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Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay 2017 University of Montana

Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Bartonella bacilliformis is a gram negative alpha-proteobacterium native to the Andes of South America. Bartonella causes Carrion’s disease, a potentially life threatening disease transmitted by the sand fly. It has a mortality rate of 88% when untreated and 10% when treated. Diagnostics and control measures for the disease are underdeveloped and no vaccine is available. Recent outbreaks indicate that the range of the pathogen is increasing with nearly 1.7 million people in western South America at risk. Little is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of B. bacilliformis. Recent research done by UC San Diego found a paralogous ...


N-Methylation Of A Bactericidal Compound As A Resistance Mechanism In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Kenan C. Murphy, Carl F. Nathan 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

N-Methylation Of A Bactericidal Compound As A Resistance Mechanism In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Kenan C. Murphy, Carl F. Nathan

Open Access Articles

The rising incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) makes it imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the single leading cause of death from a bacterial pathogen and estimated to be the leading cause of death from AMR. A pyrido-benzimidazole, 14, was reported to have potent bactericidal activity against Mtb. Here, we isolated multiple Mtb clones resistant to 14. Each had mutations in the putative DNA-binding and dimerization domains of rv2887, a gene encoding a transcriptional repressor of the MarR family. The mutations in Rv2887 led to markedly increased expression of rv0560c. We characterized Rv0560c as an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent ...


Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson 2016 George Washington University

Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped The Evolution Of The H30 Subclone Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131., Timothy J Johnson, Jessica L Danzeisen, Bonnie Youmans, Kyle Case, Katharine Llop, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Cristian Flores-Figueroa, Maliha Aziz, Nicole Stoesser, Evgeni Sokurenko, Lance B. Price, James R Johnson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades. Specifically, an F1:A2:B20 plasmid is strongly associated with ...


Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of De Novo Genome Assemblies Of Streptomyces Aureofaciens Atcc 10762, Julien S. Gradnigo 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of De Novo Genome Assemblies Of Streptomyces Aureofaciens Atcc 10762, Julien S. Gradnigo

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Streptomyces aureofaciens is a Gram-positive Actinomycete used for commercial antibiotic production. Although it has been the subject of many biochemical studies, no public genome resource was available prior to this project. To address this need, the genome of S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762 was sequenced using a combination of sequencing platforms (Illumina and 454-shotgun). Multiple de novo assembly methods (SGA, IDBA, Trinity, SOAPdenovo2, MIRA, Velvet and SPAdes) as well as combinations of these methods were assessed to determine which provided the most robust assembly. Combination strategies led to a consistent overestimation of the total genome size. Empirical data from targeted PCR ...


Implication Of Biological And Synthetic Nanoparticles In Evolution And Development Of Antibiotic Resistance Relevant For Aquaculture, Petter Langlete 2016 University of Oslo

Implication Of Biological And Synthetic Nanoparticles In Evolution And Development Of Antibiotic Resistance Relevant For Aquaculture, Petter Langlete

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Synthesis And Biological Activity Of Novel Quorum Sensing Compounds, Joseph Nicholas Capilato 2016 Rowan University

Synthesis And Biological Activity Of Novel Quorum Sensing Compounds, Joseph Nicholas Capilato

Theses and Dissertations

Bacteria communicate with chemical signals in a process known as quorum sensing. This population density-dependent process involves the bacterial production, release and detection of structurally specific small molecules and enables the bacterial pathogen to regulate its virulence on a population-wide level. Using a variety of chemical and biological techniques, I have studied various quorum sensing systems in several bacteria, including Vibrio cholera and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A key principle of this research involves the design, synthesis and testing of novel compounds for their biological activity. These molecules are typically based off of an initial lead target, which is often identified from ...


Biosynthesis And Roles Of Virulence Conferring Cell Wall Associated Dimycocerosate Esters In Mycobacterium Marinum, Poornima Mohandas 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Biosynthesis And Roles Of Virulence Conferring Cell Wall Associated Dimycocerosate Esters In Mycobacterium Marinum, Poornima Mohandas

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mycobacterial species include a variety of obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause several important diseases affecting mankind such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The most unique feature of these bacteria is their intricate cell wall that poses a permeability barrier to antibiotics and contributes to their pathogenicity and persistence within the host. The cell wall hosts several complex lipids such as dimycocerosate esters (DIMs), which are found in many clinically relevant pathogenic species of mycobacteria. DIMs have been implicated in the virulence of mycobacteria and play a major role in helping the bacteria evade host immune responses. It is therefore crucial ...


Is Aerosalization A Problem With Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii In Thailand Hospital?, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Ploenpit Tantajina, Pornpimol Laovachirasuwan, David J. Weber, Nalini Singh 2016 George Washington University

Is Aerosalization A Problem With Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii In Thailand Hospital?, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Ploenpit Tantajina, Pornpimol Laovachirasuwan, David J. Weber, Nalini Singh

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

We evaluated the presence of air contamination with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in medical units where patients with CRAB pneumonia were hospitalized, and in Obstetrics and Gynecology units with open-air ventilation in-patient settings. There was no evidence of CRAB contamination in either of the units.


Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Household Clustering Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 Clinical And Fecal Isolates According To Whole Genome Sequence Analysis, James R. Johnson, Gregg Davis, Connie Clabots, Brian D. Johnston, Stephen Porter, Lance B. Price, +10 Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background. Within-household sharing of strains from the resistance-associated H30R1 and H30Rx subclones of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has been inferred based on conventional typing data, but has been assessed minimally using whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis.

Methods. Thirty-three clinical and fecal isolates of ST131-H30R1 and ST131-H30Rx, from 20 humans and pets in six households, underwent WGS analysis for comparison with 52 published ST131 genomes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using a bootstrapped maximum likelihood tree based on core genome sequence polymorphisms. Accessory traits were compared between phylogenetically similar isolates.

Results. In the WGS-based ...


Mathematical Models Of Biofilm For Antimicrobial Persistence, Jia Zhao 2016 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Mathematical Models Of Biofilm For Antimicrobial Persistence, Jia Zhao

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Contribution Of Probiotics Streptococcus Salivarius Strains K12 And M18 To Oral Health In Humans: A Review, Turner A. Stowik 2016 University of Connecticut

Contribution Of Probiotics Streptococcus Salivarius Strains K12 And M18 To Oral Health In Humans: A Review, Turner A. Stowik

Honors Scholar Theses

The overgrowth and disequilibrium of pathogenic microorganism species both native and non-native to the oral cavity can manifest into a variety of different oral diseases, pathologies, and afflictions in humans, including dental caries, gingivitis, pharyngitis, halitosis, and oral candidiasis. Two bacterial strains with clinically-significant probiotic applications in curtailing the pathogenic bacterial growth involved in these conditions are Streptococcus salivarius strain K12 and Streptococcus salivarius strain M18. To summarize the most up-to-date in vitro, in vivo, and clinical research findings, administration of these S. salivarius strains typically in the form of probiotic lozenges results in colonization, reduction in inflammatory measures, and ...


Characterization Of The Role Of The Burkholderia Pseudomallei Type 3 Secretion System Using In Vivo Imaging., Maria Gabriela Gutierrez 2016 University of Louisville

Characterization Of The Role Of The Burkholderia Pseudomallei Type 3 Secretion System Using In Vivo Imaging., Maria Gabriela Gutierrez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Melioidosis is a fatal infectious disease caused by the Tier 1 Select Agent Burkholderia pseudomallei. Hallmarks of melioidosis include pneumonic disease and prominent septicaemic spread. Both forms of disease are contingent upon the bacterium’s intracellular life cycle and particularly on its ability to escape from host cell phagosomes. Upon encountering a host cell, B. pseudomallei is internalized into membrane-bound vacuoles from which the bacterium must rapidly escape to the cytoplasm in order to replicate and promote its survival. In the host cytoplasm, B. pseudomallei is capable of polymerizing actin for intracellular and intercellular motility and spread, lysing the host ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely 2016 University of Louisville

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


The Effect Of Transformed Escherichia Coli On The Mouse Intestine Microbiome: The Microbial Metabolic Enhancement Hypothesis, Bryar P. Kader 2016 Liberty University

The Effect Of Transformed Escherichia Coli On The Mouse Intestine Microbiome: The Microbial Metabolic Enhancement Hypothesis, Bryar P. Kader

Senior Honors Theses

Metabolic disorders affect around thirty-four percent of the population in the United States. Among these disorders is lactose intolerance, which results from diminished production of the human lactase enzyme. This disorder and others like it are genetically determined and cannot be cured. However, the use of transformed bacteria implanted in the colon may provide a means by which the faulty pathway can be bypassed. To test whether transformed bacteria have the capability to aid in the digestion of normally indigestible compounds, a transformed strain of Escherichia coli overexpressing the beta-galactosidase enzyme encoded by the lacZ gene was colonized in the ...


Bacteriophages That Can Lyse Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Michael Monaco 2016 Western Michigan University

Bacteriophages That Can Lyse Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Michael Monaco

Honors Theses

A Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage was isolated from waste water and purified over multiple rounds of plaque removals and serial titrations. This bacteriophage was imaged in a transmission electron microscope and then tested with selected antibiotics for effectiveness in reducing optical density of K. pneumoniae colonies. The phage was shown to have an increased effectiveness in reducing the optical density when used together with an antibiotic that the bacteria was susceptible to.


The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha McMichael 2016 Midway College

The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha Mcmichael

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

Abstract

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium, it is normally found in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals and humans. E. coli and/or fecal coliforms have been used as fecal indicators in water, food, and contact surfaces. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the prevalence of E. coli and fecal coliforms on the bottom of backpacks belonging to college students in central Kentucky. Forty samples were taken from bottoms of college students’ backpacks in central Kentucky. Sterile swabs were used to collect the samples from the backpacks. The swabs were placed ...


Amp Expression In Energetic Hybrid D. Melanogaster Infected With P. Rettgeri, Cassandra K. Treu, Justin Buchanan, Kristi Montooth 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Amp Expression In Energetic Hybrid D. Melanogaster Infected With P. Rettgeri, Cassandra K. Treu, Justin Buchanan, Kristi Montooth

UCARE Research Products

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate immune function and energy metabolism, particularly the levels of antimicrobial peptides produced in Drosophila energetically compromised genotypes. This will provide the ability to investigate energetics of immunity without changing diet. Flies were infected with the bacteria P. rettgeri and the resulting immune response was investigated. Females did not mount as effective an immune response as males. All flies exhibited decreased survivorship from infection. Control flies survived at higher levels and showed no mitochondrial:nuclear interaction.


An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer

All College Thesis Program

Chicken eggs are a major component of American diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 250 eggs per person (American Humane Society). While highly nutritious, eggs are also one of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illness in the United States. Eggs may become contaminated by a number of different types of bacteria during production, including Salmonella, a group of bacteria that, according to the CDC, causes more than 1.2 million cases of food borne illness in the United States every year. In an effort to decrease the frequency of bacterial contamination, many food producers ...


Does Gut Flora Change In A Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorders On A Ketogenic Diet?, Shelby A. Labe 2016 Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut

Does Gut Flora Change In A Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorders On A Ketogenic Diet?, Shelby A. Labe

Senior Theses and Projects

The normal bacterial flora of an organism includes the non-disease causing bacteria that inhabit the human body under normal conditions. These bacteria are important for numerous reasons; for example, they excrete vitamins and prevent colonization by pathogens. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by social challenges, repetitive behaviors, and communication deficits. Comorbid conditions including gastrointestinal (GI) issues, depression, and anxiety are common. One popular way to attempt to alleviate the behavioral symptoms of ASDs is maintaining a ketogenic diet, which is seventy-five percent fat. Such a diet induces ketosis, a metabolic state when ketone bodies, not ...


Comparison Of Two Commercial Dna Extraction Kits For The Analysis Of Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Communities, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Keith Crandall, Robert J. Freishtat 2016 George Washington University

Comparison Of Two Commercial Dna Extraction Kits For The Analysis Of Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Communities, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Keith Crandall, Robert J. Freishtat

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Characterization of microbial communities via next-generation sequencing (NGS) requires an extraction ofmicrobial DNA. Methodological differences in DNA extraction protocols may bias results and complicate inter-study comparisons. Here we compare the effect of two commonly used commercial kits (Norgen and Qiagen)for the extraction of total DNA on estimatingnasopharyngeal microbiome diversity. The nasopharynxis a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses and a key player in understandingairway microbial dynamics.
Total DNA from nasal washes corresponding to 30 asthmatic children was extracted using theQiagenQIAamp DNA and NorgenRNA/DNA Purification kits and analyzed via IlluminaMiSeq16S rRNA V4 ampliconsequencing. The Norgen samples included more ...


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