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Flavobacterium Gliding Motility: From Protein Secretion To Cell Surface Adhesin Movements, Joseph Johnston 2019 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Flavobacterium Gliding Motility: From Protein Secretion To Cell Surface Adhesin Movements, Joseph Johnston

Theses and Dissertations

Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits rapid gliding motility over surfaces. At least twenty genes are involved in this process. Seven of these, gldK, gldL, gldM, gldN, sprA, sprE, and sprT encode proteins of the type IX protein secretion system (T9SS). The T9SS is required for surface localization of the motility adhesins SprB and RemA, and for secretion of the soluble chitinase ChiA. This thesis demonstrates that the gliding motility proteins GldA, GldB, GldD, GldF, GldH, GldI and GldJ are also essential for secretion. Cells with mutations in the genes encoding any of these seven proteins had normal levels of gldK mRNA but ...


Properties Of Hiv-1 Env And Human Seminal Fluid That Determine Virus Inhibition By Antibodies And Microbicides, Jacklyn Johnson 2019 University of Iowa

Properties Of Hiv-1 Env And Human Seminal Fluid That Determine Virus Inhibition By Antibodies And Microbicides, Jacklyn Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes a persistent infection that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Approximately 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV-1, which is commonly acquired through sexual contact. Antiviral therapies control disease progression, but do not eliminate this virus from the host. Thus, global efforts are focused on developing vaccines that prevent HIV-1 transmission. Such vaccines are based on eliciting the production of protective antibodies that target the envelope glycoproteins (Envs) of this virus. Unfortunately, HIV-1 immunization trials have shown limited efficacy. A better understanding of the antibody-mediated inactivation process is needed to improve vaccine ...


16s Rrna Analysis And Toxin Gene Presence In Escherichia Coli Isolated From Beach Water And Sand At A Public Beach (Erie County, Ny), Jennifer D. Jackson 2019 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

16s Rrna Analysis And Toxin Gene Presence In Escherichia Coli Isolated From Beach Water And Sand At A Public Beach (Erie County, Ny), Jennifer D. Jackson

Biology Theses

Every year, thousands of people utilize beaches for recreation, but most are unaware of Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination and the possibility of acquiring an infection. In this study, 173 strains of E. coli were isolated from sand and adjacent waters from a public beach in Erie County, NY and analyzed for genetic relatedness based on sequence differences in the variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Some of the variable regions (V1 and V6) proved useful in constructing phylogenetic trees but the discriminatory power of these regions was inadequate to resolve intraspecies differences. Therefore, whether extant populations of E ...


Characterizing Nodule Endophyte Communities In Glycine Max And Lablab Purpureus Using Next-Generation Sequencing, Scott David McElveen 2019 Missouri State University

Characterizing Nodule Endophyte Communities In Glycine Max And Lablab Purpureus Using Next-Generation Sequencing, Scott David Mcelveen

MSU Graduate Theses

Biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in the root nodules of legumes is a significant source of agricultural nitrogen in global crop production systems. The influence of and interaction of factors involved in nodule endophyte selection remain poorly understood. In the present study, the influences of crop rotation (soybean-legume vs. cotton-legume) and recalcitrant soil organic matter (compost amendment) on the relative distribution of endophytic bacteria in the root nodules of greenhouse-grown soybean and lablab were investigated by extracting, amplifying, and sequencing 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nifH genes. Neither preceding crop nor compost amendment were found to have an influence on ...


Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari

Theses and Dissertations

The microbiotas play vital roles in health and diseases of both humans and animals. 16S rRNA genes sequence analysis is one of the most popular and commonly used methods in the analysis of microbiotas associated with hosts. In this dissertation, the microbiotas of chickens (broilers, breeders, and layers) and turkeys were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Characterization of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus in the chicken gut can serve as a valuable resource for probiotic development. In Chapter 2, Lactobacillus subpopulations recovered on MRS from chicken gut were defined comprehensively for the first time using 16S rRNA gene profiling ...


Microbiota Of Newborn Calves And Their Mothers Reveals Possible Transfer Routes For Newborn Calves’ Gastrointestinal Microbiota, Daniela Klein-Jöbstl, Narciso M. Quijada, Monika Dzieciol, Benjamin Feldbacher, Matrin Wagner, Marc Drillich, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Evelyne Mann 2019 University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

Microbiota Of Newborn Calves And Their Mothers Reveals Possible Transfer Routes For Newborn Calves’ Gastrointestinal Microbiota, Daniela Klein-Jöbstl, Narciso M. Quijada, Monika Dzieciol, Benjamin Feldbacher, Matrin Wagner, Marc Drillich, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Evelyne Mann

Animal Science Publications

The intestinal microbiota of newborns plays an important role in the development of immunity and metabolism. In livestock animals, knowledge of the intestinal microbiota is essential not only to prevent diseases but also to optimize weight gain and performance. The aim of our study was to examine faecal samples repeatedly within the first two days of life using 16S rRNA gene High Throughput Sequencing. Additionally, samples from the mouths of the calves and the vaginas, colostrum, and faeces of the dams were included to evaluate possible sources of the calf faecal microbiota. The calf faecal microbiota was highly variable during ...


Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez 2019 Selected Works

Cd21 And Cd24 Co-Expression: A Translational Model Between Mouse And Human, Abigail Benitez

Abigail Benitez, PhD

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis are B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases that afflict millions of people worldwide. B cell-targeted therapies for these diseases result in variable clinical outcomes. Thus, a need exists to better understand the dynamics of human B cell production and function. The mouse model has provided a foundation for understanding the mechanisms involved in human B cell development and autoimmune disease. However, differences in mouse and human B cells are not fully understood. Our work shows that the co-expression of CD21 and CD24, determined by 7-color flow cytometry, can be used to demarcate developmental subsets of B ...


Common Variants In The Glycerol Kinase Gene Reduce Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy, Michelle M. Bellerose, Seung-Hun Baek, Chuan-Chin Huang, Caitlin E. Moss, Eun-Ik Koh, Megan K. Proulx, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Jong Seok Lee, Seokyong Eum, Sung Jae Shin, Sang-Nae Cho, Megan Murray, Christopher M. Sassetti 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Common Variants In The Glycerol Kinase Gene Reduce Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy, Michelle M. Bellerose, Seung-Hun Baek, Chuan-Chin Huang, Caitlin E. Moss, Eun-Ik Koh, Megan K. Proulx, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Jong Seok Lee, Seokyong Eum, Sung Jae Shin, Sang-Nae Cho, Megan Murray, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Despite the administration of multiple drugs that are highly effective in vitro, tuberculosis (TB) treatment requires prolonged drug administration and is confounded by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. To understand the mechanisms that limit antibiotic efficacy, we performed a comprehensive genetic study to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes that alter the rate of bacterial clearance in drug-treated mice. Several functionally distinct bacterial genes were found to alter bacterial clearance, and prominent among these was the glpK gene that encodes the glycerol-3-kinase enzyme that is necessary for glycerol catabolism. Growth on glycerol generally increased the sensitivity of M. tuberculosis to antibiotics in ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker 2019 Southern Methodist University

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Teaching In A Competitive Science-Focused High School, Crystal Randall 2019 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Teaching In A Competitive Science-Focused High School, Crystal Randall

Faculty Publications & Research

• What is IMSA?
What students do we serve, our role in the school system
• Teaching and Research responsibilities
Responsibilities, course load, students, teaching philosophies, resources
• Other institutional responsibilities
• Job resources


Taxonomic Features And Comparison Of The Gut Microbiome From Two Edible Fungus-Farming Termites (Macrotermes Falciger, M. Natalensis) Harvested In The Vhembe District Of Limpopo, South Africa, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Courney A. Hofman, Shandukani R. Netschifhefhe, Frances D. Duncan, Tanvi P. Honap, Julie Lesnik, Cecil M. Lewis 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Taxonomic Features And Comparison Of The Gut Microbiome From Two Edible Fungus-Farming Termites (Macrotermes Falciger, M. Natalensis) Harvested In The Vhembe District Of Limpopo, South Africa, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Courney A. Hofman, Shandukani R. Netschifhefhe, Frances D. Duncan, Tanvi P. Honap, Julie Lesnik, Cecil M. Lewis

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Background Termites are an important food resource for many human populations around the world, and are a good supply of nutrients. The fungus-farming ‘higher’ termite members of Macrotermitinae are also consumed by modern great apes and are implicated as critical dietary resources for early hominins. While the chemical nutritional composition of edible termites is well known, their microbiomes are unexplored in the context of human health. Here we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of gut microbiota extracted from the whole intestinal tract of two Macrotermes sp. soldiers collected from the Limpopo region of South Africa. Results ...


Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Flow Cytometric Analysis Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria: A Case Study, Tin-Chun Chu, Ruchit Patel, Aline de Oliveira, Robert Newby Jr 2019 Seton Hall University

Flow Cytometric Analysis Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria: A Case Study, Tin-Chun Chu, Ruchit Patel, Aline De Oliveira, Robert Newby Jr

Tinchun Chu, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Intratypic Genetic Variability Of Human Adenovirus Type 4: Implication For Viral Pathogenesis, Camden Roy Bair 2019 University of New Mexico

Intratypic Genetic Variability Of Human Adenovirus Type 4: Implication For Viral Pathogenesis, Camden Roy Bair

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-E4) is a causative agent of acute respiratory disease and conjunctivitis worldwide. Two major lineages of HAdV-E4 genomic variants have been identified by their distinct BamHI restriction profiles: prototype-like (p-like) strains and the a-like genomic variants. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have shown a predominance of a-like genomic variants detected in association with disease which suggests a-like strains have a fitness advantage or they may be more pathogenic. The impact of HAdV-E4 intratypic genetic variability on in vitro and in vivo phenotypes relevant to pathogenesis is a major gap in knowledge. I hypothesize that HAdV-E4 comprises two ...


A Method For Improving The Accuracy And Efficiency Of Bacteriophage Genome Annotation, Alicia Salisbury, Philippos K. Tsourkas 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Method For Improving The Accuracy And Efficiency Of Bacteriophage Genome Annotation, Alicia Salisbury, Philippos K. Tsourkas

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Bacteriophages are the most numerous entities on Earth. The number of sequenced phage genomes is approximately 8000 and increasing rapidly. Sequencing of a genome is followed by annotation, where genes, start codons, and functions are putatively identified. The mainstays of phage genome annotation are auto-annotation programs such as Glimmer and GeneMark. Due to the relatively small size of phage genomes, many groups choose to manually curate auto-annotation results to increase accuracy. An additional benefit of manual curation of auto-annotated phage genomes is that the process is amenable to be performed by students, and has been shown to improve student recruitment ...


Position-Specific Metabolic Probing And Metagenomics Of Microbial Communities Reveal Conserved Central Carbon Metabolic Network Activities At High Temperatures, Scott C. Thomas, Kevin O. Tamadonfar, Cale O. Seymour, Dengxun Lai, Jeremy A. Dodsworth, Senthil K. Murugapiran, Emiley A. Eloe-Fadrosh, Paul Dijkstra, Brian P. Hedlund 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Position-Specific Metabolic Probing And Metagenomics Of Microbial Communities Reveal Conserved Central Carbon Metabolic Network Activities At High Temperatures, Scott C. Thomas, Kevin O. Tamadonfar, Cale O. Seymour, Dengxun Lai, Jeremy A. Dodsworth, Senthil K. Murugapiran, Emiley A. Eloe-Fadrosh, Paul Dijkstra, Brian P. Hedlund

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Temperature is a primary driver of microbial community composition and taxonomic diversity; however, it is unclear to what extent temperature affects characteristics of central carbon metabolic pathways (CCMPs) at the community level. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenome sequencing were combined with 13C-labeled metabolite probing of the CCMPs to assess community carbon metabolism along a temperature gradient (60–95°C) in Great Boiling Spring, NV. 16S rRNA gene amplicon diversity was inversely proportional to temperature, and Archaea were dominant at higher temperatures. KO richness and diversity were also inversely proportional to temperature, yet CCMP genes were similarly ...


Persistent Inflammation During Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment With Diabetes Comorbidity, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Thabata Alves, Paulo S. Silveira-Mattos, Michael S. Rocha, Kim West, Mohan Natarajan, Vijay Viswanathan, Subash Babu, Bruno B. Andrade, Hardy Kornfeld 2019 National Institutes of Health

Persistent Inflammation During Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment With Diabetes Comorbidity, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Basavaradhya S. Shruthi, Thabata Alves, Paulo S. Silveira-Mattos, Michael S. Rocha, Kim West, Mohan Natarajan, Vijay Viswanathan, Subash Babu, Bruno B. Andrade, Hardy Kornfeld

Open Access Articles

Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and adverse treatment outcomes. Systemic hyper-inflammation is characteristic in people with TB and concurrent DM (TBDM) at baseline, but the impact of TB treatment on this pattern has not been determined. We measured 17 plasma cytokines and growth factors in longitudinal cohorts of Indian and Brazilian pulmonary TB patients with or without DM. Principal component analysis revealed virtually complete separation of TBDM from TB individuals in both cohorts at baseline, with hyper-inflammation in TBDM that continued through treatment completion at six months. By one year after treatment completion, there was substantial ...


The Spatial Organization Of Mycobacterial Membrane, Julia Puffal 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Spatial Organization Of Mycobacterial Membrane, Julia Puffal

Doctoral Dissertations

Mycobacteria comprises a large group of organisms including the pathogenic species Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. A fast- growing saprophytic member of this genus, however, Mycobacterium smegmatis, is oftentimes used as a model organism for the pathogenic species. With a unique cell envelope architecture and unconventional polar growth, spatial coordination of cell envelope biosynthesis is vital for proper assembly of this complex structure. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of known lateral heterogeneities in mycobacterial plasma membrane, with a particular focus on the intracellular membrane domain (IMD), a spatially distinct region of the plasma membrane with diverse functions ...


Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena

Masters Theses

Bacteria have developed various means of secreting proteins that can enter the host cell membrane. In this work I focus on two systems: cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and Type III Secretion.

Cholesterol is a molecule that is critical for physiological processes and cell membrane function. Not only can improper regulation lead to disease, but also the role cholesterol plays in cell function indicates it is an important molecule to understand. In response to this need, probes have been developed that detect cholesterol molecules in membranes. However, it has been recently shown that there is a need for probes that only respond to ...


A Small Rna And Dna Binding Protein Contribute To Biofilm Development In Bartonella Henselae, Udoka Okaro 2019 University of South Florida

A Small Rna And Dna Binding Protein Contribute To Biofilm Development In Bartonella Henselae, Udoka Okaro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A biofilm, which is associated with 80% of chronic infections in humans, is formed when bacteria aggregate, attach to a substrate and secrete a matrix protecting the bacteria from host cell defenses and antibiotics. Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) is the causative agent of cat scratch disease, persistent bacteremia, and one of the most frequently reported causes of blood-culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) in patients. The ability of B. henselae to adhere to the heart valve, form a biofilm and vegetation to cause endocarditis increases the morbidity and mortality rate in infected patients. The presence of a trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) called ...


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