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7,357 full-text articles. Page 5 of 263.

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences 2022 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 3, Issue 5

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards & Recognition
Page 3 Resources for Student Success
Page 4 Welcome to New Faculty & Staff
Page 5 Summer Activities in CNS
Page 9 Celebrating the lives of those who touched the College
Page 10 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 12 Open PRAIRIE Data
Page 13 Snaps from he start of the semester
Page 14 Science as Art Competition




Exploring Microbes At Wind Cave As An Analog For Exobiological Environments Off Earth, Abby K. Sliwiniski, Emma W. Pellegrino, Nicole Geerdes, Marek K. Sliwinski 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Exploring Microbes At Wind Cave As An Analog For Exobiological Environments Off Earth, Abby K. Sliwiniski, Emma W. Pellegrino, Nicole Geerdes, Marek K. Sliwinski

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

Subterranean environments on Earth serve as an analog for the study of microbes on other planets. This has become an active area of research with the discovery of exoplanets. To learn about the microbial species living in Wind Cave, we are comparing methods to sample environmental DNA because most microbes cannot be cultivated using standard laboratory methods. We are then probing the environmental DNA with broad primers that are designed to amplify most life and narrower primers such as those specific to the domain Archaea. Of the methods compared, the Qiagen DNeasy Powerbiofilm kit produced the purest template as measured …


Arsr Family Regulator Msmeg_6762 Mediates The Programmed Cell Death By Regulating The Expression Of Hnh Nuclease In Mycobacteria, Xiangke Duan, Xue Huang, Junqi Xu, Xue Li, Jingjing Niu, Xiaoli Du, Xiaoyu Wang, Jiang Li, Michael Kelly, Jiaohan Guo, Ke Zhang, Yu Huang, Biao Kan, Jianping Xie 2022 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Arsr Family Regulator Msmeg_6762 Mediates The Programmed Cell Death By Regulating The Expression Of Hnh Nuclease In Mycobacteria, Xiangke Duan, Xue Huang, Junqi Xu, Xue Li, Jingjing Niu, Xiaoli Du, Xiaoyu Wang, Jiang Li, Michael Kelly, Jiaohan Guo, Ke Zhang, Yu Huang, Biao Kan, Jianping Xie

Biology Student Work

Programmed cell death (PCD) is the result of an intracellular program and is accomplished by a regulated process in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Here, we report a programed cell death process in Mycobacterium smegmatis, an Actinobacteria species which involves a transcription factor and a DNase of the HNH family. We found that over-expression of an ArsR family member of the transcription factor, MSMEG_6762, leads to cell death. Transcriptome analysis revealed an increase in the genes’ transcripts involved in DNA repair and homologous recombination, and in three members of HNH family DNases. Knockout of one of the DNase genes, MSMEG_1275, …


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in …


Growth Outcomes Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme Knockouts In Conditions Mimicking The Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment, Amani Gaddy 2022 Kennesaw State University

Growth Outcomes Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme Knockouts In Conditions Mimicking The Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment, Amani Gaddy

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a Gram-negative bacterium, often found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and can lead to the decline of lung functioning and premature death in 80% of infected patients when microcolonies form within the mucin of the lung. Due to its major capacity for antibiotic resistance, an alternative strategy towards defending against the bacterial invasion of PA is by the antibacterial activity of our own innate immune system with use of elements such as lysozyme. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme class 1 (Ivyp1) is a periplasmic protein produced by gram-negative bacteria that inhibits the enzymatic activity of …


Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ecological niche of polyextremotolerant fungi within oligotrophic ecosystems such as biological soil crusts has not yet been determined. These fungi persist in locations where nutrients are depleted while simultaneously surrounded by autotrophic microbes such as algae and cyanobacteria. Yet it has not been shown that they are engaging in any exchange of nutrients the way lichens do. However, there is seemingly no other way for these fungi to obtain vital nutrients, such as carbon or nitrogen, other than from these microbes. Here we have isolated polyextremotolerant fungi from cold desert biological soil crusts which are a microbial biofilm that …


Analysis Of Geographic Variability Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Fratercula Arctica And Cross-Comparison Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Different Avian Feeding Types, Eric Jose Ramon Martinez 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Analysis Of Geographic Variability Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Fratercula Arctica And Cross-Comparison Of Fecal Microbiomes Of Different Avian Feeding Types, Eric Jose Ramon Martinez

LSU Master's Theses

Gastrointestinal (gut) microbiota have a multitude of effects on their host, from aiding in digestion, to facilitating nutrient uptake, detoxification, and interactions with the immune system. Multiple factors have been identified that influence the composition of vertebrate microbiomes; these include host genetics, environmental conditions, diet and age, sex, and geography. However, broad inferences about wild avian gut microbial diversity and function under natural conditions are limited. Most knowledge on avian microbiomes is derived from studies on domestic poultry. Information on non-model taxa may provide important contextual information about vertebrate host-microbiome interactions and aid in future management of vulnerable species. Here, …


Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mucosal Attachment And Colonization By Clostridioides Difficile, Ben Sidner 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mucosal Attachment And Colonization By Clostridioides Difficile, Ben Sidner

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium which causes gastrointestinal disease and is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Although infection typically occurs following antibiotic therapy, in recent years there has been an increase in infections which are not preceded by antibiotic use. Additionally, community-associated infections and rates of disease recurrence have increased. While it is understood that a healthy gastrointestinal microbiota provides protection against infection, the molecular mechanisms which underly C. difficile's ability to colonize and persist in the gut are mostly unknown. Building on work from others that suggests C. difficile associates with the outer mucus …


Methanogen Metabolic Flexibility, Sean Carr 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Methanogen Metabolic Flexibility, Sean Carr

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Methanogens are obligately anaerobic archaea which produce methane as a byproduct of their respiration. They are found across a wide diversity of environments and play an important role in cycling carbon in anaerobic spaces and the removal of harmful fermentation byproducts which would otherwise inhibit other organisms. Methanogens subsist on low-energy substrates which requires them to utilize a highly efficient central metabolism which greatly favors respiratory byproducts over biomass. This metabolic strategy creates high substrate:product conversion ratios which is industrially relevant for the production of biomethane, but may also allow for the production of value-added commodities. Particularly of interest are …


Tissue Decay Tested In Modern Metasequoia Leaves: Implications For Early Diagenesis Of Leaves In Fossil Lagerstätten, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Qin Leng, Christopher W. Reid, Liang Feng, Hong Yang 2022 Bryant University

Tissue Decay Tested In Modern Metasequoia Leaves: Implications For Early Diagenesis Of Leaves In Fossil Lagerstätten, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Qin Leng, Christopher W. Reid, Liang Feng, Hong Yang

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

Sedimentary deposits yielding extraordinarily-preserved fossils (known as Lagerstätten) may provide significant insights into the physiology and environments of ancient plants, particularly when the fossils represent their original characteristics with limited diagenetic modifications. To better understand molecular, isotopic, and morphological changes during the early stages of diagenesis, degradation experiments were conducted in two time series: 1) a laboratory decay series using fungi on leaves over the course of a month and 2) a natural decay series with leaves collected from different stages of leaf senescence and early diagenesis. Both experiments used modern leaves of the dawn redwood Metasequoia glyptostroboides …


Effects Of Surface Topography On Macrophages And Bacterial Cells, Joseph Carnicelli 2022 Syracuse University

Effects Of Surface Topography On Macrophages And Bacterial Cells, Joseph Carnicelli

Theses - ALL

An association has been found between the texture of breast implants and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which led to some textured implants to be withdrawn from the market in 2019. There is evidence that these cancers are associated with the harboring of bacteria on the surfaces of the textured implants. It is possible that specific topographic features hinder the removal of attached bacteria by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis or promoting biofilm formation. Here we examine how bacteria and macrophages interact with recessive surface topographies as analogs to the surfaces seen on textured breast implants. Changes in bacteria morphology were observed among …


Molecular Identification Of Cryptococcus Neoformans Isolates From House Environments Of Hiv-Infected Patients In An Urban Area, Indonesia: A First Report, Machrumnizar Machrumnizar, Robiatul Adawiyah, Tjahjani Natriana, Darma Imran, Mohammad Muslim, Sjamsuridzal Wellyzar, Retno Wahyuningsih 2022 Magister Programme of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10440, Indonesia

Molecular Identification Of Cryptococcus Neoformans Isolates From House Environments Of Hiv-Infected Patients In An Urban Area, Indonesia: A First Report, Machrumnizar Machrumnizar, Robiatul Adawiyah, Tjahjani Natriana, Darma Imran, Mohammad Muslim, Sjamsuridzal Wellyzar, Retno Wahyuningsih

Makara Journal of Science

Cryptococcus neoformans isolates were previously obtained from pigeon droppings in Jakarta. This study aimed to determine another source of infection and describe the supporting niche of the fungus. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 110 samples of decaying wood and leaves, tree hollow debris, dust, and bird droppings. Yeasts isolates were collected from 22 houses of HIV-infected patients. The isolates were identified based on culture characteristics, an assimilation test, and URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction. The spatial analysis was conducted in geographical information system to determine dominant house and environmental factors. Seven of the 120 …


Jatropha Tanjorensis A Flora Of Southeast Nigeria: Isolation And Characterization Of Naringenin And Validation Of Bio-Enhanced Synergistical Activity Of Α- Tocopherol Toward Clinical Isolates Of Resistant Bacterial, Ikechukwu Kingsley Ijoma, Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu Ajiwe 2022 Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State 420007, Nigeria

Jatropha Tanjorensis A Flora Of Southeast Nigeria: Isolation And Characterization Of Naringenin And Validation Of Bio-Enhanced Synergistical Activity Of Α- Tocopherol Toward Clinical Isolates Of Resistant Bacterial, Ikechukwu Kingsley Ijoma, Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu Ajiwe

Makara Journal of Science

Jatropha tanjorensis is among the rich floras of Southeast Nigeria and used by ethnic people to treat infections and manage health conditions. Ethnomedicine has long been employed in the treatment of ailments caused by bacterial pathogens. Studies showed that the incorporation of synthetic α-tocopherol to an antibacterial agent improves its activity. However, knowledge about the antibacterial-enhanced activity of plant-based α-tocopherols, especially those isolated from Jatropha tanjorensis, is limited because of the different bioactivities of synthetic and natural α-tocopherols. To determine the phytochemicals in J. tanjorensis, we carried out the structural elucidation of its leaf extracts. Naringenin and α-tocopherol …


Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John MacMicking, Sheng Yang He 2022 Duke University

Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John Macmicking, Sheng Yang He

Biology Faculty Publications

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change affect many aspects of plant and animal life, including the response to infectious diseases. Production of salicylic acid (SA), a central plant defence hormone, is particularly vulnerable to suppression by short periods of hot weather above the normal plant growth temperature range via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that suppression of SA production in Arabidopsis thaliana at 28 °C is independent of PHYTOCHROME B (phyB) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), which regulate thermo-responsive plant growth and development. Instead, we found that formation of GUANYLATE BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (GBPL3) defence-activated biomolecular condensates (GDACs) …


Presence Of Blaper-1 And Blaveb-1 Beta-Lactamase Genes Among Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa From Burn And Trauma Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, Suleman khan, Samiyah Tasleem, AlFarah Rehmat ullah,, Sarwat Moon, Saad Alghamdi, Raina Saad Suliman, Muhammad Ateeq, Muhmmad Salman, Anas S. Dablool,, Banan Atwah, Farkad Bantun 2022 Department of Health and Biological Sciences Abasyn University Peshawar, Pakistan.

Presence Of Blaper-1 And Blaveb-1 Beta-Lactamase Genes Among Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa From Burn And Trauma Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, Suleman Khan, Samiyah Tasleem, Alfarah Rehmat Ullah,, Sarwat Moon, Saad Alghamdi, Raina Saad Suliman, Muhammad Ateeq, Muhmmad Salman, Anas S. Dablool,, Banan Atwah, Farkad Bantun

Journal of Bioresource Management

Pseudomonas aeruginosa spp are the most prevalent bacteria that cause nosocomial infections in hospitals. Most antibiotics, including novel new β-lactams, are already resistant to them, and they can become resistant during treatment, which can make the treatment fail. P. aeruginosa isolates from ICU patients who had Per-1 and VEB-1 were the main focus of this study. These two ESBLs are the two most common in ICU patients who had them. 50 isolates were gathered from Peshawar's LRH ICU facilities in the year 2021. The antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute's standards (CLSI). …


Assessing The Human-Health Risk Of Exposure To Pathogens From Beach Sands, Javier Federico Gallard-Góngora 2022 University of South Florida

Assessing The Human-Health Risk Of Exposure To Pathogens From Beach Sands, Javier Federico Gallard-Góngora

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fecal contamination at recreational beaches impacts the health of beachgoers, through the introduction of disease-causing microorganisms, and the well-being of communities dependent on income from recreational beach activities. Beach ecosystems are also impacted by sewage through the introduction of nutrients that can cause abnormal increases in autochthonous microorganisms which can impact the population of larger organisms in the ecosystem. Fecal contamination is introduced into sand via untreated sewage, direct deposition of human feces into sand, runoff, and deposition of animal feces into sand. The introduction of fecal contamination into sand exposes individuals to pathogens (disease causing microorganisms) which can result …


Nitrogen Fixation Rates In Forested Mountain Streams: Are Sediment Microbes More Important Than Previously Thought?, Erica A. H. Bakker, Carmella Vizza, Clay Arango, Sarah S. Roley 2022 Washington State University

Nitrogen Fixation Rates In Forested Mountain Streams: Are Sediment Microbes More Important Than Previously Thought?, Erica A. H. Bakker, Carmella Vizza, Clay Arango, Sarah S. Roley

Biology Faculty Scholarship

  1. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation, the microbial conversion of N2 gas to ammonia, makes N available to food webs. Low-N streams often have a high relative abundance of N-fixing taxa, suggesting that N fixation is an important N source in these systems. Despite this potential, stream N fixation has not been well-characterised, particularly compared to lakes and marine environments. One unknown is the relative contributions of various N-fixing organisms, particularly heterotrophic microbes.
  2. In low-N streams in the Cascade Mountains (Washington, USA), three groups of N-fixers predominate: cyanobacteria (Nostoc paramelioides) colonies that house a midge symbiont (Cricotopus spp.), …


Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli And EnterococcusSpp. In Sand And Water At Tampa Bay Beaches, Jennifer K. Sabater 2022 University of South Florida

Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia Coli And EnterococcusSpp. In Sand And Water At Tampa Bay Beaches, Jennifer K. Sabater

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As antibiotic resistance in the environment continues to rise there is an increased concern that infections may become harder to treat as bacteria acquire genes for multidrug resistance. Recreational beach waters in the Tampa Bay area are routinely monitored by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection for the presence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and enterococci. Exceedances of beach action values (BAV) 235 CFU/100 mL (E. coli) and 70 CFU/100 mL (enterococci) indicate the presence of fecal contamination which is associated with an increased risk of disease for beachgoers. Antibiotic-resistant E. coli and Enterococcus spp. have …


Exploring Melatonin As A Treatment For Oral Ulcers, William H. Sutherland 2022 Brigham Young University

Exploring Melatonin As A Treatment For Oral Ulcers, William H. Sutherland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The hormone melatonin is best known for its role in the sleep-wake cycle, but its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects have significant implications that have not been fully explored in oral health. Some studies use melatonin to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, including duodenal ulcers and oral mucositis, but we found no study reporting its effects on more common oral ulcers, like aphthous stomatitis. We hypothesize that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics of melatonin could effectively prevent and heal oral ulcers. In this paper, we review the literature on melatonin to propose its use as a treatment for oral ulcers. We also include …


Investigating The Antagonistic Activity Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Against Uropathogenic E. Coli., Ciara Kenneally 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigating The Antagonistic Activity Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Against Uropathogenic E. Coli., Ciara Kenneally

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is the presence of bacteria in urine, resembling a state of commensalism. Bacteria are characterised as ABU when they have been isolated from two consecutive urine samples (≥ 105 CFU/ml) from individuals, but without symptoms attributable to a urinary tract infection (UTI). ABU Escherichia coli strains have evolved from uropathogenic ancestors and lack virulence factors associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). UPEC are the main etiological agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs), attributable to > 80% of cases. The frequency at which multidrug-resistant UPEC are isolated is affecting guidelines for use of former first-line antibiotics for UTIs, …


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