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Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams 2022 Georgia Gwinnett College

Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams

Georgia Journal of Science

As one of the most widely distributed bacterial cytoplasmic symbionts on earth, Wolbachia pipientis Hertig serves as a model organism for the understanding of host-symbiont interactions. Many mosquito species are infected with Wolbachia strains that induce a form of reproductive manipulation called cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which infected females gain a reproductive advantage over uninfected females in mixed infection populations. The selective advantage of cytoplasmic incompatibility often results in a population sweep of Wolbachia and co-transmitted mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial evolution and phylogenetic inferences drawn from mitochondrial gene sequences are thus potentially compromised by reproductive manipulating symbionts, like Wolbachia. Our initial analyses ...


Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart 2022 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart

Biology Theses

Organisms produce chemical weapons for defense, but target organisms can develop resistance. In their introduced range, non-native species may bring “novel weapons” against which native organisms have not co-evolved resistance. The invasive European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) may have brought antimicrobial secretions to the Northeastern United States that are novel weapons against native fungal and bacterial soil organisms. I hypothesized that M. rubra would better inhibit seed pathogens resulting in greater emergence of native myrmecochorous Viola sororia seeds and, as a side effect, more strongly inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than a native seed dispersing ant (Aphaenogaster picea). I also expected ...


The Role Of Stm1987 And Arti In Arginine Response Of Salmonella Typhimurium, Deeba Mohseni 2022 East Tennessee State University

The Role Of Stm1987 And Arti In Arginine Response Of Salmonella Typhimurium, Deeba Mohseni

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cyclic-di-GMP, a common bacterial second messenger, has been thought to help develop virulence and biofilms in bacteria, most specifically in Salmonella Typhimurium. By being able to dysregulate cyclic-di-GMP production, virulence may be better combatted. STM1987, an L-arginine-responsive diguanylate cyclase with a periplasmic sensory domain, dimerizes and generates the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP in response to the amino acid L-arginine in a pathway that also requires the periplasmic L-arginine-binding protein ArtI. Their biochemical responses to L-arginine and when they dimerize could help clarify this pathway, so I sought to develop a periplasmic dimerization sensor to better monitor these biochemical interactions. Similar ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


Biodegradation Of Rubber Particles In Soil: Using Acclimated Bacteria Isolated From Kansas Soil To Degrade Cryogrinds In Slurry, Shane Graham 2022 The University of Akron

Biodegradation Of Rubber Particles In Soil: Using Acclimated Bacteria Isolated From Kansas Soil To Degrade Cryogrinds In Slurry, Shane Graham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This study investigated the viability of bioremediating rubber cryogrind using enriched indigenous bacteria. To begin the experiment, soils from three highway roadside locations in Kansas, KS 96 and West, KS 400 and 143rd, and 199th, were collected and transported to the lab to be studied. An initial soil characterization was run on the soil samples using distilled (DI) water mixture and 0.01 M CaCl2 to assess conductivity. The soils were tested to gather a baseline of the relationship between pH and conductivity and the impact of its distance from the roadside. Bacteria were isolated from the ...


Investigating Antimicrobial Properties Of Snake Venoms Against B. Cereus, B. Subtilis, E. Coli, And P. Vulgaris, Savannah Berger 2021 St. Mary's University

Investigating Antimicrobial Properties Of Snake Venoms Against B. Cereus, B. Subtilis, E. Coli, And P. Vulgaris, Savannah Berger

St. Mary's University Honors Theses and Projects

The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections has provoked the attention of health officials and scientists as a major threat to global public health. Antibiotic resistance is the product of overprescription by doctors, ineffective or shortened dosing by the patient, and more. When a bacterial infection is ineffectively treated as such, persistent pathogenic cells are given the opportunity to proliferate and spread their resistance to other cells. With bacteria utilizing such tools to fight and ultimately resist our current treatment methods, investigation towards the next novel mechanism of inhibition is essential. Venom is of particular interest to many scientists ...


The Role Of Low-Molecular Weight Fungal Metabolites In Eutypa Dieback Grapevine Trunk Disease, Dana Sebestyen 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Role Of Low-Molecular Weight Fungal Metabolites In Eutypa Dieback Grapevine Trunk Disease, Dana Sebestyen

Masters Theses

Eutypa dieback, one of several grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), is of serious concern to the grape industry globally. This disease is caused by the fungus Eutypa lata but it is often seen in consortia growth with Phaeoacremonium minimum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. It is vital to understand the mechanisms for how this disease functions to develop control measures to combat it. Brown rot fungi are able to use a complex of low molecular weight (LMW) metabolites to induce a Fenton reaction to deconstruct woody tissue. These metabolites are part of a chelator mediated Fenton (CMF) chemistry that produces reactive oxygen species ...


Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong

Masters Theses

Trypanosoma brucei and related protists are distinguished from all other eukaryotes by an unusual mitochondrial genome known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) that is a catenated network composed of minicircles and maxicircles. Replication of this single nucleoid involves a release, replicate, and reattach mechanism for the thousands of catenated minicircles and requires at least three DNA polymerase (POLIB, POLIC and POLID) with similarity to E. coli DNA polymerase I. Like other proofreading replicative DNA polymerases, POLIB has both an annotated polymerase domain and an exonuclease domain. Predictive modelling of POLIB indicates that it has the canonical right hand polymerase structure with ...


Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham 2021 Emory University

Oxidation Alters The Architecture Of The Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase Editing Domain To Confer Hyperaccuracy, Pooja Srinivas, Rebecca E. Steiner, Ian J. Pavelich, Ricardo Guerrera-Ferreira, Puneet Juneja, Michael Ibba, Christine M. Dunham

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

High fidelity during protein synthesis is accomplished by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). These enzymes ligate an amino acid to a cognate tRNA and have proofreading and editing capabilities that ensure high fidelity. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) preferentially ligates a phenylalanine to a tRNAPhe over the chemically similar tyrosine, which differs from phenylalanine by a single hydroxyl group. In bacteria that undergo exposure to oxidative stress such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, tyrosine isomer levels increase due to phenylalanine oxidation. Several residues are oxidized in PheRS and contribute to hyperactive editing, including against mischarged Tyr-tRNAPhe, despite these oxidized residues not being ...


Novel Pilot Development Of A Closed-Loop Sustainable System Between Biogas Renewable Energy, Distilling, And Aquaculture By Vermiculture Of Stillage Wastes, Samuel C. Kessler 2021 University of Louisville

Novel Pilot Development Of A Closed-Loop Sustainable System Between Biogas Renewable Energy, Distilling, And Aquaculture By Vermiculture Of Stillage Wastes, Samuel C. Kessler

The Cardinal Edge

This study provides a mixed-methods approach in analyzing a potential closed-loop system between renewable biogas production from anaerobic digestion, vermiculture production, aquaculture production, and organic wastes with a particular focus on stillage wastes. Such system may hold significant promise for significantly reducing organic carbon and methane emissions from its components, and should be assessed for such. The 2021 IPCC report essentially identified methane reduction as the single fastest way to slow global warming (IPCC, 2021), making the study and implementation of methane-reducing systems and supportive policy for them critical. Knowledge gaps to implementing this system were qualitatively identified as disconnect ...


The Sterilization Of Escherichia Coli With Black Diamond-Coated Silicon, Sarah M. Cawthon, Jesse L. Rozsa, Mark P. Running 2021 University of Louisville

The Sterilization Of Escherichia Coli With Black Diamond-Coated Silicon, Sarah M. Cawthon, Jesse L. Rozsa, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

In order to combat increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance, new antimicrobials are needed to successfully kill microbes. Silicon coated in black diamond is a material that is hypothesized to have antimicrobial properties. To test this hypothesis, Escherichia coli cells were placed on different black diamond-coated silicon surfaces and allowed to rest on each surface for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1 hour. Cells were collected, and growth was assessed by counting colonies on plates or spectrophotometry growth curves. The results of this study indicated that the experimental samples have some antimicrobial or growth inhibition properties, but they may not be ...


S-Layer Increases Predation Ability Of Myxococcus Xanthus, 2021 Kennesaw State University

S-Layer Increases Predation Ability Of Myxococcus Xanthus

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative soil bacterium that exhibits micro-predatory activities. When starved, M. xanthus produces resistant spores within fruiting bodies for survival. The S-layer is a paracrystalline structure intertwined in many different patterns and is composed of proteins or glycoproteins. A species that produces the S-layer is Aeromonas. A. salmonicida is a strain of Aeromonas that infects fish. A. hydrophila is another pathogenic strain that causes a wide range of human diseases. We investigated the ability of the S-layer to protect Aeromonas from predation by Myxobacteria. Methods: Myxococcus and prey Aeromonas cultures were standardized to a concentration of ...


Understanding The Adhesion Mechanism In Mycelium-Assisted Wood Bonding, Wenjing Sun 2021 The University of Maine

Understanding The Adhesion Mechanism In Mycelium-Assisted Wood Bonding, Wenjing Sun

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The increasing environmental awareness has led to an increased interest in developing more sustainable materials as alternatives to petroleum-derived products. Among different nature-based products, fungal-mycelium-based bio-composites have gained considerable attention in various applications. Multiple materials with different densities and structures and potential applications can be fabricated by inoculating filamentous white-rot fungi in lignocellulosic materials and other substrates. Different from lower-density as-grown foam-like mycelium composites, higher-density mycelium-lignocellulosic panels have the potential to replace commercial particleboard and fiberboard bonded by petroleum-based resins. This kind of composite can be produced by directly adding heat and pressure to the low-density foams or by assembling ...


Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa de Alda, Ignacio Luque 2021 Universidad de Sevilla

Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa De Alda, Ignacio Luque

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

As compared to eukaryotes, bacteria have a reduced tRNA gene set encoding between 30 and 220 tRNAs. Although in most bacterial phyla tRNA genes are dispersed in the genome, many species from distinct phyla also show genes forming arrays. Here, we show that two types of arrays with distinct evolutionary origins exist. This work focuses on long tRNA gene arrays (L-arrays) that encompass up to 43 genes, which disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and contribute supernumerary tRNA genes to the host. Although in the few cases previously studied these arrays were reported to be poorly transcribed, here we show that ...


Generation And Characterization Of An In Vitro Organotypic Foreskin Model For Future Study Of The Penile Microbiome, Geoffrey J. Rempel 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Generation And Characterization Of An In Vitro Organotypic Foreskin Model For Future Study Of The Penile Microbiome, Geoffrey J. Rempel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The foreskin is a site of HIV-1 acquisition in heterosexual males. The lack of relevant in vitro models that mimic the foreskin microenvironment, including innate immune and barrier functions, has limited our understanding of susceptibility at this site. We hypothesize that we can establish organotypic in vitro foreskin that mimics in vivo tissue. Organotypic foreskin models were generated and are composed of stratified cell layers that express E-cadherin suprabasally, filaggrin apically, and expressed TLR1, TLR2, and β-defensin-1 mRNA similar to in vivo foreskin. Preliminary results suggest organotypic foreskin tissues retain the ability to respond to LPS. Lastly, organotypic foreskin permeability ...


Deacylated Trna Accumulation Is A Trigger For Bacterial Antibiotic Persistence Independent Of The Stringent Response, Whitney N. Wood, Kyle Mohler, Jesse Rinehart, Michael Ibba 2021 The Ohio State University

Deacylated Trna Accumulation Is A Trigger For Bacterial Antibiotic Persistence Independent Of The Stringent Response, Whitney N. Wood, Kyle Mohler, Jesse Rinehart, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Bacterial antibiotic persistence occurs when bacteria are treated with an antibiotic and the majority of the population rapidly dies off, but a small subpopulation enters into a dormant, persistent state and evades death. Diverse pathways leading to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) depletion and restricted translation have been implicated in persistence, suggesting alternative redundant routes may exist to initiate persister formation. To investigate the molecular mechanism of one such pathway, functional variants of an essential component of translation (phenylalanyltRNA synthetase [PheRS]) were used to study the effects of quality control on antibiotic persistence. Upon amino acid limitation, elevated PheRS quality control led ...


The Role Of Med31 And Med12 In Directing Adipogenesis Of Human Adult-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Joseph Straub 2021 Louisiana Tech University

The Role Of Med31 And Med12 In Directing Adipogenesis Of Human Adult-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Joseph Straub

Master's Theses

Selective gene expression is crucial in maintaining the self-renewing and multipotent properties of stem cells. Mediator is a large, evolutionarily conserved, multisubunit protein complex that modulates gene expression by relaying signals from cell type-specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. In humans, this complex consists of 30 subunits arranged in four modules: head, middle, tail, and kinase. In our introduction, we show the state of the field of Mediator study with a focus on the critical kinase module. In the following chapters, we used siRNA knockdowns to investigate the roles of the highly-conserved core subunit MED31 and the kinase module ...


Contaminated Mycoscapes: Designing With Living Organisms, Maria Gutierrez, Elise Zilius 2021 Syracuse University

Contaminated Mycoscapes: Designing With Living Organisms, Maria Gutierrez, Elise Zilius

Architecture Senior Theses

The Anthropocene has stripped the planet of its resources, leaving behind an abundance of contamination. The built environment no longer meets the standards set by our turbulent planet. Humankind has lost the privilege of agency in design and construction. Construction methods have failed to evolve concurrently to the intense accumulation of waste; remaining firmly rooted in the materiality of the past, they have upheld architectural notions of stagnancy, cleanliness, and hygiene and ignore the rapidly changing conditions of the environment. This investigation uses contamination to fuel mycelial growth and construct emergent forms whilst executing remediation strategies for polluted sites of ...


Implementing Crispr-Cas9 Gene Editing System In Microbotryum., Stevana Reese Schauer 2021 University of Louisville

Implementing Crispr-Cas9 Gene Editing System In Microbotryum., Stevana Reese Schauer

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Microbotryum dianthorum is a species of smut fungus which causes infection in plants in the Dianthus genus. The infection process is aided by small-secreted proteins known as effectors. Effectors may aid in the infection process because they are secreted by the fungus and can enter plant tissue, possibly to facilitate infection and/or manipulate the host. Thus, it is of interest to investigate the genes for these effectors to determine their role in the infection process. One method to study genes is through gene disruption, via the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system, but this has not yet been implemented in ...


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