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A Microbiome Analysis Of The Relationship Among Crayfish Ectosymbionts And Their Environment, John Hoverson 2020 Liberty University

A Microbiome Analysis Of The Relationship Among Crayfish Ectosymbionts And Their Environment, John Hoverson

Senior Honors Theses

The purpose of this project was to determine if there are differences present between the α-diversities of the crayfish microbiome and its surrounding water and sediment. Furthermore, this project sought to discover if these differences hold when microbiomes are evaluated between crayfish of first and second stream orders. Finally, this project sought to determine if the presence of branchiobdellidan ectosymbionts on the crayfish caused further differences in the crayfish microbiome. While the hypothesized patterns between crayfish, ectosymbionts, and stream order were not found to exist, a significantly different microbiome was observed between water, sediment, and crayfish, and the α-diversity of ...


Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr 2020 Georgia College and State University

Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr

The Corinthian

Shigella bacteria cause half a million infections, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 70 deaths annually in the United States. These bacteria are of particular concern due to their high survivability, low infectious dose, and high adaptability. Cases of shigellosis from Shigella sonnei are becoming a more prevalent issue in the U.S. as the bacteria continues to develop higher resistance to today’s strongest antibiotics. Much of this resistance is connected to the exchange of genes between strains of Shigella due to insertion sequences (IS), intercontinental travel, and men who have sex with men (MSM). As a result of increased resistance ...


Novel Small Rnas Expressed By Bartonella Bacilliformis Under Multiple Conditions Reveal Potential Mechanisms For Persistence In The Sand Fly Vector And Human Host, Shaun Wachter, Linda D. Hicks, Rahul Raghavan, Michael F. Minnick 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Novel Small Rnas Expressed By Bartonella Bacilliformis Under Multiple Conditions Reveal Potential Mechanisms For Persistence In The Sand Fly Vector And Human Host, Shaun Wachter, Linda D. Hicks, Rahul Raghavan, Michael F. Minnick

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Bartonella bacilliformis, the etiological agent of Carrión’s disease, is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular alphaproteobacterium. Carrión’s disease is an emerging but neglected tropical illness endemic to Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador. B. bacilliformis is spread between humans through the bite of female phlebotomine sand flies. As a result, the pathogen encounters significant and repeated environmental shifts during its life cycle, including changes in pH and temperature. In most bacteria, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) serve as effectors that may post-transcriptionally regulate the stress response to such changes. However, sRNAs have not been characterized in B. bacilliformis, to date. We therefore performed ...


Biophysical Analysis Of Pseudomonas-Phage Pap3 Small Terminase Suggests A Mechanism For Sequence-Specific Dna-Binding By Lateral Interdigitation., Marzia Niazi, Tyler J. Florio, Ruoyu Yang, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Nicholas A. Swanson, Richard E. Gillilan, Gino Cingolani 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Biophysical Analysis Of Pseudomonas-Phage Pap3 Small Terminase Suggests A Mechanism For Sequence-Specific Dna-Binding By Lateral Interdigitation., Marzia Niazi, Tyler J. Florio, Ruoyu Yang, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Nicholas A. Swanson, Richard E. Gillilan, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The genome packaging motor of tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses is a powerful nanomachine built by several copies of a large (TerL) and a small (TerS) terminase subunit. The motor assembles transiently at the portal vertex of an empty precursor capsid (or procapsid) to power genome encapsidation. Terminase subunits have been studied in-depth, especially in classical bacteriophages that infect Escherichia coli or Salmonella, yet, less is known about the packaging motor of Pseudomonas-phages that have increasing biomedical relevance. Here, we investigated the small terminase subunit from three Podoviridae phages that infect Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found TerS is polymorphic in solution but ...


Deep Gene Sequence Cluster Analyses Of Multi-Virus Infected Mucosal Tissue Reveal Enhanced Transmission Of Acute Hiv-1, Katja Klein, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Eric J. Arts 2020 University of Western Ontario

Deep Gene Sequence Cluster Analyses Of Multi-Virus Infected Mucosal Tissue Reveal Enhanced Transmission Of Acute Hiv-1, Katja Klein, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Eric J. Arts

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Exposure of the genital mucosa to a genetically diverse viral swarm from the donor HIV-1 can result in breakthrough and systemic infection by a single transmitted/founder (TF) virus in the recipient. The highly diverse HIV-1 envelope (Env) in this inoculating viral swarm may have critical role in transmission and subsequent immune response. Thus, chronic (Envchronic) and acute (Envacute) Env chimeric HIV-1 were tested using multi-virus competition assays in human mucosal penile and cervical tissues. Viral competition analysis revealed that Envchronic viruses resided and replicated mainly in the tissue while Envacute viruses penetrated the human tissue and established infection of ...


Dysbiosis In A Canine Model Of Human Fistulizing Crohn's Disease, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Lluis Ferrer, Caitlin Cawley, Sarah Crain, Shakti Bhattarai, Juan Toscano, Doyle V. Ward, Andrew Hoffman 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dysbiosis In A Canine Model Of Human Fistulizing Crohn's Disease, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Lluis Ferrer, Caitlin Cawley, Sarah Crain, Shakti Bhattarai, Juan Toscano, Doyle V. Ward, Andrew Hoffman

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition caused by the loss of mucosal tolerance toward the commensal microbiota. On average, 29.5% and 42.7% CD patients experience perianal complications at 10 and 20 y after diagnosis, respectively. Perianal CD (pCD) result in high disease burden, diminished quality of life, and elevated health-care costs. Overall pCD are predictors of poor long-term outcomes. Animal models of gut inflammation have failed to fully recapitulate the human manifestations of fistulizing CD. Here, we evaluated dogs with spontaneous canine anal furunculosis (CAF), a disease with clinical similarities to pCD, as a ...


Development Of Diagnostic Tests For Detection Of Sars-Cov-2, Ngan N. T. Nguyen, Colleen McCarthy, Darlin Lantigua, Gulden Camci-Unal 2020 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Development Of Diagnostic Tests For Detection Of Sars-Cov-2, Ngan N. T. Nguyen, Colleen Mccarthy, Darlin Lantigua, Gulden Camci-Unal

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

One of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is to develop accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. There are a number of molecular, serological, and imaging methods that are used to diagnose this infection in hospitals and clinical settings. The purpose of this review paper is to present the available approaches for detecting SARS-CoV-2 and address the advantages and limitations of each detection method. This work includes studies from recent literature publications along with information from the manufacturer's manuals of commercially available SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic products. Furthermore, supplementary information from the ...


Evaluation Of The Attitudes Of Phytotherapists Towards The Herbal Treatment Of Obesity In The Light Of Ancient And Modern Theoretical Knowledge - Field Study In Tlemcen (Algeria), Chahrazed Bessenouci 2020 University Center of Naama, Algeria

Evaluation Of The Attitudes Of Phytotherapists Towards The Herbal Treatment Of Obesity In The Light Of Ancient And Modern Theoretical Knowledge - Field Study In Tlemcen (Algeria), Chahrazed Bessenouci

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

This research aimed to reveal the phytotherapists attitudes towards medicinal plants therapy used to treat obesity through identifying the nature of these attitudes and their degree of compatibility with what is in the ancient scientific manuscripts and the research publications in the modern chemistry. To do this, a choice was made of an intentional sample of 34 Herbalists-Phytotherapists (from several regions of the province of Tlemcen). Then the researchers used a face-to-face interview to survey the attitudes using a 27-item Likert-scale test. To determine the nature of the sample's attitudes and also the level of their knowledge, a descriptive ...


Transparent Soil Microcosms For Live-Cell Imaging And Non-Destructive Stable Isotope Probing Of Soil Microorganisms, Kriti Sharma, Marton Palatinszky, Georgi Nikolov, David Berry, Elizabeth A. Shank 2020 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Transparent Soil Microcosms For Live-Cell Imaging And Non-Destructive Stable Isotope Probing Of Soil Microorganisms, Kriti Sharma, Marton Palatinszky, Georgi Nikolov, David Berry, Elizabeth A. Shank

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Microscale processes are critically important to soil ecology and biogeochemistry yet are difficult to study due to soil's opacity and complexity. To advance the study of soil processes, we constructed transparent soil microcosms that enable the visualization of microbes via fluorescence microscopy and the non-destructive measurement of microbial activity and carbon uptake in situ via Raman microspectroscopy. We assessed the polymer Nafion and the crystal cryolite as optically transparent soil substrates. We demonstrated that both substrates enable the growth, maintenance, and visualization of microbial cells in three dimensions over time, and are compatible with stable isotope probing using Raman ...


Evaluating The Microbial Experience Influence On Anti-Tumor Immune Response, Jessica A. Ensing 2020 Grand Valley State University

Evaluating The Microbial Experience Influence On Anti-Tumor Immune Response, Jessica A. Ensing

Student Summer Scholars Manuscripts

Despite the steady increase of hygienic standards, the CDC continues to report an increase of immune-mediated diseases such as allergies and asthma. Human avoidance of microbial exposure and subsequently less experienced immune systems may be the cause for this increase. We investigated if increased microbial exposure results in increased immunity to cancer (B16 melanoma) by measuring activated lymphocytes between two groups of C57Bl/6 mice: specific pathogen free (SPF) mice (which had little microbial exposure) and cohoused (COH) mice (which were exposed to numerous microbes). Previous research shows that the CoH mouse model mimics a human adult’s immune system ...


Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is recognized as one of the most important pathogens in hospital and community healthcare settings. The clinical outcome of infection of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to fulminant pseudomembranous colitis and death. In recent studies, it has been suggested that a high proportion of nosocomial CDI cases are transmitted from asymptomatic carriers which might be acting as infection reservoirs. Understanding what causes the different responses to infection could lead to the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Although several explanations have been proposed to explain variations in susceptibility, understanding of the exact mechanisms ...


Potential Virus-Mediated Nitrogen Cycling In Oxygen-Depleted Oceanic Waters, M. Consuelo Gazitúa, Dean R. Vik, Simon Roux, Ann C. Gregory, Benjamin Bolduc, Brittany Widner, Margaret R. Mulholland, Steven J. Hallam, Osvaldo Ulloa, Matthew B. Sullivan 2020 Old Dominion University

Potential Virus-Mediated Nitrogen Cycling In Oxygen-Depleted Oceanic Waters, M. Consuelo Gazitúa, Dean R. Vik, Simon Roux, Ann C. Gregory, Benjamin Bolduc, Brittany Widner, Margaret R. Mulholland, Steven J. Hallam, Osvaldo Ulloa, Matthew B. Sullivan

OEAS Faculty Publications

Viruses play an important role in the ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Beyond mortality and gene transfer, viruses can reprogram microbial metabolism during infection by expressing auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) involved in photosynthesis, central carbon metabolism, and nutrient cycling. While previous studies have focused on AMG diversity in the sunlit and dark ocean, less is known about the role of viruses in shaping metabolic networks along redox gradients associated with marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Here, we analyzed relatively quantitative viral metagenomic datasets that profiled the oxygen gradient across Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ waters, assessing whether OMZ ...


Varroa Destructor Mites Vector And Transmit Pathogenic Honey Bee Viruses Acquired From An Artificial Diet, Francisco Posada-Florez, Eugene V. Ryabov, Matthew C. Heerman, Yanping Chen, Jay D. Evans, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Steven C. Cook 2020 Old Dominion University

Varroa Destructor Mites Vector And Transmit Pathogenic Honey Bee Viruses Acquired From An Artificial Diet, Francisco Posada-Florez, Eugene V. Ryabov, Matthew C. Heerman, Yanping Chen, Jay D. Evans, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Steven C. Cook

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructoris one of the most destructive pests of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the primary biotic cause of colony collapse in many regions of the world. These mites inflict physical injury on their honey bee hosts from feeding on host hemolymph and fat body cells/cellular components, and serve as the vector for deadly honey bee viruses, including Deformed wing virus (DWV) and the related Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1) (i.e., DWV-like viruses). Studies focused on elucidating the dynamics of Varroa-mediated vectoring and transmission of DWV-like viruses may be confounded by viruses present in ...


Direct Binding Of Tfeα Opens Dna Binding Cleft Of Rna Polymeras, Sung-Hoon Jun, Jaekyung Hyun, Hoyoung Kim, Michael S. Bartlett, Hyun-Soo Cho, Katsuhiko S. Murakami 2020 Korea Basic Science Institute

Direct Binding Of Tfeα Opens Dna Binding Cleft Of Rna Polymeras, Sung-Hoon Jun, Jaekyung Hyun, Hoyoung Kim, Michael S. Bartlett, Hyun-Soo Cho, Katsuhiko S. Murakami

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Opening of the DNA binding cleft of cellular RNA polymerase (RNAP) is necessary for transcription initiation but the underlying molecular mechanism is not known. Here, we report on the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the RNAP, RNAP-TFEα binary, and RNAPTFEα-promoter DNA ternary complexes from archaea, Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tko). The structures reveal that TFEα bridges the RNAP clamp and stalk domains to open the DNA binding cleft. Positioning of promoter DNA into the cleft closes it while maintaining the TFEα interactions with the RNAP mobile modules. The structures and photo-crosslinking results also suggest that the conserved aromatic residue in the extended winged-helix ...


Expanding Magnetic Organelle Biogenesis In The Domain Bacteria, Wei Lin, Wensi Zhang, Greig A. Paterson, Qiyun Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Rob Knight, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Andrew P. Roberts, Yongxin Pan 2020 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Expanding Magnetic Organelle Biogenesis In The Domain Bacteria, Wei Lin, Wensi Zhang, Greig A. Paterson, Qiyun Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Rob Knight, Dennis A. Bazylinski, Andrew P. Roberts, Yongxin Pan

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: The discovery of membrane-enclosed, metabolically functional organelles in Bacteria has transformed our understanding of the subcellular complexity of prokaryotic cells. Biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles within magnetosomes by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) is a fascinating example of prokaryotic organelles. Magnetosomes, as nano-sized magnetic sensors in MTB, facilitate cell navigation along the local geomagnetic field, a behaviour referred to as magnetotaxis or microbial magnetoreception. Recent discovery of novel MTB outside the traditionally recognized taxonomic lineages suggests that MTB diversity across the domain Bacteria are considerably underestimated, which limits understanding of the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary origin of magnetosome organelle biogenesis. Results: Here ...


Evaluation Of Semi-Quantitative Compared To Quantitative Cultures Of Tracheal Aspirates For The Yield Of Culturable Respiratory Pathogens - A Cross-Sectional Study, Salima Rattani, Joveria Farooqi, Ghazala Jabeen, Saeeda Chandio, Qaiser Kash, Aijaz Khan, Kauser Jabeen 2020 Aga Khan University

Evaluation Of Semi-Quantitative Compared To Quantitative Cultures Of Tracheal Aspirates For The Yield Of Culturable Respiratory Pathogens - A Cross-Sectional Study, Salima Rattani, Joveria Farooqi, Ghazala Jabeen, Saeeda Chandio, Qaiser Kash, Aijaz Khan, Kauser Jabeen

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) depends on the presence of clinical, radiological and microbiological findings. Endotracheal suction aspirate (ETSA) is the commonest respiratory sample sent for culture from intubated patients. Very few studies have compared quantitative and semi-quantitative processing of ETSA cultures for LRTI diagnosis. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative and semi-quantitative ETSA culture for LRTI diagnosis, agreement between the quantitative and semi quantitative culture techniques and the yield of respiratory pathogens with both methods.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University clinical laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan. One hundred and seventy-eight ...


M. Tuberculosis Reprograms Hematopoietic Stem Cells To Limit Myelopoiesis And Impair Trained Immunity, Nargis Khan, Christopher M. Sassetti, Maziar Divangahi 2020 McGill University

M. Tuberculosis Reprograms Hematopoietic Stem Cells To Limit Myelopoiesis And Impair Trained Immunity, Nargis Khan, Christopher M. Sassetti, Maziar Divangahi

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

A greater understanding of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is required for dissecting protective versus detrimental immunity to pathogens that cause chronic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We have shown that systemic administration of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or beta-glucan reprograms HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) via a type II interferon (IFN-II) or interleukin-1 (IL1) response, respectively, which confers protective trained immunity against Mtb. Here, we demonstrate that, unlike BCG or beta-glucan, Mtb reprograms HSCs via an IFN-I response that suppresses myelopoiesis and impairs development of protective trained immunity to Mtb. Mechanistically, IFN-I signaling dysregulates iron metabolism, depolarizes mitochondrial ...


The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton 2020 University of Akron

The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton

International Journal of Speleology

Although molecular approaches can identify members of microbial communities in the environment, genomic information does not necessarily correlate with environmental phenotype. Understanding functional roles can be done by cultivating representative species, yet the culturablility of bacteria from caves remains low, at 0.02%, limiting our understanding of microbial community interactions and processes. We have investigated several factors influencing culturability of bacteria from a single sample location in Maxwelton Sink Cave, WV, USA. Extended incubation of inoculated plates showed a significant increase in colony counts from two to four weeks, indicating that extended incubations increase culturability. There were no significant differences ...


Metabolic Interactions In Microbial Communities, Elizabeth A. Shank 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Metabolic Interactions In Microbial Communities, Elizabeth A. Shank

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The Shank laboratory studies the chemical and physical interactions of microbes with each other and their hosts. Microbes live everywhere, and their activities can have profound impacts on their hosts as well as on ecosystem‐level processes. How microbes interact within these communities, however, remains largely unknown. We are fascinated by the idea that microbes are able to generate and secrete chemical cues (known as specialized or secondary metabolites) that can act as interspecies signals to influence the physiology and metabolism of their microbial neighbors, and thus contribute to the stability and functioning of complex microbial communities. Our research dissects ...


Nhr-49/Paarα And Hlh-30/Tfeb Cooperate For C. Elegans Host Defense Via A Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase, Khursheed A. Wani 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Nhr-49/Paarα And Hlh-30/Tfeb Cooperate For C. Elegans Host Defense Via A Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase, Khursheed A. Wani

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

During bacterial infection, the host is confronted with multiple overlapping signals that are integrated at the organismal level to produce defensive host responses. How multiple signals are sensed by the host and how they elicit the transcription of specific host defense genes is much less understood at the whole-animal level than at the cellular level. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans is known to mount transcriptional defense responses against intestinal bacterial infections that elicit overlapping starvation and infection responses, but the specific regulation of such responses is not well understood. By directly comparing C. elegans that were either starved or infected ...


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