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E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


Bacterial Development Of Resistance To Botanical Antimicrobials, Guillermo Ruiz, Tiffany Turner, Erik Nelson, Linda Sparks, Jeffrey Langland 2017 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Bacterial Development Of Resistance To Botanical Antimicrobials, Guillermo Ruiz, Tiffany Turner, Erik Nelson, Linda Sparks, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

In recent years, increased numbers of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria have opportunistically and selectively expanded while the pharmaceutical discovery of new antimicrobial therapies has been lacking to combat this growing threat. Like traditional antibiotics, botanicals have historically been used to treat bacterial infections, but it remains unclear if bacteria may have the capability to develop resistance to these therapeutic botanicals. It is believed that one advantage that may prevent or slow resistance to botanical antimicrobials is the presumed presence of the multiple endogenous substances contained within a plant that may act synergistically to inhibit microbial growth. This study examined the ...


Notes On Dairy Bacteriology., L. H. Pammel, I. J. Mead 2017 Iowa State College

Notes On Dairy Bacteriology., L. H. Pammel, I. J. Mead

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

It is a well known fact that milk varies greatly in quality. Some of it will make butter of the highest quality, some again, owing to injurious organisms, will not make prime butter. The injurious fermentations are much worse at times than at others. Milk as it is received at the creamery, is often “off” in odor. It is, therefore, desirable to know what patron is responsible for this tainted milk. It was supposed by patrons that these odors had their origin in weeds, etc.

Some years ago Mr. Monrad gave, at one of the meetings of the Iowa State ...


Bacteriological Results Obtained In Practice With Vat Pasteurization And With One Of The Final Package Methods, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Results Obtained In Practice With Vat Pasteurization And With One Of The Final Package Methods, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The pasteurization of milk and cream intended for consumption as such has now been practised for a considerable period. Many sets of figures are available showing the bacterial content before and after pasteurization with various methods and much information has been obtained relative to the bacterial content of pasteurized milk at the time of delivery. The data on the influence of pasteurization on the bacterial content over considerable periods of time are not so numerous, however, and it was with the idea of securing information under practical conditions on this point that the work herein reported was carried out.

The ...


A Bacteriological Study Of The Method Of Pasteurizing And Homogenizing The Ice Cream Mix., B. W. Hammer, L. R. Sanders 2017 Iowa State College

A Bacteriological Study Of The Method Of Pasteurizing And Homogenizing The Ice Cream Mix., B. W. Hammer, L. R. Sanders

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

In continuing the work being carried out at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station on the bacteriology of ice cream, 1, 2, a study has been made of the method of pasteurizing and homogenizing the ice cream mix. This method is at present of some commercial importance and apparently its use is increasing. It enables the factory operators to prepare the mixes at their convenience instead of shortly before freezing and thus seems to offer certain advantages insofar as the operation of the plant is concerned. I t was the object of the work herein reported to study the method from ...


A Bacteriological Study Of The College Creamery Milk Supply, A Case Of Putrid Butter, Purification Of Milk By The Centrifugal Separator, C. H. Eckles, S. E. Barnes 2017 Iowa State College

A Bacteriological Study Of The College Creamery Milk Supply, A Case Of Putrid Butter, Purification Of Milk By The Centrifugal Separator, C. H. Eckles, S. E. Barnes

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

For several years the Dairy Department has been making experiments in cream ripening and its relation to butter flavor. In the course of this work certain important facts have developed regarding the causes of variation in quality of butter from season to season.

It is a fact understood by all buttermakers that under natural conditions, most of the difficulty experienced in securing the right butter flavor Occurs during the winter season. The annual loss to the dairies and creameries of the state due to this fact is undoubtedly very large.


Some Bacteriological Work In The Dairy, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

Some Bacteriological Work In The Dairy, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Every wide-awake dairyman takes an interest in the subject of bacteriology as related to the various dairy problems.

Iowa dairymen have taken much interest in this subject owing largely to the fact that dairy papers, dairy columns in agricultural papers have, been discussing this subject in an intelligent manner. Then, too, several American publications, notably Conn1 has given us an excellent summary of the work done in Europe and this country. The amount of original work in this line in the United States is comparatively small, most of it having been done by Prof. Conn in Connecticut We must ...


An Aromatic Bacillus Of Cheese, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

An Aromatic Bacillus Of Cheese, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

During the fall of 1892 my attention was called to a rot of cabbage which was doing serious damage. An isolation of the germs responsible for the disease was undertaken, since none of the higher fungi seemed to be present. Among the germs present was one that had a very striking and peculiar odor when grown in bouillon. It was not unlike that peculiar to Limburger cheese. It resembled old and well-cured cheese. The same germ grown in agar had a pleasant, aromatic and nut-like odor, wholly different than the odor i* bouillon. I suggested to Mr. Wallace, who was ...


Experiments With Mallein, W. B. Niles 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With Mallein, W. B. Niles

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

For the benefit of our readers who are not familiar with the agent Mallein and its uses we will say that it is a preparation obtained by growing in culture media, the bacillus of glanders, and that as yet its only use has been as an aid in the diagnosis of doubtful cases of this disease.

The Mallein used in our experiment was prepared by the Bureau of Animal Industry and kindly sent us by request of Dr. Stalker. In regard to the mode of preparation I quote as follows from an article by Drs. Schweinitz and Kilborn: “Acid peptonized ...


Defining The Role That Master Regulators Of Virulence Factors Play In Mycobacterium Abscessus, George Walters-Marrah 2017 University of Central Florida

Defining The Role That Master Regulators Of Virulence Factors Play In Mycobacterium Abscessus, George Walters-Marrah

George Walters-Marrah

No abstract provided.


Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader 2017 Portland State University

Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Geothermal and hypersaline environments are rich in viral particles, among which spindle-shaped morphologies predominate. Currently, viruses with spindle- or lemon-shaped virions are unique to Archaea and belong to two distinct viral families. The larger of the two families, the Fuselloviridae, encompasses spindle-shaped viruses with very short tails, which infect Sulfolobus solfataricus and close relatives. Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) is the best-known member of the family and was one of the first hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses to be isolated. However, our knowledge of fuselloviral life cycles and the relationships between these viruses and their hosts is still limited. As a result ...


Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina 2017 University of Ljubljana

Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina

Qijing Zhang

The aim of the study was to investigate the mode of action of (-)-α-pinene in terms of its modulation of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Broth microdilution and ethidium bromide accumulation assays were used to evaluate the (-)-α-pinene antimicrobial activity, modulation of antimicrobial resistance, and inhibition of antimicrobial efflux. The target antimicrobial efflux systems were identified using an insertion mutagenesis approach, and C.jejuni adaptation to (-)-α-pinene was evaluated using DNA microarrays. Knock-out mutants of the key up-regulated transcriptional regulators hspR and hrcA were constructed to investigate their roles in C. jejuni adaptation to several stress factors, including osmolytes, and ...


Isotuberculosinol: The Unusual Case Of An Immunomodulatory Diterpenoid From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Francis M. Mann, Reuben J. Peters 2017 Winona State University

Isotuberculosinol: The Unusual Case Of An Immunomodulatory Diterpenoid From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Francis M. Mann, Reuben J. Peters

Reuben J. Peters

The actinomycetes family of bacteria is classically considered a rich source of natural products [1]. It is often suggested that such compounds have been selected by evolution to have biological activity [2]. For example, given the microbial-rich soil environment of the actinomycetes native habitat, their natural products have been suggested to serve in chemical warfare and/or signaling, which has been further connected to their leading role in providing pharmaceutically relevant antibiotic agents [3]. Nevertheless, surprisingly few of these molecules have been definitively assigned specific physiological roles in the native producing bacteria.


Genome Sequence Of The Psychrophilic Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella Marina Mp-1 (Atcc 15381), Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Genome Sequence Of The Psychrophilic Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella Marina Mp-1 (Atcc 15381), Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Moritella marina MP-1 is a bacterial species known for its production of docosahexaenoic acid. We present the draft genome sequence of the type strainMoritella marina MP-1 (ATCC 15381), having 4,636,778 bp with a G+C content of 40.5% and consisting of 83 contigs.


Cellular, Particle And Environmental Parameters Influencing Attachment In Surface Waters: A Review, Chunyu Liao, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Cellular, Particle And Environmental Parameters Influencing Attachment In Surface Waters: A Review, Chunyu Liao, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Effective modelling of the fate and transport of water-borne pathogens is needed to support federally required pollution-reduction plans, for water quality improvement planning, and to protect public health. Lack of understanding of microbial–particle interactions in water bodies has sometimes led to the assumption that bacteria move in surface waters not associated with suspended mineral and organic particles, despite a growing body of evidence suggesting otherwise. Limited information exists regarding the factors driving interactions between micro-organisms and particles in surface waters. This review discusses cellular, particle and environmental factors potentially influencing interactions and in-stream transport. Bacterial attachment in the aquatic ...


Effect Of Aeration Under Pressure On Diacetyl Production In Butter Cultures, C. R. Brewer, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Effect Of Aeration Under Pressure On Diacetyl Production In Butter Cultures, C. R. Brewer, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The results presented indicate that the production of diacetyl in butter cultures and pure cultures of citric acid fermenting streptococci can be greatly increased by growing the cultures under 30 pounds or more of air pressure per square inch, provided the cultures are agitated by aeration or stirring. This increase frequently amounts to several hundred percent. In some cases the yield of acetylmethylcarbinol was increased by aeration under pressure, and in other cases it was not. Occasionally, the increase was relatively large.

Pressure without agitation was not effective in increasing the diketone content. The cultures under pressure must be agitaed ...


Reduction Of Acetylmethylcarbinol And Diacetyl To 2,3-Butylene Glycol By The Citric Acid Fermenting Streptococci Of Butter Cultures, B. W. Hammer, G. L. Stahly, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian 2017 Iowa State College

Reduction Of Acetylmethylcarbinol And Diacetyl To 2,3-Butylene Glycol By The Citric Acid Fermenting Streptococci Of Butter Cultures, B. W. Hammer, G. L. Stahly, C. H. Werkman, M. B. Michaelian

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

When acetylmethylcarbinol or diacetyl was added to a tomato bouillon culture of one of the citric acid fermenting streptococci normally present in butter cultures, there was a rapid disappearance of the added reagent and an increase in 2,3-butylene glycol. The amount of the glycol produced accounted, in a general way, for the acetylmethylcarbinol or diacetyl that disappeared. The added reagent did not usually disappear completely. In trials with acetylmethylcarbinol the change of the carbinol to the glycol was delayed when sulfuric acid was added in amounts to yield a pH of from 3.8 to 4.0.

There was ...


Bacteriological Studies On Sulfid Spoilage Of Canned Vegetables, C. H. Werkman 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On Sulfid Spoilage Of Canned Vegetables, C. H. Werkman

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Sulfid spoilage of canned vegetables is characterized by the marked blackening of the contents and the production of hydrogen sulfid by the organism responsible. Externally the can manifests no characteristics of spoilage; it does not swell or spring.

The condition constitutes a new type of thermophilic spoilage due to insufficient processing. It has caused losses in both the sweet corn and pea canning industries of the middle western states. The general characteristics of the spoilage have led to the designation of "sulfid spoilage" for this type.

Sulfid spoilage in canned sweet corn has been shown to be caused by a ...


Effect Of Spatial Influence On Endophyte Diversity Within Alnus Rubra, Sebastian L. Singleton 2017 Portland State University

Effect Of Spatial Influence On Endophyte Diversity Within Alnus Rubra, Sebastian L. Singleton

Student Research Symposium

Red alders (Alnus rubra) of the Pacific Northwest are characterized as actinorhizal dicotyledons; plants that possess that ability to form symbiotic relationships with endophytic organisms, which result in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In Alders of the order Fagales, such a symbiotic relationship with Frankia bacteria allows these plants to play crucial environmental roles as pioneer species able to colonize and enrich nutrient-deficient soils. This ability has a major impact on ecological succession by enabling other species to establish. Although inoculation with frankia bacteria is known to increase symbiotic nitrogen fixation capabilities of actinorhizal plants, whether they could confer the same benefit to ...


Ancient Bacteria–Amoeba Relationships And Pathogenic Animal Bacteria, Joan E. Strassmann, Longfei Shu 2017 Washington University in St Louis

Ancient Bacteria–Amoeba Relationships And Pathogenic Animal Bacteria, Joan E. Strassmann, Longfei Shu

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Long before bacteria infected humans, they infected amoebas, which remain a potentially important reservoir for human disease. Diverse soil amoebas including Dictyostelium and Acanthamoeba can host intracellular bacteria. Though the internal environment of free-living amoebas is similar in many ways to that of mammalian macrophages, they differ in a number of important ways, including temperature. A new study in PLOS Biology by Taylor-Mulneix et al. demonstrates that Bordetella bronchiseptica has two different gene suites that are activated depending on whether the bacterium finds itself in a hot mammalian or cool amoeba host environment. This study specifically shows that B. bronchiseptica ...


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