Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,549 Full-Text Articles 16,630 Authors 1,174,389 Downloads 214 Institutions

All Articles in Microbiology

Faceted Search

7,549 full-text articles. Page 6 of 245.

Comment: Probably A Good News: Covid-19 Is Not Spreading Fast In Tropical Region Like In Temperate Region, Madeeha Manzoor 2020 Bioresource Research Centre, Islamabad

Comment: Probably A Good News: Covid-19 Is Not Spreading Fast In Tropical Region Like In Temperate Region, Madeeha Manzoor

Journal of Bioresource Management

My understanding of Covid-19 is that, there are some climatic factors involved in seed spread of this virus. As it started from the area of China which falls under temperate zone, its second victim was Iran’s city Qom which also falls under temperate zone and third is Italy which is completely in temperate zone.

Data from two countries from Temperate zone and three countries from Tropical zone was compared. The days counted from the 100 cases each country reached as day one and further days studied on equal basis.


Mechanisms Of Silencing Suppression By A Polerovirus P0 Protein, Natalie Holste, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mechanisms Of Silencing Suppression By A Polerovirus P0 Protein, Natalie Holste, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Posters & Presentations in Biological Sciences

Maize lethal necrosis is an intense viral disease spreading across sub-Saharan Africa. Maize is the staple crop grown in sub-Saharan Africa, but most crops infected with maize lethal necrosis will not survive to harvest. This causes immense economic hardship and starvation within the population. Maize lethal necrosis consists of a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus from the genus potyvirus. In a recent study, a Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV)-like polerovirus, was repeatedly detected in plants with maize lethal necrosis. Poleroviruses have a silencing suppressor, P0 protein, and the mechanism of suppression is ...


Trim34 Restricts Hiv-1 And Siv Capsids In A Trim5alpha-Dependent Manner, Molly Ohainle, Kyusik Kim, Sevnur Komurlu Keceli, Abby Felton, Ed Campbell, Jeremy Luban, Michael Emerman 2020 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Trim34 Restricts Hiv-1 And Siv Capsids In A Trim5alpha-Dependent Manner, Molly Ohainle, Kyusik Kim, Sevnur Komurlu Keceli, Abby Felton, Ed Campbell, Jeremy Luban, Michael Emerman

Open Access Articles

The HIV-1 capsid protein makes up the core of the virion and plays a critical role in early steps of HIV replication. Due to its exposure in the cytoplasm after entry, HIV capsid is a target for host cell factors that act directly to block infection such as TRIM5alpha and MxB. Several host proteins also play a role in facilitating infection, including in the protection of HIV-1 capsid from recognition by host cell restriction factors. Through an unbiased screening approach, called HIV-CRISPR, we show that the CPSF6-binding deficient, N74D HIV-1 capsid mutant is sensitive to restriction mediated by human TRIM34 ...


Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates And Susceptibility To Clostridioides Difficile Infection, Keegan Schuchart, Jennifer Auchtung, Thomas Auchtung 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates And Susceptibility To Clostridioides Difficile Infection, Keegan Schuchart, Jennifer Auchtung, Thomas Auchtung

UCARE Research Products

This experiment looked into the effects of dietary microbiota accessible carbohydrates (MACs)on the composition of human GI microbe colonies and their susceptibility to pathogen infection. Three different concentrations of MAC ingrained media were tested in mini bioreactor arrays, treated with antibiotics, infected with Clostridioides difficile, then allowed to recover. Microbe community was examined for strain composition and diversity before and after the antibiotic treatment and Clostridioides difficile infection. After the initial mini bioreactor run, individual isolates were investigated in their ability to respond to specific MACs Arabinoglactina, Inulin, and Soluble starch at experimental concentrations.


Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus In State Fair Samples, Ana Castillo Jimenez 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus In State Fair Samples, Ana Castillo Jimenez

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

No abstract provided.


Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker

Publications and Research

Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an extremely versatile multidrug-resistant pathogen with a very high mortality rate; therefore, it has become crucial to understand the host response during its infection. Given the importance of mice for modeling infection and their role in preclinical drug development, equal emphasis should be placed on the use of both sexes. Through our studies using a murine model of acute pneumonia with A. baumannii, we observed that female mice were more susceptible to infection. Likewise, treatment of male mice with estradiol increased their susceptibility to infection. Analysis of the airway compartment revealed enhanced inflammation and reduced ...


Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-yuan Hsu 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Utilization Of Emulsion Chemistries For Delivery And Antiviral Application Of Carvacrol, Hao-Yuan Hsu

Masters Theses

Human norovirus (HuNoVs) are the most common enteric pathogen around the world that cause ~50% of foodborne illness of disease outbreaks annually. HuNoVs are the member of the Caliciviridae family, which consist of small (38 nm), unenveloped, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses. Norovirus are divided into 5 genogroup (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, GVI and GVII). The GI, GII, and GIV cause human illness, in addition, GII.4 genotype cause the most human disease. Due to HuNoVs are difficult cultured in vitro, the cultivable HuNoVs surrogates have been widely studied. Recently, some studies have been conducted with HuNoVs surrogates, for ...


Sars-Cov-2, Jeremy Luban 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sars-Cov-2, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

This presentation about the biology of Coronaviruses was presented virtually to the RNA Biology Journal Club at the University of Massachusetts Medical School on April 7, 2020.


Validation Of A Lysis Buffer Containing 4 M Guanidinium Thiocyanate (Gitc)/ Triton X-100 For Extraction Of Sars-Cov-2 Rna For Covid-19 Testing: Comparison Of Formulated Lysis Buffers Containing 4 To 6 M Gitc, Roche External Lysis Buffer And Qiagen Rtl Lysis Buffer, Martina F. Scallan, Catherine Dempsey, John McSharry, Isabelle O'Callaghan, Paula M. O'Connor, Conor P. Horgan, Edel Durack, Paul D. Cotter, Sarah Hudson, Humphrey A. Moynihan, Brigid Lucey 2020 School of Microbiology, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland

Validation Of A Lysis Buffer Containing 4 M Guanidinium Thiocyanate (Gitc)/ Triton X-100 For Extraction Of Sars-Cov-2 Rna For Covid-19 Testing: Comparison Of Formulated Lysis Buffers Containing 4 To 6 M Gitc, Roche External Lysis Buffer And Qiagen Rtl Lysis Buffer, Martina F. Scallan, Catherine Dempsey, John Mcsharry, Isabelle O'Callaghan, Paula M. O'Connor, Conor P. Horgan, Edel Durack, Paul D. Cotter, Sarah Hudson, Humphrey A. Moynihan, Brigid Lucey

Dept. of Biological Sciences Preprints

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased need for diagnostic testing using reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-PCR). An exponential increase in demand has resulted in a shortage of numerous reagents in particular those associated with the lysis buffer required to extract the viral RNA. Herein, we describe a rapid collective effort by hospital laboratory scientists, academic researchers and the biopharma industry to generate a validated lysis buffer. We have formulated a 4M Guanidinium thiocyanate (GITC)/ Triton X-100 Lysis buffer which provides comparable results with the recommended reagents. This buffer will ease the burden on hospital labs in their heroic efforts ...


Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil

UCARE Research Products

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes a disease called white mold that can infect more than 450 plant species including soybeans, dry beans, green beans, canola, and sunflower. This pathogen is capable of up to $252M in losses every year (U.S. Canola Association, 2014). Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease. However, resistance to the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations and there have been multiple reports of S. sclerotiorum isolates becoming resistant to certain fungicides. Since different fields in different states use different fungicide treatments on plants ...


Anthrax Event Detection Using Twitter: Analysis Of Unigram And Bigrams For Relevant Vs Non-Relevant Tweets, Michele Miller, William L. Romine 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Anthrax Event Detection Using Twitter: Analysis Of Unigram And Bigrams For Relevant Vs Non-Relevant Tweets, Michele Miller, William L. Romine

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Due to the lack of anthrax attacks in recent times, researchers have used naturally occurring events to assess their anthrax detection models, but these provide little information on how the models will perform in the context of an unannounced, intentional release of a bioterrorism agent, like anthrax. Therefore, it is important to develop a detection model using data surrounding real anthrax scares and events.We develop a methodology to detect an anthrax-related event on Twitter. We describe a process to separate the tweets concerning anthrax-related events from those not related so experts can address misconceptions and fears in real-time.Most ...


Functional Sites Within The Ihnv Nonvirion Protein That Regulate Host Cellular Responses, Jeff Ringiesn, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Douglas W. Leaman 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Functional Sites Within The Ihnv Nonvirion Protein That Regulate Host Cellular Responses, Jeff Ringiesn, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Douglas W. Leaman

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Fish Rhabdoviruses are responsible for causing fatal epizootics within commercial and wild populations of various fish species around the world. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), also known as the Salmonid novirhabdovirus, is enzootic along the Pacific Coast of North America and is comprised of five genogroups, each of which is endemic to a specific geographical location. Once the virus enters the host through the fin epithelia, IHNV infection causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid species. The disease is highly fatal and presents with signs such as abdominal distension, bulging of the eyes, anemia, and necrosis of vital organs such as ...


Creation Of An Influenza B Epigraph Vaccine, Leigh Jahnke, Kristine Hoagstrom, Eric A. Weaver 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Creation Of An Influenza B Epigraph Vaccine, Leigh Jahnke, Kristine Hoagstrom, Eric A. Weaver

UCARE Research Products

The CDC struggles to predict the upcoming influenza viruses resulting in an ineffective influenza vaccine. The 2019 – 2020 influenza vaccine provides an example of vaccine mismatch where the vaccine poorly matches the circulating influenza strains. We have created Influenza B Epigraph hemagglutinin (HA) immunogens that are computationally designed to select the greatest coverage of B and T cell epitopes in the natural population. Our preliminary data shows Epigraph immunogens induce superior cross-reactive antibody responses, overall T cell immunity, breadth of T cell epitopes, and protection against influenza virus. The primary goal of this study is to clone the influenza B ...


Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Potential Drivers In The Aquatic Environments, Shuo Shen 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Potential Drivers In The Aquatic Environments, Shuo Shen

Dissertations

As antibiotic resistance genes in aquatic environment have been increasing across the world, affecting water quality and public health, many studies documented concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes and some studies discussed their potential drivers. However, systematic and quantitative reviews that link antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to anthropogenic and environmental factors are limited. Nevertheless, this information will be important for developing regulation policy on controlling antibiotic use and therefore reducing potential risks to antibiotic resistance. I conducted meta-analysis of ARGs concentration at a global scale using Bayesian inference to explore climatic and socio-economic factors as drivers. I found local-scale climatic variables ...


Development Of An Attenuated Zika Virus By Editing The 5’ Untranslated Region, E. Ashley Thompson 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of An Attenuated Zika Virus By Editing The 5’ Untranslated Region, E. Ashley Thompson

Master's Theses

Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that usually causes no symptoms to mild febrile in humans, and it has been regarded as an insignificant pathogen to public health. However, recent outbreaks of ZIKV infection have revealed that ZIKV can cause severe neurological effects in adults, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), and in infants whose mothers acquired the virus during pregnancy, causing Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Currently, no approved vaccine is available and there is a critical need to develop an effective and safe vaccine. While most vaccine developmental strategies target the viral prM-E protein of ZIKV, we aimed to ...


Assembly And Identification Of Novel Viruses In The Aquatic Invertebrate Daphnia Magna, Freddy L. Gonzalez, Reilly O. Cooper, Clayton E. Cressler 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Assembly And Identification Of Novel Viruses In The Aquatic Invertebrate Daphnia Magna, Freddy L. Gonzalez, Reilly O. Cooper, Clayton E. Cressler

UCARE Research Products

Microbiome studies have been critical to understanding host health and life history. Many studies primarily focus on understanding the impacts of bacteria on the host, while fewer examine the impacts of viruses on host fitness or the interaction between viruses and bacteria within a host. Here, we utilized shotgun sequencing to identify whether viruses were present in the model organism Daphnia magna. VIBRANT, a bioinformatic tool that utilizes hybrid machine learning and protein similarity to identify lytic genomes and other novel viruses, was used on sequencing data from four samples of adult and juvenile Daphnia. We found a complete, novel ...


Enhanced Expression Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Mer (Mertk) On Socs3-Treated Polarized Raw 264.7 Anti-Inflammatory M2c Macrophages, Sankhadip Bhadra 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Enhanced Expression Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Mer (Mertk) On Socs3-Treated Polarized Raw 264.7 Anti-Inflammatory M2c Macrophages, Sankhadip Bhadra

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Macrophages are phagocytic cells located in tissues, organs and even circulated within our body as white blood cells. Based on the local cytokine milieu in tissue sites, macrophages may be polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Receptor tyrosine kinase Mer (MERTK) helps in clearing dead neutrophils and other apoptotic cells from damaged tissue sites preventing chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders. MERTK aids in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) present on the surface of apoptotic cells release “eat me” signals which are recognized by the two “bridging ligands” of MERTK receptor, Gas6 and ProS ...


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho ...


Genome Sequencing Analysis Of Laboratory Isolate Of Francisella Noatunensis Subs. Orientalis, Joseph Paquette 2020 University of Rhode Island

Genome Sequencing Analysis Of Laboratory Isolate Of Francisella Noatunensis Subs. Orientalis, Joseph Paquette

Senior Honors Projects

Francisella noatunensis subs. orientalis is a known fish pathogen that has been most notably isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Costa Rica. The genome of this Francisella species pathogen has been sequenced using Next-Generation Sequencing and been made available for the scientific community. Dr. Kathryn Ramsey’s research laboratory in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Rhode Island works with several Francisella species pathogens and is interested in identifying the differences, if any, between the known genome sequence of Francisella noatunensis and that of a laboratory isolate of the same species. With the use of ...


Compliance Of Hand Written Transfusion Requisition Form And Improvement After Online Request - A Clinical Audit, Nadia Nasir, Usman Shaikh, Natasha Ali, Shabneez Hussain 2020 Aga Khan University

Compliance Of Hand Written Transfusion Requisition Form And Improvement After Online Request - A Clinical Audit, Nadia Nasir, Usman Shaikh, Natasha Ali, Shabneez Hussain

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Objective: To assess the compliance of healthcare personnel with regard to sending completely filled transfusion requisition forms.
Methods: The audit was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised requisition slips received at the hospital blood bank from September 2014 to February 2015. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines was used as the standard. Percentage of each variable on the proforma was analsyed. Rating <50% for each form was defined as "needs improvement", 51-99% as "good compliance" and 100% as "excellent compliance". After implementing strategies to increase awareness and the launching of an online transfusion requisition form, a re-audit of physician compliance was done from February to April 2016 and the results were compared with the initial audit.. Data was analysed using SPSS 21.
Results: The audit and the re-audit both comprised 1000 transfusion requisition forms each. In the audit, The sum of total scores of all the transfusion requisition forms was 4911, indicating a compliance rate ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress