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Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells 2022 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells

Student Academic Conference

Studies have configured immunological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in mice, leading to advanced understandings. However, the comparisons of the immune responses between juvenile (younger than 6 weeks) male and female C57BL/6J mice after A. fumigatus exposure, remains uninvestigated. In this study, we intranasally inoculated 3 week old male and female mice with Aspergillus fumigatus spores dilution of 2 106spores per 40 l. They were exposed to the allergen once a week for 8 consecutive weeks and euthanized on day 28 post the last inoculation. As compared to our last report, we increased the sample size for each group in ...


Connexin 43 Contributes To Phenotypic Variability Of The Mouse Skull, Elizabeth Jewlal 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Connexin 43 Contributes To Phenotypic Variability Of The Mouse Skull, Elizabeth Jewlal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to determine whether connexin 43 (Cx43) contributes to craniofacial phenotypic variability. Skull shape and variation were compared within and among two heterozygous mutant mouse models (G60S/+ and I130T/+) that exhibit different levels of Cx43 channel function when compared to their wildtype counterparts (~80% and ~50% reduction in function, respectively). Results indicated mutants have significant differences in skull shape compared to wildtype littermates. Similar patterns of shape difference were found in both mutants. Increased skull shape variation and a disruption in the covariation of skull structures were observed in G60S/+ mutants only. These results show ...


A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan 2021 University of Louisville

A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan

The Cardinal Edge

The development of tetrapod upper limbs shares an evolutionary origin and has been adapted and specialized for different functions for different species, such as flight in birds, swimming and balance in sea mammals, and coordination and grabbing objects in humans. The basis of tetrapod limb development has common developmental patterns, starting with the formation of the limb bud via Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, where later developmental steps are modified for specialized functions. This review covers the basic developmental patterns of mammalian tetrapod development seen in humans, beginning with the formation of the limb bud, to the axis development of the ...


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

University Scholar Projects

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the ...


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the ...


Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates 2021 Winona State University

Identification Of Parasites From Wisconsin And Minnesota Diving Ducks In The Winona Area, Morgan Condon, Kimberly Bates

Ramaley Research Celebration

Many different diving ducks in the Midwest are hosts to parasites like cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. These parasites often live in the ducks gastrointestinal tract and use the ducks chyme and intestinal tissues to thrive. For this research, local hunters volunteered to donate diving duck carcasses they harvested. Ducks donated were cut open on the ventral side from esophagus to cloaca. Major organs were separated into bottles containing 0.85% saline, shaken, settled, and then the supernatant removed multiple times to isolate any parasites residing within the duck’s organs and tissues. Any parasites found in dissected diving ducks organ ...


Diagnostic Accuracy Of Mcmurry’S Test In The Diagnosis Of Meniscal Tears, Jessica Smyth, Hartwell Rainey 2020 James Madison University

Diagnostic Accuracy Of Mcmurry’S Test In The Diagnosis Of Meniscal Tears, Jessica Smyth, Hartwell Rainey

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2020-current

No abstract provided.


Visualization Of Brown Fat Using X-Ray Dark Field Imaging, Troy D. Jacobs 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Visualization Of Brown Fat Using X-Ray Dark Field Imaging, Troy D. Jacobs

LSU Master's Theses

Introduction: Obesity has become a major societal issue. Many researchers are looking for ways to combat this growing epidemic. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) might be a way to help individuals overcome the challenges associated with weight loss and maintenance of weight loss, but a better understanding of BAT and how to control and utilize it is needed. BAT differs from white adipose tissue (WAT) in that BAT is rich with mitochondria and therefore is metabolically active. BAT is a source of non-shivering thermogenesis and can be activated both by cold exposure and pharmacologically. Current methods of assessing BAT activity are ...


Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. DeWeese 2020 University of California Berkeley

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Utilizing Best Practices Of 3d-Modeling And Printing In Veterinary Medicine To Analyze Elbow Incongruity Of A Maltese Canine, Johnny Altwal 2020 Chapman University

Utilizing Best Practices Of 3d-Modeling And Printing In Veterinary Medicine To Analyze Elbow Incongruity Of A Maltese Canine, Johnny Altwal

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Research on the application of 3D-printed models in human medicine is extensive, but it is relatively new for veterinary medicine. With the increased numbers of certified veterinary radiologists and animal imaging facilities, best practices in 3D model design and printing can be explored. This project was two-fold. First, an encompassing literature review was generated, outlining the development and uses of computer-generated 3D models in connection to their applications in veterinary medicine. Accurate renderings of an animal’s anatomy can be used to train new students, educate clients on their pets’ needs, and guide veterinarian surgical approaches. Several different cases were ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Distal Urogenital Anatomy Of Male Prairie Racerunners, Aspidoscelis Sexlineatus Viridis (Reptilia: Sauria: Teiidae), Stanley E. Trauth 2020 Arkansas State University

Distal Urogenital Anatomy Of Male Prairie Racerunners, Aspidoscelis Sexlineatus Viridis (Reptilia: Sauria: Teiidae), Stanley E. Trauth

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

I examined histologically the distal urogenital anatomy in male Prairie Racerunners (Aspidoscelis sexlineatus viridis) from a small seasonal sample of individuals collected in Arkansas in order to provide additional information regarding squamate urogenital anatomy. Specifically, I focused on the basic anatomy and positioning of posterior ducts and associated structures in this teiid lizard. The anatomical structures included the ductus deferens, ampulla ductus deferens, ampulla urogenital papilla (Aup), ureter, inner core tissue mass, urodaeum, and the urogenital papilla. The two Aup, which are small complimentary blind pouches representing the terminal repositories for products released by urogenital ducts, are striking anatomical features ...


Bioenergetic Functions In Subpopulations Of Heart Mitochondria Are Preserved In A Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetes Rat Model (Goto-Kakizaki), Nicola Lai, C. M. Kummitha, F. Loy, R. Isola, C. L. Hoppel 2020 Old Dominion University

Bioenergetic Functions In Subpopulations Of Heart Mitochondria Are Preserved In A Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetes Rat Model (Goto-Kakizaki), Nicola Lai, C. M. Kummitha, F. Loy, R. Isola, C. L. Hoppel

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

A distinct bioenergetic impairment of heart mitochondrial subpopulations in diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with obesity; however, many type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with high-risk for cardiovascular disease are not obese. In the absence of obesity, it is unclear whether bioenergetic function in the subpopulations of mitochondria is affected in heart with T2DM. To address this issue, a rat model of non-obese T2DM was used to study heart mitochondrial energy metabolism, measuring bioenergetics and enzyme activities of the electron transport chain (ETC). Oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of substrates for ETC and ETC activities in both populations of heart mitochondria in ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal 2020 The University of Akron

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


Bone Mineral Density Of The Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops Truncatus: A Proposed Model For Monitoring Osteological And Ecosystem Health, James Wright Burrus Powell 2019 Portland State University

Bone Mineral Density Of The Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops Truncatus: A Proposed Model For Monitoring Osteological And Ecosystem Health, James Wright Burrus Powell

Dissertations and Theses

Bone mineral density (BMD) in the pectoral flipper of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, was examined to address the need to define a comprehensive target site for clinical osteodensitometric assessment and to establish ranges of observed bone density values for this species. Radii were analyzed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the accepted standard in human medical studies. Multiple loci within the radius were identified and assessed for their correlation to BMD of the entire bone. Radii BMD were also examined for differences based on sex, age, total body length, handedness, geographical affinity, and nutritional status at time of ...


Gingival Taste Bud Papillae Associated With Retromolar Salivary Gland, Quan Nguyen, Marco Tizzano, Bekir Karabucak, Grace Beck Coburn 2019 Monell Chemical Senses Center

Gingival Taste Bud Papillae Associated With Retromolar Salivary Gland, Quan Nguyen, Marco Tizzano, Bekir Karabucak, Grace Beck Coburn

Dental Theses

Taste in the gustatory system allows to distinguish between safe and harmful food, and to gauge its nutritional value. Digestive enzymes in saliva begin to dissolve food into base chemicals that are detected by taste buds containing three different cell types involved in the perception of the five basic tastes. Von Ebner's glands, found adjacent to the moats surrounding the circumvallate (CV) and foliate papillae, are exocrine salivary glands that secrete digestive enzymes and presumably flush material out of the papillae. Recently, we rediscovered and characterized anatomically and molecularly a chemosensory structure in the mouse oral cavity consisting of ...


Goats Distinguish Between Positive And Negative Emotion-Linked Vocalisations, Luigi Baciadonna, Elodie Briefer, Livio Favaro, A. G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Distinguish Between Positive And Negative Emotion-Linked Vocalisations, Luigi Baciadonna, Elodie Briefer, Livio Favaro, A. G. Mcelligott

Bioacoustics Collection

Background: Evidence from humans suggests that the expression of emotions can regulate social interactions and promote coordination within a group. Despite its evolutionary importance, social communication of emotions in non-human animals is still not well understood. Here, we combine behavioural and physiological measures, to determine if animals can distinguish between vocalisations linked to different emotional valences (positive and negative). Using a playback paradigm, goats were habituated to listen to a conspecific call associated with positive or negative valence (habituation phase) and were subsequently exposed to a variant of the same call type (contact call) associated with the opposite valence (dishabituation ...


Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann 2019 ETH Zürich

Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann

Elodie Briefer, PhD

Background: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result ...


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