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Identification Of The Type Eleven Secretion System (T11ss) And Characterization Of T11ss-Dependent Effector Proteins, Alex S. Grossman 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Identification Of The Type Eleven Secretion System (T11ss) And Characterization Of T11ss-Dependent Effector Proteins, Alex S. Grossman

Doctoral Dissertations

Host-associated microbes live in dangerous environments as a result of host immune killing, nutrient provisioning, and physiological conditions. Bacteria have evolved a host of surface and secreted proteins to help interact with this host environment and overcome nutrient limitation. The studies included within this dissertation describe the identification of a novel bacterial secretion system which has evolved to transport these symbiosis mediating proteins. This system, termed the type eleven secretion system (T11SS), is present throughout the Gram negative phylum Proteobacteria, including many human pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis, Acinetobacter baumanii, Haemophilus haemolyticus, and Proteus vulgaris. Furthermore, …


Understanding The Molecular Mechanism Of Ilv1 Stress Sensitivity In Yeast By Examination Of Differential Patterns Of Gene Expression Between Wild-Type And Ilv1 Knockout Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Emily Schuster 2022 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Understanding The Molecular Mechanism Of Ilv1 Stress Sensitivity In Yeast By Examination Of Differential Patterns Of Gene Expression Between Wild-Type And Ilv1 Knockout Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Emily Schuster

Honors Theses

As arguably the most widely used industrial eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become one of the many model organisms used to study molecular genetics. A recent unpublished study at the University of Tennessee - Chattanooga showed that yeast cells that had the ILV1 gene knocked out had reduced survivability under stress conditions. This study then focused on the role of ILV1 in the stress response of cells by measuring the expression levels of 11 candidate genes that are all involved in some critical pathway in the yeast to see how gene expression was influenced as a result of the loss of …


Characterization Of Genetic Pathways Involved In Resistance To A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Kayla L. Haberman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Genetic Pathways Involved In Resistance To A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Kayla L. Haberman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Antibiotic resistance is increasing prevalence, particularly in Candida glabrata. This opportunistic pathogen is closely phylogenetically related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, its characterization is limited. C. glabrata is only second to Candida albicans as a fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Commonly resistant to azoles, the most common fungal therapy, it has become costly and challenging to treat. A histatin 5 derived antifungal peptide, KM29, has a high degree of efficacy in Candida species and S. cerevisiae. The objective of this work is to advance our understanding of the mechanism of action of KM29 against C. glabrata. Previous work in the lab …


Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard 2022 Western Kentucky University

Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mycobacteriophages are a group of phages that infect members of the genus Mycobacteria. Previous studies have conducted extensive comparisons of the mycobacteriophage genomes and amino acid sequences to establish different phage families. MooMoo is a singleton mycobacteriophage that has been characterized due to its lack of appreciable homology to other phages. Some of its unique properties include its structure and the isolation of a mutant that causes clear plaque phenotypes. The experiments described in this thesis identified three MooMoo phage (gp87, gp90, and gp91) encoded proteins that are toxic to the bacterial host, Mycobacterium smegmatis.Through the use of a …


Methanogen Metabolic Flexibility, Sean Carr 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Methanogen Metabolic Flexibility, Sean Carr

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Methanogens are obligately anaerobic archaea which produce methane as a byproduct of their respiration. They are found across a wide diversity of environments and play an important role in cycling carbon in anaerobic spaces and the removal of harmful fermentation byproducts which would otherwise inhibit other organisms. Methanogens subsist on low-energy substrates which requires them to utilize a highly efficient central metabolism which greatly favors respiratory byproducts over biomass. This metabolic strategy creates high substrate:product conversion ratios which is industrially relevant for the production of biomethane, but may also allow for the production of value-added commodities. Particularly of interest are …


Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski 2022 Florida State University

Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park

Doctoral Dissertations

The host-microbiome interaction and the functions of microbial-derived metabolites, including butyrate, are important in colon health. Butyrate is the preferred energy source in colonocytes and has multiple physiological functions in the colon. A metabolic shift in colonocytes toward increased glucose utilization from butyrate oxidation is followed by several critical genetic modifications in cancerous colonocytes. Moreover, it has been suggested that the gut-microbiota composition is influenced by environmental factors, such as diets and the host's physiological status. Therefore, an understanding of the role of colonocyte metabolism toward impacting the host-microbiota commensal relationship would be an important step in understanding the functional …


Functional Characterization Of A Putative Alternative Oxidase In Sporisorium Reilianum F. Sp. Zeae., Emma A Lamb 2022 University of Louisville

Functional Characterization Of A Putative Alternative Oxidase In Sporisorium Reilianum F. Sp. Zeae., Emma A Lamb

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Sporisorium reilianum is a pathogenic basidiomycete fungus with two formae speciales, each capable of infecting corn (SRZ) or sorghum (SRS), respectively. This fungus is also a dimorphic variety, meaning it can switch between its haploid, yeast-like sporidia and diploid teliospore stages over the course of its life cycle (Schirawski). When S. reilianum is found in a haploid state and conditions are favorable, it will mate with a compatible non-self mating type to begin filamentous growth and proliferation in the plant host (Zhao). S. relianum, like most fungi, utilizes the four classical components of the electron transport chain to produce …


Characterization Of Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis Sp. Nov., And Its Taxonomic Relatedness To Other Polyhydroxybutyrate-Degrading Streptomycetes, Gary R. Hix, Muhammad S. Khan, Mikayla T. Miller, Elisha C. Napier, Allison L. O'Brien, Roger P. White, Stephen F. Baron Ph.D. 2022 Bridgewater College

Characterization Of Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis Sp. Nov., And Its Taxonomic Relatedness To Other Polyhydroxybutyrate-Degrading Streptomycetes, Gary R. Hix, Muhammad S. Khan, Mikayla T. Miller, Elisha C. Napier, Allison L. O'Brien, Roger P. White, Stephen F. Baron Ph.D.

Biology Faculty Scholarship

A polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-degrading actinomycete, strain SFB5AT, was identified as a species of Streptomyces based on its membrane fatty acid profile and the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. It formed sporulating mycelia on most agar media, but flat or wrinkled, moist colonies on trypticase soy agar. Spores were smooth, cylindrical, and borne on long, straight to flexuous chains. It produced a light brown diffusible pigment, but not melanin. Comparison of genomic digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain SFB5AT was related to Streptomyces litmocidini JCM 4394T , Streptomyces …


Your Next Celebration At Us National Parks: A Case Emphasizing Lyme Neuroborreliosis (Bannwarth Syndrome), Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Harsha Surath, Justin Nistico, Dayakar Reddy 2022 Arnot Ogden Medical Center

Your Next Celebration At Us National Parks: A Case Emphasizing Lyme Neuroborreliosis (Bannwarth Syndrome), Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Harsha Surath, Justin Nistico, Dayakar Reddy

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Introduction:

Bannwarth syndrome is synonymous with Lyme neuroborreliosis. The neurological component consists of neuropathy, radicular pain, and lymphocytic pleocytosis. This is due to inflammation of the nerve fibers by Borrelia Burgdorferi. Borrelia Borgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria transmitted hematogenously from the Ixodes tick vector to the human host. The commonly known Lyme disease is diagnosed with symptoms of arthritis, heart block, and integumentary signs. Lyme disease can present as early disseminated or late manifestations of disease. Bannwarth syndrome takes it a step further and emphasizes the neurologic sub set of symptoms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates …


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life …


The Influence Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Enrichment Of Fe(Iii) Reducing Bacteria From Acid Mine Drainage, Susami Seth 2022 The University of Akron

The Influence Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Enrichment Of Fe(Iii) Reducing Bacteria From Acid Mine Drainage, Susami Seth

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It is hypothesized that the ocean of Europa, a Jupiter moon, hosts bacteria on its oceanic floor. Understanding how Fe(III) reducing bacteria (FeRB) from AMD utilize organic materials within its surrounding environment outlines how FeRB could thrive and tolerate extreme conditions. FeRB are known to tolerate metals and highly reactive oxidants species (ROS), but in this experiment, H2O2 was the experimental factor to further test FeRB tolerance. H2O2 is a common ROS and is damaging to living material such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. A range of H2O2 concentrations were fed …


An Integrative Investigation Of The Synechococcus A/B Clade During Adaptive Radiation At The Upper Thermal Limit Of Phototrophy, Christopher L. Pierpont 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

An Integrative Investigation Of The Synechococcus A/B Clade During Adaptive Radiation At The Upper Thermal Limit Of Phototrophy, Christopher L. Pierpont

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Thermophilic microorganisms have been scientifically observed since the early nineteenth century and have spurred many questions about the limits of life and the capacity of organisms to survive extreme conditions. Decades of research on thermophile proteins and genomes have yielded several proposed correlates of temperature that may contribute to adaptation of bacteria and archaea to high temperature. However, many of the generalizations reported are drawn from analyses of deeply divergent taxa or from individual case studies in isolation from mesophilic relatives. Members of the Synechococcus A/B (SynAB) group are the only cyanobacteria with members able to grow above 65 °C …


Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock

Theses & Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a metabolically versatile human pathogen, causing disease in many areas of the body. Its versatility can be attributed to the fact that it utilizes a variety of tools to adapt to many different environments, including toxins to scavenge from the host and multiple transporters to compete for its preferred carbon sources. S. aureus can also survive in harsh conditions through biofilm development, which are notoriously recalcitrant to antibiotics and immune defenses. Biofilms exhibit marked heterogeneity, with division of labor for production of matrix components and differential gene expression among various niches within the biofilm.

In this study, …


Determining The Ecological And Physiological Factors Contributing To The Competitive Success Of Prochlorococcus In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Benjamin C. Calfee 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining The Ecological And Physiological Factors Contributing To The Competitive Success Of Prochlorococcus In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Benjamin C. Calfee

Doctoral Dissertations

Prochlorococcus is a genus of extremely successful marine cyanobacteria. This success is realized through its pervasive biogeographical range and presence in almost all open ocean environments where it usually it the dominant phytoplankton. Limited capabilities of culturing and genetic manipulation of this organism have resulted in assumptions about this success overwhelmingly based on field observations. These studies have assumed adaptations for resource uptake and utilization in nutrient limited environments to cause dominance of Prochlorococcus over other photosynthetic microbes. In an attempt to definitively explain this through laboratory culture, we developed a culturing system to assay questions of nutrient limitation effects …


Perturbing Fatty Acid Metabolism In Enterococcus Faecalis Disrupts Responses To Exogenous Fatty Acids And The Antibiotic Daptomycin, Rachel D. Johnston 2021 Genome Science and Technology

Perturbing Fatty Acid Metabolism In Enterococcus Faecalis Disrupts Responses To Exogenous Fatty Acids And The Antibiotic Daptomycin, Rachel D. Johnston

Doctoral Dissertations

Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen. In the host, it is exposed to fatty acids which impact cellular physiology and induce tolerance to the antibiotic daptomycin. To determine the requirements for induction of daptomycin tolerance, I examined the impacts of blocking de novo fatty acid synthesis or protein synthesis and removing cell wall. I observed that removal of the cell wall induced daptomycin tolerance, indicating that peptidoglycan is necessary for daptomycin to function. As specific exogenous fatty acids induce protection against daptomycin in E. faecalis, I also opted to examine whether incorporation of these free fatty acids was necessary …


Image-Based Microbiome Profiling Differentiates Gut Microbial Metabolic States, Sarwesh Rauniyar 2021 Illinois State University

Image-Based Microbiome Profiling Differentiates Gut Microbial Metabolic States, Sarwesh Rauniyar

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Low-Molecular Weight Fungal Metabolites In Eutypa Dieback Grapevine Trunk Disease, Dana Sebestyen 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Role Of Low-Molecular Weight Fungal Metabolites In Eutypa Dieback Grapevine Trunk Disease, Dana Sebestyen

Masters Theses

Eutypa dieback, one of several grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), is of serious concern to the grape industry globally. This disease is caused by the fungus Eutypa lata but it is often seen in consortia growth with Phaeoacremonium minimum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. It is vital to understand the mechanisms for how this disease functions to develop control measures to combat it. Brown rot fungi are able to use a complex of low molecular weight (LMW) metabolites to induce a Fenton reaction to deconstruct woody tissue. These metabolites are part of a chelator mediated Fenton (CMF) chemistry that produces reactive oxygen …


The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Cell Wall Integrity And Programmed Cell Death During Biofilm Development, Bibek G C 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Cell Wall Integrity And Programmed Cell Death During Biofilm Development, Bibek G C

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen in both community and health care settings. Biggest challenges with S. aureus as a pathogen is its ability to acquire antibiotic resistance and produce robust biofilms. In this work, we investigated the nature of the cell wall defect in the msaABCR operon mutant in the Mu50 (VISA) and USA300 LAC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Results showed that msaABCR-mutant cells had decreased cell wall thickness and cell wall crosslinking in both strains. These defects are most likely due to increased murein hydrolase activity and/or nonspecific processing of murein hydrolases mediated by increased …


Increasing Stress Tolerance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Using Lipocalin Genes, Ximena Leon 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Increasing Stress Tolerance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Using Lipocalin Genes, Ximena Leon

Honors Theses

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a microorganism that is commonly used in industries, but its productivity is significantly hindered by its inability to resist high stress levels found in industrial processes. By increasing stress tolerance in S. cerevisiae, its role in industrial processes could be maximized. The objective of this study is to determine if complementation of lipocalin genes into the wildtype and knockout strains of S. cerevisiae can increase stress tolerance against a variety of stressors. We identified the knockout yeast strains, ALD3, ALD4, PDX3, and ILV1, as being sensitive to various stressors including salinity, heat, oxidative, and osmotic stresses. Arabidopsis …


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