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Calibration Study Of A Bacterial Quantification Technique Using Transport Swabs And Line Inoculations On Agar Growth Medium, Seth LaRue 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Calibration Study Of A Bacterial Quantification Technique Using Transport Swabs And Line Inoculations On Agar Growth Medium, Seth Larue

Honors Theses

Enumeration of bacteria has been the subject of research for over a century. Some of the techniques that have been developed include viable plate counts, the most probable number assessment, and more modern molecular techniques. Many of the newer molecular-based techniques provide little or no information about the viability of the cells being counted, and are generally not quantitative. Having quantitative data for potentially pathogenic bacteria on surfaces can be very useful in many settings, particularly in healthcare facilities. Knowing the numbers of bacterial cells present on surfaces within healthcare facilities may be important to attempt to study the cause ...


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, August 2021, College Of Natural Sciences 2021 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, August 2021, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 2, Issue 8.

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards and Recognition
Page 3 Student Summer Research
Page 4 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 5 Wintrode Student Success Center
Page 6-7 Welcome to our new Faculty & Staff!
Page 8 One Day for State: Thursday, Sept. 2nd
Page 7 Open PRAIRIE Data; Fall Faculty Retreat 2021


Investigating The Mechanisms And Specificity Of Bacterial Virulence In An Entomopathogenic Symbiosis, Elizabeth Ransone 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating The Mechanisms And Specificity Of Bacterial Virulence In An Entomopathogenic Symbiosis, Elizabeth Ransone

Masters Theses

Microbial symbionts contribute to the health of their host in both positive and negative ways. In the Steinernema nematode symbiosis, Xenorhabdus symbionts traditionally mediate insect virulence by producing toxins and other virulence proteins against the insect prey that they both need for sustenance. In this work, I took a bidirectional approach to the question: what is the larger role of Xenorhabdus in virulence against insect prey? 1) I investigated a novel protein family, typified by the Xenorhabdus bovienii polymorphic protein (Xbpp) with strain-level protein diversity. I found that Xbpp contributes to X. bovienii virulence in a Manduca sexta tobacco hornworm ...


Investigation Of Shocked Basalts From Vargeão Dome And Vista Alegre: Implications For The Search For Life On Mars, Nikol Posnov 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Shocked Basalts From Vargeão Dome And Vista Alegre: Implications For The Search For Life On Mars, Nikol Posnov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impact craters represent excellent astrobiological targets for planetary exploration missions to Mars. The impact of an asteroid or comet into a crystalline, H2O-bearing target may result in development of a hydrothermal system and increase the habitability of the substrate for the colonization of endolithic microorganisms. Given that Mars’ surface is covered by cratered basaltic rock, this study investigated target rocks and impact breccias from Vargeão Dome and Vista Alegre impact structures that formed in basalt in the Paraná Basin of Brazil.

Utilizing petrography and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD), the degree of shock metamorphism in plagioclase was quantitively determined. Measuring ...


Evolution Of Protection After Maternal Immunization For Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Cotton Rats [Preprint], Jorge C.G. Blanco, Lori McGinnes Cullen, Arash Kamali, Fatoumata Y. D. Sylla, Marina S. Boukhavalova, Trudy G. Morrison 2021 Sigmovir Biosystems, Inc

Evolution Of Protection After Maternal Immunization For Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Cotton Rats [Preprint], Jorge C.G. Blanco, Lori Mcginnes Cullen, Arash Kamali, Fatoumata Y. D. Sylla, Marina S. Boukhavalova, Trudy G. Morrison

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Maternal anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibodies acquired by the fetus through the placenta protect neonates from RSV disease through the first weeks of life. In the cotton rat model of RSV infections, we previously reported that immunization of dams during pregnancy with virus-like particles assembled with mutation stabilized pre-fusion F protein as well as the wild type G protein resulted in robust protection of their offspring from RSV challenge (Blanco, et al Journal of Virology 93: e00914-19, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00914-19). Here we describe the durability of those protective responses in dams, the durability of protection in ...


Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Tailored Exosomes Treat Bacteria-Associated Diabetes Foot Ulcers: A Customized Approach From Bench To Bed, Alok Raghav, Prashant Tripathi, Brijesh Kumar Mishra, Goo-Bo Jeong, Shahid Banday, Kirti Amresh Gautam, Qazi Noorul Mateen, Prem Singh, Manish Singh, Akhil Singla, Jamal Ahmad 2021 Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College

Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Tailored Exosomes Treat Bacteria-Associated Diabetes Foot Ulcers: A Customized Approach From Bench To Bed, Alok Raghav, Prashant Tripathi, Brijesh Kumar Mishra, Goo-Bo Jeong, Shahid Banday, Kirti Amresh Gautam, Qazi Noorul Mateen, Prem Singh, Manish Singh, Akhil Singla, Jamal Ahmad

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Exosomes are nano-vesicles of endosomal origin inherited with characteristics of drug delivery and cargo loading. Exosomes offer a diverse range of opportunities that can be exploited in the treatment of various diseases post-functionalization. This membrane engineering is recently being used in the management of bacteria-associated diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the most crippling disease of society with a large share of its imposing economic burden. DM in a chronic state is associated with the development of micro- and macrovascular complications. DFU is among the diabetic microvascular complications with the consequent occurrence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Mesenchymal ...


Determinants Of Fine-Scale Heterogeneity In Mosquito-Borne Virus Systems, Elizabeth Handly Mayton 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Determinants Of Fine-Scale Heterogeneity In Mosquito-Borne Virus Systems, Elizabeth Handly Mayton

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are the etiological agents of much morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Many of these viruses are spread and maintained by mosquitoes, particularly the urban mosquito Aedes aegypti. Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for one of the largest vector-borne disease outbreaks in the past decade, affecting millions in Central and South America including a wave of microcephaly among newborns. Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to South America and is predicted to become an emergent public health threat. Describing the vector-virus transmission systems are critical for understanding the potential spread of ...


High-Throughput Human Primary Cell-Based Airway Model For Evaluating Influenza, Coronavirus, Or Other Respiratory Viruses In Vitro, A. L. Gard, Ping Liu, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, J. T. Borenstein 2021 Draper

High-Throughput Human Primary Cell-Based Airway Model For Evaluating Influenza, Coronavirus, Or Other Respiratory Viruses In Vitro, A. L. Gard, Ping Liu, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, J. T. Borenstein

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Influenza and other respiratory viruses present a significant threat to public health, national security, and the world economy, and can lead to the emergence of global pandemics such as from COVID-19. A barrier to the development of effective therapeutics is the absence of a robust and predictive preclinical model, with most studies relying on a combination of in vitro screening with immortalized cell lines and low-throughput animal models. Here, we integrate human primary airway epithelial cells into a custom-engineered 96-device platform (PREDICT96-ALI) in which tissues are cultured in an array of microchannel-based culture chambers at an air-liquid interface, in a ...


Comparative Genomics Reveals Thermal Adaptation And A High Metabolic Diversity In “Candidatus Bathyarchaeia”, Yan-Ling Qi, Paul N. Evans, Yu-Xian Li, Yang-Zhi Rao, Yan-Ni Qu, Sha Tan, Jian-Yu Jiao, Ya-Ting Chen, Brian P. Hedlund, Wen-Sheng Shu, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Wen Jun Li 2021 Sun Yat-Sen University

Comparative Genomics Reveals Thermal Adaptation And A High Metabolic Diversity In “Candidatus Bathyarchaeia”, Yan-Ling Qi, Paul N. Evans, Yu-Xian Li, Yang-Zhi Rao, Yan-Ni Qu, Sha Tan, Jian-Yu Jiao, Ya-Ting Chen, Brian P. Hedlund, Wen-Sheng Shu, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Wen Jun Li

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

"Candidatus Bathyarchaeia"is a phylogenetically diverse and widely distributed lineage often in high abundance in anoxic submarine sediments; however, their evolution and ecological roles in terrestrial geothermal habitats are poorly understood. In the present study, 35 Ca. Bathyarchaeia metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered from hot spring sediments in Tibet and Yunnan, China. Phylogenetic analysis revealed all MAGs of Ca. Bathyarchaeia can be classified into 7 orders and 15 families. Among them, 4 families have been first discovered in the present study, significantly expanding the known diversity of Ca. Bathyarchaeia. Comparative genomics demonstrated Ca. Bathyarchaeia MAGs from thermal habitats to encode ...


The Role Of Interspecies Recombination In The Evolution Of Antibiotic-Resistant Pneumococci, Joshua C. D'Aeth, Mark Pg van der Linden, Lesley McGee, Herminia de Lencastre, Paul Turner, Jae-Hoon Song, Stephanie W. Lo, Rebecca A. Gladstone, GPS Consortium, Sadia Shakoor 2021 Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

The Role Of Interspecies Recombination In The Evolution Of Antibiotic-Resistant Pneumococci, Joshua C. D'Aeth, Mark Pg Van Der Linden, Lesley Mcgee, Herminia De Lencastre, Paul Turner, Jae-Hoon Song, Stephanie W. Lo, Rebecca A. Gladstone, Gps Consortium, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae emerge through the modification of core genome loci by interspecies homologous recombinations, and acquisition of gene cassettes. Both occurred in the otherwise contrasting histories of the antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae lineages PMEN3 and PMEN9. A single PMEN3 clade spread globally, evading vaccine-induced immunity through frequent serotype switching, whereas locally circulating PMEN9 clades independently gained resistance. Both lineages repeatedly integrated Tn916-type and Tn1207.1-type elements, conferring tetracycline and macrolide resistance, respectively, through homologous recombination importing sequences originating in other species. A species-wide dataset found over 100 instances of such interspecific acquisitions of resistance cassettes and ...


High Seroprevalence Of Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies Among Ethiopian Healthcare Workers [Preprint], Tesfaye Gelanew, Jote T. Bulcha, Fikadu G. Tafesse, Alemseged Abdissa 2021 Armauer Hansen Research Institute

High Seroprevalence Of Anti-Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies Among Ethiopian Healthcare Workers [Preprint], Tesfaye Gelanew, Jote T. Bulcha, Fikadu G. Tafesse, Alemseged Abdissa

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background COVID-19 pandemic has a devastating impact on the economies and health care system of sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare workers (HWs), the main actors of the health system, are at higher-risk because of their occupation. Serology-based estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HWs represent a measure of HWs’ exposure to the virus and a guide to the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the community. This information is currently lacking in Ethiopia and other African countries. This study aimed to develop an in-house antibody testing assay, assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among Ethiopian high-risk frontline HWs.

Methods and findings A cross-sectional seroprevalence study ...


Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu 2021 Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine

Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu

Virology Papers

Human cerebral organoid (CO) is a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that recapitulates the developing human brain. While CO has proved an invaluable tool for studying neurological disorders in a more clinically relevant matter, there have still been several shortcomings including CO variability and reproducibility as well as lack of or underrepresentation of certain cell types typically found in the brain. As the technology to generate COs has continued to improve, more efficient and streamlined protocols have addressed some of these issues. Here we present a novel scalable and simplified system to generate microglia-containing CO (MCO). We characterize the cell ...


Modeling Site-Specific Nucleotide Biases Affecting Himar1 Transposon Insertion Frequencies In Tnseq Datasets [Preprint], Sanjeevani Choudhery, A. Jacob Brown, Chidiebere Akusobi, Eric J. Rubin, Christopher M. Sassetti, Thomas R. Ioerger 2021 Texas A&M University

Modeling Site-Specific Nucleotide Biases Affecting Himar1 Transposon Insertion Frequencies In Tnseq Datasets [Preprint], Sanjeevani Choudhery, A. Jacob Brown, Chidiebere Akusobi, Eric J. Rubin, Christopher M. Sassetti, Thomas R. Ioerger

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In bacterial TnSeq experiments, a library of transposons insertion mutants is generated, selected under various growth conditions, and sequenced to determine the profile of insertions at different sites in the genome, from which the fitness of mutant strains can be inferred. The widely used Himar1 transposon is known to be restricted to insertions at TA dinucleotides, but otherwise, few site-specific biases have been identified. As a result, most analytical approaches assume that insertion counts are expected a priori to be randomly distributed among TA sites in non-essential regions. However, recent analyses of independent Himar1 Tn libraries in M. tuberculosis have ...


Decomposition Of Microbial Necromass Is Divergent At The Individual Taxonomic Level In Soil, Weiling Dong, Alin Song, Huaqun Yin, Xueduan Liu, Jianwei Li, Fenliang Fan 2021 Central South University

Decomposition Of Microbial Necromass Is Divergent At The Individual Taxonomic Level In Soil, Weiling Dong, Alin Song, Huaqun Yin, Xueduan Liu, Jianwei Li, Fenliang Fan

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

The turnover of microbial biomass plays an important part in providing a significant source of carbon (C) to soil organic C. However, whether the decomposition of microbial necromass (non-living microbial biomass) in the soil varies at the individual taxa level remains largely unknown. To fill up these gaps, we compared the necromass decomposition of bacterial and archaeal taxa by separating live microbial biomass with 18O-stable isotope probing from dead microbial biomass in soil. Our results showed that most of the microbial necromass at the operational taxonomic unit level (88.51%), which mainly belong to Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Proteobacteria, decomposed ...


Protective Role Of Palmitoleate Against Zika Virus-Induced Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Protective Role Of Palmitoleate Against Zika Virus-Induced Apoptosis In Placental Trophoblasts, Philma Glora Muthuraj

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women causes congenital Zika syndrome which involves birth defects such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), retinal defects and microcephaly in the fetus. ZIKV infection results in placental pathology which plays a crucial role in disease transmission from mother to fetus. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved vaccine or therapeutic drug against ZIKV. In this thesis, we have elucidated the cell signaling pathways connected to ZIKV-induced apoptosis in trophoblasts and also the protective effect of palmitoleate against ZIKV-induced apoptosis. First, we demonstrated the molecular mechanism behind ZIKV-induced apoptosis using an in ...


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an ...


The Persistence Of Human Norovirus Surrogate In Leafy Greens Production System, Wenjun Deng 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Persistence Of Human Norovirus Surrogate In Leafy Greens Production System, Wenjun Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since mostly consumed raw, foodborne pathogen contamination of leafy greens has led to a large number of foodborne disease outbreaks and illnesses each year in the United States. Human noroviruses (hNoV) are the most common viral pathogen transmitted by leafy greens. In this dissertation, the persistence of the hNoV surrogate Tulane virus (TV) on pre-harvest lettuce and microgreens was investigated. Lettuces are the most studied leafy green model, while previous hNoV research has mainly focused on the post-harvest stage of production. Here, pre-harvest hydroponically grown lettuce were used to determine TV persistence on leafy greens. After inoculation on leaves at ...


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July 2021, College Of Natural Sciences 2021 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July 2021, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 2, Issue 7.

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Celebrating Three Years
Page 3 Summer School Travel
Page 4 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 5 Chemistry Teachers Visit
Page 5 Remembering Dr. Warren Hein
Page 6 Research Spotlights: Undergraduate Summer Experiences
Page 7 Open PRAIRIE Data; Grants Awarded in CNS


Evaluation Of Horizontal Gene Transfer Between Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria And Gram-Negative Bacteria, Andriana Chrysovalanti Zourou 2021 Old Dominion University

Evaluation Of Horizontal Gene Transfer Between Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria And Gram-Negative Bacteria, Andriana Chrysovalanti Zourou

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

As the world population is increasing and societies become more technology driven, there is an imperative to develop ‘green energy’ sources to protect our planet. Cyanobacteria that have been genetically engineered to produce organic compounds that may be burnt as fuels show great potential, as they are an environmentally friendly and self-renewable, net carbon-neutral option. However, there are potential risks in the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We need to understand in advance the risks that GMOs may pose to our environment and to animal and human health. This will enable experimental procedures, containment strategies and policies ...


Lead And Cadmium Detoxification By Halophilic Bacteria Isolated From Solar Salterns In Lebanon, Nadine G. Zmorrod N. G. Zmorrod, Nawal Al Hakawati, Ranya A. Amer, Hoda H. Yusef 2021 PhD Candidate , Faculty of Science , Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

Lead And Cadmium Detoxification By Halophilic Bacteria Isolated From Solar Salterns In Lebanon, Nadine G. Zmorrod N. G. Zmorrod, Nawal Al Hakawati, Ranya A. Amer, Hoda H. Yusef

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Water contamination by heavy metals has gained considerable attention globally. These inorganic pollutants can enter the aquatic environments via different routes thereby threatening biodiversity and human health. Lead and cadmium are hazardous pollutants where their removal by traditional techniques is identified to be costly and ineffective. However, bioremediation by extremophilic microorganisms is considered to be a promising technique as they have considerable potentials to grow in harsh environmental conditions. The present study deals with the isolation of halophilic bacterial isolates from solar salterns in North Lebanon. The isolate H1S9 was identified as Halomonas venusta H9 after showing tolerance to 500 ...


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