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The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D 2020 Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Molecular Virology and Special Pathogens Research, Department of Microbiology, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 001, Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria.

The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats (Swot) Analysis Of The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Of Covid-19, Michael Oluyemi Babalola Ph.D

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the etiologic agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious, emergent, acute, viral pneumonia that emanated sporadically in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 became pandemic in February 2020 leading to 4,942,687 confirmed cases, over 321,987 deaths and grounded several economies around the world as of May 2020. Although global researchers, epidemiologists and medical professionals rose steadily to contain the disease, indepth knowledge and concerted efforts are still evolving on the virus. This research sought to elucidate the biological Strengths, the Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to SARS-CoV-2, with a view to understanding and ...


Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer

LSU Master's Theses

This research assessed plankton dynamics in two urban, subtropical lakes (University Lake and City Park Lake) shortly before a proposed and approved lake restoration project. Plankton dynamics were determined in University Lake by the dilution method to attempt to quantify growth rates of phytoplankton and grazing rates of zooplankton. Landry and Hassett’s (1982) dilution method has been widely used in marine systems to estimate rates of growth and grazing. In many marine systems, nutrients must be added to prevent nutrient limitation. However, it is assumed, due to the hypereutrophic conditions, that nutrients would not be a limitation in University ...


Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang

Virology Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM) that is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV, specifically in IM, increases the risk for MS remains unknown. EBV immortalizes primary B lymphocytes in vitro and causes excessive B lymphocyte proliferation in IM in vivo. In asymptomatic carriers, EBV-infected B lymphocytes still proliferate to certain degrees, the process of which is tightly controlled by the host immune systems. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimics key features of MS in humans and ...


Abcs Of Covid-19 Coloring Page, Angela Messmer-Blust 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Abcs Of Covid-19 Coloring Page, Angela Messmer-Blust

RTI Children's Resources

To help give children a better understanding of the coronavirus that is causing the COVID-19 disease and the disruption in our daily lives, the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at UMass Medical created this coloring page just for kids. We hope parents and teachers can use it to help explain this complex situation, while also teaching the wonders of science.


Coronavirus Infographic, Angela Messmer-Blust 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Coronavirus Infographic, Angela Messmer-Blust

RTI Children's Resources

To help give children a better understanding of the coronavirus that is causing the COVID-19 disease and the disruption in our daily lives, the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at UMass Medical created this infographic just for kids. We hope parents and teachers can use it to help explain this complex situation, while also teaching the wonders of science.


Biofilm Structure Promotes Coexistence Of Phage-Resistant And Phage-Susceptible Bacteria, Emilia L. Simmons, Matthew C. Bond, Britt Koskella, Knut Drescher, Vanni Bucci, Carey D. Nadell 2020 Dartmouth College

Biofilm Structure Promotes Coexistence Of Phage-Resistant And Phage-Susceptible Bacteria, Emilia L. Simmons, Matthew C. Bond, Britt Koskella, Knut Drescher, Vanni Bucci, Carey D. Nadell

Open Access Articles

Encounters among bacteria and their viral predators (bacteriophages) are among the most common ecological interactions on Earth. These encounters are likely to occur with regularity inside surface-bound communities that microbes most often occupy in natural environments. Such communities, termed biofilms, are spatially constrained: interactions become limited to near neighbors, diffusion of solutes and particulates can be reduced, and there is pronounced heterogeneity in nutrient access and physiological state. It is appreciated from prior theoretical work that phage-bacteria interactions are fundamentally different in spatially structured contexts, as opposed to well-mixed liquid culture. Spatially structured communities are predicted to promote the protection ...


Plant Defensin Antibacterial Mode Of Action Against Pseudomonas Species, Andrew E. Sathoff, Shawn Lewenza, Deborah A. Samac 2020 Dakota State University

Plant Defensin Antibacterial Mode Of Action Against Pseudomonas Species, Andrew E. Sathoff, Shawn Lewenza, Deborah A. Samac

Faculty Research & Publications

Background: Though many plant defensins exhibit antibacterial activity, little is known about their antibacterial mode of action (MOA). Antimicrobial peptides with a characterized MOA induce the expression of multiple bacterial outer membrane modifications, which are required for resistance to these membrane-targeting peptides. Mini-Tn5- lux mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Tn insertions disrupting outer membrane protective modifications were assessed for sensitivity against plant defensin peptides. These transcriptional lux reporter strains were also evaluated for lux gene expression in response to sublethal plant defensin exposure. Also, a plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae was modified through transposon mutagenesis to create ...


Contributions Of Gyra And Parc Mutations And Qnrs2 Acquisition To Ciprofloxacin Resistance In Aeromonas Veronii Hm21, Daniel J. Silverstein 2020 University of Connecticut

Contributions Of Gyra And Parc Mutations And Qnrs2 Acquisition To Ciprofloxacin Resistance In Aeromonas Veronii Hm21, Daniel J. Silverstein

Honors Scholar Theses

In recent years, ciprofloxacin resistant (CpR) Aeromonas veronii and A. hydrophila strains have been isolated from the wounds of patients receiving leech therapy. Genome comparisons of these CpR isolates revealed the presence of chromosomal mutations in gyrA and parC as well as the gain of qnrS2 on either a large, 34 kb, conjugatable, low-copy plasmid, pAv42, or on a small, 6.8 kb, high-copy plasmid, pAh1471. The minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC, for Cp of these clinical isolates ranged from 1 to ≥32 µg/mL and some harbored a qnrS2 containing plasmid. We wanted to assess the contributions of these factors ...


Seroprevalence, Biochemical Investigation And Risk Factor Assessment For Hbv & Hcv Infection In Hospital Based Patients Of Islamabad, Pakistan, Narmeen Adnan Rana, Bushra Munir, Nazeer Hussain, Nazia Imtiaz, Muhammad Asif Gondal Dr., Fahed Parvaiz Dr. 2020 COMSATS University Islamabad

Seroprevalence, Biochemical Investigation And Risk Factor Assessment For Hbv & Hcv Infection In Hospital Based Patients Of Islamabad, Pakistan, Narmeen Adnan Rana, Bushra Munir, Nazeer Hussain, Nazia Imtiaz, Muhammad Asif Gondal Dr., Fahed Parvaiz Dr.

Journal of Bioresource Management

Viral hepatitis poses a serious threat to mankind. Hepatitis B and C Virus are blood borne pathogens that affect millions of individually globally. This study was conducted on a hospital-based population in Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of 4 months, utilizing ELISA as the diagnostic technique which suggested a higher seroprevalence rate for both HBV and HCV i.e. 2.07% and 8.24% respectively. A correlational analysis of the biochemical parameters of these individuals with HBV and HCV infection was carried out and the results indicated a positive correlation of HBV with Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), HCV with Total Bilirubin ...


Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D 2020 Eastern Washington University

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D

2020 Symposium Posters

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...


Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Gliding Motility And Its Regulation In Myxococcus Xanthus, Yirui Chen 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Mathematical Modeling Of Gliding Motility And Its Regulation In Myxococcus Xanthus, Yirui Chen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Tyrr Regulates The Ability Of Enterobacter Hormaechei To Induce Melanin Production In Cryptoccus Neoformans, Ally Watson 2020 University of Connecticut

Tyrr Regulates The Ability Of Enterobacter Hormaechei To Induce Melanin Production In Cryptoccus Neoformans, Ally Watson

Honors Scholar Theses

The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is present in the microbiota of many plants and animals and produces melanin, a compound that protects cells against UV light and promotes virulence. Melanin production can be induced by exogenous tyrosine, homogentisic acid, catecholamines, or their precursors such as L-DOPA, all of which may be produced by bacteria. The goal of this study was to investigate the interaction between Enterobacter hormaechei (a mosquito gut isolate) and C. neoformans with respect to the production of melanin by C. neoformans in the presence of E. hormaechei, potentially due to the production of L-DOPA or other metabolites by ...


Development Of An In Vitro Culture System For Cryptosporidium Parvum, Georgia Wilke 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Development Of An In Vitro Culture System For Cryptosporidium Parvum, Georgia Wilke

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cryptosporidium is a genus of protozoan parasites that causes diarrheal disease in humans and other animals. There are two major species that cause disease in humans: C. parvum, which infects both humans and animals, and C. hominis, which primarily infects humans. A recent study investigating the etiologies of pediatric diarrheal illness in Africa and South Asia found that Cryptosporidium is the 2nd most prevalent cause of diarrhea in infants and may be a contributing factor to chronic malnutrition. This discovery has led to renewed interest in studying this parasite and a reexamination of the barriers to studying Cryptosporidium. The main ...


Lymphatic Filariasis: Host And Parasite Factors And The Pathogenesis Of Systemic Adverse Events Following Treatment, Britt Juul Andersen 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Lymphatic Filariasis: Host And Parasite Factors And The Pathogenesis Of Systemic Adverse Events Following Treatment, Britt Juul Andersen

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori. The primary tool used by the Global Program to Eliminate LF is mass drug administration (MDA), and some 500 million people take the medications each year. Mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) are common after LF treatment, and these pose a major challenge for the LF elimination program. To better understand the pathogenesis of AEs, we studied patients from LF treatment trials in Côte d’Ivoire and Papua New Guinea, where plasma and leucocytes were collected pre and post-treatment and ...


Cognitive Recovery In The Post-Infectious Cns, Charise Joy Garber 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Cognitive Recovery In The Post-Infectious Cns, Charise Joy Garber

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in a variety of diseases of the CNS associated with cognitive impairment, including Alzheimerճ Disease, Parkinsonճ Disease with dementia, Multiple Sclerosis, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive disease (WNND). Despite strong evidence that infiltration of peripheral immune cells and activation of resident microglia and astrocytes occurs in these various diseases, very little is known about how this altered immune environment may influence normal cognitive function. Given that communication between the nervous and immune system is essential for normal cognitive function, the central motivation of my thesis work is to understand the mechanisms by ...


Can Unconventional Immunomodulatory Agents Help Alleviate Covid-19 Symptoms And Severity?, Stephen W. Mamber, Steven Krakowka, Jeffrey L. Osborn, Lloyd Saberski, Ryan G. Rhodes, Albert E. Dahlberg, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Kara Fitzgerald, Neal Wright, Sarah Beseme, John McMichael 2020 The Institute for Therapeutic Discovery

Can Unconventional Immunomodulatory Agents Help Alleviate Covid-19 Symptoms And Severity?, Stephen W. Mamber, Steven Krakowka, Jeffrey L. Osborn, Lloyd Saberski, Ryan G. Rhodes, Albert E. Dahlberg, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Kara Fitzgerald, Neal Wright, Sarah Beseme, John Mcmichael

Biology Faculty Publications

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the respiratory infection known as COVID-19. From an immunopathological standpoint, coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 induce increased levels of a variety of T-helper 1 (Th1) and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, CCL2 protein, and CXCL10 protein. In the absence of proven antiviral agents or an effective vaccine, substances with immunomodulatory activity may be able to inhibit inflammatory and Th1 cytokines and/or yield an anti-inflammatory and/or Th2 immune response to counteract COVID-19 symptoms and severity. This report briefly describes the following four ...


Evaluation Of Il-1 Blockade As An Adjunct To Linezolid Therapy For Tuberculosis In Mice And Macaques, Caylin G. Winchell, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jia Yao Phuah, Samantha J. Nelson, Christopher M. Sassetti, JoAnne L. Flynn 2020 University of Pittsburgh

Evaluation Of Il-1 Blockade As An Adjunct To Linezolid Therapy For Tuberculosis In Mice And Macaques, Caylin G. Winchell, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jia Yao Phuah, Samantha J. Nelson, Christopher M. Sassetti, Joanne L. Flynn

Open Access Articles

In 2017 over 550,000 estimated new cases of multi-drug/rifampicin resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) occurred, emphasizing a need for new treatment strategies. Linezolid (LZD) is a potent antibiotic for drug-resistant Gram-positive infections and is an effective treatment for TB. However, extended LZD use can lead to LZD-associated host toxicities, most commonly bone marrow suppression. LZD toxicities may be mediated by IL-1, an inflammatory pathway important for early immunity during M. tuberculosis infection. However, IL-1 can contribute to pathology and disease severity late in TB progression. Since IL-1 may contribute to LZD toxicity and does influence TB pathology, we targeted ...


Gp41-Targeted Antibodies Restore Infectivity Of A Fusion-Deficient Hiv-1 Envelope Glycoprotein, Vinita R. Joshi, Ruchi M. Newman, Melissa L. Pack, Karen A. Power, James B. Munro, Ken Okawa, Navid Madani, Joseph G. Sodroski, Aaron G. Schmidt, Todd M. Allen 2020 Harvard Medical School

Gp41-Targeted Antibodies Restore Infectivity Of A Fusion-Deficient Hiv-1 Envelope Glycoprotein, Vinita R. Joshi, Ruchi M. Newman, Melissa L. Pack, Karen A. Power, James B. Munro, Ken Okawa, Navid Madani, Joseph G. Sodroski, Aaron G. Schmidt, Todd M. Allen

Open Access Articles

The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates viral entry via conformational changes associated with binding the cell surface receptor (CD4) and coreceptor (CCR5/CXCR4), resulting in subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. While the gp120 Env surface subunit has been extensively studied for its role in viral entry and evasion of the host immune response, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein and its role in natural infection are less well characterized. Here, we identified a primary HIV-1 Env variant that consistently supports >300% increased viral infectivity in the presence of autologous or heterologous HIV-positive plasma. However, in the absence of HIV-positive ...


Pandemic Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemic Forum Syllabus, Lynda Coon

Pandemic Course

This forum tackles the recent global outbreak of the COVID-19 Coronavirus. University of Arkansas faculty, doctors from Washington Regional Medical Center and Arkansas state leaders confront the virus from a variety of angles —medical sciences, supply chain, public health, social media, mathematics, economics, history, religion, art, and environmental studies. In so doing, the forum’s instructors situate COVID-19 within a broader narrative of the history of pandemics as well as the multivalent factors contributing to virulent flu eruptions across an international stage.


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