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Impact Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Conyza Canadensis Drought Responses And Possible Mechanisms, Kian G.M. Speck, Ylva Lekberg, Anna Sala 2021 University of Montana, Missoula

Impact Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Conyza Canadensis Drought Responses And Possible Mechanisms, Kian G.M. Speck, Ylva Lekberg, Anna Sala

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important plant mutualists that can facilitate plant responses to various environmental stressors, such as drought. A plant that may benefit from AMF-induced drought tolerance is Conyza canadensis due to its ability to thrive in dry conditions and its high colonization rate. However, no studies have researched C. canadensis in this context and the exact mechanisms of AMF-induced drought tolerance are still unknown.
  • To better understand if and how AMF facilitate drought response in C. canadensis, we conducted a greenhouse experiment comparing the response of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants to three watering levels. We measured dry ...


Entry And Replication Of Negative-Strand Rna Viruses, Kerri Boggs 2021 University of Kentucky

Entry And Replication Of Negative-Strand Rna Viruses, Kerri Boggs

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Hendra virus (HeV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are negative-sense, singled-stranded RNA viruses. The paramyxovirus HeV is classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen due to its high fatality rate and the lack of a human vaccine or antiviral treatment. HMPV is a widespread pneumovirus that causes respiratory tract infections which are particularly dangerous for young children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly. Like HeV, no vaccines or therapies are available to combat HMPV infections. These viruses fuse their lipid envelopes with a cell to initiate infection. Blocking cell entry is a promising approach for antiviral development, and many vaccines are designed ...


Identification Of Loci Influencing Teosinte Crossing Barrier 1 (Tcb1) Efficacy In Maize By Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) Mapping And Genome-Wide Association Study (Gwas), Namrata Maharjan 2021 South Dakota State University

Identification Of Loci Influencing Teosinte Crossing Barrier 1 (Tcb1) Efficacy In Maize By Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) Mapping And Genome-Wide Association Study (Gwas), Namrata Maharjan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollen cross-contamination has been a major problem for maize breeders. Various mechanical methods applied to avoid the contaminations are ineffective. The genetic factors related to maize fertilization can be used to develop an effective method to prevent pollen contamination. Pollen rejection ability controlled by Teosinte crossing barrier 1 (Tcb1) is such a genetic system. Silks possessing dominant Tcb1-s reject pollen possessing the recessive allele (tcb1). Successful fertilization occurs when Tcb1-s pollen falls upon tcb1 silks. The efficacy of dominant Tcb1-s was, however, reduced when repeatedly backcross with maize inbred lines, which suggests that there are modifiers to Tcb1-s. To find ...


Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham 2021 University of Akron

Comparing Capabilities Of Shewanella Oneidensis Mr-1 And The Microbial Community Of Iron Caves To Reduce Fe(Iii), Aaron Douglas Pham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Caves are generally formed by the erosion and/or dissolution of rock and its subsequent removal by water. Iron ore caves (IOCs) form despite being hosted by relatively insoluble and weathering-resistant rock. Due to the discovery of a microbial community behind the walls of these caves, it was hypothesized that these bacteria could be responsible for speleogenesis. Iron ore exists in an oxidized (Fe(III)) state, but reduced (Fe(II)) form is soluble. It was further reasoned that the bacteria might be able to reduce Fe(III) through direct metabolic activity, which uses iron as an electron acceptor. Here we ...


Assaying Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens 1ba A=And 1d3 For Utilization Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons And Biosurfactant Production, Pavan Kulkarni 2021 South Dakota State University

Assaying Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens 1ba A=And 1d3 For Utilization Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons And Biosurfactant Production, Pavan Kulkarni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Several Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolates obtained from wheat residue have been studied as biological agents to control wheat diseases. Notable traits of isolates 1BA and 1D3 include growth with high salt (10% NaCl), at temperatures up to 50°C and over a wide pH range. BIOLOG Gen III plates were used to study and further characterize Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1BA and 1D3. Both isolates showed tolerance to high salt concentration supporting previous studies. They also grew in the presence of lithium chloride, potassium tellurite, and sodium bromate. Both isolates grew at pH 5, with almost identical carbon source utilization fingerprints. However, D-serine ...


A Biocontrol Pesticide Derived From Mycovirus-Infected Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Can Induce Plant Resistance, Connor Pedersen 2021 South Dakota State University

A Biocontrol Pesticide Derived From Mycovirus-Infected Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Can Induce Plant Resistance, Connor Pedersen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Soybean leaf-associated gemycircularvirus-1 (SlaGemV-1) is a novel mycovirus discovered through the metagenomic sequencing of soybean leaves which is capable of inducing hypovirulence in the highly pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. RNASeq analysis techniques were used to determine the transcriptional changes caused by the infection of virus in S. sclerotiorum, as well as the transcriptional changes in Glycine max caused by the colonization of hypovirulent, SlaGemV-1-infected S. sclerotiorum. RNASeq results indicate that viral infection leading to hypovirulence may attenuate expression of genes relating to cell wall synthesis, microtubule formation, and metabolism of steroids and natural antibiotics. Cytochrome P450-related genes, kinesin domain genes ...


The Impact Of Stand Age And Fertilization On The Soil Microbiome Of Miscanthus × Giganteus, Lanying Ma, Fernando Igne Rocha, Jaejin Lee, Jinlyung Choi, Mauricio Tejera, Thanwalee Sooksa-Nguan, Nicholas Boersma, Andy VanLoocke, Emily Heaton, Adina Howe 2021 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Stand Age And Fertilization On The Soil Microbiome Of Miscanthus × Giganteus, Lanying Ma, Fernando Igne Rocha, Jaejin Lee, Jinlyung Choi, Mauricio Tejera, Thanwalee Sooksa-Nguan, Nicholas Boersma, Andy Vanloocke, Emily Heaton, Adina Howe

Agronomy Publications

Yield of the perennial grass Miscanthus × giganteus has shown an inconsistent and unpredictable response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer, yet fertilization underpins the crop’s environmental and economic sustainability. The interactions among soil microbial communities, N availability, and Miscanthus × giganteus and management may explain changes in plant productivity. In this study, soil samples from different stand ages of Miscanthus × giganteus in a replicated chronosequence field trial were used to investigate the effects of stand age and N fertilizer rates on microbial community structure. We hypothesized that there is a definable Miscanthus × giganteus soil microbiome and that this community varies significantly with ...


Continuous In Situ Soil Nitrate Sensors: The Importance Of High‐Resolution Measurements Across Time And A Comparison With Salt Extraction‐Based Methods, Yunjiao Zhu, Yuncong Chen, Md. Azahar Ali, Liang Dong, Xinran Wang, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, James C. Schnable, Michael J. Castellano 2021 Iowa State University

Continuous In Situ Soil Nitrate Sensors: The Importance Of High‐Resolution Measurements Across Time And A Comparison With Salt Extraction‐Based Methods, Yunjiao Zhu, Yuncong Chen, Md. Azahar Ali, Liang Dong, Xinran Wang, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, James C. Schnable, Michael J. Castellano

Agronomy Publications

Soil NO3– affects microbial processes, plant productivity, and environmental N losses. However, the ability to measure soil NO3– is limited by labor‐intensive sampling and laboratory analyses. Hence, temporal variation in soil solution NO3– concentration is poorly understood. We evaluated a new potentiometric sensor that continuously measures soil solution NO3– concentration with unprecedented specificity due to a novel membrane that serves as a barrier to interfering anions. First, we compared sensor and salt extraction‐based measurements of soil NO3– in well‐controlled laboratory conditions. Second, using 60 d of in situ soil NO3– measurements every 10 s, we quantified temporal ...


Biological Control And Microbial Ecology Draft Genome Sequence Data Of Glutamicibacter Sp. Fbe-19, A Bacterium Antagonistic To The Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila, Benzhong Fu, Olakunle Olawole, Gwyn A. Beattie 2021 Iowa State University

Biological Control And Microbial Ecology Draft Genome Sequence Data Of Glutamicibacter Sp. Fbe-19, A Bacterium Antagonistic To The Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila, Benzhong Fu, Olakunle Olawole, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Glutamicibacter sp.FBE-19 was isolated based on its strong antagonism to the cucurbit bacterial blight pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila on plates. Members of the Glutamicibacter genus can promote plant growth under saline conditions and antagonize fungi on plates via chitinolytic activity; however, their production of antibacterial compounds has not been examined. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain FBE-19. The genome is 3.85 Mbp with a G+C content of 60.1% and comprises 3,791 genes. Genes that may contribute to its antagonistic activity include genes for the secondary metabolites stenothricin, salinosporamide A, a second β-lactone compound, and ...


The Inhibition Of Growth Of S. Cerevisiae, U. Maydis, And M. Lychinidis-Dioicae By Apiaecea Plant Extracts, Jackson M Hoffman, Jared Scott, David Schultz PhD 2021 University of Louisville

The Inhibition Of Growth Of S. Cerevisiae, U. Maydis, And M. Lychinidis-Dioicae By Apiaecea Plant Extracts, Jackson M Hoffman, Jared Scott, David Schultz Phd

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

The Apiaceae family of plants contains over 3,500 species, many of which are used as food crops: vegetables (carrot, parsnip, celery, etc.), herbs (cilantro, fennel, dill, etc.), and spices (cumin, anise, caraway, etc.). Many spices have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial properties against both bacteria and fungi. We set out to determine if the Apiaceae spice extracts currently used in our lab for anticancer studies exhibit any antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic extracts were made from several Apiaceae seeds: Apium graveolens (celery), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Anethum graveolens(dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Coriandrum satvium (coriander), Pimpinella ansium (anise), Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain), Carum ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptors Are Expressed On Human Platelets And The Effect Of Aspirin On Clinical Outcomes In Covid-19 Patients [Preprint], Aditya Sahai, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Jane E. Freedman, Scott Cameron 2020 Case Western Reserve University

Sars-Cov-2 Receptors Are Expressed On Human Platelets And The Effect Of Aspirin On Clinical Outcomes In Covid-19 Patients [Preprint], Aditya Sahai, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Jane E. Freedman, Scott Cameron

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing viral pandemic marked by increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the role of platelets in the elevated observed thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and utility of anti-platelet agents in attenuating thrombosis is unknown. We aimed to determine if human platelets express the known SARS-CoV-2 receptor-protease axis on their cell surface and assess whether the anti-platelet effect of aspirin may mitigate risk of myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19. Expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 on human platelets were detected by immunoblotting and confirmed by confocal microscopy. We ...


The Shape Of U: Mapping Out Protective Elements In Mrna Escapees, Jacob Miles 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Shape Of U: Mapping Out Protective Elements In Mrna Escapees, Jacob Miles

Masters Theses

A crucial step of the viral life cycle of Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic infection is the triggering of a massive RNA decay event termed “Host Shutoff”. Host Shutoff is driven by the viral endonuclease SOX which leads to the destruction of over 70% of the total transcriptome. This process cripples cellular gene expression and allows for viral reprograming of the cell for the purpose of viral replication. Co-evolution has led to the host developing a multitude of antiviral defenses aimed at preserving certain cellular RNAs linked to antiviral responses. One such defense are RNA secondary structures located within ...


Examining The Function Of Protein Acyltransferase Via The Dhhc Domain Of The Paz5 Protein In The Organism Dictyostelium Discoideum, George M. Stuart-Ranchev 2020 University of Maine

Examining The Function Of Protein Acyltransferase Via The Dhhc Domain Of The Paz5 Protein In The Organism Dictyostelium Discoideum, George M. Stuart-Ranchev

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein S-palmitoylation plays a crucial role in many biological systems. S-palmitoylation involves the post-translational attachment of palmitate to a cysteine residue through a reversible thioester linkage. S-Palmitoylation is used to modify both integral and membrane proteins, many of which are involved in intracellular trafficking, membrane localization, and signal transduction pathways. Intracellular palmitoylation is mediated by a family of protein acyltransferases (PATs). PAT mutations are associated with neurological diseases and cancer progression. Proteins in the PAT family are defined by the presence of a 51-amino acid cysteine-rich domain (CRD), which contains a highly conserved aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine (DHHC) motif. The ...


Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

The mucosal barrier in the intestine is vital to maintain selective absorption of nutrients while protecting internal tissues and maintaining symbiotic relationship with luminal microbiota. This bio-barrier consists of a cellular epithelial barrier and an acellular mucus barrier. Secreted mucus regulates barrier function via in situ biochemical and biophysical interaction with luminal content that continually evolves during digestion and absorption. Increasing evidence suggests that a mucus barrier is indispensable to maintain homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the importance of mucus barrier is largely underrated for in vitro mucosal tissue modeling. The major gap is the lack of experimental material ...


Investigating The Impact Of Environmentally Relevant Imidazole Concentrations On The Antifungal Susceptibility And Community Composition Of Soil Fungi, Farhaan Kanji 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Impact Of Environmentally Relevant Imidazole Concentrations On The Antifungal Susceptibility And Community Composition Of Soil Fungi, Farhaan Kanji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Miconazole and clotrimazole are environmentally-persistent drugs that are entrained into crop soils through the application of biosolids. There is concern that environmental exposure to such azole antifungals, which inhibit fungal growth by disrupting the production of the fungal cell membrane component ergosterol, promotes resistance in clinically or agriculturally relevant fungi. Thus, either environmentally-relevant or excessive levels of these drugs were applied to microplots over ten years and compared with drug-free plots. Overall, ergosterol quantification, plates counts, and identification of >250 fungal isolates showed lower fungal counts and species richness in plots receiving excessive drug amounts. In addition, fungi from treated ...


Innate Pathogenic Traits In Oral Yeasts, Ayat Ibrahiem Esmaeel Al-laaeiby, Adnan A. Al-Mousawi, Inaam M.N. Alrubayae, Abdullah Al-Saadoon, Maysoon Almayahi 2020 University of Basrah

Innate Pathogenic Traits In Oral Yeasts, Ayat Ibrahiem Esmaeel Al-Laaeiby, Adnan A. Al-Mousawi, Inaam M.N. Alrubayae, Abdullah Al-Saadoon, Maysoon Almayahi

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The normal flora community plays a significant role in both healthy and patient individual’s bodies. It has improved its ability to change from beneficial to opportunistic organisms causing crucial infections in immunocompromised patients. This study was conducted to identify the community of yeast species, and to investigate potential virulence factors. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals, yeast species were isolated and identified using both traditional and advance molecular genetics technique. The results revealed that Candida albicans was the dominant isolate, while Meyerozyma caribbica was the least. The phylogenetic tree was constructed for 13 species using the Neighbour-Joining method ...


Susceptibility Trends Of Zoliflodacin Against Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Clinical Isolates In Nanjing, China (2014-2018), Wenjing Le, Xiaohong Su, Xiangdi Lou, Xuechun Li, Xiangdong Gong, Baoxi Wang, Caroline A. Genco, John P. Mueller, Peter A. Rice 2020 Peking Union Medical College

Susceptibility Trends Of Zoliflodacin Against Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Clinical Isolates In Nanjing, China (2014-2018), Wenjing Le, Xiaohong Su, Xiangdi Lou, Xuechun Li, Xiangdong Gong, Baoxi Wang, Caroline A. Genco, John P. Mueller, Peter A. Rice

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Previously, we reported potent activity of a novel spiropyrimidinetrione, zoliflodacin, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates from symptomatic men in Nanjing, China, collected in 2013. Here, we investigated trends of susceptibilities of zoliflodacin in 986 isolates collected from men between 2014 and 2018. N. gonorrhoeae isolates were tested for susceptibility to zoliflodacin and seven other antibiotics. Mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE and mtrR genes were determined by PCR and sequencing. The MICs of zoliflodacin ranged from < /=0.002 to 0.25 mg/L; the overall MIC50s and MIC90s were 0.06 mg/L and 0.125mg/L in 2018, increasing two-fold from 2014. However, the percent of isolates with lower zoliflodacin MICs declined in each year sequentially while the percent with higher MICs increased yearly (P < /=0.00001). All isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin but resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC > /=1 mg/L); 21.2% (209/986) were resistant to azithromycin ( > /=1 mg/L), 43.4% (428/986) were penicillinase-producing (PPNG), 26.9% (265/986 ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In Boston Highlights The Impact Of Superspreading Events, Jacob E. Lemieux, Jeremy Luban, Lawrence C. Madoff, Pardis C. Sabeti, Bronwyn L. MacInnis 2020 Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT

Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In Boston Highlights The Impact Of Superspreading Events, Jacob E. Lemieux, Jeremy Luban, Lawrence C. Madoff, Pardis C. Sabeti, Bronwyn L. Macinnis

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Analysis of 772 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes from early in the Boston area epidemic revealed numerous introductions of the virus, a small number of which led to most cases. The data revealed two superspreading events. One, in a skilled nursing facility, led to rapid transmission and significant mortality in this vulnerable population but little broader spread, while other introductions into the facility had little effect. The second, at an international business conference, produced sustained community transmission and was exported, resulting in extensive regional, national, and international spread. The two events also differed significantly in the genetic variation they generated, suggesting varying ...


Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu 2020 Weifang Medical University

Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Innate Immunity Against Herpesviridae Infection: A Current Perspective On Viral Infection Signaling Pathways, Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar, Zhijun Liu

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: In the past decades, researchers have demonstrated the critical role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system. They recognize viral components and trigger immune signal cascades to subsequently promote the activation of the immune system.

MAIN BODY: Herpesviridae family members trigger TLRs to elicit cytokines in the process of infection to activate antiviral innate immune responses in host cells. This review aims to clarify the role of TLRs in the innate immunity defense against herpesviridae, and systematically describes the processes of TLR actions and herpesviridae recognition as well as the signal transduction pathways involved.

CONCLUSIONS: Future studies ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


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