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Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger 2016 Dickinson College

Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger

Student Honors Theses By Year

Hypometabolism is an important energy saving, highly regulated physiological response for some mammals; however, its mechanisms of control have yet to be fully described. It induces a reduction in metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. Although the degree and rate of body temperature decrease is subject to ambient temperatures, mammals still maintain control over the whole process. A major goal of hypometabolism appears to be maintaining energetic stores within the body as external food sources become sparse. Uncovering the mechanisms by which these mammals control this process is of interest as organ and tissue damage following hypometabolism ...


Microfluidic Platforms To Study Host-Microbiome Interactions, Abhinav Sharma, Neil Forbes, Jungwoo Lee 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Microfluidic Platforms To Study Host-Microbiome Interactions, Abhinav Sharma, Neil Forbes, Jungwoo Lee

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

About three-quarters of human body surface is exposed to dense microbial population along the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) that accommodates around 80% of immune cells. The GIT is one of the most critical sites for metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the body. While large-scale genomic analysis and germ-free mice have been widely used, they are limited to capture the dynamic functional interaction between host-microbiome in a humanized setting. in-vitro recapitulation of GIT physiology can be a powerful alternative for hypothesis testing in diseases like IBD and cancer.

As a first step, we developed a simple transwell assembly to closely emulate GIT ...


The Mysteries Of Your Blood, Alexandra J. Mauer 2016 Butler University

The Mysteries Of Your Blood, Alexandra J. Mauer

BU Well

Did you know that your blood type can be useful for determining disease susceptibility and even creating a diet that works best for your personal metabolism? The Mysteries of your Blood is an article that delves into the science behind the ABO blood types and explains why your body can handle certain foods, stress, and illness differently than someone with a different blood type. It proposes a new, perplexing way to determine how to avoid certain health problems while at the same time offering suggestions of what to eat or, rather, what to avoid eating.


Metabolic Profiling During Ex Vivo Machine Perfusion Of The Human Liver, Bote G. Bruinsma, Gautham V. Sridharan, Pepijn D. Weeder, James H. Avruch, Nima Saeidi, Sinan Ozer, Sharon Geerts, Robert J. Porte, Michal Heger, Thomas M. van Gulik, Paulo N.A. Martins, James F. Markmann, Heidi Yeh, Korkut Uygun 2016 Harvard Medical School

Metabolic Profiling During Ex Vivo Machine Perfusion Of The Human Liver, Bote G. Bruinsma, Gautham V. Sridharan, Pepijn D. Weeder, James H. Avruch, Nima Saeidi, Sinan Ozer, Sharon Geerts, Robert J. Porte, Michal Heger, Thomas M. Van Gulik, Paulo N.A. Martins, James F. Markmann, Heidi Yeh, Korkut Uygun

Surgery Publications and Presentations

As donor organ shortages persist, functional machine perfusion is under investigation to improve preservation of the donor liver. The transplantation of donation after circulatory death (DCD) livers is limited by poor outcomes, but its application may be expanded by ex vivo repair and assessment of the organ before transplantation. Here we employed subnormothermic (21 degrees C) machine perfusion of discarded human livers combined with metabolomics to gain insight into metabolic recovery during machine perfusion. Improvements in energetic cofactors and redox shifts were observed, as well as reversal of ischemia-induced alterations in selected pathways, including lactate metabolism and increased TCA cycle ...


The Relationship Between Problem-Solving Ability/Eating Motivation And Perceived Quality Of Life In Individuals Diagnosed With Celiac Disease, Vincenzo Zaccheo 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Relationship Between Problem-Solving Ability/Eating Motivation And Perceived Quality Of Life In Individuals Diagnosed With Celiac Disease, Vincenzo Zaccheo

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Celiac disease (CD) is a digestive disorder resulting from gluten intolerance that leads to damage of the small intestine. The only current available treatment for CD involves adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Due to the restrictive nature of this treatment diet, and the increasing prevalence of CD in recent years, much research has been conducted examining factors that impact the quality of life (QOL) of individuals with CD. However, there has been a dearth of literature identifying those factors which can be modified within a treatment setting. Thus, a need for further research in this area was identified. Through ...


Chronic Pancreatitis, Pain, And Anxiety In An Alcohol And High Fat Mouse Model, Tiffanie Clinkinbeard 2016 University of Kentucky

Chronic Pancreatitis, Pain, And Anxiety In An Alcohol And High Fat Mouse Model, Tiffanie Clinkinbeard

Theses and Dissertations--Gerontology

Homeodynamic space (HDS) shrinks as vulnerability increases with aging and repeated damage to the cells. HDS is lost in alcoholic pancreatitis patients due to overconsumption of alcohol, smoking, and high fat diets. Etiologically relevant animal models for study of chronic pancreatitis (CP) are needed. In order to begin filling this gap a central purpose of this dissertation research was to examine relationships between the alcohol and high fat diet (AHF) and pancreatitis with attention to hypersensitivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The AHF diet induced pancreatitis described here etiologically mimics human risk factors of AHF consumption for advancement to alcoholic CP.

In ...


Measurement Of The Absolute Magnitude And Time Courses Of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In Primary And Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells, Akos Gerencser, Shona A. Mookerjee, Martin Jastroch, Martin D. Brand 2016 Touro University California

Measurement Of The Absolute Magnitude And Time Courses Of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In Primary And Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells, Akos Gerencser, Shona A. Mookerjee, Martin Jastroch, Martin D. Brand

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion ...


Medical Students In Microscopic Anatomy And Pathology Laboratories: Design Of An E-Learning Histology And Histopathology Atlas As An Evolving Response To Interdisciplinary Pre-Clinical Curricular Needs, Michelle S. Davis, Alexandra Mills, Gisela Butera, Donald S. Karcher, Patricia S. Latham, Janette Krum, Rosalyn A. Jurjus 2015 George Washington University

Medical Students In Microscopic Anatomy And Pathology Laboratories: Design Of An E-Learning Histology And Histopathology Atlas As An Evolving Response To Interdisciplinary Pre-Clinical Curricular Needs, Michelle S. Davis, Alexandra Mills, Gisela Butera, Donald S. Karcher, Patricia S. Latham, Janette Krum, Rosalyn A. Jurjus

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

E-learning, also known as computer-assisted learning, successfully bridges anatomical knowledge and transferrable skills, such as critical analysis, teamwork, leadership and communication. Several institutions have already integrated histology and physiology in team based laboratory approaches, but integration of histology and pathology instruction has been done to a lesser extent. Our aim was to develop an e-learning atlas that integrates microanatomy and pathology laboratory for an interdisciplinary pre-clinical medical curriculum.

A multidisciplinary team of teaching faculty and students developed an online atlas (microanatomyatlas.com) that includes a library of histology and histopathology images. Traditional laboratory manual instructions and study objectives were added ...


Impact Of Starch Source On Equine Hindgut Microbial Ecology, Brittany Elizabeth Davis Harlow 2015 University of Kentucky

Impact Of Starch Source On Equine Hindgut Microbial Ecology, Brittany Elizabeth Davis Harlow

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Grain inclusion in equine diets can allow starch to reach the hindgut where bacteria compete for the substrate. The hypothesis was that starch introduction would cause a source-dependent press disturbance in equine fecal microflora. Fecal cell suspensions were prepared by differential centrifugation and re-suspension in media with ground corn, oats or wheat. At 24 h, corn had more amylolytics and Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), and fewer lactate-utilizing (LU) bacteria and lactobacilli than oats, with wheat being intermediate. Predominant amylolytics were identified by their 16S RNA gene sequence as Enterococcus faecalis (corn, wheat) and Streptococcus bovis (oats). In an in ...


Formulating Effective And Accessible Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs, Danielle Luffman 2014 SIT Study Abroad

Formulating Effective And Accessible Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs, Danielle Luffman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Colorectal cancer, a type of carcinoma originating in cells of the colon or rectum, continues to rank as the third most prevalent cancer worldwide with 1.36 million cases and the fourth most fatal with 693,881 deaths during 2012. In an attempt to alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer throughout society, governments and non-governmental organizations continue to implement population-based cancer screening programs. These programs, typically designed by a federal authority, offer free screening tests to a given population for a certain type of cancer on a routine basis. National systematic screening programs have effectively reduced the incidence of and ...


Rare Presentation Of Pancreatitis Secondary To Intussusception Of Duodenal Duplication Cyst, A Pediatric Case Report, Valentina Shakhnovich, Jennifer Colombo, Amita A. Desai, Shawn D. St Peter 2014 Children's Mercy Hospital

Rare Presentation Of Pancreatitis Secondary To Intussusception Of Duodenal Duplication Cyst, A Pediatric Case Report, Valentina Shakhnovich, Jennifer Colombo, Amita A. Desai, Shawn D. St Peter

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

No abstract provided.


Enteroendocrine Cells Support Intestinal Stem-Cell-Mediated Homeostasis In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Wei Song, Qi Li, Yingchao Nie, Ivan Bragatto, Dominique Ferrandon, Norbert Perrimon, Y. Tony Ip 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Enteroendocrine Cells Support Intestinal Stem-Cell-Mediated Homeostasis In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Wei Song, Qi Li, Yingchao Nie, Ivan Bragatto, Dominique Ferrandon, Norbert Perrimon, Y. Tony Ip

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut are regulated by growth factors produced from the surrounding niche cells including enterocytes and visceral muscle. The role of the other major cell type, the secretory enteroendocrine cells, in regulating intestinal stem cells remains unclear. We show here that newly eclosed scute loss-of-function mutant flies are completely devoid of enteroendocrine cells. These enteroendocrine cell-less flies have normal ingestion and fecundity but shorter lifespan. Moreover, in these newly eclosed mutant flies, the diet-stimulated midgut growth that depends on the insulin-like peptide 3 expression in the surrounding muscle is defective. The depletion of Tachykinin-producing ...


Tlr Sorting By Rab11 Endosomes Maintains Intestinal Epithelial-Microbial Homeostasis, Shiyan Yu, Yingchao Nie, Y. Tony Ip, Nan Gao 2014 Rutgers University

Tlr Sorting By Rab11 Endosomes Maintains Intestinal Epithelial-Microbial Homeostasis, Shiyan Yu, Yingchao Nie, Y. Tony Ip, Nan Gao

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Compartmentalization of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) regulates distinct immune responses to microbes; however, the specific cellular machinery that controls this mechanism has not been fully identified. Here we provide genetic evidences that the recycling endosomal compartment in enterocytes maintains a homeostatic TLR9 intracellular distribution, supporting mucosal tolerance to normal microbiota. Genetic ablation of a recycling endosome resident small GTPase, Rab11a, a gene adjacent to a Crohn's disease risk locus, in mouse IECs and in Drosophila midgut caused epithelial cell-intrinsic cytokine production, inflammatory bowel phenotype, and early mortality. Unlike wild-type controls, germ-free Rab11a-deficient mouse intestines failed ...


Uhplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Arachidonic Acid And 10 Of Its Major Cytochrome P450 Metabolites As Free Acids In Rat Livers: Effects Of Hepatic Ischemia, Vindhya Edpuganti, Reza Mehvar 2014 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

Uhplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Arachidonic Acid And 10 Of Its Major Cytochrome P450 Metabolites As Free Acids In Rat Livers: Effects Of Hepatic Ischemia, Vindhya Edpuganti, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) are mostly present in tissues, such as the liver, as bound to phospholipids, with only a small fraction available as free acids. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of free liver concentrations of AA and four epoxygenated (5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET), four dihydroxylated (5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-DHET), and two ω/(ω-1) hydroxylated (19- and 20- HETEs) metabolites of AA in rat livers using deuterated internal standards. The analytes were rapidly and efficiently ...


Pathscan Enabler At Md Anderson Cancer Center, George McNamara 2014 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Pathscan Enabler At Md Anderson Cancer Center, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 20140703 - Additional Pathscan and Tiki_Goddess related resources

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/52

http://home.earthlink.net/~tiki_goddess/

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/1/

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/11/

https://www.linkedin.com/in/georgemcnamara

Our Pathscan Enabler IV, delivered July 2014, uses the QuickScan software to scan a histology slide in "two clicks" (after loading the

slide):

1. Push the QuickScan button on the front of the Pathscan Enabler.

2. Click the Scan button in the QuickScan pop-up application (optional: change scan area in the Prescan image window).

The image gets saved as a TIFF file to ...


Chylomicrons Produced By Caco-2 Cells Contained Apob-48 With Diameter Of 80-200 Nm, Andromeda M. Nauli, Yuxi Sun, Judy D. Whittimore, Seif Atyia, Guha Krishnaswamy, Surya M. Nauli 2014 East Tennessee State University

Chylomicrons Produced By Caco-2 Cells Contained Apob-48 With Diameter Of 80-200 Nm, Andromeda M. Nauli, Yuxi Sun, Judy D. Whittimore, Seif Atyia, Guha Krishnaswamy, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The small intestine generally transports dietary fats to circulation in triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. The two main intestinal lipoproteins are chylomicron (CM) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Unfortunately, studies on the CM biogenesis and intestinal transport of dietary fats have been hampered by the lack of an adequate in vitro model. In this study, we investigated the possible factors that might increase the efficiency of CM production by Caco-2 cells. We utilized sequential NaCl gradient ultracentrifugation to isolate the CMs that were secreted by the Caco-2 cells. To confirm the successful isolation of the CMs, we performed Fat Red 7B ...


Resistant Starch: Promise For Improving Human Health, Diane F. Birt, Terri D. Boylston, Suzanne Hendrich, Jay-Lin Jane, James Hollis, Li Li, John McClelland, Samuel Moore, Gregory J. Phillips, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske, M. Paul Scott, Elizabeth M. Whitley 2013 Iowa State University

Resistant Starch: Promise For Improving Human Health, Diane F. Birt, Terri D. Boylston, Suzanne Hendrich, Jay-Lin Jane, James Hollis, Li Li, John Mcclelland, Samuel Moore, Gregory J. Phillips, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske, M. Paul Scott, Elizabeth M. Whitley

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect ...


Sonic Hedgehog Mediates The Proliferation And Recruitment Of Transformed Mesenchymal Stem Cells To The Stomach, Jessica M. Donnelly, Ambreesh Chawla, JeanMarie Houghton, Yana Zavros 2013 University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Sonic Hedgehog Mediates The Proliferation And Recruitment Of Transformed Mesenchymal Stem Cells To The Stomach, Jessica M. Donnelly, Ambreesh Chawla, Jeanmarie Houghton, Yana Zavros

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Studies using Helicobacter-infected mice show that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can repopulate the gastric epithelium and promote gastric cancer progression. Within the tumor microenvironment of the stomach, pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) are elevated. IFNgamma is implicated in tumor proliferation via activation of the Shh signaling pathway in various tissues but whether a similar mechanism exists in the stomach is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that IFNgamma drives MSC proliferation and recruitment, a response mediated by Shh signaling. The current study uses transplantation of an in vitro transformed mesenchymal stem cell line (stMSC(vect)), that ...


Increasing The Number Of Masticatory Cycles Is Associated With Reduced Appetite And Altered Postprandial Plasma Concentrations Of Gut Hormones, Insulin And Glucose, Yong Zhu, Walter H. Hsu, James Hollis 2013 Iowa State University

Increasing The Number Of Masticatory Cycles Is Associated With Reduced Appetite And Altered Postprandial Plasma Concentrations Of Gut Hormones, Insulin And Glucose, Yong Zhu, Walter H. Hsu, James Hollis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

To determine the influence of masticatory efficiency on postprandial satiety and glycaemic response, twenty-one healthy males were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. The participants consumed a fixed amount of pizza provided in equal-sized portions by chewing each portion either fifteen or forty times before swallowing. Subjective appetite was measured by appetite questionnaires at regular intervals for 3 h after the meal and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of selected satiety-related hormones, glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. An ad libitum meal was provided shortly after the last blood sample was drawn and the amount eaten ...


State-By-State Variation In Emergency Versus Elective Colon Resections: Room For Improvement., Augustine C. Obirieze, Mehreen Kisat, Caitlin W. Hicks, Tolulope A. Oyetunji, Eric B. Schneider, Darrell J. Gaskin, Elliott R. Haut, David T. Efron, Edward E. Cornwell, Adil H. Haider 2013 Children's Mercy Hospital

State-By-State Variation In Emergency Versus Elective Colon Resections: Room For Improvement., Augustine C. Obirieze, Mehreen Kisat, Caitlin W. Hicks, Tolulope A. Oyetunji, Eric B. Schneider, Darrell J. Gaskin, Elliott R. Haut, David T. Efron, Edward E. Cornwell, Adil H. Haider

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: Compared with elective surgical procedures, emergency procedures are associated with higher cost, morbidity, and mortality. This study seeks to investigate potential state-by-state variations in the incidence of emergent versus elective colon resections.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all adult patients (aged ≥18 years) included in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2009 who underwent hemicolectomy (right or left) or sigmoidectomy was conducted. Discharge-level weights were applied, and generalized linear models were used to assess the odds of a patient undergoing emergent versus elective colon surgery nationally and for each state after adjusting for patient and hospital factors. Odds ...


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