Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,456 Full-Text Articles 16,168 Authors 1,174,389 Downloads 214 Institutions

All Articles in Microbiology

Faceted Search

7,456 full-text articles. Page 5 of 237.

Identification Of Antibiotic Producing Soil Bacteria Against Bacillus Subtilis, Morgan Brockhouse, Dr. Lori Scott 2020 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Identification Of Antibiotic Producing Soil Bacteria Against Bacillus Subtilis, Morgan Brockhouse, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

This project is a collaboration with the Tiny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on student-sourcing antibiotic discovery from soil. Individual strains of soil bacteria were isolated and produced antibiotic against Bacillus subtilis. Two of these samples were sequenced using the 16S rRNA gene to reveal they are very closely related to the genus Pseudomonas.


Survey Of Histoplasma Capsulatum In Bat Guano And Status Of Histoplasmosis In Slovenia, Central Europe, Janez Mulec, Saša Simčič, Tadeja Kotar, Romina Kofol, Sanja Stopinšek 2020 Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Karst Research Institute

Survey Of Histoplasma Capsulatum In Bat Guano And Status Of Histoplasmosis In Slovenia, Central Europe, Janez Mulec, Saša Simčič, Tadeja Kotar, Romina Kofol, Sanja Stopinšek

International Journal of Speleology

There have been increasing reports on the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum in some European countries. The study investigated the presence of Histoplasma in bat guanos, speleologists with records of visiting Histoplasma-endemic regions and patients with histoplasmosis. A commercial ALPHA Histoplasma Antigen enzyme immunoassay was tested as an alternative methodology to detect Histoplasma in environment and compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The presence of Histoplasma antigen in bat guanos was not confirmed by PCR. Among 14 healthy speleologists, two were indicated as having the Histoplasma antigen in urine, but expressed negative PCR-specific results for the Histoplasma antigen. Five ...


Long Non-Coding Rna Lincrna-Eps Inhibits Host Defense Against Listeria Monocytogenes Infection, Federica Agliano, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Anthony T. Vella, Vijay A. Rathinam, Andrei E. Medvedev 2020 University of Connecticut

Long Non-Coding Rna Lincrna-Eps Inhibits Host Defense Against Listeria Monocytogenes Infection, Federica Agliano, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Anthony T. Vella, Vijay A. Rathinam, Andrei E. Medvedev

Open Access Articles

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in several biological systems. The long intergenic RNA-erythroid pro-survival (lincRNA-EPS) has been shown to play a critical role in restraining inflammatory gene expression. However, the function of lincRNA-EPS during bacterial infections remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that following infection with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, both mouse macrophages and dendritic cells lacking lincRNA-EPS exhibit an enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes, as well as an increased expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos) and nitric oxide (NO) production. Importantly, we found that lincRNA-EPS(-/-) mice intraperitoneally infected with ...


Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse McClure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse Mcclure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson

Open Access Articles

The prevalence of tickborne diseases worldwide is increasing virtually unchecked due to the lack of effective control strategies. The transmission dynamics of tickborne pathogens are influenced by the tick microbiome, tick co-infection with other pathogens, and environmental features. Understanding this complex system could lead to new strategies for pathogen control, but will require large-scale, high-resolution data. Here, we introduce Project Acari, a citizen science-based project to assay, at single-tick resolution, species, pathogen infection status, microbiome profile, and environmental conditions of tens of thousands of ticks collected from numerous sites across the United States. In the first phase of the project ...


Glycan Profiles Of Gp120 Protein Vaccines From Four Major Hiv-1 Subtypes Produced From Different Host Cell Lines Under Non-Gmp Or Gmp Conditions, Shixia Wang, Yegor Voronin, Peng Zhao, Mayumi Ishihara, Nickita Mehta, Mindy Porterfield, Yuxin Chen, Christopher Bartley, Guangnan Hu, Dong Han, Lance Wells, Michael Tiemeyer, Shan Lu 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Glycan Profiles Of Gp120 Protein Vaccines From Four Major Hiv-1 Subtypes Produced From Different Host Cell Lines Under Non-Gmp Or Gmp Conditions, Shixia Wang, Yegor Voronin, Peng Zhao, Mayumi Ishihara, Nickita Mehta, Mindy Porterfield, Yuxin Chen, Christopher Bartley, Guangnan Hu, Dong Han, Lance Wells, Michael Tiemeyer, Shan Lu

Open Access Articles

Envelope glycoprotein (Env) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an important target for the development of an HIV vaccine. Extensive glycosylation of Env is an important feature that both protects the virus from antibody responses and serves as a target for some highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, analysis of glycans on recombinant Env proteins is highly significant. Here we present glycosylation profiles of recombinant gp120 proteins from four major clades of HIV-1 (A, B, C, and AE) produced either as research-grade material in 293 and CHO cells or as two independent lots of clinical material under GMP ...


Reporter Assays For Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein Oligomerization, Virion-Like Particle Budding, And Minigenome Activity Reveal The Importance Of Nucleoprotein Amino Acid Position 111, Aaron E. Lin, William E. Diehl, Yingyun Cai, Courtney L. Finch, Chidiebere Akusobi, Robert N. Kirchdoerfer, Laura Bollinger, Stephen F. Schaffner, Elizabeth A. Brown, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Kristian G. Andersen, Jens H. Kuhn, Jeremy Luban, Pardis C. Sabeti 2020 Harvard Medical School

Reporter Assays For Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein Oligomerization, Virion-Like Particle Budding, And Minigenome Activity Reveal The Importance Of Nucleoprotein Amino Acid Position 111, Aaron E. Lin, William E. Diehl, Yingyun Cai, Courtney L. Finch, Chidiebere Akusobi, Robert N. Kirchdoerfer, Laura Bollinger, Stephen F. Schaffner, Elizabeth A. Brown, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Kristian G. Andersen, Jens H. Kuhn, Jeremy Luban, Pardis C. Sabeti

Open Access Articles

For highly pathogenic viruses, reporter assays that can be rapidly performed are critically needed to identify potentially functional mutations for further study under maximal containment (e.g., biosafety level 4 [BSL-4]). The Ebola virus nucleoprotein (NP) plays multiple essential roles during the viral life cycle, yet few tools exist to study the protein under BSL-2 or equivalent containment. Therefore, we adapted reporter assays to measure NP oligomerization and virion-like particle (VLP) production in live cells and further measured transcription and replication using established minigenome assays. As a proof-of-concept, we examined the NP-R111C substitution, which emerged during the 20132016 Western African ...


Real-Time Analysis Of Individual Ebola Virus Glycoproteins Reveals Pre-Fusion, Entry-Relevant Conformational Dynamics, Natasha D. Durham, Angela R. Howard, Ramesh Govindan, Fernando Senjobe, J. Maximilian Fels, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban, Kartik Chandran, James B. Munro 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Real-Time Analysis Of Individual Ebola Virus Glycoproteins Reveals Pre-Fusion, Entry-Relevant Conformational Dynamics, Natasha D. Durham, Angela R. Howard, Ramesh Govindan, Fernando Senjobe, J. Maximilian Fels, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban, Kartik Chandran, James B. Munro

Open Access Articles

The Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope glycoprotein (GP) mediates the fusion of the virion membrane with the membrane of susceptible target cells during infection. While proteolytic cleavage of GP by endosomal cathepsins and binding of the cellular receptor Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) are essential steps for virus entry, the detailed mechanisms by which these events promote membrane fusion remain unknown. Here, we applied single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging to investigate the structural dynamics of the EBOV GP trimeric ectodomain, and the functional transmembrane protein on the surface of pseudovirions. We show that in both contexts, pre-fusion GP is dynamic ...


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen DeAngelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


Structure Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Protein In Complex With Its Phosphoprotein Cofactor, Simon Jenni, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Ruben Diaz-Avalos, Bo Liang, Sean P.J. Whelan, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Stephen C. Harrison 2020 Harvard Medical School

Structure Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Protein In Complex With Its Phosphoprotein Cofactor, Simon Jenni, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Ruben Diaz-Avalos, Bo Liang, Sean P.J. Whelan, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Stephen C. Harrison

Open Access Articles

The large (L) proteins of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses are multifunctional enzymes that produce capped, methylated, and polyadenylated mRNA and replicate the viral genome. A phosphoprotein (P), required for efficient RNA-dependent RNA polymerization from the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) template, regulates the function and conformation of the L protein. We report the structure of vesicular stomatitis virus L in complex with its P cofactor determined by electron cryomicroscopy at 3.0 A resolution, enabling us to visualize bound segments of P. The contacts of three P segments with multiple L domains show how P induces a closed, compact, initiation-competent conformation. Binding ...


Gershman (Melvin) Papers, 1959-1992, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University of Maine 2020 The University of Maine

Gershman (Melvin) Papers, 1959-1992, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine

Finding Aids

Melvin (Mel) Gershman was born in 1927. He received a M.Sc. Degree in 1957 from the University of Massachusetts and came to the University of Maine in 1958 as an assistant professor of microbiology and animal pathology. In 1963, he was appointed full professorship and in 1977 he became Professor of Microbiology and Animal Veterinary Sciences. Professor Gershman research focused on Enteric bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia Coli. His research led to the development of a Serotyping and Phage Typing Center at the University of Maine.

Gershman received numerous awards during his career, including in 1977 the University ...


Microbial Interactions Between Compost Bedded Pack Barn Bedding And Teat Exposure In Transition Dairy Cattle, Tanya Lynn France 2020 University of Kentucky

Microbial Interactions Between Compost Bedded Pack Barn Bedding And Teat Exposure In Transition Dairy Cattle, Tanya Lynn France

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Compost bedded pack barns utilize composting methods which provide a soft surface for dairy cows to lie on. This requires optimal microbial growth, which may increase the exposure of mastitis-causing pathogens to the teats of early lactation animals. Bedding characteristics, bedding bacteria, and bacterial counts on the teat skin, teat ends, and in the milk of early lactation dairy cows housed on a compost bedded pack were assessed over a 6-month time. The main objective was to determine the relationship between environmental effects (bedding characteristics and weather conditions) and cow-level (teat skin, teat end, milk) bacteria counts over time in ...


A Review: The Association Of Asthma And The Microbiome, Kathleen Olson 2020 South Dakota State University

A Review: The Association Of Asthma And The Microbiome, Kathleen Olson

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

The microbiome gut-lung axis has been associated with asthma. Asthma is a respiratory disease that presents itself in many different ways. The microbiome is the bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses found in a particular environment. The association of the microbiome gutlung axis in an asthmatic individual compared to a healthy individual has shown that different types and/or concentrations of bacterial genera are present in an asthmatic individual compared to a healthy individual. A causal relationship between the microbiome and asthma has not yet been identified. The aim of this review is to present the association of asthma and the ...


Pathogenesis Of Cte: A Review Of Ptau, Lewy Bodies, And Cytokine Involvement In Cte, Karter Keefer 2020 South Dakota State University

Pathogenesis Of Cte: A Review Of Ptau, Lewy Bodies, And Cytokine Involvement In Cte, Karter Keefer

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathological disease that develops years after experiencing repetitive traumatic brain injuries. In recent years, this disease has been gaining recognition from professional, college, and high school teams that participate in contact sports. The purpose of this paper is to review available information about this neurodegenerative disease. Only limited published experiments are available on this disease. Research on CTE has been limited by the fact that patients can only be diagnosed with the disease by a post mortem autopsy. Many experiments were analyzed regarding different CTE pathologies, symptoms, and treatments. Articles used in this paper ...


A Review Of Asthma Treatments: Monoclonal Antibody, Corticosteroid, Leukotriene Modifier, And Bronchodilator, Alec Williams 2020 South Dakota State University

A Review Of Asthma Treatments: Monoclonal Antibody, Corticosteroid, Leukotriene Modifier, And Bronchodilator, Alec Williams

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Medical research has created multitudes of medications to help control the symptoms of asthma. Asthmas effects the respiratory system in different ways, creating unique challenges to researchers and doctors alike to create or a manage the symptoms of asthma. Identifying the common treatment methods and understanding their effect on the human physiology can aid in treating patients. The goal of this review is to identify the common medications used to treat asthma, how these medications work on the human’s physiology, as well as bring to light a new upcoming medication with greater asthma control. As asthma research continues, the ...


Comparative Optic Nerve Head Physiology: Glaucoma Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis By Disruption Of The Translaminar Pressure Gradient And Reduced Neurotrophic Signaling, Cassidy Christopherson 2020 South Dakota State University

Comparative Optic Nerve Head Physiology: Glaucoma Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis By Disruption Of The Translaminar Pressure Gradient And Reduced Neurotrophic Signaling, Cassidy Christopherson

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, and the second leading vision loss neurodegenerative disease affecting millions worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized as a group of eye disorders which are initially asymptomatic but may progress to significant optic nerve head damage and vision loss with time. Early stages of glaucoma often go undetected, leading to irreversible damage to the optic nerve head prior to patients seeking medical care. Glaucoma leads to vision loss via death of retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cell apoptosis is thought to begin due to interference with the normal transmission of neurotrophic signals that arrive by ...


Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation (Ibs-C) Treatment Efficacy And The Emerging Importance Of Serotonin, Meghan Schenk 2020 South Dakota State University

Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation (Ibs-C) Treatment Efficacy And The Emerging Importance Of Serotonin, Meghan Schenk

Biology and Microbiology Graduate Students Plan B Research Projects

Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) affects a large proportion of the population. It decreases quality of life for the patient both physically and mentally. Patients report higher levels of mental health issues and other gastrointestinal maladies compared to the normal population, in addition to an IBS diagnosis. Patients have increased healthcare visits and costs, raising insurance rates for all, and also results in more missed time from work. There are limited treatments available for IBS-C, and medicinal and non-medicinal modalities are differentially prescribed to patients throughout the country. Recently, serotonin has emerged as a key mediator of normal gut ...


Crispr-Cas9 Editing Of Nitrate Transporter Gene, Um03849, In Ustilago Maydis, Luke A. Schroeder, Sunita Khanal, Michael H. Perlin 2020 University of Louisville

Crispr-Cas9 Editing Of Nitrate Transporter Gene, Um03849, In Ustilago Maydis, Luke A. Schroeder, Sunita Khanal, Michael H. Perlin

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Ustilago maydis, the basidiomycete smut-fungus, can infect and cause tumors in corn plants. For this, mating between compatible haploid cells is important. The mating and subsequent dimorphic transition in U. maydis require starvation for nutrients such as nitrogen, in addition to pheromone-receptor interactions between compatible partners. In this research, the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technique was used to create INDEL mutations (sequence insertion or deletion) in the nitrate transporter gene, um03849, in U. maydis. The gene was edited in mating compatible haploid strains 1/2 and 2/9. The phenotypes were characterized for the um03849 mutants as to growth ability, mating efficiency ...


The Effects Of Nutrient Availability On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mono And Co-Culture Biofilms, Julie T. Nguyen, Deborah R. Yoder-Himes Ph.D., Rhiannon Cecil 2020 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Nutrient Availability On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mono And Co-Culture Biofilms, Julie T. Nguyen, Deborah R. Yoder-Himes Ph.D., Rhiannon Cecil

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder characterized by faulty ion channels and result in thick mucus accumulation, especially in lungs. Mucus buildup provides ideal conditions for bacterial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the second most prevalent bacterium isolated from people with CF and has a high clinical importance. Most CF pathogens form biofilms which make treatment of infections difficult. Biofilms are clusters of cells attached to a surface enclosed in a structured matrix. These structures are a means to provide shelter for bacteria from the environment, especially antibiotics and the immune system. PA alone can form these biofilms, but ...


Biofilm Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Viability Is Altered By Burkholderia Cenocepacia, Bridget Wall, Tiffany J. Brandt, Dr. Deborah Yoder-Himes 2020 University of Louisville

Biofilm Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Viability Is Altered By Burkholderia Cenocepacia, Bridget Wall, Tiffany J. Brandt, Dr. Deborah Yoder-Himes

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Respiratory failure caused by chronic and recurrent microbial infections is the most common cause of death for people with cystic fibrosis (CF)1, a disease causing the formation of thick mucus in the lungs2. Most bacteria can form biofilms, collections of sessile cells adhered to a surface by a secreted substance. Biofilm-associated cells develop antibiotic resistance at higher rates3. The thicker mucus in CF lungs is extremely difficult to clear via action of the mucociliary escalator and its presence fosters the formation of bacterial biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cenocepacia are two pathogens commonly found in the CF ...


How The Cervical Microbiota Contributes To Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwalselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

How The Cervical Microbiota Contributes To Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwalselage, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Despite ongoing efforts, sub-Saharan Africa faces a higher cervical cancer burden than anywhere else in the world. Besides HPV infection, definitive factors of cervical cancer are still unclear. Particular states of the cervicovaginal microbiota and viral infections are associated with increased cervical cancer risk. Notably, HIV infection, which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, greatly increases risk of cervicovaginal dysbiosis and cervical cancer. To better understand and address cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, a better knowledge of the regional cervicovaginal microbiome is required This review establishes current knowledge of HPV, HIV, cervicovaginal infections, and the cervicovaginal microbiota in sub-Saharan Africa. Because ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress