1 (exactly 1 point), or MS2+ (≥2 points). LV mass (LVM), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and concentricity (LVM/EDV) were measured from breathhold cine SSFP CMR scans; we calculated LVM/BSA. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare MS1 and MS2+ groups to the MS0 group. CMRI variables were adjusted for sex, age, heart rate (HR) and body size (BSA); LVM/BSA was adjusted for sex, age, HR only. We also tested for linear trend across metabolic groups. Results: LV concentricity increased with worsening metabolic status. This was driven by lower LV EDV, not increased LVM. LVM did not differ across (trend) or between MS-groups. LVEDV decreased across groups but only MS2 differed significantly from MS0. LVEF increased slightly but significantly across MS-groups. Conclusions: In a community-dwelling cohort, among participants who were free of cancer and clinical CVD and had normal BMI, worsening metabolic profile was associated with adverse remodeling of the left ventricle, reflected by greater LV concentricity.


In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Exogenous Ubiquitin On Processes Associated With Atherosclerosis, Chase W. Mussard 2016 East Tennessee State University

In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Exogenous Ubiquitin On Processes Associated With Atherosclerosis, Chase W. Mussard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Atherosclerosis, characterized by the build-up of cholesterol, immune cells and cellular debris within arterial walls, is accelerated following myocardial infarction by poorly understood mechanisms. Ubiquitin, a small, well-studied intracellular protein involved in protein turnover via the proteasome pathway, has recently been shown to exert extracellular effects on cardiac myocytes, in vitro, and in mice undergoing myocardial remodeling. This study investigates the potential role of extracellular ubiquitin in atherosclerosis by determining its effects on two critical atherosclerotic processes: the migration of vascular smooth muscles cells and the uptake of modified LDL by monocyte/macrophages in foam cell formation. In the presence ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


The Effects Of Congestive Heart Failure On Quality Of Life: As Evaluated By The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, Diana G. Gonzalez 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Congestive Heart Failure On Quality Of Life: As Evaluated By The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, Diana G. Gonzalez

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic disease that impairs the quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with both high hospital readmission rates and healthcare resource utilization such as emergency services. This study proposed use a student led transitional care program in providing home care to NYHA functional class II and III CHF patients. It evaluated the impact of the program on their quality of life as measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire© (MLWHFQ), the percentage of patients requiring readmission to the hospital within 30 days of initial hospitalization, and healthcare utilization. Thirty-six ...


The Effects Of Patient Education And Knowledge Of Chf Patients As Evaluated By The Paksac Survey, Nabil Tovar 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Patient Education And Knowledge Of Chf Patients As Evaluated By The Paksac Survey, Nabil Tovar

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

After diagnosis, management of congestive heart failure (CHF) can pose quite a struggle to many patients, since it requires that lifestyle changes be implemented into their daily life. Patients require the sufficient knowledge and education in order to best manage symptoms and improve their quality of life after being diagnosed. Use of Patient Knowledge of Self-care activities in Congestive Heart Failure© (PaKSAC) survey in transitional care programs could identify patient gaps in knowledge, as well as decreasing acute care service use. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the knowledge level of CHF patients at the time ...


Using Mixed Methods To Measure The Perception Of Community Capacity In An Academic–Community Partnership For A Walking Intervention, Charkarra Anderson-Lewis, Diana Castellanos, Arnecca Byrd, Karen Zynda, Alicia Sample, Vickie Reed, Mary Beard, Latessa Minor, Kathleen Yadrick 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Using Mixed Methods To Measure The Perception Of Community Capacity In An Academic–Community Partnership For A Walking Intervention, Charkarra Anderson-Lewis, Diana Castellanos, Arnecca Byrd, Karen Zynda, Alicia Sample, Vickie Reed, Mary Beard, Latessa Minor, Kathleen Yadrick

Diana Cuy Castellanos

H.U.B. City Steps is a 5-year community-based participatory research walking intervention designed to help lower blood pressure in a majority African American population in southern Mississippi via community collaboration and capacity building, increased walking, culturally tailored health education sessions, and motivational interviewing. Building community capacity for physical activity is a key component of this intervention. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to assess how project stakeholders perceive the community capacity-building efforts of the project. This article illustrates the baseline results of this mixed methods approach from the perspective of three groups of stakeholders: project researchers and staff ...


Intravascular Atp And The Regulation Of Blood Flow And Oxygen Delivery In Humans, Anne Crecelius, Brett Kirby, Frank Dinenno 2016 University of Dayton

Intravascular Atp And The Regulation Of Blood Flow And Oxygen Delivery In Humans, Anne Crecelius, Brett Kirby, Frank Dinenno

Anne R. Crecelius

Regulation of vascular tone is a complex response that integrates multiple signals which allow for blood flow and oxygen supply to appropriately match oxygen demand. Here, we discuss the potential role of intravascular ATP as a primary factor in these responses and propose that deficient ATP release may contribute to impairments in vascular control exhibited in aged and diseased populations.


Vascular Regulation Via Kir Channels And Na+ /K+-Atpase, Anne Crecelius, Frank Dinenno 2016 University of Dayton

Vascular Regulation Via Kir Channels And Na+ /K+-Atpase, Anne Crecelius, Frank Dinenno

Anne R. Crecelius

Despite the longstanding knowledge that blood flow increases in proportion to metabolic activity of skeletal muscle, the underlying mechanisms that govern this response have only recently been identified.1 Given the role of endothelial cells in mediating exercise hyperemia,2 interest has been focused on endothelium-derived vasodilation occurring via the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilating prostaglandins (PGs; i.e. prostacyclin) or endothelium- derived hyperpolarization. A number of studies performed in humans have established a minimal-to-modest role for NO and PGs during mild- and moderate- intensity exercise. In animal preparations, prevention of hyperpolarization attenuates contraction-induced hyperemia; however, performing similar ...


Kir Channel Activation Contributes To Onset And Steady-State Exercise Hyperemia In Humans, Anne Crecelius, Gary Luckasen, Dennis Larson, Frank Dinenno 2016 University of Dayton

Kir Channel Activation Contributes To Onset And Steady-State Exercise Hyperemia In Humans, Anne Crecelius, Gary Luckasen, Dennis Larson, Frank Dinenno

Anne R. Crecelius

We tested the hypothesis that activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na+-K+-ATPase, two pathways that lead to hyperpolarization of vascular cells, contributes to both the onset and steady-state hyperemic response to exercise. We also determined whether after inhibiting these pathways nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the hyperemic response. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) was determined during rhythmic handgrip exercise at 10% maximal voluntary contraction for 5 min in the following conditions: control [saline; trial 1 (T1)]; with combined inhibition of KIR channels and Na+-K+-ATPase alone [via barium chloride (BaCl2 ...


Biventricular Finite Element Modeling And Quantification Of 3d Langragian Strains And Torsion Using Dense Mri, Zhanqiu Liu 2016 University of Kentucky

Biventricular Finite Element Modeling And Quantification Of 3d Langragian Strains And Torsion Using Dense Mri, Zhanqiu Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Statistical data suggests that increased use of evidence-based medical therapies has largely contributed to the decrease in American death rate caused by heart disease. And my studies are about two applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive approach in evidence-based health care research. In my first study, the achievement of a pulmonary valve replacement surgery was assessed on a patient with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In order to evaluate the remodeling of right ventricle, two biventricular finite element models were built up for pre-surgical images and post-surgical images. In my second study, 3D Lagrangian strains and torsion in ...


Pulmonary Embolism In A Collegiate Soccer Player, Jessica Paske, Valerie Moody 2016 University of Montana

Pulmonary Embolism In A Collegiate Soccer Player, Jessica Paske, Valerie Moody

Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers

Background: Pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that occurs in the lungs, which decreases the oxygen levels in the body. Large or multiple pulmonary emboli can be fatal. This case involves a 20 year old female soccer player (goalkeeper) who was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism during the middle of the regular season. Upon initial assessment, the athlete presented with soreness and redness over her left distal adductors after getting cleated during practice a few days earlier. The initial assessment was adductor tendinitis and treated conservatively. Subsequently, the area became hot, red, and painful and the athlete was removed from ...


Factors Affecting Injury History And Their Overall Impact On Athletic Performance In Distance Runners, Trevor Norris 2016 University of Akron

Factors Affecting Injury History And Their Overall Impact On Athletic Performance In Distance Runners, Trevor Norris

Honors Research Projects

Distance running is a very precise mechanism of many intricate movements and abilities of the body. The amount of miles that a distance runner must run puts a lot of very intense stresses on one’s body. These stresses often appear at the bone level and lead to many injuries such as stress reactions and stress fractures but also may play important roles in tissue damages such as strains and pulls. In this study, we used division one college distance runners and examined many intricacies between their level of fitness and overall composition. These include looking at imbalances, dominant traits ...


An Algorithm For Extracting The Ppg Baseline Drift In Real-Time, Tuan Ngoc Nguyen 2016 Edith Cowan University

An Algorithm For Extracting The Ppg Baseline Drift In Real-Time, Tuan Ngoc Nguyen

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Photoplethysmography is an optical technique for measuring the perfusion of blood in skin and tissue arterial vessels. Due to its simplicity, accessibility and abundance of information on an individual’s cardiovascular system, it has been a pervasive topic of research within recent years. With these benefits however there are many challenges concerning the processing and conditioning of the signal in order to allow information to be extracted. One such challenge is removing the baseline drift of the signal, which is caused by respiratory rate, muscle tremor and physiological changes within the body as a response to various stimuli.

Over the ...


Acute Effects Of Whole-Body Vibration On Lower Extremity Muscle Performance In Persons With Multiple Sclerosis, Kurt Jackson, Harold Merriman, Paul Vanderburgh, C. Brahler 2015 University of Dayton

Acute Effects Of Whole-Body Vibration On Lower Extremity Muscle Performance In Persons With Multiple Sclerosis, Kurt Jackson, Harold Merriman, Paul Vanderburgh, C. Brahler

C. Jayne Brahler

Background and Purpose: Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively new form of exercise training that may influence muscle performance. This study investigated the acute effects of high (26 Hz) and low (2 Hz) frequency WBV on isometric muscle torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Participants and Method: Fifteen individuals (mean age = 54.6 years, SD = 9.6) with MS and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores ranging from 0-6.5 (mean = 4.2, SD = 2.3) participated in this randomized cross-over study. Following baseline measures of isometric quadricep and hamstring torque, subjects were exposed ...


The Mind-Body Connection: The Association Between Adolescent Locus Of Control And Indicators Of Physical Health, C. Brahler, James Cropper 2015 University of Dayton

The Mind-Body Connection: The Association Between Adolescent Locus Of Control And Indicators Of Physical Health, C. Brahler, James Cropper

C. Jayne Brahler

Locus of control (LOC) describes an individual’s generalized beliefs or expectancies that their reinforcements are under internal versus external control (1). An individual exhibits either an internal or external LOC. This study examines the link between LOC and selected health risk factors in adolescents. A convenience sample of 167 high school physical education students completed a 13-item LOC questionnaire based on Rotter’s 1966 instrument. Various anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and body fat were recorded on all subjects. A subsample of 61 female students received blood chemistry analysis that included a lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c ...


Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore 2015 University of Dayton

Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore

C. Jayne Brahler

Over-fatness and poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness are well-documented risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults, but less is known about their association with disease risk in adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationship between anthropometrics, fitness, and CVD risk.

Six anthropometric indicators of body fatness, seven measures of fitness, and seven metabolic and hemodynamic CVD risk factors were measured in a convenience sample of 28 female high school students (15-18 years of age). A tally was made of the number of factors for which each subject was outside the normal reference range (CVD risk).

Correlation analyses were completed ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress