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An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey 2021 Munster Technological University, Cork

An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are well-recognised nosocomial pathogens that pose a significant threat to public health. Associated with poorer clinical outcomes than their vancomycin-sensitive counterparts, the prevalence of VRE in Ireland has increased in recent times, with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network reporting that out of 29 countries, Ireland demonstrated the highest rates of vancomycin resistance among invasive Enterococcus faecium isolates between 2011 and 2014 (2011; 34.9%, 2012; 44.0%, 2013; 42.7%, 2014; 45.1%). Herein, we investigate VRE prevalence in the Mercy University Hospital (MUH) – an acute care hospital in southern Ireland. A total of 21 first-time ...


Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock

Theses & Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a metabolically versatile human pathogen, causing disease in many areas of the body. Its versatility can be attributed to the fact that it utilizes a variety of tools to adapt to many different environments, including toxins to scavenge from the host and multiple transporters to compete for its preferred carbon sources. S. aureus can also survive in harsh conditions through biofilm development, which are notoriously recalcitrant to antibiotics and immune defenses. Biofilms exhibit marked heterogeneity, with division of labor for production of matrix components and differential gene expression among various niches within the biofilm.

In this study ...


Lyme Arthritis: A Primer For Primary Care, Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Justin Nistico, Pranav Nair 2021 Arnot Ogden Medical Center

Lyme Arthritis: A Primer For Primary Care, Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Justin Nistico, Pranav Nair

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria belonging to the Borreliaceae family. Wooded forests and terrains are affected, including those in the Northeastern United States. Teenage ticks are most commonly discovered on humans as those ticks need to satisfy their nutritional requirements for growth. They bite warm, moist areas of the body and take 24 to 48 hours to transmit the Borrelia Burgdorferi infection. Lyme disease manifests as a multisystem disorder in humans, and is known for its dermatological, neurological and rheumatological findings. For the primary care provider, Lyme disease should be on the differential in multisystem diseases. Our case ...


Prevalence And Multidrug Resistance Pattern Of E. Coli Among Urinary Tract Infection Patients In Tertiary Care Hospital Of Multan, Hubza Ruatt Khan, Mehvish Javeed, Asghar Javed, Nisma Farooq 2021 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Women University, Multan, Pakistan.

Prevalence And Multidrug Resistance Pattern Of E. Coli Among Urinary Tract Infection Patients In Tertiary Care Hospital Of Multan, Hubza Ruatt Khan, Mehvish Javeed, Asghar Javed, Nisma Farooq

Journal of Bioresource Management

Urinary Tract Infection is alarming problem worldwide due to the intensity of antimicrobial resistance. Escherichia coli is the most predominant organism in UTI. This study was planned to evaluate demographic parameters, the prevalence of E. coli, and antimicrobial resistance patterns among E. coli isolates from UTI patients in Nishtar Hospital of Multan from January to June 2018. A total of 350 mid-stream urine samples were collected from different patients having age group from 25 to 60 years and processed by standard laboratory procedures. Out of 350 samples, 100 samples were observed as critical bacteremia. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were ...


Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham 2021 Emory University

Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

High fidelity during protein synthesis is accomplished by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). These enzymes ligate an amino acid to a cognate tRNA and have proofreading and editing capabilities that ensure high fidelity. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) preferentially ligates a phenylalanine to a tRNAPhe over the chemically similar tyrosine, which differs from phenylalanine by a single hydroxyl group. In bacteria that undergo exposure to oxidative stress such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, tyrosine isomer levels increase due to phenylalanine oxidation. Several residues are oxidized in PheRS and contribute to hyperactive editing, including against mischarged Tyr-tRNAPhe, despite these oxidized residues not being ...


The Sterilization Of Escherichia Coli With Black Diamond-Coated Silicon, Sarah M. Cawthon, Jesse L. Rozsa, Mark P. Running 2021 University of Louisville

The Sterilization Of Escherichia Coli With Black Diamond-Coated Silicon, Sarah M. Cawthon, Jesse L. Rozsa, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

In order to combat increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance, new antimicrobials are needed to successfully kill microbes. Silicon coated in black diamond is a material that is hypothesized to have antimicrobial properties. To test this hypothesis, Escherichia coli cells were placed on different black diamond-coated silicon surfaces and allowed to rest on each surface for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1 hour. Cells were collected, and growth was assessed by counting colonies on plates or spectrophotometry growth curves. The results of this study indicated that the experimental samples have some antimicrobial or growth inhibition properties, but they may not be ...


Mara Repression Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lauren Daugherty, Lon Chubiz PhD 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Mara Repression Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lauren Daugherty, Lon Chubiz Phd

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a bacteria most commonly known for causing the eponymous food-related illness. Due to their rapid reproduction rate and their ability to be propogated and maintained in a lab setting, they are commonly used in lab studies so that we can better understand how Salmonella causes disease in organisms that are more difficult to study. One area of interest is analyzing how Salmonella controls expression of the mechanisms that actually cause disease, called virulence traits, in response to the environment. In this study, antibiotic stress was used to analyze virulence gene expression. MarA is a gene that regulates ampicillin ...


Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond 2021 University of Texas at Tyler

Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond

Biology Theses

Increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections by antimicrobial resistant pathogens resulting in higher mortality rates and financial burden is of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents one of six highly virulent “ESKAPE” pathogens that exhibit considerable intrinsic drug resistance as well as mechanisms for acquiring further resistance. As many of these mechanisms are regulated through gene expression, we sought to identify regulatory strategies and patterns at play in 23 clinical isolates collected from Baku, Azerbaijan and Tyler, Texas, USA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on six gene targets implicated in resistance and contrasted with antibiotic phenotypes. We found AmpC cephalosporinase ...


Biocontrol Of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, Jean Lu 2021 Kennesaw State University

Biocontrol Of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages, Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, Jean Lu

Symposium of Student Scholars

Biocontrol of Foodborne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages

Dzhuliya Ignatova, Erion Hogan, Simone Dakare, and Jean Lu

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Abstract

Salmonella and Shigella are two important groups of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Salmonella cause an illness called salmonellosis while Shigella cause shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). The most common symptoms of these illnesses are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and fever. Shigella can also cause bloody diarrhea. It was estimated that each year Salmonella cause 93.8 million cases of gastroenteritis and 155,000 deaths globally. Shigella causes 164.7 million cases and 1.1 million deaths throughout the world yearly. People get ...


Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden 2021 Kennesaw State University

Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden

Symposium of Student Scholars

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that has the capacity to express multiple virulence factors that are regulated through an extensive quorum sensing network. Three major quorum sensing systems have been identified in Pseudomonas species: the acyl homoserine lactones of las and rhl, and the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS). We seek to investigate the involvement of a global regulator, Lrp with the expression of these three networks. Specifically, we will compare expression levels of las, rhl, and pqs in wild type P. aeruginosa (MPAO1) with an lrp transposon insertion mutant using quantitative PCR. Through this comparative qPCR analysis, we ...


Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and ...


Assessing Selective Plasmids For Bradyrhizobium Sp. Doa9 And Mesorhizobium Loti, Aiden J. Wilcox, Rebecca Meaney, Bogumil Karas 2021 Western University

Assessing Selective Plasmids For Bradyrhizobium Sp. Doa9 And Mesorhizobium Loti, Aiden J. Wilcox, Rebecca Meaney, Bogumil Karas

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Role Of Prophages On Whib7 Expression And Antibiotic Resistance In Mycobacterium Chelonae, Jaycee J. Cushman 2021 University of Maine

Characterizing The Role Of Prophages On Whib7 Expression And Antibiotic Resistance In Mycobacterium Chelonae, Jaycee J. Cushman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacterial pathogens are responsible for an ongoing public health crisis. Mycobacterium abscessus is the causative agent of lung infections that disproportionately affect immunocompromised individuals and is the most intrinsically antibiotic-resistant bacterial species known. These characteristics make M. abscessus infections difficult to treat, with a success rate of only 45%. While some extensively resistant isolates are caused by mutations in drug targets, others appear to be a result of increased intrinsic drug resistance. Common among these strains is the presence of integrated viral genomes (prophage) that are known to contribute to fitness and antibiotic resistance in other pathogens but whose roles ...


Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa de Alda, Ignacio Luque 2021 Universidad de Sevilla

Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa De Alda, Ignacio Luque

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

As compared to eukaryotes, bacteria have a reduced tRNA gene set encoding between 30 and 220 tRNAs. Although in most bacterial phyla tRNA genes are dispersed in the genome, many species from distinct phyla also show genes forming arrays. Here, we show that two types of arrays with distinct evolutionary origins exist. This work focuses on long tRNA gene arrays (L-arrays) that encompass up to 43 genes, which disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and contribute supernumerary tRNA genes to the host. Although in the few cases previously studied these arrays were reported to be poorly transcribed, here we show that ...


You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller 2021 CUNY Guttman Community College

You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller

Open Educational Resources

If these commonly used spices have the ability to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth, could they also potentially inhibit the growth of normal, harmless bacteria that live in your body? In this lab, we will test common bacteria for resistance to food additives.


Antibacterial Properties Of Citric Acid/Β-Alanine Carbon Dots Against Gram-Negative Bacteria, Anju Pandey, Asmita Devkota, Zeinab Yadegari, C. Korsi Dumenyo, Ali Taheri 2021 Tennessee State University

Antibacterial Properties Of Citric Acid/Β-Alanine Carbon Dots Against Gram-Negative Bacteria, Anju Pandey, Asmita Devkota, Zeinab Yadegari, C. Korsi Dumenyo, Ali Taheri

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

While multi-drug resistance in bacteria is an emerging concern in public health, using carbon dots (CDs) as a new source of antimicrobial activity is gaining popularity due to their antimicrobial and non-toxic properties. Here we prepared carbon dots from citric acid and β-alanine and demonstrated their ability to inhibit the growth of diverse groups of Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Pectobacterium species. Carbon dots were prepared using a one-pot, three-minute synthesis process in a commercial microwave oven (700 W). The antibacterial activity of these CDs was studied using the well-diffusion method, and their minimal inhibitory concentration ...


The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Cell Wall Integrity And Programmed Cell Death During Biofilm Development, Bibek G C 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Role Of The Msaabcr Operon In Cell Wall Integrity And Programmed Cell Death During Biofilm Development, Bibek G C

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen in both community and health care settings. Biggest challenges with S. aureus as a pathogen is its ability to acquire antibiotic resistance and produce robust biofilms. In this work, we investigated the nature of the cell wall defect in the msaABCR operon mutant in the Mu50 (VISA) and USA300 LAC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Results showed that msaABCR-mutant cells had decreased cell wall thickness and cell wall crosslinking in both strains. These defects are most likely due to increased murein hydrolase activity and/or nonspecific processing of murein hydrolases mediated by ...


Insights Into Steinernema Carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus Nematophila Specificity And The Role Of Adult Nematode Colonization, Erin Mans 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Insights Into Steinernema Carpocapsae-Xenorhabdus Nematophila Specificity And The Role Of Adult Nematode Colonization, Erin Mans

Doctoral Dissertations

The gut microbiota can provide the host with several benefits such as the production of secondary metabolites, essential amino acids, as well as the breakdown of food or protection from pathogens. The host in turn provides the microbiota with shelter and nutrients. Given the benefits that the host and microbiota receive from their association, humans and the microbiota have evolved mechanisms of selection and specificity to assure the proper symbionts colonize a host with high fidelity. Chapter two will explore mechanisms by which Xenorhabdus nematophila nematode intestinal localization (nil) genes interact with and adhere to the nematode intestinal cell surface ...


Calibration Study Of A Bacterial Quantification Technique Using Transport Swabs And Line Inoculations On Agar Growth Medium, Seth LaRue 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Calibration Study Of A Bacterial Quantification Technique Using Transport Swabs And Line Inoculations On Agar Growth Medium, Seth Larue

Honors Theses

Enumeration of bacteria has been the subject of research for over a century. Some of the techniques that have been developed include viable plate counts, the most probable number assessment, and more modern molecular techniques. Many of the newer molecular-based techniques provide little or no information about the viability of the cells being counted, and are generally not quantitative. Having quantitative data for potentially pathogenic bacteria on surfaces can be very useful in many settings, particularly in healthcare facilities. Knowing the numbers of bacterial cells present on surfaces within healthcare facilities may be important to attempt to study the cause ...


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an ...


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