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7,466 full-text articles. Page 7 of 237.

Incidence Of The Covid-19 In Iraq – Implications For Travellers, Maysaa Kadhim Al-Malkey, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak 2020 University of Baghdad

Incidence Of The Covid-19 In Iraq – Implications For Travellers, Maysaa Kadhim Al-Malkey, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak

Virology Papers

The first emerged Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China at the end of 2019, then spread to the rest of China [1], followed by the spread of the COVID-19 epidemics into the world caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) [2]. Many epidemiological assessments in different countries from Asia, Europe, and North America have been published [3]. Nevertheless, there are countries in the Middle East like Iraq, with a rapid increase in cases and a high number of deaths, with a lack of studies. It is worth noting that the Iraqi Foreign Ministry was ...


Prevalence Of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Transfusion-Transmissible Infections In Tanzanian Blood Donors, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, For Yue Tso, John R. Ngowi, Danielle M. Shea, Julius Mwaiselage, Charles Wood, John T. West 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Ocean Road Cancer Institute & Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

Prevalence Of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Transfusion-Transmissible Infections In Tanzanian Blood Donors, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, For Yue Tso, John R. Ngowi, Danielle M. Shea, Julius Mwaiselage, Charles Wood, John T. West

Virology Papers

Objective: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), one of the most common cancers in Tanzania. We have investigated KSHV prevalence and factors associated with KSHV infection in Tanzania.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of voluntary blood-donors from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Plasma was screened for KSHV, HIV-1, HBV, HCV and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). Associations between KSHV sero-status and risk factors were analyzed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported to evaluate risk factors of KSHV infection. All tests were 2-tailed, and P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The overall KSHV seroprevalence was ...


Hiv-1 Subtypes And Drug Resistance Mutations Among Female Sex Workers Varied In Different Cities And Regions Of The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Eun Hee Kwon, Godefroid M. A. Musema, Jessica Boelter, Sydney Townsend, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Patrick K. Kayembe, John T. West, Charles Wood 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Hiv-1 Subtypes And Drug Resistance Mutations Among Female Sex Workers Varied In Different Cities And Regions Of The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Eun Hee Kwon, Godefroid M. A. Musema, Jessica Boelter, Sydney Townsend, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Patrick K. Kayembe, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background Complex mosaic structures of HIV-1 were found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, there is limited information on the circulating HIV-1 strains, the distribution of these strains and antiretroviral (ART) resistant viruses in different regions of the country, and the HIV-1 strains harbored by the high-risk groups like female sex workers (FSW) reported to be the source of recombinant and ART resistant viruses.

Methods Dried Blood Spots (DBS), collected from 325 infected FSWs in ten cities from 2012 DRC HIV/STI Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey, were tested for HIV-1 genotypes and antiretroviral resistance mutations. Regional ...


The Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Gh/Gl Complex Is The Predominant Neutralizing Antigenic Determinant In Kshv-Infected Individuals, Yasaman Mortazavi, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, John T. West, Charles Wood, For Yue Tso 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Gh/Gl Complex Is The Predominant Neutralizing Antigenic Determinant In Kshv-Infected Individuals, Yasaman Mortazavi, Salum J. Lidenge, Tara Tran, John T. West, Charles Wood, For Yue Tso

Virology Papers

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), one of the most prevalent cancers of people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. The seroprevalence for KSHV is high in the region, and no prophylactic vaccine against the virus is available. In this study, we characterized the antigenic targets of KSHV-specific neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in asymptomatic KSHV-infected individuals and KS patients with high nAbs titers. We quantified the extent to which various KSHV envelope glycoproteins (gB, ORF28, ORF68, gH, gL, gM, gN and gpK8.1) adsorbed/removed KSHV-specific nAbs from the plasma of infected ...


Characterization Of The Physical And Chemical Effect Of Membrane Disruption And Protein Inhibiting Treatments On E. Coli, Khadijah Wright 2020 University of Central Florida

Characterization Of The Physical And Chemical Effect Of Membrane Disruption And Protein Inhibiting Treatments On E. Coli, Khadijah Wright

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The increase in antibacterial resistance has placed the issue of microbial multi-drug resistance on a global stage (Gurunathan, 2019). This issue poses a threat to human and animal health as well as to the environment (Aslam et al., 2018). It affects not only the efficacy of treatment but also how those treatments are conducted (Friedman, Temkin, & Carmeli, 2016). As a result of this ongoing threat, new treatments that have potent effects on bacteria are necessary. One scientific response to this issue has been the development of multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs)(H. Wang et al., 2018). NPs have the ability to be utilized by its varying modes of action and compatibility with other forms of treatments (Alavi & Rai, 2019). This advantage, when successful, would allow for the lowering of dosage and frequency of treatments required to achieve bacteria-killing (Alavi & Rai, 2019).

Despite a plethora of proposed designs for the improvement of antibacterial treatment, questions remain concerning the mode of action of these new agents. The aim of this study is to develop a protocol facilitating the identification of modes of action of newly formulated antibacterial agents. Our hypothesis is that different modes of action will have distinct effects on the morphology and composition of the cells. To test this, we characterized the structural, physical and molecular changes of a model system, E. coli., before and after treatments using antibiotics with known modes of action. We selected two bactericidal antibiotics: colistin which is a membrane disrupting antibiotic, and streptomycin which is a protein inhibiting antibiotic (Santo-Domingo, Chareyron, Broenimann, Lassueur, & Wiederkehr, 2017; Sun et al., 2019; Thummeepak, Kitti, Kunthalert, & Sitthisak, 2016). We discuss the protocol development and the significant differences observed in the bacterial responses as well as the limitations of the envisioned approach. We conclude by providing a perspective of the impact our findings are ...


Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley 2020 U.S. Geological Survey

Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

This study utilized native chaparral and sage scrub shrubs to evaluate the impact of light summer irrigation on live fuel moisture content (LFMC) and predicted fire behavior. As to be expected LFMC varied markedly throughout the year being over 100% in winter in all species and treatments but differed markedly by treatment in the summer and fall. For most species lightly irrigated plants had the highest LFMC in the summer and fall, followed by thinned treatments and controls. These differences in moisture content coupled with structural differences in the vegetation contributed to expected differences in flame length and rate of ...


Covers, 2020 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Effects Of A Neonicotinoid Insecticide On The Growth Of Honey Bee Gut Microbes, Macee Mitchell, Daniel Franzese, Taylor Morales, Shane Lucht, Jesse Steele, Jenifer Walke 2020 Eastern Washington University

Effects Of A Neonicotinoid Insecticide On The Growth Of Honey Bee Gut Microbes, Macee Mitchell, Daniel Franzese, Taylor Morales, Shane Lucht, Jesse Steele, Jenifer Walke

2020 Symposium Posters

The gut microbiome plays an essential role in the overall health of organisms. However, the presence and abundance of these microbes may be altered by environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides. The goals of this project were to understand 1) the prevalence of pesticide residues in honey bees in eastern Washington, and 2) the impact of pesticides to the honey bee gut microbiome. Accordingly, we tested bees from 24 hives among six sites across eastern Washington. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was used to detect the presence and concentration of six commonly used agricultural pesticides: Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Coumaphos, Cypermethrin ...


Essential Concepts And Learning Outcomes For Cell And Molecular Biology, Laura L. Newcomb PhD, Mike Chao PhD, Dan Nickerson PhD, Paul Orwin PhD, Jeremy Dodsworth PhD, David Rhoads PhD 2020 California State University - San Bernardino

Essential Concepts And Learning Outcomes For Cell And Molecular Biology, Laura L. Newcomb Phd, Mike Chao Phd, Dan Nickerson Phd, Paul Orwin Phd, Jeremy Dodsworth Phd, David Rhoads Phd

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

In the new, transformed Biology BS program for conversion from quarter to semester, multiple faculty will teach varied courses under the “Cell and Molecular” requirement for our program. Our old program required multiple core courses, leading to bottlenecks as students could not get seats in needed classes. We have designed our new program to provide students with options under core categories, providing students more flexibility which should improve time to graduation. Students must take at least ONE of the courses, although students who chose to focus on Cell and Molecular Biology should be able to learn new material in ALL ...


Marked Changes In Diversity And Relative Activity Of Picoeukaryotes With Depth In The World Ocean, Caterina R. Giner, Massimo C. Pernice, Vanessa Balagué, Carlos M. Duarte, Josep M. Gasol, Ramiro Logares, Ramon Massana 2020 Edith Cowan University

Marked Changes In Diversity And Relative Activity Of Picoeukaryotes With Depth In The World Ocean, Caterina R. Giner, Massimo C. Pernice, Vanessa Balagué, Carlos M. Duarte, Josep M. Gasol, Ramiro Logares, Ramon Massana

ECU Publications Post 2013

Microbial eukaryotes are key components of the ocean plankton. Yet, our understanding of their community composition and activity in different water layers of the ocean is limited, particularly for picoeukaryotes (0.2–3 µm cell size). Here, we examined the picoeukaryotic communities inhabiting different vertical zones of the tropical and subtropical global ocean: surface, deep chlorophyll maximum, mesopelagic (including the deep scattering layer and oxygen minimum zones), and bathypelagic. Communities were analysed by high-tthroughput sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene (V4 region) as represented by DNA (community structure) and RNA (metabolism), followed by delineation of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at ...


Acetaldehyde Production By Rothia Mucilaginosa Isolates From Patients With Oral Leukoplakia., Abdrazak Amer, Aine Whelan, Nezar N. Al-Hebshi, Claire M. Healy, Gary P. Moran 2020 Trinity College Dublin

Acetaldehyde Production By Rothia Mucilaginosa Isolates From Patients With Oral Leukoplakia., Abdrazak Amer, Aine Whelan, Nezar N. Al-Hebshi, Claire M. Healy, Gary P. Moran

Articles

Rothia mucilaginosa has been found at high abundance on oral leukoplakia (OLK). The ability of clinical isolates to produce acetaldehyde (ACH) from ethanol has not been investigated. The objective of the current study was to determine the capacity of R. mucilaginosa isolates recovered from OLK to generate ACH. Analysis of R. mucilaginosa genomes (n = 70) shows that this species does not normally encode acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) required for detoxification of ACH. The predicted OLK metagenome also exhibited reduced ALDH coding capacity. We analysed ACH production in 8 isolates of R. mucilaginosa and showed that this species is capable of generating ...


An Eye For The Invisible: Exploring The Role Of Image-Making In Science, Aden Kahr 2020 Vassar College

An Eye For The Invisible: Exploring The Role Of Image-Making In Science, Aden Kahr

Senior Capstone Projects

This thesis tracks the evolution of filmed and photographed depictions of science, emphasizing in particular their dual existence as empirical research tools and stunning works of art.


The Structure Of The Endogenous Esx-3 Secretion System, Nicole Poweleit, Nadine Czudnochowski, Rachel Nakagawa, Donovan Trinidad, Kenan C. Murphy, Christopher M. Sassetti, Oren S. Rosenberg 2019 University of California, San Francisco

The Structure Of The Endogenous Esx-3 Secretion System, Nicole Poweleit, Nadine Czudnochowski, Rachel Nakagawa, Donovan Trinidad, Kenan C. Murphy, Christopher M. Sassetti, Oren S. Rosenberg

Open Access Articles

The ESX (or Type VII) secretion systems are protein export systems in mycobacteria and many Gram-positive bacteria that mediate a broad range of functions including virulence, conjugation, and metabolic regulation. These systems translocate folded dimers of WXG100-superfamily protein substrates across the cytoplasmic membrane. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of an ESX-3 system, purified using an epitope tag inserted with recombineering into the chromosome of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. The structure reveals a stacked architecture that extends above and below the inner membrane of the bacterium. The ESX-3 protomer complex is assembled from a single copy of the EccB3 ...


Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chloroviruses, James L. Van Etten, Irina V. Agarkova, David D. Dunigan

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are large dsDNA, plaque-forming viruses that infect certain chlorella-like green algae; the algae are normally mutualistic endosymbionts of protists and metazoans and are often referred to as zoochlorellae. The viruses are ubiquitous in inland aqueous environments throughout the world and occasionally single types reach titers of thousands of plaque-forming units per ml of native water. The viruses are icosahedral in shape with a spike structure located at one of the vertices. They contain an internal membrane that is required for infectivity. The viral genomes are 290 to 370 kb in size, which encode up to 16 tRNAs and 330 ...


Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi 2019 Duquesne University

Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A quintessential phenomenon occurring during prokaryotic development is accurate segregation of the replicated genomes into the daughter cells. Key energy-dependent processes like chromosome condensation and subcellular partitioning of the genomes are driven by conserved proteins like SMC, ParB, FtsK. During its complex developmental cycle, Streptomyces coelicolor segregates its genomes into chains of unicellular spores when its multigenomic syncytial aerial hyphae undergo division.

A novel ftsK-like gene, hfkA (Homolog of FtsK protein A), was examined for function and localization during development-associated chromosome segregation. Individual deletions did not affect segregation, but a ΔhfkA ΔftsK mutant exhibited 8% anucleate spores ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga 2019 University of Maine

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela

Open Access Articles

Bifidobacterium longum colonizes mammalian gastrointestinal tracts where it could metabolize host-indigestible oligosaccharides. Although B. longum strains are currently segregated into three subspecies that reflect common metabolic capacities and genetic similarity, heterogeneity within subspecies suggests that these taxonomic boundaries may not be completely resolved. To address this, the B. longum pangenome was analyzed from representative strains isolated from a diverse set of sources. As a result, the B. longum pangenome is open and contains almost 17,000 genes, with over 85% of genes found in < /=28 of 191 strains. B. longum genomes share a small core gene set of only ~500 genes, or ~3% of the total pangenome. Although the individual B. longum subspecies pangenomes share similar relative abundances of clusters of orthologous groups, strains show inter- and intrasubspecies differences with respect to carbohydrate utilization gene content and growth phenotypes.


The Aminoalkylindole Bml-190 Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Cyclic Amp/Protein Kinase A1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

The Aminoalkylindole Bml-190 Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Cyclic Amp/Protein Kinase A1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

Open Access Articles

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immunocompromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease; therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall and is required for survival in the mammalian host and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis. To ...


Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Rhodococcus Opacus Pd630 Genetic Tool Development To Enable The Conversion Of Biomass, Drew Michael Delorenzo

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

The discovery of fossil fuels facilitated a new era in human history and allowed many firsts, such as the mass production of goods, the ability to travel and communicate long distances, the formation of population dense cities, and unprecedented improvements in quality of life. Alternative sources of energy and chemicals are needed, however, as hydrocarbon reserves continue to deplete and the effects of burning fossils on the planet become better understood. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant raw material in the world and a viable alternative to petroleum-derived products. The pre-treatment of lignocellulose (e.g., thermocatalytic depolymerization, enzymatic hydrolysis, pyrolysis ...


Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić 2019 University of Ljubljana

Screening The Cultivable Cave Microbial Mats For The Production Of Antimicrobial Compounds And Antibiotic Resistance, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Patricia Petrič, Lejla Pašić

International Journal of Speleology

The current work extends the phenotypic characterization of a bacterial culture collection obtained from white, yellow, grey or pink microbial cave wall colonies that are common in the caves of Slovenian Karst. We have determined antibiotic resistance to 22 natural and synthetic antibiotics in 69 isolates from the microbial mats. Thirty-eight isolates (52%) were resistant to 1-5 antibiotics; another 27 isolates (37%) were resistant to 6-10 antibiotics; and 7 isolates (0.1%) were resistant to 11-17 antibiotics. We screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by growing cave isolates on five different media and overlaying individual cultures with ten Gram-positive and ...


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