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Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer 2019 University of Bern

Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Measuring emotions in nonhuman mammals is challenging. As animals are not able to verbally report how they feel, we need to find reliable indicators to assess their emotional state. Emotions can be described using two key dimensions: valence (negative or positive) and arousal (bodily activation or excitation). In this study, we investigated vocal expression of emotional valence in wild boars (Sus scrofa). The animals were observed in three naturally occurring situations: anticipation of a food reward (positive), affiliative interactions (positive), and agonistic interactions (negative). Body movement was used as an indicator of emotional arousal to control for the effect of ...


Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann 2019 ETH Zürich

Perception Of Emotional Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie Briefer, Roi Mandel, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann

Elodie Briefer, Ph.D.

Background: Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result ...


Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl 2019 University of Louisville

Defects In Fetal Mouth Movement And Pharyngeal Patterning Underlie Cleft Palate Caused By Retinoid Deficiency., Regina Friedl

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cleft palate is a common birth defect. Etiologic mechanisms of palate cleft include defects in palate morphogenesis, mandibular growth, or spontaneous fetal mouth movement. Cleft palate linked to deficient fetal mouth movement has been demonstrated directly only in a single experimental model of loss of neurotransmission. Here, using retinoid deficient mouse embryos, we demonstrate directly for the first time that deficient fetal mouth movement and cleft palate occurs as a result of mis-patterned development of pharyngeal peripheral nerves and cartilages. Retinoid deficient embryos were generated by inactivation of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which is critical for production of Retinoic Acid ...


Mobilization Of Calcium Across Mineralized Tissues In Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens, Taylor Bopp 2019 University of Lynchburg

Mobilization Of Calcium Across Mineralized Tissues In Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens, Taylor Bopp

Student Scholar Showcase

Bones in many higher teleost fish, such as percids and centrarchids, lack osteocytes that function as both chemo- and mechano-sensors, and thus, are not actively involved in homeostasis of blood calcium level. Nonetheless, the vertebrae of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (P. flavescens), living in darker and low calcium (Ca) water, have demonstrated adaptive modeling and remodeling of vertebrae to be more mineralized and thus enhance transmission of the axial muscle torque into the thrust force for the C-start predator escape behavior. The prey-predator interaction is expected to occur at closer range between prey fish and predator fish in darker water ...


Using Ct Scans To Describe An Allosaurus Skull (Dinosauria: Theropoda), Jordan C. Oldham 2019 Cedarville University

Using Ct Scans To Describe An Allosaurus Skull (Dinosauria: Theropoda), Jordan C. Oldham

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

In 2001, an Allosaurus skull (CMP 279) was discovered in the Skull Creek Basin in Moffat County, Colorado. The skull is one of the most complete for the species and even contains the hyoid bones, which are usually not present. The skull is now permanently mounted, for display purposes, thus making the study of the individual bones difficult for producing a paleo-anatomical description. Computed Tomography (CT) scans of CMP 279 were created in 2017 and then made available for this study in 2019. CT scans are being used to investigate internal anatomy of skulls such as the endocranial cavity, sinuses ...


Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm 2019 Pepperdine University

Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The study of anatomy contends that “form follows function”; a disciplinary theme purporting that anatomical structures (i.e., cells, tissues, and organs) have a shape that serves its proper function. With this in mind, it is unclear why human arterial distribution off the aortic arch is asymmetrical, while the corresponding venous anatomy is symmetrical. We investigated the evolutionary, developmental, and physiological bases for the asymmetry of aortic arch branches in humans. First, we investigated the cardiovascular anatomy of ancestral species to determine if, and at what level, anatomical divergence (from aortic symmetry to asymmetry) occurs. Second, we examined the formation ...


A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef 2019 University of New Hampshire

A Developmental Study Of Apoptotic Markers And Histamine In Cephalopod Statocysts, Samantha Nicole Leef

Honors Theses and Capstones

Cephalopods can participate in complex navigation using landmarks that show context due to their statocysts. Statocysts are analogous to the vertebrate vestibular and auditory system encased in cartilage rather than bone making them more easily accessible. Age and anatomical dysfunctions are the reasons for many human vestibular malfunctions. Two of these sources are endolymph hydrops and aging. In the past, endolymph pressure changes were attributed to the ineffectual ion transport. Recent studies have illuminated the possibility of histamine receptors in the semicircular canal could be responsible for patients’ endolymph pressure changes rather than the previous belief that the pressure changes ...


The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: Tracheal occlusion (TO) reverses pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung development remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to a) confirm the CDH rabbit model produced PH which was reversed by TO and b) determine the effects of CDH +/- TO on EMT pathways.

Methods: CDH was created at 23 days, TO at 28 days and lung collection at 31 days gestation in fetal rabbits. Lung body weight ratio (LBWR), mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD), and expression of mRNA and micro-RNA was determined.

Results: Fifteen CDH, 15 ...


Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes 2018 University of Maine

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul McGreevy, Michael Valenzuela 2018 University of Sydney

Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul Mcgreevy, Michael Valenzuela

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N = 13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r = 0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of ...


Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. McGreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell 2018 University of Sydney

Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds’ height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ ...


Water Transport In The Lateral Line Canal Of The Intertidal Fish Xiphister Mucosus (Girard 1858) And Its Significance To Evaporative Water With Preliminary Observations Of The Metabolic Consequences Of Water Loss, Whitney Anne Gayer 2018 Portland State University

Water Transport In The Lateral Line Canal Of The Intertidal Fish Xiphister Mucosus (Girard 1858) And Its Significance To Evaporative Water With Preliminary Observations Of The Metabolic Consequences Of Water Loss, Whitney Anne Gayer

Dissertations and Theses

The lateral line canal system is a sensory organ found in all teleost fish that has a wide range of morphological variation. Variation in morphology may often be the result of evolutionary necessity where the need for function dictates form. Xiphister mucosus is an amphibious Stichaeid fish that inhabits the rocky intertidal zone of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The rocky intertidal is considered an extreme environment where crashing waves and ebbing tides may require the specialization of adaptations for surviving the many abiotic stressors encountered there.

The lateral line trunk canal of Xiphister is regarded as unique among teleosts with ...


Sptransformer Proteins From The Purple Sea Urchin Opsonize Bacteria, Augment Phagocytosis, And Retard Bacterial Growth, H. Y. Chou, C. Lun, L. C. Smith 2018 George Washington University

Sptransformer Proteins From The Purple Sea Urchin Opsonize Bacteria, Augment Phagocytosis, And Retard Bacterial Growth, H. Y. Chou, C. Lun, L. C. Smith

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has a complex and robust immune system that is mediated by a number of multi-gene families including the SpTransformer (SpTrf) gene family (formerly Sp185/333). In response to immune challenge from bacteria and various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the SpTrf genes are up-regulated in sea urchin phagocytes and express a diverse array of SpTrf proteins. We show here that SpTrf proteins from coelomocytes and isolated by nickel affinity (cNi-SpTrf) bind to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with saturable kinetics and specificity. cNi-SpTrf opsonization of the marine bacteria, Vibrio diazotrophicus ...


Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer 2018 University of Bern

Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer

Bioacoustics

Measuring emotions in nonhuman mammals is challenging. As animals are not able to verbally report how they feel, we need to find reliable indicators to assess their emotional state. Emotions can be described using two key dimensions: valence (negative or positive) and arousal (bodily activation or excitation). In this study, we investigated vocal expression of emotional valence in wild boars (Sus scrofa). The animals were observed in three naturally occurring situations: anticipation of a food reward (positive), affiliative interactions (positive), and agonistic interactions (negative). Body movement was used as an indicator of emotional arousal to control for the effect of ...


Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. McElligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani 2017 University of Turin

Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. Mcelligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Penguins produce contact calls to maintain social relationships and group cohesion. Such vocalisations have recently been demonstrated to encode individual identity information in the African penguin. Using a source-filter theory approach, we investigated whether acoustic cues of individuality can also be found in other Spheniscus penguins and the acoustic features of contact calls have diverged within this genus. We recorded vocalisations from two ex-situ colonies of Humboldt penguin and Magellanic penguin (sympatric and potentially interbreeding in the wild) and one ex-situ group of African penguins (allopatric although capable of interbreeding with the other two species in captivity). We measured 14 ...


Acoustic Divergence In The Rut Vocalizations Of Persian And European Fallow Deer, J. B. Stachowicz, E. Vannoni, B. J. Pitcher, Elodie F. Briefer, E. Geffen, A. G. McElligott 2017 University of Zürich

Acoustic Divergence In The Rut Vocalizations Of Persian And European Fallow Deer, J. B. Stachowicz, E. Vannoni, B. J. Pitcher, Elodie F. Briefer, E. Geffen, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

We conducted a study of the male rut vocalizations (groans) of two closely related species, Persian and European fallow deer. Persian fallow deer are endangered, restricted to Iran and Israel, and their rut vocalizations have never been studied. By contrast, European fallow deer are one of the most common deer species in the world, and have been the subject of numerous detailed studies. Persian bucks are approximately 16% larger than European bucks, and this can have important implications for vocalizations. Persian bucks were recorded in Israel, and European bucks were recorded in the UK and Ireland. We measured temporal, fundamental ...


Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Frozen Brain Atlas, Natalie Andrea Builes, Dominick Joseph Casciato, Samantha Taylor Bergoine, Robert Speth

Robert Speth

The Frozen Brain Atlas provides students, educators, and scientists with a tool to further explore the architecture of the brain. Current brain atlases allow users to navigate sectioned brain tissue using histological staining; however, they fail to capture naturally visible structures post sectioning. Through immediate post sectioning image collection, the natural contrast of the brain reveals unique structural details that are rarely seen by traditional staining procedures. By utilizing indexing and interactive labeling, the Nova Southeastern University Frozen Brain Atlas will allow identification of brain regions when used as a correlative tool for modalities including receptor autoradiography, immunofluorescence, and other ...


Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, Yasser Ahmed, Mohamed Abdelsabourv Khalaf, Fatma Khalil 2017 South Valley University

Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, Yasser Ahmed, Mohamed Abdelsabourv Khalaf, Fatma Khalil

Histology

Background and Objective: Mammalian compact bone is composed mostly of Haversian system. Although there are many studies describing the typical Haversian system in mammals, there are few studies conducted on bones from non-mammalian species. The objective of the current study was to investigate the existence of the typical Haversian system in compact bones from reptiles and birds.

Materials and Methods: Femora were collected from geckos, Nile monitors, sparrows, ducks and geese. Samples were then, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Von Kossa and then examined using light microscopy.

Results ...


Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez 2017 CUNY City College

Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez

Dissertations and Theses

Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...


Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Neeta Parajulee Karki 2017 Eastern Illinois University

Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Neeta Parajulee Karki

Masters Theses

Fish natural habitats are increasingly contaminated with various estrogenic compounds, including 17β estradiol (E2). This compound causes adverse effects on the reproductive system of male fish; however, the effects of E2 on other aspects of fish metabolism, morphology and histopathological changes in internal organs are not well known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of E2 exposure on the basal and stressed metabolic rate, morphological changes in body shapes, and histological changes in the liver tissues of sunfish species. Fish were held individually in ten gallon tanks under two treatments of 40 and 80 ng/L ...


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