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Some Bacteriological Work In The Dairy, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

Some Bacteriological Work In The Dairy, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Every wide-awake dairyman takes an interest in the subject of bacteriology as related to the various dairy problems.

Iowa dairymen have taken much interest in this subject owing largely to the fact that dairy papers, dairy columns in agricultural papers have, been discussing this subject in an intelligent manner. Then, too, several American publications, notably Conn1 has given us an excellent summary of the work done in Europe and this country. The amount of original work in this line in the United States is comparatively small, most of it having been done by Prof. Conn in Connecticut We must ...


An Aromatic Bacillus Of Cheese, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

An Aromatic Bacillus Of Cheese, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

During the fall of 1892 my attention was called to a rot of cabbage which was doing serious damage. An isolation of the germs responsible for the disease was undertaken, since none of the higher fungi seemed to be present. Among the germs present was one that had a very striking and peculiar odor when grown in bouillon. It was not unlike that peculiar to Limburger cheese. It resembled old and well-cured cheese. The same germ grown in agar had a pleasant, aromatic and nut-like odor, wholly different than the odor i* bouillon. I suggested to Mr. Wallace, who was ...


Experiments With Mallein, W. B. Niles 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With Mallein, W. B. Niles

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

For the benefit of our readers who are not familiar with the agent Mallein and its uses we will say that it is a preparation obtained by growing in culture media, the bacillus of glanders, and that as yet its only use has been as an aid in the diagnosis of doubtful cases of this disease.

The Mallein used in our experiment was prepared by the Bureau of Animal Industry and kindly sent us by request of Dr. Stalker. In regard to the mode of preparation I quote as follows from an article by Drs. Schweinitz and Kilborn: “Acid peptonized ...


Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader 2017 Portland State University

Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Geothermal and hypersaline environments are rich in viral particles, among which spindle-shaped morphologies predominate. Currently, viruses with spindle- or lemon-shaped virions are unique to Archaea and belong to two distinct viral families. The larger of the two families, the Fuselloviridae, encompasses spindle-shaped viruses with very short tails, which infect Sulfolobus solfataricus and close relatives. Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) is the best-known member of the family and was one of the first hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses to be isolated. However, our knowledge of fuselloviral life cycles and the relationships between these viruses and their hosts is still limited. As a result ...


Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Background Bacterial lipoproteins have important functions in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. In Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the majority of lipoproteins have not been functionally characterized. Previously, we showed by DNA microarray that CmeR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC, modulates the expression of a three-gene operon (cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091) encoding a cluster of lipoproteins in C. jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we characterized the function and regulation of the cj0089-cj0090-cj0091 operon. In contrast to the repression of cmeABC, CmeR activates the expression of the lipoprotein ...


Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacterreadily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes ...


Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Background

To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene blaNDM-1 in bacteria of food animal origin.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL) were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the blaNDM-1 positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaNDM-1 genes, and DNA ...


Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina 2017 University of Ljubljana

Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina

Qijing Zhang

The aim of the study was to investigate the mode of action of (-)-α-pinene in terms of its modulation of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Broth microdilution and ethidium bromide accumulation assays were used to evaluate the (-)-α-pinene antimicrobial activity, modulation of antimicrobial resistance, and inhibition of antimicrobial efflux. The target antimicrobial efflux systems were identified using an insertion mutagenesis approach, and C.jejuni adaptation to (-)-α-pinene was evaluated using DNA microarrays. Knock-out mutants of the key up-regulated transcriptional regulators hspR and hrcA were constructed to investigate their roles in C. jejuni adaptation to several stress factors, including osmolytes, and ...


Isotuberculosinol: The Unusual Case Of An Immunomodulatory Diterpenoid From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Francis M. Mann, Reuben J. Peters 2017 Winona State University

Isotuberculosinol: The Unusual Case Of An Immunomodulatory Diterpenoid From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Francis M. Mann, Reuben J. Peters

Reuben J. Peters

The actinomycetes family of bacteria is classically considered a rich source of natural products [1]. It is often suggested that such compounds have been selected by evolution to have biological activity [2]. For example, given the microbial-rich soil environment of the actinomycetes native habitat, their natural products have been suggested to serve in chemical warfare and/or signaling, which has been further connected to their leading role in providing pharmaceutically relevant antibiotic agents [3]. Nevertheless, surprisingly few of these molecules have been definitively assigned specific physiological roles in the native producing bacteria.


Cellular, Particle And Environmental Parameters Influencing Attachment In Surface Waters: A Review, Chunyu Liao, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Cellular, Particle And Environmental Parameters Influencing Attachment In Surface Waters: A Review, Chunyu Liao, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Effective modelling of the fate and transport of water-borne pathogens is needed to support federally required pollution-reduction plans, for water quality improvement planning, and to protect public health. Lack of understanding of microbial–particle interactions in water bodies has sometimes led to the assumption that bacteria move in surface waters not associated with suspended mineral and organic particles, despite a growing body of evidence suggesting otherwise. Limited information exists regarding the factors driving interactions between micro-organisms and particles in surface waters. This review discusses cellular, particle and environmental factors potentially influencing interactions and in-stream transport. Bacterial attachment in the aquatic ...


Genome Sequence Of The Psychrophilic Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella Marina Mp-1 (Atcc 15381), Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Genome Sequence Of The Psychrophilic Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella Marina Mp-1 (Atcc 15381), Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Moritella marina MP-1 is a bacterial species known for its production of docosahexaenoic acid. We present the draft genome sequence of the type strainMoritella marina MP-1 (ATCC 15381), having 4,636,778 bp with a G+C content of 40.5% and consisting of 83 contigs.


Effect Of Aeration Under Pressure On Diacetyl Production In Butter Cultures, C. R. Brewer, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Effect Of Aeration Under Pressure On Diacetyl Production In Butter Cultures, C. R. Brewer, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The results presented indicate that the production of diacetyl in butter cultures and pure cultures of citric acid fermenting streptococci can be greatly increased by growing the cultures under 30 pounds or more of air pressure per square inch, provided the cultures are agitated by aeration or stirring. This increase frequently amounts to several hundred percent. In some cases the yield of acetylmethylcarbinol was increased by aeration under pressure, and in other cases it was not. Occasionally, the increase was relatively large.

Pressure without agitation was not effective in increasing the diketone content. The cultures under pressure must be agitaed ...


Reduction Of Acetylmethylcarbinol And Diacetyl To 2,3-Butylene Glycol By The Citric Acid Fermenting Streptococci Of Butter Cultures, B. W. Hammer, G. L. Stahly, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian 2017 Iowa State College

Reduction Of Acetylmethylcarbinol And Diacetyl To 2,3-Butylene Glycol By The Citric Acid Fermenting Streptococci Of Butter Cultures, B. W. Hammer, G. L. Stahly, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

When acetylmethylcarbinol or diacetyl was added to a tomato bouillon culture of one of the citric acid fermenting streptococci normally present in butter cultures, there was a rapid disappearance of the added reagent and an increase in 2,3-butylene glycol. The amount of the glycol produced accounted, in a general way, for the acetylmethylcarbinol or diacetyl that disappeared. The added reagent did not usually disappear completely. In trials with acetylmethylcarbinol the change of the carbinol to the glycol was delayed when sulfuric acid was added in amounts to yield a pH of from 3.8 to 4.0.

There was ...


Bacteriological Studies On Sulfid Spoilage Of Canned Vegetables, C. H. Werkman 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On Sulfid Spoilage Of Canned Vegetables, C. H. Werkman

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Sulfid spoilage of canned vegetables is characterized by the marked blackening of the contents and the production of hydrogen sulfid by the organism responsible. Externally the can manifests no characteristics of spoilage; it does not swell or spring.

The condition constitutes a new type of thermophilic spoilage due to insufficient processing. It has caused losses in both the sweet corn and pea canning industries of the middle western states. The general characteristics of the spoilage have led to the designation of "sulfid spoilage" for this type.

Sulfid spoilage in canned sweet corn has been shown to be caused by a ...


Effect Of Spatial Influence On Endophyte Diversity Within Alnus Rubra, Sebastian L. Singleton 2017 Portland State University

Effect Of Spatial Influence On Endophyte Diversity Within Alnus Rubra, Sebastian L. Singleton

Student Research Symposium

Red alders (Alnus rubra) of the Pacific Northwest are characterized as actinorhizal dicotyledons; plants that possess that ability to form symbiotic relationships with endophytic organisms, which result in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In Alders of the order Fagales, such a symbiotic relationship with Frankia bacteria allows these plants to play crucial environmental roles as pioneer species able to colonize and enrich nutrient-deficient soils. This ability has a major impact on ecological succession by enabling other species to establish. Although inoculation with frankia bacteria is known to increase symbiotic nitrogen fixation capabilities of actinorhizal plants, whether they could confer the same benefit to ...


Ancient Bacteria–Amoeba Relationships And Pathogenic Animal Bacteria, Joan E. Strassmann, Longfei Shu 2017 Washington University in St Louis

Ancient Bacteria–Amoeba Relationships And Pathogenic Animal Bacteria, Joan E. Strassmann, Longfei Shu

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Long before bacteria infected humans, they infected amoebas, which remain a potentially important reservoir for human disease. Diverse soil amoebas including Dictyostelium and Acanthamoeba can host intracellular bacteria. Though the internal environment of free-living amoebas is similar in many ways to that of mammalian macrophages, they differ in a number of important ways, including temperature. A new study in PLOS Biology by Taylor-Mulneix et al. demonstrates that Bordetella bronchiseptica has two different gene suites that are activated depending on whether the bacterium finds itself in a hot mammalian or cool amoeba host environment. This study specifically shows that B. bronchiseptica ...


Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel 2017 Northern Michigan University

Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel

All NMU Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of human bacterial infections; however, humans can also be asymptomatically colonized with S. aureus. Asymptomatic carriers can potentially spread S. aureus infection to others. These infections can range from mild to severe. The pathology of a S. aureus infection is often dependent on which toxins are expressed and the virulence factors with which they are associated. One goal of this study was to isolate S. aureus from healthy, consenting adult volunteers who submitted nasal swabs for culture and qRT-PCR analysis to determine which strains are present in the community. This knowledge could potentially ...


Cloning And Expression Of C-Terminal Fragment Of Tonb From Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479, Brooke E. Baxter 2017 East Tennessee State University

Cloning And Expression Of C-Terminal Fragment Of Tonb From Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479, Brooke E. Baxter

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex is essential for the siderophore mediated acquisition of iron by Gram negative bacteria. The system provides energy from the proton motive force to the outer membrane in order for the iron siderophore complex to enter into the cell. The main protein involved in energy transduction, TonB, has been extensively studied in the species Escherichia Coli. It has been determined that the protein consists of 239 amino acids. In comparison, however, the TonB of Rhizobium leguminosarum consists of 457 amino acids with the same conserved regions. What is in question, therefore, is how the additional amino acids effect ...


Characterization Of The Chea2 Chemotaxis Operon In Azospirillum Brasilense, Erin Lutz 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Of The Chea2 Chemotaxis Operon In Azospirillum Brasilense, Erin Lutz

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte

University Scholar Projects

Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...


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