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The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: Tracheal occlusion (TO) reverses pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung development remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to a) confirm the CDH rabbit model produced PH which was reversed by TO and b) determine the effects of CDH +/- TO on EMT pathways.

Methods: CDH was created at 23 days, TO at 28 days and lung collection at 31 days gestation in fetal rabbits. Lung body weight ratio (LBWR), mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD), and expression of mRNA and micro-RNA was determined.

Results: Fifteen CDH, 15 ...


Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes 2018 University of Maine

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul McGreevy, Michael Valenzuela 2018 University of Sydney

Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul Mcgreevy, Michael Valenzuela

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N = 13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r = 0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of ...


Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. McGreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell 2018 University of Sydney

Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds’ height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ ...


Water Transport In The Lateral Line Canal Of The Intertidal Fish Xiphister Mucosus (Girard 1858) And Its Significance To Evaporative Water With Preliminary Observations Of The Metabolic Consequences Of Water Loss, Whitney Anne Gayer 2018 Portland State University

Water Transport In The Lateral Line Canal Of The Intertidal Fish Xiphister Mucosus (Girard 1858) And Its Significance To Evaporative Water With Preliminary Observations Of The Metabolic Consequences Of Water Loss, Whitney Anne Gayer

Dissertations and Theses

The lateral line canal system is a sensory organ found in all teleost fish that has a wide range of morphological variation. Variation in morphology may often be the result of evolutionary necessity where the need for function dictates form. Xiphister mucosus is an amphibious Stichaeid fish that inhabits the rocky intertidal zone of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The rocky intertidal is considered an extreme environment where crashing waves and ebbing tides may require the specialization of adaptations for surviving the many abiotic stressors encountered there.

The lateral line trunk canal of Xiphister is regarded as unique among teleosts with ...


Sptransformer Proteins From The Purple Sea Urchin Opsonize Bacteria, Augment Phagocytosis, And Retard Bacterial Growth, H. Y. Chou, C. Lun, L. C. Smith 2018 George Washington University

Sptransformer Proteins From The Purple Sea Urchin Opsonize Bacteria, Augment Phagocytosis, And Retard Bacterial Growth, H. Y. Chou, C. Lun, L. C. Smith

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has a complex and robust immune system that is mediated by a number of multi-gene families including the SpTransformer (SpTrf) gene family (formerly Sp185/333). In response to immune challenge from bacteria and various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the SpTrf genes are up-regulated in sea urchin phagocytes and express a diverse array of SpTrf proteins. We show here that SpTrf proteins from coelomocytes and isolated by nickel affinity (cNi-SpTrf) bind to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with saturable kinetics and specificity. cNi-SpTrf opsonization of the marine bacteria, Vibrio diazotrophicus ...


Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. McElligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani 2017 University of Turin

Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. Mcelligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Penguins produce contact calls to maintain social relationships and group cohesion. Such vocalisations have recently been demonstrated to encode individual identity information in the African penguin. Using a source-filter theory approach, we investigated whether acoustic cues of individuality can also be found in other Spheniscus penguins and the acoustic features of contact calls have diverged within this genus. We recorded vocalisations from two ex-situ colonies of Humboldt penguin and Magellanic penguin (sympatric and potentially interbreeding in the wild) and one ex-situ group of African penguins (allopatric although capable of interbreeding with the other two species in captivity). We measured 14 ...


Acoustic Divergence In The Rut Vocalizations Of Persian And European Fallow Deer, J. B. Stachowicz, E. Vannoni, B. J. Pitcher, E. F. Briefer, E. Geffen, A. G. McElligott 2017 University of Zürich

Acoustic Divergence In The Rut Vocalizations Of Persian And European Fallow Deer, J. B. Stachowicz, E. Vannoni, B. J. Pitcher, E. F. Briefer, E. Geffen, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

We conducted a study of the male rut vocalizations (groans) of two closely related species, Persian and European fallow deer. Persian fallow deer are endangered, restricted to Iran and Israel, and their rut vocalizations have never been studied. By contrast, European fallow deer are one of the most common deer species in the world, and have been the subject of numerous detailed studies. Persian bucks are approximately 16% larger than European bucks, and this can have important implications for vocalizations. Persian bucks were recorded in Israel, and European bucks were recorded in the UK and Ireland. We measured temporal, fundamental ...


Fallow Bucks Get Hoarse: Vocal Fatigue As A Possible Signal To Conspecifics, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. McElligott 2017 University of Zurich

Fallow Bucks Get Hoarse: Vocal Fatigue As A Possible Signal To Conspecifics, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Many studies of sexually selected vocal communication assume that calls remain stable throughout the breeding season. However, during this period, physiological and social factors change and these can have strong effects on the structure of calls and calling rates. During the rut, fallow bucks, Dama dama, reduce their feeding and increase the time and energy spent on vocalizing and fighting to gain matings, and consequently their body condition declines greatly. The availability of matings and intensity of competition between males also change. Therefore, we predicted that male vocal signalling would vary over time in response to the changing intersexual and ...


Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth

Robert Speth

The Frozen Brain Atlas provides students, educators, and scientists with a tool to further explore the architecture of the brain. Current brain atlases allow users to navigate sectioned brain tissue using histological staining; however, they fail to capture naturally visible structures post sectioning. Through immediate post sectioning image collection, the natural contrast of the brain reveals unique structural details that are rarely seen by traditional staining procedures. By utilizing indexing and interactive labeling, the Nova Southeastern University Frozen Brain Atlas will allow identification of brain regions when used as a correlative tool for modalities including receptor autoradiography, immunofluorescence, and other ...


Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, Yasser Ahmed, Mohamed Abdelsabourv Khalaf, Fatma Khalil 2017 South Valley University

Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, Yasser Ahmed, Mohamed Abdelsabourv Khalaf, Fatma Khalil

Histology

Background and Objective: Mammalian compact bone is composed mostly of Haversian system. Although there are many studies describing the typical Haversian system in mammals, there are few studies conducted on bones from non-mammalian species. The objective of the current study was to investigate the existence of the typical Haversian system in compact bones from reptiles and birds.

Materials and Methods: Femora were collected from geckos, Nile monitors, sparrows, ducks and geese. Samples were then, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Von Kossa and then examined using light microscopy.

Results ...


Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez 2017 CUNY City College

Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez

Master's Theses

Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...


Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Neeta Parajulee Karki 2017 Eastern Illinois University

Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Neeta Parajulee Karki

Masters Theses

Fish natural habitats are increasingly contaminated with various estrogenic compounds, including 17β estradiol (E2). This compound causes adverse effects on the reproductive system of male fish; however, the effects of E2 on other aspects of fish metabolism, morphology and histopathological changes in internal organs are not well known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of E2 exposure on the basal and stressed metabolic rate, morphological changes in body shapes, and histological changes in the liver tissues of sunfish species. Fish were held individually in ten gallon tanks under two treatments of 40 and 80 ng/L ...


Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2016 University of Toledo

Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Although primary cilia have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of embryonic mouse heart, their presence and function in adult mouse heart remains controversial. In this study, the presence of primary cilia in adult mouse heart was investigated. The presence of primary cilia was initially demonstrated in the surface of cardiac cells of mouse hearts from both young and adult mice by immunostaining with acetylated α-tubulin, a ciliary structural marker. The presence of cardiac primary cilia in 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month old mice was further confirmed by staining heart tissues with an antibody against pericentrin, a ...


Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth

Frozen Brain Atlas

The Frozen Brain Atlas provides students, educators, and scientists with a tool to further explore the architecture of the brain. Current brain atlases allow users to navigate sectioned brain tissue using histological staining; however, they fail to capture naturally visible structures post sectioning. Through immediate post sectioning image collection, the natural contrast of the brain reveals unique structural details that are rarely seen by traditional staining procedures. By utilizing indexing and interactive labeling, the Nova Southeastern University Frozen Brain Atlas will allow identification of brain regions when used as a correlative tool for modalities including receptor autoradiography, immunofluorescence, and other ...


Morphological And Biochemical Adaptive Changes Associated With A Short-Period Starvation Of Adult Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica), Yasser Ahmed, Soha A. Soliman, Mohammed Abdelsabour-Khalaf 2016 South Valley University

Morphological And Biochemical Adaptive Changes Associated With A Short-Period Starvation Of Adult Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica), Yasser Ahmed, Soha A. Soliman, Mohammed Abdelsabour-Khalaf

Histology

Objective: The morphological and biochemical impact of a short-period of starvation on Japanese quail was investigated.

Materials and Methods: Ten adult male Japanese quail were divided into two groups; control fed and starved. The control-fed group was offered food and water ad libitum and the starved group was subjected to a short-period of food deprivation. After 2.5 days, the serum was obtained and different parameters including the total protein, AST, ALT, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, creatinine and urea were assessed. Gastrointestinal tract, stomach and liver were excised and their masses were estimated. Paraffin and resin embedded sections from the proventriculus ...


Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, Lee J. Martin, Dawn M. Spicer, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Linda C. Cork 2016 Johns Hopkins University

Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, Lee J. Martin, Dawn M. Spicer, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Linda C. Cork

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) reared during the first year of life without social contact develop persistent stereotyped movements, self-directed behaviors, and psychosocial abnormalities, but neurobiological mechanisms underlying the behaviors of socially deprived (SD) monkeys are unknown. Monkeys were reared in total social deprivation for the first 9 months of life; control monkeys were reared socially (SR) with mothers and peers. Subjects were killed at 19-24 yr of age. Because the behaviors of SD monkeys are reminiscent of changes in striatal or amygdalar function, we used immunocytochemistry for substance P (SP), leutine-enkephalin (LENK), somatostatin, calbindin, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to evaluate ...


Acoustic Divergence In The Rut Vocalizations Of Persian And European Fallow Deer, J. B. Stachowicz, E. Vannoni, B. J. Pitcher, E. F. Briefer, E. Geffen, A. G. McElligott 2016 University of Zürich

Acoustic Divergence In The Rut Vocalizations Of Persian And European Fallow Deer, J. B. Stachowicz, E. Vannoni, B. J. Pitcher, E. F. Briefer, E. Geffen, A. G. Mcelligott

Elodie Mandel-Briefer, Ph.D.

We conducted a study of the male rut vocalizations (groans) of two closely related species, Persian and European fallow deer. Persian fallow deer are endangered, restricted to Iran and Israel, and their rut vocalizations have never been studied. By contrast, European fallow deer are one of the most common deer species in the world, and have been the subject of numerous detailed studies. Persian bucks are approximately 16% larger than European bucks, and this can have important implications for vocalizations. Persian bucks were recorded in Israel, and European bucks were recorded in the UK and Ireland. We measured temporal, fundamental ...


Food For Thought … Mechanistic Validation, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Martin Stephens 2016 Johns Hopkins University

Food For Thought … Mechanistic Validation, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st ...


Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. McElligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani 2016 University of Turin

Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. Mcelligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani

Bioacoustics

Penguins produce contact calls to maintain social relationships and group cohesion. Such vocalisations have recently been demonstrated to encode individual identity information in the African penguin. Using a source-filter theory approach, we investigated whether acoustic cues of individuality can also be found in other Spheniscus penguins and the acoustic features of contact calls have diverged within this genus. We recorded vocalisations from two ex-situ colonies of Humboldt penguin and Magellanic penguin (sympatric and potentially interbreeding in the wild) and one ex-situ group of African penguins (allopatric although capable of interbreeding with the other two species in captivity). We measured 14 ...


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