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E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


The Incidence Of Mrsa Infections In The United States: Is A More Comprehensive Tracking System Needed?, Kevin T. Kavanagh,, Said Abusalem, Lindsay E. Calderon 2017 Health Watch, Lexington, KY, USA

The Incidence Of Mrsa Infections In The United States: Is A More Comprehensive Tracking System Needed?, Kevin T. Kavanagh,, Said Abusalem, Lindsay E. Calderon

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

A review of epidemiological studies on the incidence of MRSA infections overtime was performed along with an analysis of data available for download from Hospital Compare (https://data.medicare.gov/data/hospital-compare). We found the estimations of the incidence of MRSA infections varied widely depending upon the type of population studied, the types of infections captured and in the definitions and terminology used to describe the results. We could not find definitive evidence that the incidence of MRSA infections in U.S. community or facilities is decreasing significantly. Of concern are recent data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network ...


Modeling The Survival Of Salmonella Spp. In Soy Sauce Based Products Stored At Two Different Temperatures, Ana Arciniega, Jayne E. Stratton, Andreia Bianchini, Bing Wang 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Modeling The Survival Of Salmonella Spp. In Soy Sauce Based Products Stored At Two Different Temperatures, Ana Arciniega, Jayne E. Stratton, Andreia Bianchini, Bing Wang

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

An acidified food is defined as a low-acid food to which acid(s) or acid food(s) are added and which has a finished equilibrium pH of 4.6 or below and a water activity (aw) greater than 0.85 (U.S. FDA). A water activity of 0.85 is the upper limit for preventing the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and pH 4.6 is the upper limit preventing the growth of Clostridium botulinum.

When considering survival rate of microbial pathogens, pH, water activity, storage temperature, salt content and holding time are integral and must be considered together. Holding time ...


Effect Of Seasonal Conditions And Soil Treatment On Bacteria And Molds In Soil, P. E. Brown, W. V. Halversen 2017 Iowa State College

Effect Of Seasonal Conditions And Soil Treatment On Bacteria And Molds In Soil, P. E. Brown, W. V. Halversen

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The study of the microorganic population of the soil has revealed many interesting facts but none more significant nor of more far-reaching importance than the discovery that molds occur in soils and perform various functions which directly or indirectly exert considerable influence on soil fertility.

The occurrence and activities of bacteria in the soil has been the subject of extensive inquiry and much knowledge along this line has been accumulated. These organisms have been found to occur in large numbers in practically all soils and to play a prominent part in the reactions which must necessarily take place in soils ...


Soil Inoculation With Azotobacter, Paul Emerson 2017 Iowa State College

Soil Inoculation With Azotobacter, Paul Emerson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Following the discovery of the nitrogen fixing powers of the symbiotic bacteria in the soil, early investigators found that the power of utilizing the free atmospheric nitrogen was not confined to the symbiotic bacteria alone. They noted increases in soils which had borne no legumes and they found that fallow soils in particular increased appreciably in nitrogen content. These . facts stimulated researches which led to the discovery of many forms of bacteria which are able, when growing alone, to fix nitrogen from the air. The chief of these is now known as the azotobacter group.


Effects Of Certain Alkali Salts On Ammonification, P. E. Brown, D. R. Johnson 2017 Iowa State College

Effects Of Certain Alkali Salts On Ammonification, P. E. Brown, D. R. Johnson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The occurrence of so-called" alkali spots" in certain Iowa soils has been nnted in recent publications, these spots are found only in the Wisconsin drift soil area, in association with peat deposits, and are the result of course of peculiarly poor drainage conditions. It is unnecessary here to consider further the causes of these formations or the methods which should be followed in reclaiming the areas affected as these points have been discussed in the publications referred to. It will be sufficient to call attention to the results of the chemical studies of the spots and to consider briefly some ...


Effect Of Sulfur And Manure On Availability Of Rock Phosphate In Soil, P. E. Brown, A. R. Gwinn 2017 Iowa State College

Effect Of Sulfur And Manure On Availability Of Rock Phosphate In Soil, P. E. Brown, A. R. Gwinn

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The use of phosphorus fertilizers is now a recognized necessity in all systems of permanent agriculture. However well supplied naturally, all soils gradually become depleted in phosphorous thru the removal of crops and this element must be returned if crop production is to continue satisfactory. Many soils, especially those under long continued cultivation, have been found to respond very profitably to phosphorus fertilization while even the newer, more fertile soils are approaching a condition where phosphorus will soon become the controlling factor of growth. The interest in phosphorus fertilizers is therefore becoming more widespread and the use of these materials ...


Carbon Dioxide Production In Soils And Carbon And Nitrogen Changes In Soils Variously Treated, R. S. Potter, R. S. Snyder 2017 Iowa State College

Carbon Dioxide Production In Soils And Carbon And Nitrogen Changes In Soils Variously Treated, R. S. Potter, R. S. Snyder

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The carbon dioxide of the soil atmosphere, along with the water, has long been recognized as the most active agent in the decomposition of comparatively inert minerals to give available and soluble plant food material. It is probable that herein lies the great benefit which comes from the application to soil of organic material which not only increases the energy material easily available for the bacteria, but also improves the physical condition of the soil. This in turn increases bacterial activity, which gives rise to increased carbon dioxide production.

At the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, for some time past, both ...


Studies On The Numbers Of Bacteria In Milk Showing Various Changes, B. W. Hammer, R. H. Hix 2017 Iowa State College

Studies On The Numbers Of Bacteria In Milk Showing Various Changes, B. W. Hammer, R. H. Hix

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The relationship between bacteria and the changes that occur in milk has been recognized since the middle of the last century. Certain of the milk abnormalities are almost characteristic of micro-organisms while others, such as abnormal flavors and odors, quite commonly result from causes other than bacterial. Recently the dairy section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station in working with samples of milk from various parts of the state found that milk sometimes received low flavor scores when the number of contained bacteria was exceedingly small, while samples with high flavor scores sometimes contained large numbers of bacteria. This suggested ...


Draft Genome Sequences Of Three Closely Related Isolates Of The Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodovulum Sulfidophilum, Michael S. Guzman, Beau McGinley, Natalia Santiago-Merced, Dinesh Gupta, Arpita Bose 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Draft Genome Sequences Of Three Closely Related Isolates Of The Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodovulum Sulfidophilum, Michael S. Guzman, Beau Mcginley, Natalia Santiago-Merced, Dinesh Gupta, Arpita Bose

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

We report here the draft genome sequences of three isolates of Rhodovulum sulfidophilum from a single population that will serve as a model system for understanding genomic traits that underlie metabolic variation within closely related marine purple nonsulfur bacteria in natural microbial communities.


Bacterial Activities And Crop Production, Percy Edgar Brown 2017 Iowa State College

Bacterial Activities And Crop Production, Percy Edgar Brown

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Until the present time studies in soil bacteriology have dealt almost exclusively with the occurrence and activities of microorganisms in the soil and no attempt has been made to interpret experimental results from the standpoint of crop production. This is due, of course, to the fact that as a science soil bacteriology is scarcely out of its infancy and the preliminary investigations in any science must of necessity deal mainly with underlying principles and such studies are always apt to be rather fragmentary in character.


Slimy And Ropy Milk, R. E. Buchanan, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Slimy And Ropy Milk, R. E. Buchanan, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

A study of slimy and ropy milk sent for examination to the dairy bacteriological laboratories of Iowa State College has shown the following:

1. Cultures of organisms secured from slimy starters, apparently typical Streptococcus lacticus forms, sometimes showed marked capacity to produce ropiness when inoculated into sterile milk. This slime producing power is evidently a variable characteristic, appearing and disappearing without apparent cause.

2. Associative action of organisms in some cases is responsible for ropiness. Two organisms, neither of which alone can cause ropiness, may, when grown together, cause the medium to become slimy.

3. Bacterium (lactis) viscosum is one ...


Bacteriological Studies On Two Yellow Milk Organisms, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On Two Yellow Milk Organisms, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The different milk constituents vary greatly in their susceptibility to the action of the bacteria that make up the flora commonly found in milk. At ordinary temperatures in raw milk, the lactose is soon attacked and acid formed, but if the acid producing organisms are destroyed by some such procedure as heating, pronounced changes soon take place in the casein. The fat is one of the milk constituents that is more resistant to bacterial action, yet even in it striking changes are observed under certain conditions. Some of the common milk organisms, even some of the acid producing types, are ...


Bacteriological Studies On The Coagulation Of Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On The Coagulation Of Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The value of milk as a food has led to many attempts at its preservation until at the present time various kinds of dried and canned milks are manufactured. The canned milks, because of the water contained in them, are open to bacteriological changes unless the action of microorganisms is overcome by either killing those present or by making the conditions unsuited to their growth.


A Bacteriological Study Of Blue Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

A Bacteriological Study Of Blue Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In October, 1913, the receipt of a sample of blue milk by the dairy section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station prompted an investigation of this uncommon phenomenon. Careful study of the organism involved proved it to be Bac. cyanogenes, the same organism that has been isolated in other instances of blue milk. As far as is known, this organism is entirely harmless and milk which is turned blue by it is objectionable only on account of its color.


Sulfofication In Soils, P. E. Brown, E. H. Kellogg 2017 Iowa State College

Sulfofication In Soils, P. E. Brown, E. H. Kellogg

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Sulfur has long been known to be one of the essential plant food constituents. It has always been believed, however, that there was sufficient present in all soils for the optimum growth of crops. This assumption has been very largely based on Wolff's analyses of the ashes of various crops which showed the presence of very small amounts of sulfur.

The recent work of many investigators has demonstrated, however, that the amount of sulfur in plant materials as determined in the ash is, in most cases, entirely too low; that there is a considerable loss of sulfur in the ...


Bacteriological Studies Of Field Soils, Iii. The Effects Of Barnyard Manure, Percy Edgar Brown 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies Of Field Soils, Iii. The Effects Of Barnyard Manure, Percy Edgar Brown

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The conclusions which may be drawn from the experiments upon the effects of barnyard manure on bacteriological activities of field S'oils presented in this bulletin are as follows:

1. Applications of manure up to sixteen tons per acre increased the numbers of organisms in the soil as shown by the growth on modified synthetic and albumen agar. The ammonifying power of the soil as shown by tests with the casein-fresh soil, albumen-fresh soil, dried blood-fresh soil, and dried blood-air-dried soil methods, and the nitrifying power tested by the ammonium sulfate-fresh soil, and the ammonium sulfate-air- dried soil methods were ...


Methods For The Bacteriological Examination Of Soils, Percy Edgar Brown 2017 Iowa State College

Methods For The Bacteriological Examination Of Soils, Percy Edgar Brown

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Because the idea of examining soils bacteriologically owed its inception to the development of the gelatine plate method for isolating pure cultures, very naturally the first investigations of soil bacteria were by the use of plate cultures. the studies, therefore, were purely quantitative in nature. The results secured by the pioneers in this work demonstrated some facts of considerable interest, but it soon became evident that mere quantitative determinations of the bacteria in soils were inadequate to give information regarding the relation of such organisms and their activities to the fertility of the soil.


Bacteria At Different Depths In Some Typical Iowa Soils, Percy Edgar Brown 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteria At Different Depths In Some Typical Iowa Soils, Percy Edgar Brown

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. In the different soil types, as well as in the same soil under different rotations, the greatest number of organisms occurred at a depth of 4 inches.

2. Bacteria were found in considerable numbers at much lower depths in the loess soil than in the drift soil.

3. There was a more or less gradual decrease in numbers to a depth of 3, 5 and in one case of fifteen feet. No sudden increases were observed even where gains in moisture occurred.

4. The greatest decrease in numbers of organisms occurred within the first 12 inches and in some ...


Bacteriological Studies Of Field Soils, Ii. The Effects Of Continuous Cropping And Various Rotations, Percy Edgar Brown 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies Of Field Soils, Ii. The Effects Of Continuous Cropping And Various Rotations, Percy Edgar Brown

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

From a bacteriological study of soil plots under both continuous cropping and various crop rotations, these general conclusions were drawn:

1. The rotation of crops caused the development of greater numbers of organisms in the soil and of greater ammonifying, nitrifying, and nitrogen-fixing power by the soil, than continuous cropping either to corn or to clover.

2. Greater numbers of organisms, greater ammonifying, nitrifying, and nitrogen-fixing powers were found in a soil under a three year rotation of corn, oats, and clover, than in a soil under a two year rotation of corn and oats, or in a soil under ...


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