The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, 2018 Olivet Nazarene University
The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee
The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...
Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, 2018 Marian University
Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone
Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)
The phenomena of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased worldwide and can frequently be found on everyday surfaces. Here, we characterize a bacterial isolate from a woman’s restroom door handle at Marian. Preliminary results comprised of morphological and biochemical tests, including growth characteristics on blood agar medium, as well as usage of the Kirby Bauer agar diffusion test to determine antibiotic susceptibility, identifies this isolate to be a multidrug resistant Neisseria species. However, additional detailed analysis is needed to confirm its identity.
Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, 2018 Western Oregon University
Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer
Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...
Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, 2018 University of Toulouse
Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou
Open Access Articles
Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin involved in the recognition of several pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Schistosoma mansonii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that triggers Th17 immune responses. Identifying pathogen ligands and understanding the molecular basis of their recognition is one of the current challenges. Purified M. tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) was shown to induce signaling via Dectin-2, an activity that requires the (alpha1 --> 2)-linked mannosides forming the caps. Here, using isogenic M. tuberculosis mutant strains, we demonstrate that ManLAM is a bona fide and actually the sole ligand mediating bacilli recognition by Dectin-2, although M. tuberculosis produces a ...
Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers
Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Microbes play a significant role in ecosystems, effecting the vital functions of other organisms, interspecies relationships, and population sizes. Based upon previous research (Skelton et al., 2016), it has been hypothesized that crayfish symbionts (branchiobdellidans) play a significant role in regulating the amount of microbiota associated with the host. A growing body of knowledge is known regarding both the condition of gill fouling and the annelid worm’s symbiotic relationship with the crayfish (Skelton et al., 2016; Skelton et al., 2016). However, there is little to no evidence available concerning the bacteria’s role in the process (Skelton et al ...
Characterization Of The Protective Role Of Th17 Cells In An Fc Receptor-Targeted Vaccine Strategy Against Fracisella Tularensis Infection, Kyle Devenney
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
Using a murine model, we have previously showed that targeting an inactivated form of F.tularensis (iFt) bacteria to Fcg receptors by utilizing an IgG2a, anti-LPS monoclonal antibody (mAb) provides 100% protection against a lethal dose with the live vaccine strain (LVS). The binding of anti-LPS monoclonal antibodies and iFt create an immune complex (mAb-iFt) allowing the Fc-region of the antibody to target Fc receptors expressed on antigen presenting cells, leading to a more robust and effective processing and presentation of the bacterial antigens. Although the resulting protective response generated relies on both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, in our study ...
Transcriptional Regulation Of Icaadbc By Icar And Tcar In Staphylococcus Epidermidis, 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Transcriptional Regulation Of Icaadbc By Icar And Tcar In Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Tramy Hoang
Theses & Dissertations
Biofilm formation is the primary virulence factor in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is an adhesive molecule and a significant component of the biofilm matrix. It is synthesized by the products of the icaADBC operon whose regulation has been shown to involve environmental factors as well as many transcriptional regulators. Of these regulators, we explored the function of the repressors IcaR and TcaR and their roles in directly influencing icaADBC transcription and PIA synthesis. Based on previous observations that icaADBC positive clinical isolates of S. epidermidis are highly variable in PIA synthesis and biofilm formation, our goal was to ...
High-Throughput Nanoliter Dispensing Device For Biological Applications, 2018 Purdue University
High-Throughput Nanoliter Dispensing Device For Biological Applications, Cole Reynolds, Euiwon Bae Dr., J Paul Robinson Dr.
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Pathogen identification is a field that can contribute largely to the prevention of the spreading of illness and disease. In the past, pathogen identification has been a long and arduous process due to the time-consuming processes and steps that requires technician’s time and effort. With new technologies emerging however, screening of bacteria colonies can be done in a quick and high-throughput way. The problem is that using the current methods, bacteria cannot be transferred to petri dishes fast enough to keep up with the new screening methods. The current study focuses on exploring different methods to create an ergonomic ...
Bacteriophages As Beneficial Regulators Of The Mammalian Microbiome, 2018 The Master's College
Bacteriophages As Beneficial Regulators Of The Mammalian Microbiome, Joseph W. Francis, Matthew Ingle, Todd Charles Wood
The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism
Much of the research on viruses has concentrated on their disease causing ability. The creation model biomatrix theory predicts that viruses play a beneficial role in cells and organisms. In this report we present a new theory which proposes that mammalian phages (bacteriophages), the most abundant organism associated with mammals, guard and regulate growth of the mammalian microbiome. We base this theory on nearly a century of published evidence that demonstrates that phage can insert into the bacterial genome and cover the surface of bacteria. We propose that this “cloaking” of the bacterial cell surface is an elegant mechanism whereby ...
Genomic Analysis Of 48 Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteriophages, 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Genomic Analysis Of 48 Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteriophages, Casey Stamereilers, Christopher P. Fajardo, Jamison K. Walker, Katterinne N. Mendez, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Julianne H. Grose, Sandra Hope, Philippos K. Tsourkas
Life Sciences Faculty Publications
The antibiotic-resistant bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), currently the most destructive bacterial disease in honeybees. Phages that infect P. larvae were isolated as early as the 1950s, but it is only in recent years that P. larvae phage genomes have been sequenced and annotated. In this study we analyze the genomes of all 48 currently sequenced P. larvae phage genomes and classify them into four clusters and a singleton. The majority of P. larvaephage genomes are in the 38–45 kbp range and use the cohesive ends (cos) DNA-packaging strategy, while a minority have ...
Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Transporters Mrp1 And Mrp2 Regulate Opposing Inflammatory Signals To Control Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lung Infection, Andrew Zukauskas, Randall J. Mrsny, Paula Cortes Barrantes, Jerrold R. Turner, John M. Leong, Beth A. Mccormick
Open Access Articles
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a source of morbidity and mortality in both developed and underdeveloped nations of the world. Disease can manifest as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, depending on the localization of infection. Interestingly, there is a correlation in experimental murine infections between the development of bacteremia and influx of neutrophils into the pulmonary lumen. Reduction of this neutrophil influx has been shown to improve survivability during infection. In this study, we use in vitro biotinylation and neutrophil transmigration and in vivo murine infection to identify a system in which two epithelium-localized ATP-binding cassette transporters, MRP1 and MRP2, have inverse activities ...
Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, 2018 Old Dominion University
Arthropod Transcriptional Activator Protein-1 (Ap-1) Aids Tick-Rickettsial Pathogen Survival In The Cold, Supreet Khanal, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit several pathogens to humans including rickettsial bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Here, we report that A. phagocytophilum uses tick transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP-1) as a molecular switch in the regulation of arthropod antifreeze gene, iafgp. RNAi-mediated silencing of ap-1 expression significantly affected iafgp gene expression and A. phagocytophilum burden in ticks upon acquisition from the murine host. Gel shift assays provide evidence that both the bacterium and AP-1 influences iafgp promoter and expression. The luciferase assays revealed that a region of approximately 700 bp upstream of the antifreeze gene is sufficient for AP-1 binding to promote iafgp gene ...
Novel Role Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lptd Operon, 2018 Florida International University
Novel Role Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lptd Operon, Sundar Pandey
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Pseudomonas aeruginosais an opportunistic pathogen that infects cystic fibrosis (CF) patients contributing to their high morbidity and mortality. P. aeruginosaundergoes a phenotypic conversion in the CF lung, from nonmucoid to mucoid, by constitutively producing a polysaccharide called alginate. These mucoid strains often revert to nonmucoid in vitrodue to second-site suppressor mutations. We hypothesized that mapping these mutations would lead to the identification of novel genes involved in alginate production. In a previous study, a mucoid strain, PDO300 (PAOmucA22), was used to isolate suppressors of alginate phenotype (sap). One of the uncharacterized nonmucoid revertants, sap27, is the ...
A Broad Spectrum Racemase In Pseudomonas Putida Kt2440 Plays A Key Role In Amino Acid Catabolism, 2018 University of California - San Francisco
A Broad Spectrum Racemase In Pseudomonas Putida Kt2440 Plays A Key Role In Amino Acid Catabolism, Atanas D. Radkov, Luke A. Moe
Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications
The broad-spectrum amino acid racemase (Alr) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 preferentially interconverts the L- and D-stereoisomers of Lys and Arg. Despite conservation of broad-spectrum racemases among bacteria, little is known regarding their physiological role. Here we explore potential functional roles for Alr in P. putida KT2440. We demonstrate through cellular fractionation that Alr enzymatic activity is found in the periplasm, consistent with its putative periplasm targeting sequence. Specific activity of Alr is highest during exponential growth, and this activity corresponds with an increased accumulation of D-Lys in the growth medium. An alr gene knockout strain (Δalr) was generated and ...
The Role Of Eukaryotic Abc-Transporters In Eliciting Neutrophil Infiltration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Role Of Eukaryotic Abc-Transporters In Eliciting Neutrophil Infiltration During Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection, Andrew Zukauskas
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a Gram-positive, encapsulated bacterium capable of causing significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A hallmark of S. pneumoniae infection is infiltration of neutrophils (PMNs) that assist in controlling the spread infection but may also contribute to pathology. Paradoxically, studies have shown that limiting PMN infiltration into the lumen of the lung during infection actually betters clinical outcome in experimental S. pneumoniae infection. The final step in PMN luminal trafficking is a Hepoxilin A3 (HXA3)-dependent migration across the pulmonary epithelium. HXA3 is a PMN chemoattractant that forms gradients along the polarized epithelial ...
Pseudomonas Pb1-Like Phages: Whole Genomes From Metagenomes Offer Insight Into An Abundant Group Of Bacteriophages, 2018 Loyola University Chicago
Pseudomonas Pb1-Like Phages: Whole Genomes From Metagenomes Offer Insight Into An Abundant Group Of Bacteriophages, Siobhan C. Watkins, Emily Sible, Catherine Putonti
Biology: Faculty Publications and Other Works
Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to which we are currently unable to assign function. A combined effort of phage isolation and metagenomic survey of Chicago’s nearshore waters of Lake Michigan revealed the presence of Pbunaviruses, relatives of the Pseudomonas phage PB1. This prompted our expansive investigation of PB1-like phages. Genomic signatures of PB1-like phages and Pbunaviruses were identified, permitting the unambiguous distinction ...
Ms Analysis Of A Dilution Series Of Bacteria: Phytoplankton To Improve Detection Of Low Abundance Bacterial Peptides, 2018 Old Dominion University
Ms Analysis Of A Dilution Series Of Bacteria: Phytoplankton To Improve Detection Of Low Abundance Bacterial Peptides, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Molly P. Mikan, Ying Sonia Ting, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn
OEAS Faculty Publications
Assigning links between microbial activity and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean is a primary objective for ecologists and oceanographers. Bacteria represent a small ecosystem component by mass, but act as the nexus for both nutrient transformation and organic matter recycling. There are limited methods to explore the full suite of active bacterial proteins largely responsible for degradation. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics now has the potential to document bacterial physiology within these complex systems. Global proteome profiling using MS, known as data dependent acquisition (DDA), is limited by the stochastic nature of ion selection, decreasing the detection of low abundance ...
Identification Of A Tola Protein Binding Site For Bacterial Toxins, 2018 Bowling Green State University
Identification Of A Tola Protein Binding Site For Bacterial Toxins, Monica Ferrante
Group A colicins are proteinaceous bacteriocins encoded by plasmids that exploit the cellular envelope protein TolA to translocate the cell wall barrier and cellular envelope of the bacterium Escherichia coli. These colicins offer protocols for studying certain protein-protein interactions involved in such membrane transport functions. Previous experimentations suggest the carboxyl-terminal domain of TolA protein contains specific amino acid binding regions required for the translocation of group A colicins into E. coli. The amino acid sequence of this domain varies between E. coli and other gram-negative bacterial species. It has been suggested that this diversity could be utilized to identify specific ...
The Evolution Of Molecular Compatibility Between Bacteriophage Φx174 And Its Host, 2018 Loyola University Chicago
The Evolution Of Molecular Compatibility Between Bacteriophage Φx174 And Its Host, Alexander Kula, Joseph Saelens, Jennifer Cox, Alyxandria M. Schubert, Michael Travisano, Catherine Putonti
Biology: Faculty Publications and Other Works
Viruses rely upon their hosts for biosynthesis of viral RNA, DNA and protein. This dependency frequently engenders strong selection for virus genome compatibility with potential hosts, appropriate gene regulation and expression necessary for a successful infection. While bioinformatic studies have shown strong correlations between codon usage in viral and host genomes, the selective factors by which this compatibility evolves remain a matter of conjecture. Engineered to include codons with a lesser usage and/or tRNA abundance within the host, three different attenuated strains of the bacterial virus ФX174 were created and propagated via serial transfers. Molecular sequence data indicate that ...