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The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D 2020 Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Molecular Virology and Special Pathogens Research, Department of Microbiology, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 001, Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria.

The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the etiologic agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious, emergent, acute, viral pneumonia that emanated sporadically in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 became pandemic in February 2020 leading to 4,942,687 confirmed cases, over 321,987 deaths and grounded several economies around the world as of May 2020. Although global researchers, epidemiologists and medical professionals rose steadily to contain the disease, indepth knowledge and concerted efforts are still evolving on the virus. This research sought to elucidate the biological Strengths, the Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to SARS-CoV-2, with a view to understanding and ...


Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer

LSU Master's Theses

This research assessed plankton dynamics in two urban, subtropical lakes (University Lake and City Park Lake) shortly before a proposed and approved lake restoration project. Plankton dynamics were determined in University Lake by the dilution method to attempt to quantify growth rates of phytoplankton and grazing rates of zooplankton. Landry and Hassett’s (1982) dilution method has been widely used in marine systems to estimate rates of growth and grazing. In many marine systems, nutrients must be added to prevent nutrient limitation. However, it is assumed, due to the hypereutrophic conditions, that nutrients would not be a limitation in University ...


Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Variant D614g Increases Infectivity And Retains Sensitivity To Antibodies That Target The Receptor Binding Domain., Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Thomas Nyalile, Yetao Wang, William E. Diehl, Ann Dauphin, Claudia Carbone, Kristen Veinotte, Shawn B. Egri, Pardis C. Sabeti, Christos Kyratsous, James B. Munro, Kuang Shen, Jeremy Luban 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Variant D614g Increases Infectivity And Retains Sensitivity To Antibodies That Target The Receptor Binding Domain., Leonid Yurkovetskiy, Thomas Nyalile, Yetao Wang, William E. Diehl, Ann Dauphin, Claudia Carbone, Kristen Veinotte, Shawn B. Egri, Pardis C. Sabeti, Christos Kyratsous, James B. Munro, Kuang Shen, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Virus genome sequence variants that appear over the course of an outbreak can be exploited to map the trajectory of the virus from one susceptible host to another. While such variants are usually of no functional significance, in some cases they may allow the virus to transmit faster, change disease severity, or confer resistance to antiviral therapies. Since the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 as the cause of COVID-19, the virus has spread around the globe, and thousands of SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been sequenced. The rate of sequence variation among SARS-CoV-2 isolates is modest for an RNA virus but the enormous number ...


Acidic Ph Triggers Lipid Mixing Mediated By Lassa Virus Gp, Uriel Bulow, Ramesh Govindan, James B. Munro 2020 Tufts University

Acidic Ph Triggers Lipid Mixing Mediated By Lassa Virus Gp, Uriel Bulow, Ramesh Govindan, James B. Munro

Open Access Articles

Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, a lethal disease endemic to Western Africa. LASV entry is mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP), a class I membrane fusogen and the sole viral surface antigen. Previous studies have identified components of the LASV entry pathway, including several cellular receptors and the requirement of endosomal acidification for infection. Here, we first demonstrate that incubation at a physiological temperature and pH consistent with the late endosome is sufficient to render pseudovirions, bearing LASV GP, non-infectious. Antibody binding indicates that this loss of infectivity is due to a conformational ...


Repression Of Tick Microrna-133 Induces Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide Expression Critical For Anaplasma Phagocytophilumsurvival In The Vector And Transmission To The Vertebrate Host, Ellango Ramasamy, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2020 Old Dominion University

Repression Of Tick Microrna-133 Induces Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide Expression Critical For Anaplasma Phagocytophilumsurvival In The Vector And Transmission To The Vertebrate Host, Ellango Ramasamy, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression. In this study, we provide evidence for the first time to show that rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection results in the down-regulation of tick microRNA-133 (miR-133), to induce Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide (isoatp4056) gene expression critical for this bacterial survival in the vector and for its transmission to the vertebrate host. Transfection studies with recombinant constructs containing transcriptional fusions confirmed binding of miR-133 to isoatp4056 mRNA. Treatment with miR-133 inhibitor resulted in increased bacterial burden and isoatp4056 expression in ticks and tick cells. In contrast, treatment with miR-133 mimic ...


Defective Early Innate Immune Response To Ectromelia Virus In The Draining Lymph Nodes Of Aged Mice Due To Impaired Dendritic Cell Accumulation., Colby Stotesbury, Eric B Wong, Lingjuan Tang, Brian Montoya, Cory J Knudson, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Luis J Sigal 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Defective Early Innate Immune Response To Ectromelia Virus In The Draining Lymph Nodes Of Aged Mice Due To Impaired Dendritic Cell Accumulation., Colby Stotesbury, Eric B Wong, Lingjuan Tang, Brian Montoya, Cory J Knudson, Carolina R Melo-Silva, Luis J Sigal

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

It is known that aging decreases natural resistance to viral diseases due to dysfunctional innate and adaptive immune responses, but the nature of these dysfunctions, particularly in regard to innate immunity, is not well understood. We have previously shown that C57BL/6J (B6) mice lose their natural resistance to footpad infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV) due to impaired maturation and recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells to the draining popliteal lymph node (dLN). More recently, we have also shown that in young B6 mice infected with ECTV, the recruitment of NK cells is dependent on a complex cascade whereby migratory ...


Meeting Report Of The Third Annual Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium Symposium, J Philip Karl, Robyn A. Barbato, Laurel A. Doherty, Aarti Gautam, Sarah M. Glaven, Robert J. Kokoska, Dagmar Leary, Rebecca Mickol, Matthew A. Perisin, Andrew J. Hoisington, Edward J. Van Opstal, Vanessa Varaljay, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Camilla A. Mauzy, Michael S. Goodson, Jason W. Soares 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Meeting Report Of The Third Annual Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium Symposium, J Philip Karl, Robyn A. Barbato, Laurel A. Doherty, Aarti Gautam, Sarah M. Glaven, Robert J. Kokoska, Dagmar Leary, Rebecca Mickol, Matthew A. Perisin, Andrew J. Hoisington, Edward J. Van Opstal, Vanessa Varaljay, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Camilla A. Mauzy, Michael S. Goodson, Jason W. Soares

Faculty Publications

The Tri-Service Microbiome Consortium (TSMC) was founded to enhance collaboration, coordination, and communication of microbiome research among U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) organizations and to facilitate resource, material and information sharing among consortium members. The 2019 annual symposium was held 22–24 October 2019 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, OH. Presentations and discussions centered on microbiome-related topics within five broad thematic areas: 1) human microbiomes; 2) transitioning products into Warfighter solutions; 3) environmental microbiomes; 4) engineering microbiomes; and 5) microbiome simulation and characterization. Collectively, the symposium provided an update on the scope of current DoD microbiome research ...


Using Soil Geospatial Properties And Environments To Explore Microbial Diversity, Sharon Faye Smith 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Soil Geospatial Properties And Environments To Explore Microbial Diversity, Sharon Faye Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Soil microorganisms help maintain nutrient cycling, control carbon sequestration, impact plant productivity, and influence several soil chemical and physical properties; yet, the processes that control the microbial composition of soil and how environmental changes may affect the composition and activity of these organisms at different scales remains a difficult and intriguing puzzle for soil scientists, ecologists, and modelers. Wetlands are endangered and important ecosystems that provide several services, which are directly linked to soil function. However, few wetland assessments consider the soil environment and microbial ecology. Linking soil microbial community composition and distribution patterns to soil physio-chemical properties would provide ...


Improved Antimicrobial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles With Methylene Blue, Ermek Belekov 2020 Western Kentucky University

Improved Antimicrobial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles With Methylene Blue, Ermek Belekov

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Photosensitizing agents are the cornerstone of photodynamic therapy (PDT) that play essential role in deactivation process of multidrug resistant pathogens and tumor treatments. In this work we studied a photosensitizing agent made from mixture of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and methylene blue (MB) which possess improved important characteristics like high photostability and high singlet oxygen yield. Ag NPs were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation technique in different aqueous solutions like Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), citrate and Deionized (DI) water. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized in depth using with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UVVisible (UV-Vis), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Ag NPs were ...


Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang

Virology Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM) that is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV, specifically in IM, increases the risk for MS remains unknown. EBV immortalizes primary B lymphocytes in vitro and causes excessive B lymphocyte proliferation in IM in vivo. In asymptomatic carriers, EBV-infected B lymphocytes still proliferate to certain degrees, the process of which is tightly controlled by the host immune systems. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimics key features of MS in humans and ...


Scalable Learning Of Interpretable Rules For The Dynamic Microbiome Domain, Venkata Suhas Maringanti, Vanni Bucci, Georg K. Gerber 2020 University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth

Scalable Learning Of Interpretable Rules For The Dynamic Microbiome Domain, Venkata Suhas Maringanti, Vanni Bucci, Georg K. Gerber

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The microbiome, which is inherently dynamic, plays essential roles in human physiology and its disruption has been implicated in numerous human diseases. Linking dynamic changes in the microbiome to the status of the human host is an important problem, which is complicated by limitations and complexities of the data. Model interpretability is key in the microbiome field, as practitioners seek to derive testable biological hypotheses from data or develop diagnostic tests that can be understood by clinicians. Interpretable structure must take into account domainspecific information key to biologists and clinicians including evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) and dynamic behavior of the microbiome ...


Microbial Community Structures In Three Bahamian Blue Holes, Meghan J. Gordon 2020 University of South Florida

Microbial Community Structures In Three Bahamian Blue Holes, Meghan J. Gordon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study used 16S rDNA metagenomics and water chemistry to conduct an examination of microbial community dynamics and biogeochemistry in three physically adjacent, sunlit blue holes with variable hydrologic regimes on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Church and Watling’s Blue Holes are holomictic with relatively clear waters, while Inkwell Blue Hole hosts density stratification and waters stained brown with tannins. Based on water color and clarity and physicochemical profiles, I hypothesized Church and Watling’s Blue Holes would be dominated by oxigenic photoautotrophs, and that the bottom layer of Inkwell would be characterized by euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) conditions and ...


Abcs Of Covid-19 Coloring Page, Angela Messmer-Blust 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Abcs Of Covid-19 Coloring Page, Angela Messmer-Blust

RTI Children's Resources

To help give children a better understanding of the coronavirus that is causing the COVID-19 disease and the disruption in our daily lives, the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at UMass Medical created this coloring page just for kids. We hope parents and teachers can use it to help explain this complex situation, while also teaching the wonders of science.


Coronavirus Infographic, Angela Messmer-Blust 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Coronavirus Infographic, Angela Messmer-Blust

RTI Children's Resources

To help give children a better understanding of the coronavirus that is causing the COVID-19 disease and the disruption in our daily lives, the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at UMass Medical created this infographic just for kids. We hope parents and teachers can use it to help explain this complex situation, while also teaching the wonders of science.


Biofilm Structure Promotes Coexistence Of Phage-Resistant And Phage-Susceptible Bacteria, Emilia L. Simmons, Matthew C. Bond, Britt Koskella, Knut Drescher, Vanni Bucci, Carey D. Nadell 2020 Dartmouth College

Biofilm Structure Promotes Coexistence Of Phage-Resistant And Phage-Susceptible Bacteria, Emilia L. Simmons, Matthew C. Bond, Britt Koskella, Knut Drescher, Vanni Bucci, Carey D. Nadell

Open Access Articles

Encounters among bacteria and their viral predators (bacteriophages) are among the most common ecological interactions on Earth. These encounters are likely to occur with regularity inside surface-bound communities that microbes most often occupy in natural environments. Such communities, termed biofilms, are spatially constrained: interactions become limited to near neighbors, diffusion of solutes and particulates can be reduced, and there is pronounced heterogeneity in nutrient access and physiological state. It is appreciated from prior theoretical work that phage-bacteria interactions are fundamentally different in spatially structured contexts, as opposed to well-mixed liquid culture. Spatially structured communities are predicted to promote the protection ...


Plant Defensin Antibacterial Mode Of Action Against Pseudomonas Species, Andrew E. Sathoff, Shawn Lewenza, Deborah A. Samac 2020 Dakota State University

Plant Defensin Antibacterial Mode Of Action Against Pseudomonas Species, Andrew E. Sathoff, Shawn Lewenza, Deborah A. Samac

Faculty Research & Publications

Background: Though many plant defensins exhibit antibacterial activity, little is known about their antibacterial mode of action (MOA). Antimicrobial peptides with a characterized MOA induce the expression of multiple bacterial outer membrane modifications, which are required for resistance to these membrane-targeting peptides. Mini-Tn5- lux mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Tn insertions disrupting outer membrane protective modifications were assessed for sensitivity against plant defensin peptides. These transcriptional lux reporter strains were also evaluated for lux gene expression in response to sublethal plant defensin exposure. Also, a plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae was modified through transposon mutagenesis to create ...


Cd11chi Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Are A Major Cellular Compartment Infected By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Jinhee Lee, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cd11chi Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Are A Major Cellular Compartment Infected By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Jinhee Lee, Shayla Boyce, Jennifer Powers, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Articles

During tuberculosis, lung myeloid cells have two opposing roles: they are an intracellular niche occupied by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and they restrict bacterial replication. Lung myeloid cells from mice infected with yellow-fluorescent protein expressing M. tuberculosis were analyzed by flow cytometry and transcriptional profiling to identify the cell types infected and their response to infection. CD14, CD38, and Abca1 were expressed more highly by infected alveolar macrophages and CD11cHi monocyte-derived cells compared to uninfected cells. CD14, CD38, and Abca1 "triple positive" (TP) cells had not only the highest infection rates and bacterial loads, but also a strong interferon-gamma signature and nitric ...


Contributions Of Gyra And Parc Mutations And Qnrs2 Acquisition To Ciprofloxacin Resistance In Aeromonas Veronii Hm21, Daniel J. Silverstein 2020 University of Connecticut

Contributions Of Gyra And Parc Mutations And Qnrs2 Acquisition To Ciprofloxacin Resistance In Aeromonas Veronii Hm21, Daniel J. Silverstein

Honors Scholar Theses

In recent years, ciprofloxacin resistant (CpR) Aeromonas veronii and A. hydrophila strains have been isolated from the wounds of patients receiving leech therapy. Genome comparisons of these CpR isolates revealed the presence of chromosomal mutations in gyrA and parC as well as the gain of qnrS2 on either a large, 34 kb, conjugatable, low-copy plasmid, pAv42, or on a small, 6.8 kb, high-copy plasmid, pAh1471. The minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC, for Cp of these clinical isolates ranged from 1 to ≥32 µg/mL and some harbored a qnrS2 containing plasmid. We wanted to assess the contributions of these factors ...


3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-Dioxygenase Modulates The Ability Of Enterobacter Hormaechei To Induce Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization, Amy Nelson 2020 University of Connecticut

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-Dioxygenase Modulates The Ability Of Enterobacter Hormaechei To Induce Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization, Amy Nelson

Honors Scholar Theses

In this study, we performed transposon mutagenesis to create a library of Enterobacter hormaechei mutants and developed a melanization assay to identify mutants that could not induce the typical melanization phenotype in Cryptococcus neoformans. Relevant phenotype labels included: “hypomelanizer”, a total lack of melanization; “hypermelanizer”, an increased melanization; or “abnormal”, an increased melanization with complete color change of the assay plate to a reddish-brown. Genomic sequencing of 47 mutants and bioinformatic analysis allowed us to pinpoint the transposon insertion site in each E. hormaechei mutant to identify the genes that were affected. A single mutant that induced the abnormal phenotype ...


Seroprevalence, Biochemical Investigation And Risk Factor Assessment For Hbv & Hcv Infection In Hospital Based Patients Of Islamabad, Pakistan, Narmeen Adnan Rana, Bushra Munir, Nazeer Hussain, Nazia Imtiaz, Muhammad Asif Gondal Dr., Fahed Parvaiz Dr. 2020 COMSATS University Islamabad

Seroprevalence, Biochemical Investigation And Risk Factor Assessment For Hbv & Hcv Infection In Hospital Based Patients Of Islamabad, Pakistan, Narmeen Adnan Rana, Bushra Munir, Nazeer Hussain, Nazia Imtiaz, Muhammad Asif Gondal Dr., Fahed Parvaiz Dr.

Journal of Bioresource Management

Viral hepatitis poses a serious threat to mankind. Hepatitis B and C Virus are blood borne pathogens that affect millions of individually globally. This study was conducted on a hospital-based population in Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of 4 months, utilizing ELISA as the diagnostic technique which suggested a higher seroprevalence rate for both HBV and HCV i.e. 2.07% and 8.24% respectively. A correlational analysis of the biochemical parameters of these individuals with HBV and HCV infection was carried out and the results indicated a positive correlation of HBV with Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), HCV with Total Bilirubin ...


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