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Predator-By-Environment Interactions Mediate Bacterial Competition In The Dictyostelium Discoideum Microbiome, R Fredrik Inglis, Odion Asikhia, Erica Ryu, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Predator-By-Environment Interactions Mediate Bacterial Competition In The Dictyostelium Discoideum Microbiome, R Fredrik Inglis, Odion Asikhia, Erica Ryu, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Interactions between species and their environment play a key role in the evolution of diverse communities, and numerous studies have emphasized that interactions among microbes and among trophic levels play an important role in maintaining microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we investigate how two of these types of interactions, public goods cooperation through the production of iron scavenging siderophores and predation by the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, mediate competition between two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens that were co-isolated from D. discoideum. We find that although we are able to generally predict the competitive outcomes between strains based ...


The Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis 2018 Carroll College

The Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of this experiment was to test whether alcohol induces starvation conditions in Tetrahymena thermophila. Prior research has shown that exposure to alcohol results in decreases in both the frequency of feeding and overall growth. For this experiment, it was hypothesized that these effects are due to a lack of energy available in the organism for feeding. This hypothesis was tested by monitoring food vacuole formation and expression of the PFK-1 gene in Tetrahymena that were exposed to alcohol. The PFK-1 gene was chosen because its encoded protein plays an essential role in cellular metabolism. For the experiment, control ...


The Effects Of Salt Concentration On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Crp1 Gene Expression, Anna Sapone, Rachel Tremaine,, Katie Mchugh 2018 Carroll College

The Effects Of Salt Concentration On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Crp1 Gene Expression, Anna Sapone, Rachel Tremaine,, Katie Mchugh

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The use of salt to remove ice from roads has resulted in increased salinity in many freshwater lakes in North America. For this project, we wanted to explore how environmental salt concentrations influence the rate of growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and expression of the CRP1 gene. We hypothesized that if the sodium concentration is increased in the media, Tetrahymena growth would decrease and expression of the CRP1 gene would increase. The CRP1 gene encodes a protein that helps regulate calcium concentrations within a cell based on the concentration of sodium ions. The media of the experimental group was treated with ...


Investigating Phenotypic And Genetic Variation In Quorum Sensing In Natural Isolates Of The Model Yeast, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Benedict Lenhart 2018 College of William and Mary

Investigating Phenotypic And Genetic Variation In Quorum Sensing In Natural Isolates Of The Model Yeast, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Benedict Lenhart

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Microbes can enact massive change to themselves and their environment through the process of quorum sensing (QS). Through the chemical and metabolic processes of QS, microbes can determine the concentration of cooperative cells in their environment, and if a “quorum” is reached, alter genetic expression to modify microbe behavior and take advantage of resources. Often this altered behavior involves cooperative formations, as is the case of yeast strains like Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. This vastly abundant microbe serves as a convenient and effective model organism for studies examing microbial communication, as well as model for developing treatments for related-yeast Candida albicans infections ...


Use Of Elispot Assay To Study Hbs-Specific B Cell Responses In Vaccinated And Hbv Infected Humans, Chen Tian, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Shixia Wang, Yang Li, Guiyang Wang, Juan Xia, Xiang-An Zhao, Rui Huang, Shan Lu, Chao Wu 2018 Nanjing University

Use Of Elispot Assay To Study Hbs-Specific B Cell Responses In Vaccinated And Hbv Infected Humans, Chen Tian, Yuxin Chen, Yong Liu, Shixia Wang, Yang Li, Guiyang Wang, Juan Xia, Xiang-An Zhao, Rui Huang, Shan Lu, Chao Wu

Open Access Articles

Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) plays a critical role in protecting against infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and were extensively studied in literature. At the same time, the status of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs)-specific B cells in both vaccinated and HBV infected people received limited attention. In the current study, we adopted a highly specific B-cell Enzyme Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISpot) assay to analyze HBs-specific B cells in various clinical settings: healthy individuals with the history of HBV vaccination before and after receiving an extra HBV vaccine boost, people chronically infected with HBV (CHB) in various clinical stages ...


Molecular Classification And Uv Tolerance Of Pigmented Antarctic Extremophiles, Aaron M. Perry 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Molecular Classification And Uv Tolerance Of Pigmented Antarctic Extremophiles, Aaron M. Perry

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Anaerobic Oxidation Of Ethane, Propane, And Butane By Marine Microbes: A Mini Review, Rajesh Singh, Michael S. Guzman, Arpita Bose 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Anaerobic Oxidation Of Ethane, Propane, And Butane By Marine Microbes: A Mini Review, Rajesh Singh, Michael S. Guzman, Arpita Bose

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The deep ocean and its sediments are a continuous source of non-methane short-chain alkanes (SCAs) including ethane, propane, and butane. Their high global warming potential, and contribution to local carbon and sulfur budgets has drawn significant scientific attention. Importantly, microbes can use gaseous alkanes and oxidize them to CO2, thus acting as effective biofilters. A relative decrease of these gases with a concomitant 13C enrichment of propane and n-butane in interstitial waters vs. the source suggests microbial anaerobic oxidation. The reported uncoupling of sulfate-reduction (SR) from anaerobic methane oxidation supports their microbial consumption. To date, strain BuS5 ...


Tumor Necrosis Factor Dynamically Regulates The Mrna Stabilome In Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes, Konstantinos Loupasakis, David Kuo, Upneet K. Sokhi, Christopher Sohn, Bethany Syracuse, Eugenia G. Giannopoulou, Sung Ho Park, Hyelim Kang, Gunnar Rätsch, Lionel B. Ivashkiv, George D. Kalliolias 2017 Hospital for Special Surgery

Tumor Necrosis Factor Dynamically Regulates The Mrna Stabilome In Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes, Konstantinos Loupasakis, David Kuo, Upneet K. Sokhi, Christopher Sohn, Bethany Syracuse, Eugenia G. Giannopoulou, Sung Ho Park, Hyelim Kang, Gunnar Rätsch, Lionel B. Ivashkiv, George D. Kalliolias

Publications and Research

During rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) activates fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) inducing in a temporal order a constellation of genes, which perpetuate synovial inflammation. Although the molecular mechanisms regulating TNF-induced transcription are well characterized, little is known about the impact of mRNA stability on gene expression and the impact of TNF on decay rates of mRNA transcripts in FLS. To address these issues we performed RNA sequencing and genome-wide analysis of the mRNA stabilome in RA FLS. We found that TNF induces a biphasic gene expression program: initially, the inducible transcriptome consists primarily of unstable transcripts but progressively switches ...


Candida And Pseudomonas Interact To Enhance Mucosal Infection In Transparent Zebrafish, Audrey C. Bergeron 2017 The University of Maine

Candida And Pseudomonas Interact To Enhance Mucosal Infection In Transparent Zebrafish, Audrey C. Bergeron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polymicrobial communities exist throughout the human body and include both fungi and bacteria. During disease, cross-kingdom interactions among bacteria, fungi, and/or the immune system can alter virulence and lead to complex polymicrobial infections. The fungus C. albicans is among the most commonly isolated fungi in the context of fungal-bacterial co-infections and is often accompanied by the bacterium P. aeruginosa at a variety of sites throughout the body including mucosal tissues such as the lung. In vitro, C. albicans and P. aeruginosa have a cyclic, bi-directional, and largely antagonistic relationship, but these interactions do not account for the role of ...


Intestinal Organoids Model Human Responses To Infection By Commensal And Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli, Sayali S. Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V. Ward, Alison A. Weiss 2017 University of Cincinnati

Intestinal Organoids Model Human Responses To Infection By Commensal And Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli, Sayali S. Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V. Ward, Alison A. Weiss

Open Access Articles

Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause the potentially fatal complication hemolytic uremic syndrome, and currently only supportive therapy is available. Lack of suitable animal models has hindered study of this disease. Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs), generated by in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, represent differentiated human intestinal tissue. We show that iHIOs with addition of human neutrophils can model E. coli intestinal infection and innate cellular responses. Commensal and O157:H7 introduced into the iHIO lumen replicated rapidly achieving high numbers. Commensal E. coli did not cause damage, and were completely contained ...


Development Of A Core Clostridium Thermocellum Kinetic Metabolic Model Consistent With Multiple Genetic Perturbations, Satyakam Dash, Ali Khodayari, Jilai Zhou, Evert K. Holwerda, Daniel Olson, Lee Lynd, Costas Maranas 2017 The Pennsylvania State University

Development Of A Core Clostridium Thermocellum Kinetic Metabolic Model Consistent With Multiple Genetic Perturbations, Satyakam Dash, Ali Khodayari, Jilai Zhou, Evert K. Holwerda, Daniel Olson, Lee Lynd, Costas Maranas

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive anaerobe with the ability to hydrolyze and metabolize cellulose into biofuels such as ethanol, making it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). At present, metabolic engineering in C. thermocellum is hindered due to the incomplete description of its metabolic repertoire and regulation within a predictive metabolic model. Genome-scale metabolic (GSM) models augmented with kinetic models of metabolism have been shown to be effective at recapitulating perturbed metabolic phenotypes.

In this effort, we first update a second-generation genome-scale metabolic model (iCth446) for C. thermocellum by correcting cofactor dependencies, restoring elemental and charge balances, and ...


Scanning Labyrinthulomycete Genomes For Yeast Transcription Factor Binding Site Motifs, Jackie L. Collier, Joshua Rest 2017 SUNY Stony Brook

Scanning Labyrinthulomycete Genomes For Yeast Transcription Factor Binding Site Motifs, Jackie L. Collier, Joshua Rest

Interdisciplinary Research Data

To develop broadly useful methods for the genetic manipulation of Labyrinthulomycetes (a diverse group of ubiquitous osmoheterotrophic marine protists), it is essential to understand the similarities and differences in regulation of gene expression among them. Toward this end we have used FIMO from the MEME suite (http://meme-suite.org/doc/fimo.html) to identify potential transcription factor binding sites in each of the three available genome sequences: Aplanochytrium kerguelense PBS07, Schizochytrium aggregatum ATCC 28209, and Aurantiochytrium limacinum ATCC MYA-1381


Loss Of Outer Membrane Porins In Clonally Related Clinical Isolates Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Modifies The Bacteria; Resulting In Altered Resistance To Phagocytosis By Macrophages, Debra Nickole Brunson 2017 University of North Florida

Loss Of Outer Membrane Porins In Clonally Related Clinical Isolates Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Modifies The Bacteria; Resulting In Altered Resistance To Phagocytosis By Macrophages, Debra Nickole Brunson

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for lobar pneumoniae, liver abscess, and septicemia. Clinical isolates are found to be extended spectrum beta lactamase positive with differential expression of the two classical porins, OmpK35 and OmpK36. Porin loss is associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta lactam, cephalosporin, and carbapenem antibiotics that target the peptidoglycan. However, little is known about how porin loss affects other aspects of the cell envelope. The focus of this study was to characterize clinical isolates exhibiting differential porin expression and determine if the cumulative changes altered the resistance to phagocytosis by macrophages. The results ...


Measuring Bacterial Growth Using A 3d-Printable Spectrometer, Samuel R. Bunting 2017 The University of Akron

Measuring Bacterial Growth Using A 3d-Printable Spectrometer, Samuel R. Bunting

Honors Research Projects

Visible light spectroscopy is a commonly used technique for measuring the growth of bacterial cultures, and growth curves provide broadly important data. However, the equipment and resources required for these experiments has been restricted to higher education and industry due to high cost and sophistication. We have previously reported on an inexpensive, 3D-printable photospectrometer called the SpecPhone. This device utilizes an iPhone as the camera, along with several other, inexpensive additions to make a fully functional spectrometer. Here, the application of the SpecPhone is expanded to the quantification of actively dividing E. coli cultures. Two protocols have been developed; one ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Proteomic Approach For Extracting Cytoplasmic Proteins From Streptococcus Sanguinis Using Mass Spectrometry, Fadi Elrami, Kristina Nelson, Ping Xu 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Proteomic Approach For Extracting Cytoplasmic Proteins From Streptococcus Sanguinis Using Mass Spectrometry, Fadi Elrami, Kristina Nelson, Ping Xu

Philips Institute for Oral Health Research Publications

Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal and early colonizer of oral cavity as well as an opportunistic pathogen of infectious endocarditis. Extracting the soluble proteome of this bacterium provides deep insights about the physiological dynamic changes under different growth and stress conditions, thus defining “proteomic signatures” as targets for therapeutic intervention. In this protocol, we describe an experimentally verified approach to extract maximal cytoplasmic proteins from Streptococcus sanguinis SK36 strain. A combination of procedures was adopted that broke the thick cell wall barrier and minimized denaturation of the intracellular proteome, using optimized buffers and a sonication step. Extracted proteome was quantitated ...


Analysis Of The Prevention Of Biocorrosion Caused By Desulfovibrio Alaskensis G20, Michael Boring 2017 University of Central Florida

Analysis Of The Prevention Of Biocorrosion Caused By Desulfovibrio Alaskensis G20, Michael Boring

Honors in the Major Theses

Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 and other sulfate-reducing bacteria cause significant damage to metal pipelines and other infrastructure through a metabolic pathway that releases toxic hydrogen sulfide into their surroundings. The biocorrosion that results from the release of hydrogen sulfide creates significant economic burden, and can pose health risks for those exposed to this chemical. They are commonly present in the form of biofilms, an extracellular matrix composed of bacterial cells, polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and other materials. These biofilms are difficult to remove, and they provide protection to the bacteria within from anti-bacterial treatments. Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 is a strain derived ...


Discovery And Characterization Of Bile Acid And Steroid Metabolism Pathways In Gut-Associated Microbes, Spencer Harris 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Discovery And Characterization Of Bile Acid And Steroid Metabolism Pathways In Gut-Associated Microbes, Spencer Harris

Theses and Dissertations

The human gut microbiome is a complex microbial ecosystem residing in the lumen of our gastrointestinal tract. The type and amounts of microbes present in this ecosystem varies based on numerous factors, including host genetics, diet, and environmental factors. The human gut microbiome plays an important role in normal host physiological functions, including providing energy to colonocytes in the form of short-chain fatty acids. However, gut microbial metabolites have also been associated with numerous disease states. Current tools for analyzing the gut microbiome, such as high-throughput sequencing techniques, are limited in their predictive ability. Additionally, “-omic” approaches of studying the ...


Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi

Jennifer Hayashi

Mycobacterium is a diverse genus of actinobacteria that includes the causative agents of human tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are protected by their unique, multilaminar cell envelope, which grants them intrinsic resistance to environmental challenges such as antibiotics. This essential cellular structure is elongated at the polar ends of cells, but the regulation of cytosolic precursor synthesis and localized envelope synthesis remains unclear. Here, we present the PMf (plasma membrane free of cell wall components), a membrane domain distinct from the bulk plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proteomic and lipidomic characterization demonstrate that the PMf contains lipidic substrates ...


Tetrameric Photosystem I: From Initial Discovery And Characterization In Chroococcidiopsis Sp. Ts-821 To Exploration Of Its Distribution And Understanding Of Its Significance In Cyanobacteria, Meng Li 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tetrameric Photosystem I: From Initial Discovery And Characterization In Chroococcidiopsis Sp. Ts-821 To Exploration Of Its Distribution And Understanding Of Its Significance In Cyanobacteria, Meng Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Photosystem I (PSI) forms trimeric complexes in most characterized cyanobacteria. We had reported the tetrameric form of PSI in the unicellular cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. TS-821 (TS-821). Using Cryo-EM, a 3D model of the PSI tetramer structure at 11.5 [Angstrom] resolution was obtained and a 2D map within the membrane plane of at 6.1 [Angstrom]. In contrast to the three-fold symmetry in trimeric PSI crystal structure from T. elongatus, two different inter-monomer interactions involving PsaLs are found in the PSI tetramer. Phylogenetic analysis based on PsaL protein sequences shows that TS-821 is closely related to heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. Additionally, this ...


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