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106 full-text articles. Page 4 of 4.

Incomplete Polyp Resection During Colonoscopy—Results Of The Complete Adenoma Resection (Care) Study, Heiko Pohl, Amitabh Srivastava, Steve P. Bensen, Peter Anderson, Richard I. Rothstein, Stuart R. Gordon, L Campbell Levy, Arifa Toor, Todd A. Mackenzie, Thomas Rosch, Douglas J. Robertson 2013 Dartmouth College

Incomplete Polyp Resection During Colonoscopy—Results Of The Complete Adenoma Resection (Care) Study, Heiko Pohl, Amitabh Srivastava, Steve P. Bensen, Peter Anderson, Richard I. Rothstein, Stuart R. Gordon, L Campbell Levy, Arifa Toor, Todd A. Mackenzie, Thomas Rosch, Douglas J. Robertson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the adenoma detection rate is used as a measure of colonoscopy quality, there are limited data on the quality of endoscopic resection of detected adenomas. We determined the rate of incompletely resected neoplastic polyps in clinical practice.We performed a prospective study on 1427 patients who underwent colonoscopy at 2 medical centers and had at least 1 nonpedunculated polyp (5-20 mm). After polyp removal was considered complete macroscopically, biopsies were obtained from the resection margin. The main outcome was the percentage of incompletely resected neoplastic polyps (incomplete resection rate [IRR]) determined by the presence of neoplastic tissue in post-polypectomy ...


Serotonin-Expressing Cells In The Corpus Of The Stomach Originate From Bone Marrow: A Master’S Thesis, Brian T. Johnston 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Serotonin-Expressing Cells In The Corpus Of The Stomach Originate From Bone Marrow: A Master’S Thesis, Brian T. Johnston

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Neurogenin 3 and its downstream target NeuroD are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors which promote endocrine differentiation in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mice lacking Ngn3 still produce several hormones in the stomach. Lineage tracing mouse models demonstrated that a majority of hormone cells in the corpus region of the stomach did not express Ngn3 or NeuroD during differentiation. Serotonin and histamine cells were entirely NeuroD-independently derived, and serotonin cells were additionally entirely Ngn3-independently derived. In this study, we isolated serotonin and histamine cells from the gastric corpus of transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent marker CFP. Serotonin cells expressed multiple mast cell ...


Microrna Markers Of Acetaminophen Toxicity: A Master's Thesis, Jeanine Ward 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Microrna Markers Of Acetaminophen Toxicity: A Master's Thesis, Jeanine Ward

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background
To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.

Methods
Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice, either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed, we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences, Qiagen Sciences, MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.

Results
We distinguished numerous, unique plasma miRNAs both up- and down-regulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice. Of note, many of the greatest up- and down-regulated miRNAs, included, but were not limited to, 574-5p, 466g, 466f-3p, 375, 29c, and ...


Gene Expression And Profiling Of Human Islet Cell Subtypes: A Master’S Thesis, David M. Blodgett 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gene Expression And Profiling Of Human Islet Cell Subtypes: A Master’S Thesis, David M. Blodgett

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background: The endocrine pancreas contains multiple cell types co-localized into clusters called the Islets of Langerhans. The predominant cell types include alpha and beta cells, which produce glucagon and insulin, respectively. The regulated release of these hormones maintains whole body glucose homeostasis, essential for normal metabolism and to prevent diabetes and complications from the disease. Given the heterogeneous nature of islet composition and absence of unique surface markers, many previous studies have focused on the whole islet. Sorting islet cells by intracellular hormone expression overcomes this limitation and provides pure populations of individual islet cell subsets, specifically alpha and beta ...


Composition Of The Adult Digestive Tract Bacterial Microbiome Based On Seven Mouth Surfaces, Tonsils, Throat And Stool Samples, Nicola Segata, Susan Kinder Haake, Peter Mannon, Katherine P. Lemon, Levi Waldron, Dirk Gevers, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard 2012 Harvard University

Composition Of The Adult Digestive Tract Bacterial Microbiome Based On Seven Mouth Surfaces, Tonsils, Throat And Stool Samples, Nicola Segata, Susan Kinder Haake, Peter Mannon, Katherine P. Lemon, Levi Waldron, Dirk Gevers, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard

Publications and Research

Background: To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body’s greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites.

Results: The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and ...


Hearts And Minds: Examining The Evolution Of The Egyptian Excerebration And Evisceration Traditions Through The Impact Mummy Database, Andrew D. Wade 2012 The University of Western Ontario

Hearts And Minds: Examining The Evolution Of The Egyptian Excerebration And Evisceration Traditions Through The Impact Mummy Database, Andrew D. Wade

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Egyptian mummification and funerary rituals were a transformative process, making the deceased a pure being; free of disease, injury, and disfigurements, as well as ethical and moral impurities. Consequently, the features of mummification available to specific categories of individuals hold social and ideological significance. This study refutes long-held classical stereotypes, particularly dogmatic class associations; demonstrates the apocryphal nature of universal heart retention; and expands on the purposes of excerebration and evisceration implied by synthetic and radiological analyses.

Features of the embalming traditions, specifically the variable excerebration and evisceration traditions, represented the Egyptian view of death. Fine-grain analyses, through primary imaging ...


Computerized Tomography Providing Definitive Diagnosis Of Colonic Lipoma: A Case Series, Osama M. Moussa Mr, Sanaa Arshad Dr, Ming Tee Dr, Aref U. Khan Mr, Chelliah R. Selvasekar Mr 2012 Surgical Trainee

Computerized Tomography Providing Definitive Diagnosis Of Colonic Lipoma: A Case Series, Osama M. Moussa Mr, Sanaa Arshad Dr, Ming Tee Dr, Aref U. Khan Mr, Chelliah R. Selvasekar Mr

Osama M Moussa Mr

Lipomas are common benign mesenchymal tumors. They can develop in virtually all organs throughout the body. Colonic lipomas are uncommon, benign, submucosal adipose tumors that are usually asymptomatic. Large lipomas can cause symptoms such as constipation, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding and intussusception. We report a case series of two colonic submucosal lipomas with different presentations, elaborating the importance of computerised tomography (CT) imaging in the diagnosis.


Does The Use Of An Oral Lipase Inhibitor (Orlistat) Increase Appetite?, Sandra Boyd 2012 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Does The Use Of An Oral Lipase Inhibitor (Orlistat) Increase Appetite?, Sandra Boyd

PCOM Physician Assistant Studies Student Scholarship

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not Orlistat ingested prior to a meal causes an increased appetite response.

STUDY DESIGN: A Review of three randomized controlled trials studies from 2003-2008 that were in the English language.

DATA RESOURCES: Randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of Orlistat on satiety were found using PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane databases.

OUTOMES MEASURED: Outcomes measured in the studies were: sensation of appetite, hunger, fullness, nausea, bloating, heartburn, belching, epigastric burning, and prospective food consumption. Each study measured individual patient responses using a VAS (visual analogue scale). Demarchi et al (2004) used a gastric barostat to measure ...


Intestine Homeostasis And The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Gene 101 In Drosophila Melanogaster: A Dissertation, Madhurima Chatterjee 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intestine Homeostasis And The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Gene 101 In Drosophila Melanogaster: A Dissertation, Madhurima Chatterjee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Tissue homeostasis in the adult Drosophila melanogaster intestine is maintained by controlling the proper balance of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In the adult fly midgut, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are the only dividing cells and their identity maintenance is crucial to the proper functioning of the fly gut. Various pathways such as Notch, JAK-STAT and Wingless are known to regulate ISC division and differentiation.

Here I used a pathogen feeding model to study conditions that accelerate ISC division and guide intestinal cell differentiation favoring enterocyte development. I also examined the role of Tumor Suppressor Gene 101 (TSG101) in ISC ...


Mast Cell Activation And Clinical Outcome In Pediatric Cholelithiasis And Biliary Dyskinesia., Craig A. Friesen, Nancy Neilan, James F. Daniel, Kim Radford, Jennifer Verrill Schurman, Ding-You Li, Linda Andre, Shawn D. St Peter, G W. Holcomb III 2011 Children's Mercy Hospital

Mast Cell Activation And Clinical Outcome In Pediatric Cholelithiasis And Biliary Dyskinesia., Craig A. Friesen, Nancy Neilan, James F. Daniel, Kim Radford, Jennifer Verrill Schurman, Ding-You Li, Linda Andre, Shawn D. St Peter, G W. Holcomb Iii

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: The current study was undertaken to determine the degree of activation of gallbladder mucosal mast cells, whether mast cell (MC) density or activation differ between patients with and without a positive clinical response to cholecystectomy, and whether either density or activation correlate with gallbladder emptying.

RESULTS: Fifteen biliary dyskinesia (BD) and 13 symptomatic cholelithiasis (CL) patients undergoing cholecystectomy were prospectively enrolled. Gallbladder wall MC density (by immunohistochemistry) and activation (by electron microscopy) were determined. Clinical response was evaluated 30 days post-cholecystectomy on a 5-point Likert-type scale. A complete or nearly complete clinical response was seen in 100% of CL ...


Protection And Attachment Of Vibrio Cholerae Mediated By The Toxin-Coregulated Pilus In The Infant Mouse Model, Shelly J. Krebs, Ronald K. Taylor 2011 Dartmouth College

Protection And Attachment Of Vibrio Cholerae Mediated By The Toxin-Coregulated Pilus In The Infant Mouse Model, Shelly J. Krebs, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Colonization of the human small intestine by Vibrio cholerae is an essential step in pathogenesis that requires the type IV toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). To date, three functions of TCP have been characterized: it serves as the CTXΦ receptor, secretes the colonization factor TcpF, and functions in microcolony formation by mediating bacterium-bacterium interactions. Although type IV pili in other pathogenic bacteria have been characterized as playing a major role in attachment to epithelial cells, there are very few studies to suggest that TCP acts as an attachment factor. Taking this into consideration, we investigated the function of TCP in attachment to ...


Minimal Vs Extensive Esophageal Mobilization During Laparoscopic Fundoplication: A Prospective Randomized Trial., Shawn D. St Peter, Douglas C. Barnhart, Daniel J. Ostlie, KuoJen Tsao, Charles M. Leys, Susan W. Sharp, Donna Bartle, Tracey Morgan, Carroll M. Harmon, Keith E. Georgeson, G W. Holcomb III 2011 Children's Mercy Hospital

Minimal Vs Extensive Esophageal Mobilization During Laparoscopic Fundoplication: A Prospective Randomized Trial., Shawn D. St Peter, Douglas C. Barnhart, Daniel J. Ostlie, Kuojen Tsao, Charles M. Leys, Susan W. Sharp, Donna Bartle, Tracey Morgan, Carroll M. Harmon, Keith E. Georgeson, G W. Holcomb Iii

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

PURPOSE: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication has been traditionally performed with extensive esophageal dissection to create 2 to 3 cm of intraabdominal esophagus. Retrospective data have suggested that minimal esophageal mobilization may reduce the risk of postoperative herniation of the wrap into the lower mediastinum. To compare complete esophageal dissection to leaving the phrenoesophageal attachment intact, we conducted a 2-center, prospective, randomized trial.

METHODS: After obtaining permission/assent, patients were randomized to circumferential division of the phrenoesophageal attachments (MAX) or minimal mobilization with no violation of the phrenoesophageal membrane (MIN). A contrast study was performed at 1 year. The primary outcome variable ...


Should We Be Concerned About Jejunoileal Atresia During Repair Of Duodenal Atresia?, Shawn D. St Peter, Danny C. Little, Katherine A. Barsness, Daniel R. Copeland, Casey M. Calkins, Suzanne Yoder, Steve S. Rothenberg, Saleem Islam, Kuojen Tsao, Daniel J. Ostlie 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Should We Be Concerned About Jejunoileal Atresia During Repair Of Duodenal Atresia?, Shawn D. St Peter, Danny C. Little, Katherine A. Barsness, Daniel R. Copeland, Casey M. Calkins, Suzanne Yoder, Steve S. Rothenberg, Saleem Islam, Kuojen Tsao, Daniel J. Ostlie

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

INTRODUCTION: During repair for duodenal atresia, it has been emphasized that inspection of the small bowel to identify a second atresia is required. The laparoscopic approach for repair of duodenal atresia has been criticized for its limitation to perform this step. Given that duodenal atresia and jejunoileal atresias do not share common embryologic origins, we question the validity of this concern. Therefore, we conducted a multicenter retrospective review of duodenal atresia patients to quantify the incidence of jejunoileal atresia in this population.

METHODS: After institutional review board approval (IRB #07-12-187X), a retrospective review was conducted on all patients who have ...


Asian Race/Ethnicity As A Risk Factor For Bile Duct Injury During Cholecystectomy., Stephanie R. Downing, Ghazala Datoo, Tolulope A. Oyetunji, Terrence Fullum, David C. Chang, Nita Ahuja 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Asian Race/Ethnicity As A Risk Factor For Bile Duct Injury During Cholecystectomy., Stephanie R. Downing, Ghazala Datoo, Tolulope A. Oyetunji, Terrence Fullum, David C. Chang, Nita Ahuja

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Iatrogenic bile duct injury (BDI) is an uncommon but serious complication of cholecystectomy, with identified risk factors of acute cholecystitis, male sex, older age, and aberrant biliary anatomy. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2006) was queried for cholecystectomy performed on hospital day 0 or 1. Bile duct injury repair procedure codes were used as a surrogate for BDI. We identified 377,424 patients who underwent cholecystectomy, with 1124 BDIs (0.3%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, Asian race/ethnicity was a significant risk factor for BDI (odds ratio [OR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-3.23; P < .001). This persisted for laparoscopic (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.28-5.39; P = .009) and open (2.21; 1.59-3.07; P < .001) cholecystectomies. No other race/ethnicity was identified as a risk factor for BDI. We report a new finding that Asian race/ethnicity is a significant risk factor for BDI in laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies.


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