Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Organismal Biological Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

107 Full-Text Articles 207 Authors 14,238 Downloads 46 Institutions

All Articles in Organismal Biological Physiology

Faceted Search

107 full-text articles. Page 1 of 4.

Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić 2019 University of Ljubljana

Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić

International Journal of Speleology

The current work extends the phenotypic characterization of a bacterial culture collection obtained from white, yellow, grey or pink microbial cave wall colonies that are common in the caves of Slovenian Karst. We have determined antibiotic resistance to 22 natural and synthetic antibiotics in 69 isolates from the microbial mats. Thirty-eight isolates (52%) were resistant to 1-5 antibiotics; another 27 isolates (37%) were resistant to 6-10 antibiotics; and 7 isolates (0.1%) were resistant to 11-17 antibiotics. We screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by growing cave isolates on five different media and overlaying individual cultures with ten Gram-positive and ...


Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils serve as massive carbon sinks, but their ability to continue this ecological service is contingent on how the resident soil microbial community will respond to the ongoing climate crisis. One key dimension of the microbial response to warming is its carbon use efficiency (CUE), or the fraction of carbon taken up by an organism which is allocated to growth rather than respiration. However, the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding the drivers, consequences - and even accurate measurements of - CUE. In this dissertation, I first quantified the variability of CUE and its responsiveness to temperature and ...


Anti-Human Cd9 Antibody Fab Fragment Impairs The Internalization Of Extracellular Vesicles And The Nuclear Transfer Of Their Cargo Proteins., Mark F. Santos, Germana Rappa, Jana Karbanová, Cheryl Vanier, Chikao Morimoto, Denis Corbeil, Aurelio Lorico 2019 Touro University Nevada

Anti-Human Cd9 Antibody Fab Fragment Impairs The Internalization Of Extracellular Vesicles And The Nuclear Transfer Of Their Cargo Proteins., Mark F. Santos, Germana Rappa, Jana Karbanová, Cheryl Vanier, Chikao Morimoto, Denis Corbeil, Aurelio Lorico

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

The intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) has gained international interest during the last decade. Interfering with the mechanisms regulating this cellular process might find application particularly in oncology where cancer cell-derived EVs play a role in tumour microenvironment transformation. Although several mechanisms were ascribed to explain the internalization of EVs, little is our knowledge about the fate of their cargos, which are crucial to mediate their function. We recently demonstrated a new intracellular pathway in which a fraction of endocytosed EV-associated proteins is transported into the nucleoplasm of the host cell via a subpopulation of late endosomes penetrating ...


Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Ultramicrobacteria Genome Database Project, Abdullah A. Salim, Tien Tran, Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Ultramicrobacteria (UMB) are a largely uncultured, globally abundant, and metabolically active group of bacteria. UMB have cell diameters ≤0.3μm, cell volumes ≤0.1 μm3, and small streamlined genomes. Recent findings indicate that UMB aid in bioremediation and nutrient cycling, but future investigations and comprehension of current findings are skewed by highly variable nomenclature and a lack of databases for functional, genomic, geochemical, or spatial data specific to candidate UMB. We aim to develop a user-friendly open-access database of various UMB candidates linked to an open-access online map where researchers can gather genomic, spatial, and geochemical data. Our comprehensive review ...


Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...


Diversity And Shifts Of The Bacterial Community Associated With Baikal Sponge Mass Mortalities, Sergei Belikov, Natalia Belkova, Tatiana Butina, Lubov Chernogor, Alexandra Martynova-Van Kley, Armen Nalian, Colin Rorex, Igor Khanaev, Olga Maikova, Sergey Feranchuk 2019 Limnological Institute of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Diversity And Shifts Of The Bacterial Community Associated With Baikal Sponge Mass Mortalities, Sergei Belikov, Natalia Belkova, Tatiana Butina, Lubov Chernogor, Alexandra Martynova-Van Kley, Armen Nalian, Colin Rorex, Igor Khanaev, Olga Maikova, Sergey Feranchuk

Faculty Publications

The disease of freshwater sponges was first discovered in 2011, when pink samples were found in the Central Basin of Lake Baikal. Subsequently, the visible signs of the disease have changed, and now sponges appear with various symptoms of damage to the body, such as discoloration, tissue necrosis, the formation of brown patches and dirty-purple biofilms on some branches. These signs of the disease are accompanied by the mass death of sponges. We identified differences in microbiomes by sequencing 16S rRNA genes and found changes in the consortium of microorganisms of freshwater Baikal sponges. We found that the observed imbalance ...


Gut Symbiont Viability In Honey Bees Exposed To Agrochemical Stressors, Bryant Justin Gabriel 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Gut Symbiont Viability In Honey Bees Exposed To Agrochemical Stressors, Bryant Justin Gabriel

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The honey bee gut microbiome is essential for protecting this pollinator against abiotic and biotic stressors, including the prevention of harmful gut parasites and pathogens. Previous studies have not only demonstrated a linkage of bee gut dysbiosis to increased immunodeficiencies and pathogen sensitivities, but also report the maladaptation of the gut microbiome in bees exposed to agricultural and apicultural chemistries. There are few techniques available that allow for a simple and reliable analysis of the relative proportions of live and dead gut microbes in bees exposed to these chemistries. Previous techniques for measuring gut symbiont dysbiosis are temporally limited by ...


The Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis 2018 Carroll College

The Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of this experiment was to test whether alcohol induces starvation conditions in Tetrahymena thermophila. Prior research has shown that exposure to alcohol results in decreases in both the frequency of feeding and overall growth. For this experiment, it was hypothesized that these effects are due to a lack of energy available in the organism for feeding. This hypothesis was tested by monitoring food vacuole formation and expression of the PFK-1 gene in Tetrahymena that were exposed to alcohol. The PFK-1 gene was chosen because its encoded protein plays an essential role in cellular metabolism. For the experiment, control ...


Synthesis And Kinetic Studies Of High-Valent Metal-Oxo Species Generated By Photochemical And Chemical Methods, Haiyan Liu 2018 Western Kentucky University

Synthesis And Kinetic Studies Of High-Valent Metal-Oxo Species Generated By Photochemical And Chemical Methods, Haiyan Liu

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Highly reactive iron-oxo intermediates play important roles as active oxidants in enzymatic and synthetic catalytic oxidation. Many transition metal catalysts are designed for biomimetic studies of the predominant oxidation catalysts in Nature, namely cytochrome P450 enzymes. In this work, a series of iron(IV)-oxo porphyrins [FeIV(Por)O] and manganese(IV)-oxo porphyrins [MnIV(Por)O] have been successfully produced in two electron-deficient ligands by photochemical and chemical methods, and spectroscopically characterized by UV-vis, and 1H-NMR.

With iodobenzene diacetate [PhI(OAc)2] as the oxygen source, iron(III) porphyrin and manganese(III) porphyrin complexes converted to ...


Identifying Mechanisms Of Host Plant Specialization In Aphis Craccivora And Its Bacterial Symbionts, Thorsten Hansen 2018 University of Kentucky

Identifying Mechanisms Of Host Plant Specialization In Aphis Craccivora And Its Bacterial Symbionts, Thorsten Hansen

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Many insects form close relationships with microbial symbionts. Insect symbionts can provide novel phenotypes to their hosts, including influencing dietary breadth. In the polyphagous cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, the facultative symbiont Arsenophonus improves aphid performance on one host plant (locust), but decreases performance on other plants. The goal of my thesis was to investigate the mechanism by which Arsenophonus facilitates use of locust. First, I assembled an Aphis craccivora-Arsenophonus-Buchnera reference transcriptome to conduct RNAseq analysis, comparing gene expression in aphids feeding on locust and fava, with and without Arsenophonus infection. Overall, few transcripts were differentially expressed. However, genes ...


Balance And Trade : Charting The Course Of Fungal Symbiosis In Sugarcane Root Systems, Anders Christian Claassens 2018 Southern Cross University

Balance And Trade : Charting The Course Of Fungal Symbiosis In Sugarcane Root Systems, Anders Christian Claassens

Theses

The root systems of sugarcane (Saccharum L. spp. hybrids) host a variety of symbiotic fungal organisms including arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi and dark septate endophytes (DSE). AM/DSE symbioses are widely reported to influence the productive capacity of a range of agricultural crops via enhanced nutrient assimilation and plant stress tolerance. Presently, the biological and functional characteristics AM/DSE in sugarcane have only been examined superficially and remain poorly understood. Before the potential benefits of AM/DSE symbioses can be exploited through management strategies, characterisation of the temporal changes in AM/DSE colonisation over the sugarcane crop cycle is required ...


Distiphallus Morphology And Its Role In Copulation Dynamics In Anastrepha Suspensa (Loew), Taylor J. Inboden 2018 Eastern Illinois University

Distiphallus Morphology And Its Role In Copulation Dynamics In Anastrepha Suspensa (Loew), Taylor J. Inboden

Masters Theses

Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera; Tephritidae) is an agricultural pest species

causing severe economic damage and is controlled, in part, by applying knowledge

of this species' reproduction (e.g., disrupting fertile copulations by SIT). During

copulation, males transfer sperm as well as protein rich fluids through an aedeagus

and distiphallus, which females then store in three spermathecae and one ventral

receptacle. Within the female reproductive tract, the ventral receptacle and the

three spermathecae are strategically separated from each other. I hypothesized

males' ability to direct sperm transfer within the female reproductive tract is

through the structures found in the distiphallus. Utilizing scanning ...


The Bi-Directional Relationship Between Gut Microbiota And Autoimmunity, Trevor O. Kirby 2018 Eastern Washington University

The Bi-Directional Relationship Between Gut Microbiota And Autoimmunity, Trevor O. Kirby

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

Humans serve as a major reservoir for a vast number of microbiota. These microbes have evolved symbiotic relationships with humans due to their close proximity with their host. As a result, the immune system adapts to the microbiota thus modulating immunological function. Autoimmunity is a state in which there are aberrant immune responses produced against host tissue. Intestinal bacteria are directly impacted by instances of inflammation brought on by autoimmunity. The complicated nature between autoimmunity and bacterial modulation demonstrates a bi-directional relationship. Here, we utilize experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis, to explore the bi-directional relationship that disease ...


Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evidence For The Priming Effect In Single Strain And Simplified Communities Of Estuarine Bacteria, Abigail Amina Edwards

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Through their transformation of naturally occurring organic matter, coastal marine bacteria play an essential role in carbon cycling. A phenomenon termed the priming effect (PE) occurs when microbial communities remineralize recalcitrant organic matter faster in the presence of labile organic matter and may be prevalent in coastal systems. To understand how microbial community members interact to induce PE, it is essential to first understand the mechanisms underlying PE in single strains and simplified bacterial communities. The effect to which different concentrations and sources of labile carbon stimulated the production of bacterial biomass from riverine organic matter by two marine bacteria ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


Functional Analysis Of Microrna Pathway Genes In The Somatic Gonad And Germ Cells During Ovulation In C. Elegans, Carmela Rios 2017 Marquette University

Functional Analysis Of Microrna Pathway Genes In The Somatic Gonad And Germ Cells During Ovulation In C. Elegans, Carmela Rios

Dissertations (2009 -)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-­transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play critical roles in animal development and physiology, though functions for most miRNAs remain unknown. Worms with reduced miRNA biogenesis due to loss of Drosha or Pasha/DGCR8 activity are sterile and fail to ovulate, indicating that miRNAs are required for the process of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Starting with this penetrant sterile phenotype and using new strains created to perform tissue-­specific RNAi, we characterize the roles of the C. elegans Pasha, pash-­1, and two miRNA-­specific Argonautes, alg-­1 and alg-­2, in somatic gonad cells and ...


Characterization Of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Their Positive Allosteric Modulators, Doris Clark Jackson 2017 Brigham Young University

Characterization Of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Their Positive Allosteric Modulators, Doris Clark Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are necessary in memory and cognition. They are pentameric and consist of α and β subunits. They are most commonly heteromeric but, can sometimes be homomeric. nAChRs are activated by many ligands including nicotine (exogenous) and acetylcholine (endogenous).nAChRs are located on hippocampal interneurons. The interneurons, although sparse, control the synchronous firing of the pyramidal cells. However, the hippocampal interneuron structure and function is quite diverse and not fully characterized. Therefore, we sought to quantify nAChR subunit mRNA levels using real-time PCR of CA1 hippocampal interneurons.Surprisingly we found that ...


Elucidating The Interplay Between Sodium Selenite On The Tick Amblyomma Maculatum Selenoprotein Gene Expression, Afnan M. Beauti 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Interplay Between Sodium Selenite On The Tick Amblyomma Maculatum Selenoprotein Gene Expression, Afnan M. Beauti

Honors Theses

Selenium (Se) is an element recognized as an essential micronutrient in eukaryote organisms. Selenoproteins contain selenium as selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid. Selenium plays a role in cell growth and functioning. At low concentrations, it can induce growth and at high concentrations, it can cause a cell to stop growing and potentially have toxic effects on the cell and organism. When selenium levels are high, oxidative stress results by the production of reactive oxidative species. Selenoproteins, however, can aid the antioxidant response in the cell. Ticks are arthropods of interest, as they are one of few that contain many selenogenes ...


Antimicrobial Properties Of S-Benzofuran-2-Yl Ethanol Produced By Biotransformation, Nick Cheatwood, Ann Davis, Elizabeth Schabeck, Kelsi Hooker, Michele Harris 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Antimicrobial Properties Of S-Benzofuran-2-Yl Ethanol Produced By Biotransformation, Nick Cheatwood, Ann Davis, Elizabeth Schabeck, Kelsi Hooker, Michele Harris

Undergraduate Research Conference

All living organisms contain enzymes to carry out biological reactions, which produce substances with a specific three dimensional shape. Enantiomers are two molecules that are mirror images of each other just as hands are mirror images of each other. It is well known in the pharmaceutical world that one of the enantiomers (one of the mirrorimage molecules) has a positive biological effect while the other can be harmful or have no effect. Currently, any potential pharmaceutical that could exist as enantiomers must have each enantiomer tested for biological activity prior to FDA approval. In our laboratory, we have focused on ...


Bioethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Missing - Some 400 Pages, Theodore Walker 2017 Southern Methodist University

Bioethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Missing - Some 400 Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Biology + ethics = bioethics. Here we see that Howard University biologist Ernest Everett Just (born 1883, died 1941) connected biology to ethics.

According to Just, various forms of specific biology (including especially cell biology) plus “general biology” are necessary for explaining adequately the origin of ethical behaviors. Social ethical behaviors, especially mutual aid and cooperative interactions with others and the environment, are essential to evolutionary advances among living creatures, ranging from humans to cells. Accordingly, theory of ethics (moral theory) should have roots in biology.

Also, Just wrote an unpublished book-length manuscript—“some 400 typed pages” (Just 1940)—on seeking the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress