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Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust 2018 The New School

Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers 2018 Liberty University

Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Microbes play a significant role in ecosystems, effecting the vital functions of other organisms, interspecies relationships, and population sizes. Based upon previous research (Skelton et al., 2016), it has been hypothesized that crayfish symbionts (branchiobdellidans) play a significant role in regulating the amount of microbiota associated with the host. A growing body of knowledge is known regarding both the condition of gill fouling and the annelid worm’s symbiotic relationship with the crayfish (Skelton et al., 2016; Skelton et al., 2016). However, there is little to no evidence available concerning the bacteria’s role in the process (Skelton et al ...


Characterization Of The Protective Role Of Th17 Cells In An Fc Receptor-Targeted Vaccine Strategy Against Fracisella Tularensis Infection, Kyle Devenney 2018 Seton Hall University

Characterization Of The Protective Role Of Th17 Cells In An Fc Receptor-Targeted Vaccine Strategy Against Fracisella Tularensis Infection, Kyle Devenney

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Using a murine model, we have previously showed that targeting an inactivated form of F.tularensis (iFt) bacteria to Fcg receptors by utilizing an IgG2a, anti-LPS monoclonal antibody (mAb) provides 100% protection against a lethal dose with the live vaccine strain (LVS). The binding of anti-LPS monoclonal antibodies and iFt create an immune complex (mAb-iFt) allowing the Fc-region of the antibody to target Fc receptors expressed on antigen presenting cells, leading to a more robust and effective processing and presentation of the bacterial antigens. Although the resulting protective response generated relies on both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, in our study ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Icaadbc By Icar And Tcar In Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Tramy Hoang 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Icaadbc By Icar And Tcar In Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Tramy Hoang

Theses & Dissertations

Biofilm formation is the primary virulence factor in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is an adhesive molecule and a significant component of the biofilm matrix. It is synthesized by the products of the icaADBC operon whose regulation has been shown to involve environmental factors as well as many transcriptional regulators. Of these regulators, we explored the function of the repressors IcaR and TcaR and their roles in directly influencing icaADBC transcription and PIA synthesis. Based on previous observations that icaADBC positive clinical isolates of S. epidermidis are highly variable in PIA synthesis and biofilm formation, our goal was to ...


High-Throughput Nanoliter Dispensing Device For Biological Applications, Cole Reynolds, Euiwon Bae Dr., J Paul Robinson Dr. 2018 Purdue University

High-Throughput Nanoliter Dispensing Device For Biological Applications, Cole Reynolds, Euiwon Bae Dr., J Paul Robinson Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Pathogen identification is a field that can contribute largely to the prevention of the spreading of illness and disease. In the past, pathogen identification has been a long and arduous process due to the time-consuming processes and steps that requires technician’s time and effort. With new technologies emerging however, screening of bacteria colonies can be done in a quick and high-throughput way. The problem is that using the current methods, bacteria cannot be transferred to petri dishes fast enough to keep up with the new screening methods. The current study focuses on exploring different methods to create an ergonomic ...


Bacteriophages As Beneficial Regulators Of The Mammalian Microbiome, Joseph W. Francis, Matthew Ingle, Todd Charles Wood 2018 The Master's College

Bacteriophages As Beneficial Regulators Of The Mammalian Microbiome, Joseph W. Francis, Matthew Ingle, Todd Charles Wood

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Much of the research on viruses has concentrated on their disease causing ability. The creation model biomatrix theory predicts that viruses play a beneficial role in cells and organisms. In this report we present a new theory which proposes that mammalian phages (bacteriophages), the most abundant organism associated with mammals, guard and regulate growth of the mammalian microbiome. We base this theory on nearly a century of published evidence that demonstrates that phage can insert into the bacterial genome and cover the surface of bacteria. We propose that this “cloaking” of the bacterial cell surface is an elegant mechanism whereby ...


Genomic Analysis Of 48 Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteriophages, Casey Stamereilers, Christopher P. Fajardo, Jamison K. Walker, Katterinne N. Mendez, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Julianne H. Grose, Sandra Hope, Philippos K. Tsourkas 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Genomic Analysis Of 48 Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteriophages, Casey Stamereilers, Christopher P. Fajardo, Jamison K. Walker, Katterinne N. Mendez, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Julianne H. Grose, Sandra Hope, Philippos K. Tsourkas

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The antibiotic-resistant bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), currently the most destructive bacterial disease in honeybees. Phages that infect P. larvae were isolated as early as the 1950s, but it is only in recent years that P. larvae phage genomes have been sequenced and annotated. In this study we analyze the genomes of all 48 currently sequenced P. larvae phage genomes and classify them into four clusters and a singleton. The majority of P. larvaephage genomes are in the 38–45 kbp range and use the cohesive ends (cos) DNA-packaging strategy, while a minority have ...


Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J. Mrsny, Paula Cortes Barrantes, Jerrold R. Turner, John M. Leong, Beth A. McCormick 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J. Mrsny, Paula Cortes Barrantes, Jerrold R. Turner, John M. Leong, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a source of morbidity and mortality in both developed and underdeveloped nations of the world. Disease can manifest as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, depending on the localization of infection. Interestingly, there is a correlation in experimental murine infections between the development of bacteremia and influx of neutrophils into the pulmonary lumen. Reduction of this neutrophil influx has been shown to improve survivability during infection. In this study, we use in vitro biotinylation and neutrophil transmigration and in vivo murine infection to identify a system in which two epithelium-localized ATP-binding cassette transporters, MRP1 and MRP2, have inverse activities ...


Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2018 Old Dominion University

Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit several pathogens to humans including rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Here, we report that A. phagocytophilum uses tick transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP-1) as a molecular switch in the regulation of arthropod antifreeze gene, iafgp. RNAi-mediated silencing of ap-1 expression significantly affected iafgp gene expression and A. phagocytophilum burden in ticks upon acquisition from the murine host. Gel shift assays provide evidence that both the bacterium and AP-1 influences iafgp promoter and expression. The luciferase assays revealed that a region of approximately 700 bp upstream of the antifreeze gene is sufficient for AP-1 binding to promote iafgp gene ...


A Broad Spectrum Racemase In Pseudomonas Putida Kt2440 Plays A Key Role In Amino Acid Catabolism, Atanas D. Radkov, Luke A. Moe 2018 University of California - San Francisco

A Broad Spectrum Racemase In Pseudomonas Putida Kt2440 Plays A Key Role In Amino Acid Catabolism, Atanas D. Radkov, Luke A. Moe

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The broad-spectrum amino acid racemase (Alr) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 preferentially interconverts the L- and D-stereoisomers of Lys and Arg. Despite conservation of broad-spectrum racemases among bacteria, little is known regarding their physiological role. Here we explore potential functional roles for Alr in P. putida KT2440. We demonstrate through cellular fractionation that Alr enzymatic activity is found in the periplasm, consistent with its putative periplasm targeting sequence. Specific activity of Alr is highest during exponential growth, and this activity corresponds with an increased accumulation of D-Lys in the growth medium. An alr gene knockout strain (Δalr) was generated and ...


The Role Of Eukaryotic Abc-Transporters In Eliciting Neutrophil Infiltration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection, Andrew Zukauskas 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Eukaryotic Abc-Transporters In Eliciting Neutrophil Infiltration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection, Andrew Zukauskas

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a Gram-positive, encapsulated bacterium capable of causing significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A hallmark of S. pneumoniae infection is infiltration of neutrophils (PMNs) that assist in controlling the spread infection but may also contribute to pathology. Paradoxically, studies have shown that limiting PMN infiltration into the lumen of the lung during infection actually betters clinical outcome in experimental S. pneumoniae infection. The final step in PMN luminal trafficking is a Hepoxilin A3 (HXA3)-dependent migration across the pulmonary epithelium. HXA3 is a PMN chemoattractant that forms gradients along the polarized epithelial ...


Pseudomonas Pb1-Like Phages: Whole Genomes From Metagenomes Offer Insight Into An Abundant Group Of Bacteriophages, Siobhan C. Watkins, Emily Sible, Catherine Putonti 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Pseudomonas Pb1-Like Phages: Whole Genomes From Metagenomes Offer Insight Into An Abundant Group Of Bacteriophages, Siobhan C. Watkins, Emily Sible, Catherine Putonti

Biology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to which we are currently unable to assign function. A combined effort of phage isolation and metagenomic survey of Chicago’s nearshore waters of Lake Michigan revealed the presence of Pbunaviruses, relatives of the Pseudomonas phage PB1. This prompted our expansive investigation of PB1-like phages. Genomic signatures of PB1-like phages and Pbunaviruses were identified, permitting the unambiguous distinction ...


Ms Analysis Of A Dilution Series Of Bacteria: Phytoplankton To Improve Detection Of Low Abundance Bacterial Peptides, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Ying Sonia Ting, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn 2018 Old Dominion University

Ms Analysis Of A Dilution Series Of Bacteria: Phytoplankton To Improve Detection Of Low Abundance Bacterial Peptides, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Ying Sonia Ting, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

Assigning links between microbial activity and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean is a primary objective for ecologists and oceanographers. Bacteria represent a small ecosystem component by mass, but act as the nexus for both nutrient transformation and organic matter recycling. There are limited methods to explore the full suite of active bacterial proteins largely responsible for degradation. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics now has the potential to document bacterial physiology within these complex systems. Global proteome profiling using MS, known as data dependent acquisition (DDA), is limited by the stochastic nature of ion selection, decreasing the detection of low abundance ...


Identification Of A Tola Protein Binding Site For Bacterial Toxins, Monica Ferrante 2018 Bowling Green State University

Identification Of A Tola Protein Binding Site For Bacterial Toxins, Monica Ferrante

Honors Projects

Group A colicins are proteinaceous bacteriocins encoded by plasmids that exploit the cellular envelope protein TolA to translocate the cell wall barrier and cellular envelope of the bacterium Escherichia coli. These colicins offer protocols for studying certain protein-protein interactions involved in such membrane transport functions. Previous experimentations suggest the carboxyl-terminal domain of TolA protein contains specific amino acid binding regions required for the translocation of group A colicins into E. coli. The amino acid sequence of this domain varies between E. coli and other gram-negative bacterial species. It has been suggested that this diversity could be utilized to identify specific ...


The Evolution Of Molecular Compatibility Between Bacteriophage Φx174 And Its Host, Alexander Kula, Joseph Saelens, Jennifer Cox, Alyxandria M. Schubert, Michael Travisano, Catherine Putonti 2018 Loyola University Chicago

The Evolution Of Molecular Compatibility Between Bacteriophage Φx174 And Its Host, Alexander Kula, Joseph Saelens, Jennifer Cox, Alyxandria M. Schubert, Michael Travisano, Catherine Putonti

Biology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Viruses rely upon their hosts for biosynthesis of viral RNA, DNA and protein. This dependency frequently engenders strong selection for virus genome compatibility with potential hosts, appropriate gene regulation and expression necessary for a successful infection. While bioinformatic studies have shown strong correlations between codon usage in viral and host genomes, the selective factors by which this compatibility evolves remain a matter of conjecture. Engineered to include codons with a lesser usage and/or tRNA abundance within the host, three different attenuated strains of the bacterial virus ФX174 were created and propagated via serial transfers. Molecular sequence data indicate that ...


Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation –Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of Escherichia coli and Meiothermus ruber proC genes using the complementation assay. In this research project, mutants of varying severity to the functional state of the protein were developed. The results showed that two or more amino acid deletions reduced or eliminated ProC function. Amino acid substitutions, on the other hand, were not severe enough to impact ProC function. Double and triple mutants ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


Functional Similarity Of Prd-Containing Virulence Regulators In Bacillus Anthracis, Malik Raynor 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Functional Similarity Of Prd-Containing Virulence Regulators In Bacillus Anthracis, Malik Raynor

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Bacillus anthracis produces three regulators, AtxA, AcpA, and AcpB, that control virulence gene expression and are members of an emerging class of regulators termed “PCVRs” (Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase regulation Domain-Containing Virulence Regulators). AtxA controls expression of the toxin genes; lef, cya, and pag, and is the master virulence regulator and archetype PCVR. AcpA and AcpB are less well studied. AcpA and AcpB independently positively control transcription of the capsule biosynthetic operon capBCADE, and culture conditions that enhance AtxA activity result in capBCADE transcription in strains lacking acpA and acpB. RNA-Seq was used to assess the regulons of the paralogs in strains ...


The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan 2018 College of William and Mary

The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Two component signal transduction systems in bacteria are key for environmental adaptation. Signaling via these systems is traditionally considered to be relatively simple, only involving interactions between the sensory protein and its cognate response regulator. The ArsRS two component system is vital for the acid response in Helicobacter pylori. This study investigates the mechanism by which ArsRS responds to acid in H pylori. Recent studies in our lab have challenged the the classic model in which the response regulator ArsR is activated by the phosphorylation of a conserved aspartic acid by the transfer of a phosphoryl group from a histidine ...


Characterization Of Type Ii Toxin Anti-Toxin Systems In Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans., Blair W. Schneider 2018 University of Louisville

Characterization Of Type Ii Toxin Anti-Toxin Systems In Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans., Blair W. Schneider

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbes express many protective mechanisms in response to environmental stress. Toxin/anti-toxin systems encode a biologically active toxin and a labile anti-toxin that inhibits the toxin’s activity. These systems are known to contribute to persister cell and biofilm formation. A. actinomycetemcomitans thrives in the complex oral microbial community and is subjected to continual environmental flux. Little is known regarding the presence and function of TA systems in this organism or their contribution survival in the oral environment. Using BLAST searches and other informatics tools, we identified 11 intact TA systems that are conserved across all seven serotypes of A ...


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