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Visualization Of Brown Fat Using X-Ray Dark Field Imaging, Troy D. Jacobs 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Visualization Of Brown Fat Using X-Ray Dark Field Imaging, Troy D. Jacobs

LSU Master's Theses

Introduction: Obesity has become a major societal issue. Many researchers are looking for ways to combat this growing epidemic. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) might be a way to help individuals overcome the challenges associated with weight loss and maintenance of weight loss, but a better understanding of BAT and how to control and utilize it is needed. BAT differs from white adipose tissue (WAT) in that BAT is rich with mitochondria and therefore is metabolically active. BAT is a source of non-shivering thermogenesis and can be activated both by cold exposure and pharmacologically. Current methods of assessing BAT activity are ...


Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. DeWeese 2020 University of California Berkeley

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Utilizing Best Practices Of 3d-Modeling And Printing In Veterinary Medicine To Analyze Elbow Incongruity Of A Maltese Canine, Johnny Altwal 2020 Chapman University

Utilizing Best Practices Of 3d-Modeling And Printing In Veterinary Medicine To Analyze Elbow Incongruity Of A Maltese Canine, Johnny Altwal

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Research on the application of 3D-printed models in human medicine is extensive, but it is relatively new for veterinary medicine. With the increased numbers of certified veterinary radiologists and animal imaging facilities, best practices in 3D model design and printing can be explored. This project was two-fold. First, an encompassing literature review was generated, outlining the development and uses of computer-generated 3D models in connection to their applications in veterinary medicine. Accurate renderings of an animal’s anatomy can be used to train new students, educate clients on their pets’ needs, and guide veterinarian surgical approaches. Several different cases were ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal 2020 The University of Akron

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Comparative Anatomy Case Study: Differences In Extrinsic Eye Muscles And Dissection Protocols, Erin Ruden 2020 Iowa State University

Comparative Anatomy Case Study: Differences In Extrinsic Eye Muscles And Dissection Protocols, Erin Ruden

Creative Components

There have been notable studies comparing the eye placement between predators and prey, which can be further categorized as omnivore, carnivore, and herbivore. The purpose of this study was to determine if eye placement correlated with extrinsic eye muscle differences among the classification of animals (predator vs. prey and omnivore vs. carnivore vs. herbivore). For an omnivore, a human orbit was dissected. A cat was dissected to represent a carnivore and a goat was dissected to represent an herbivore. Dissection protocol for the cat and goat were created due to the lack of dissections of these muscles. Unfortunately, data collection ...


Goats Distinguish Between Positive And Negative Emotion-Linked Vocalisations, Luigi Baciadonna, Elodie Briefer, Livio Favaro, A. G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Distinguish Between Positive And Negative Emotion-Linked Vocalisations, Luigi Baciadonna, Elodie Briefer, Livio Favaro, A. G. Mcelligott

Bioacoustics Collection

Background: Evidence from humans suggests that the expression of emotions can regulate social interactions and promote coordination within a group. Despite its evolutionary importance, social communication of emotions in non-human animals is still not well understood. Here, we combine behavioural and physiological measures, to determine if animals can distinguish between vocalisations linked to different emotional valences (positive and negative). Using a playback paradigm, goats were habituated to listen to a conspecific call associated with positive or negative valence (habituation phase) and were subsequently exposed to a variant of the same call type (contact call) associated with the opposite valence (dishabituation ...


Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann 2019 ETH Zürich

Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann

Elodie Briefer, PhD

Background: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result ...


Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer 2019 University of Bern

Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, PhD

Measuring emotions in nonhuman mammals is challenging. As animals are not able to verbally report how they feel, we need to find reliable indicators to assess their emotional state. Emotions can be described using two key dimensions: valence (negative or positive) and arousal (bodily activation or excitation). In this study, we investigated vocal expression of emotional valence in wild boars (Sus scrofa). The animals were observed in three naturally occurring situations: anticipation of a food reward (positive), affiliative interactions (positive), and agonistic interactions (negative). Body movement was used as an indicator of emotional arousal to control for the effect of ...


Decomposition Of Pig Carcasses At Varying Room Temperature, Jacqueline Abad Santos 2019 San Jose State University

Decomposition Of Pig Carcasses At Varying Room Temperature, Jacqueline Abad Santos

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The goal of this study is to assess the qualitative scoring of decomposition scales with statistical analysis while also determining which indoor environment will decompose the fastest. When comparing the three indoor environments, water decomposition appears to be the fastest, but the method of analysis for this study determines that using decomposition scales to analyze such environments may produce statistically insignificant results. For this study, piglets were put in a dry steel tub, a water filled steel tub, and a suitcase. These were recorded using photographs for 25 days and then scored using decomposition scales. The total score was divided ...


Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl 2019 University of Louisville

Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cleft palate is a common birth defect. Etiologic mechanisms of palate cleft include defects in palate morphogenesis, mandibular growth, or spontaneous fetal mouth movement. Cleft palate linked to deficient fetal mouth movement has been demonstrated directly only in a single experimental model of loss of neurotransmission. Here, using retinoid deficient mouse embryos, we demonstrate directly for the first time that deficient fetal mouth movement and cleft palate occurs as a result of mis-patterned development of pharyngeal peripheral nerves and cartilages. Retinoid deficient embryos were generated by inactivation of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which is critical for production of Retinoic Acid ...


Mobilization Of Calcium Across Mineralized Tissues In Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens, Taylor Bopp 2019 University of Lynchburg

Mobilization Of Calcium Across Mineralized Tissues In Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens, Taylor Bopp

Student Scholar Showcase

Bones in many higher teleost fish, such as percids and centrarchids, lack osteocytes that function as both chemo- and mechano-sensors, and thus, are not actively involved in homeostasis of blood calcium level. Nonetheless, the vertebrae of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (P. flavescens), living in darker and low calcium (Ca) water, have demonstrated adaptive modeling and remodeling of vertebrae to be more mineralized and thus enhance transmission of the axial muscle torque into the thrust force for the C-start predator escape behavior. The prey-predator interaction is expected to occur at closer range between prey fish and predator fish in darker water ...


Using Ct Scans To Describe An Allosaurus Skull (Dinosauria: Theropoda), Jordan C. Oldham 2019 Cedarville University

Using Ct Scans To Describe An Allosaurus Skull (Dinosauria: Theropoda), Jordan C. Oldham

The Research and Scholarship Symposium (2013-2019)

In 2001, an Allosaurus skull (CMP 279) was discovered in the Skull Creek Basin in Moffat County, Colorado. The skull is one of the most complete for the species and even contains the hyoid bones, which are usually not present. The skull is now permanently mounted, for display purposes, thus making the study of the individual bones difficult for producing a paleo-anatomical description. Computed Tomography (CT) scans of CMP 279 were created in 2017 and then made available for this study in 2019. CT scans are being used to investigate internal anatomy of skulls such as the endocranial cavity, sinuses ...


Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm 2019 Pepperdine University

Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The study of anatomy contends that “form follows function”; a disciplinary theme purporting that anatomical structures (i.e., cells, tissues, and organs) have a shape that serves its proper function. With this in mind, it is unclear why human arterial distribution off the aortic arch is asymmetrical, while the corresponding venous anatomy is symmetrical. We investigated the evolutionary, developmental, and physiological bases for the asymmetry of aortic arch branches in humans. First, we investigated the cardiovascular anatomy of ancestral species to determine if, and at what level, anatomical divergence (from aortic symmetry to asymmetry) occurs. Second, we examined the formation ...


The Morphology And Evolution Of The Primate Brachial Plexus, Brian M. Shearer 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Morphology And Evolution Of The Primate Brachial Plexus, Brian M. Shearer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Primate evolutionary history is inexorably linked to the evolution of a broad array of locomotor adaptations that have facilitated the clade’s invasion of new niches. Researchers studying the evolution of primates and of their individual locomotor adaptations have traditionally relied on bony morphology – a practical choice given the virtual non-existence of any other type of tissue in the fossil record. However, this focus downplays the potential importance of the many other structures involved in locomotion, such as muscle, cartilage, and neural tissue, which may each be influenced by separate selective forces because of their different roles in facilitating movement ...


Growth Of Auditory Reflexes With Stimulus Level, Hannah Dunn, Lexi Kolterman, Shawn Goodman 2019 The University of Iowa

Growth Of Auditory Reflexes With Stimulus Level, Hannah Dunn, Lexi Kolterman, Shawn Goodman

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

In the human auditory system, the brainstem can modify how sound is processed in the inner ear (cochlea). The medial olivocochlear efferent reflex (MOCR) is one such inhibitory neural response originating in the brainstem. When activated, this reflex reduces amplification in the cochlea, which is believed to improve hearing in background noise. Previous research has shown that the reflex reduces amplification in the inner ear by different amounts for soft vs. loud acoustic stimuli. We hypothesized that these varying levels of reduction are equivalent to a constant reduction of stimulus input level. To measure these level changes, we used otoacoustic ...


A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef 2019 University of New Hampshire

A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef

Honors Theses and Capstones

Cephalopods can participate in complex navigation using landmarks that show context due to their statocysts. Statocysts are analogous to the vertebrate vestibular and auditory system encased in cartilage rather than bone making them more easily accessible. Age and anatomical dysfunctions are the reasons for many human vestibular malfunctions. Two of these sources are endolymph hydrops and aging. In the past, endolymph pressure changes were attributed to the ineffectual ion transport. Recent studies have illuminated the possibility of histamine receptors in the semicircular canal could be responsible for patients’ endolymph pressure changes rather than the previous belief that the pressure changes ...


The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: Tracheal occlusion (TO) reverses pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung development remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to a) confirm the CDH rabbit model produced PH which was reversed by TO and b) determine the effects of CDH +/- TO on EMT pathways.

Methods: CDH was created at 23 days, TO at 28 days and lung collection at 31 days gestation in fetal rabbits. Lung body weight ratio (LBWR), mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD), and expression of mRNA and micro-RNA was determined.

Results: Fifteen CDH, 15 ...


Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes 2018 University of Maine

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


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