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Scanning Labyrinthulomycete Genomes For Yeast Transcription Factor Binding Site Motifs, Jackie L. Collier, Joshua Rest 2017 SUNY Stony Brook

Scanning Labyrinthulomycete Genomes For Yeast Transcription Factor Binding Site Motifs, Jackie L. Collier, Joshua Rest

Interdisciplinary Research Data

To develop broadly useful methods for the genetic manipulation of Labyrinthulomycetes (a diverse group of ubiquitous osmoheterotrophic marine protists), it is essential to understand the similarities and differences in regulation of gene expression among them. Toward this end we have used FIMO from the MEME suite (http://meme-suite.org/doc/fimo.html) to identify potential transcription factor binding sites in each of the three available genome sequences: Aplanochytrium kerguelense PBS07, Schizochytrium aggregatum ATCC 28209, and Aurantiochytrium limacinum ATCC MYA-1381


Investigation Of Media Effects On Sinorhizobium Meliloti Glucose Minus, Roxana Apostol 2017 University of Redlands

Investigation Of Media Effects On Sinorhizobium Meliloti Glucose Minus, Roxana Apostol

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Although nitrogen fertilizers have certain benefits, the over application of such compounds often results in damages to the ecosystem. In this project, we focus our study on Sinorhizobiom meliloti, a species that lives in symbiosis with alfalfa plants, and through its nitrogen fixation capabilities, restores nitrogen levels in the soil. In our study we aim to gain a better understanding of the carbon metabolism in S. meliloti, mainly by looking at growth patterns in the presence of different carbon sources. Our research picked up on Erik Arvey’s discoveries which pointed out that sucrose inhibits growth of certain glucose minus ...


Toward The History Of Study Of Symbiogenesis: On The English Translation Of B. M. Kozo-Polyansky’S A New Principle Of Biology (1924), Victor Fet 2016 Marshall University

Toward The History Of Study Of Symbiogenesis: On The English Translation Of B. M. Kozo-Polyansky’S A New Principle Of Biology (1924), Victor Fet

Victor Fet

We reproduce the text by Victor Fet, which was read on 6 October 2011 at the Moscow Society of Naturalists during the presentation of new book translation (B.M. Kozo- Polyansky. Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution / transl. by Victor Fet; ed. by Victor Fet & Lynn Margulis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010. 138 p.) This half- forgotten book by Boris M. Kozo-Polyansky was known only by name to Western biologists. Victor Fet gives a brief history of this new translation, enthusiastically initiated and supported by Lynn Margulis (1938–2011), a famous naturalist who was always eager to gave credit where credit was due. Kozo- Polyansky, along with Merezhkovsky, Portier, and Wallin, pioneered symbiogenetic ideas that were brilliantly developed and vindicated starting from 1960–1970s. It was Lynn Margulis who noticed also that Kozo- Polyansky preceded E. Chatton in recognizing the profound diff erence between prokaryotes and eukaryotes; in fact, he maintained that this difference was due to symbiogenetic, complex nature of the eukaryotic cell! Two “scientistic” poems (in Russian) by Victor Fet are included, dedicated to all the prophets and martyrs of science.


Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi

Jennifer Hayashi

Mycobacterium is a diverse genus of actinobacteria that includes the causative agents of human tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are protected by their unique, multilaminar cell envelope, which grants them intrinsic resistance to environmental challenges such as antibiotics. This essential cellular structure is elongated at the polar ends of cells, but the regulation of cytosolic precursor synthesis and localized envelope synthesis remains unclear. Here, we present the PMf (plasma membrane free of cell wall components), a membrane domain distinct from the bulk plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proteomic and lipidomic characterization demonstrate that the PMf contains lipidic substrates ...


Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman

Master's Theses

Anurans are mass spawners, often with multiple females spawning together, resulting in thousands of tadpoles sharing a habitat. Such large numbers of tadpoles with limited dispersal can lead to intense competition for resources. Inter and intra-specific competition for food could have negative impacts on the growth and survival of smaller tadpoles. Fecal bacterial communities have the potential to be used as indicators of changes in diet making it possible to determine if tadpoles in the wild are eating the same food or not. After feeding on two prepared diets that differed in the percentage of complex carbohydrates, the fecal bacterial ...


The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe-Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe-Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette

Master's Theses

The elasmobranch osmoregulatory strategy is predicated on the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, primarily urea and trimethylamine n¬-oxide (TMAO). Despite the abundance of these plasma osmolytes, it is notable that elasmobranchs appear to lack urease and TMA oxidase (Tmase), enzymes that scavenge urea-nitrogen and synthesize TMAO, respectively. However, urease and Tmase are found in many species of bacteria. Therefore, I hypothesized that intestinal bacteria are responsible for urease and Tmase activity in elasmobranchs. Absent dietary nitrogen sources, I evaluated the effects of reduced intestinal microbiota on osmoregulation in Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) in vivo. D. sabina were given daily broad-spectrum ...


Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips 2016 Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo

Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The primary goal of the Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group (BPPG) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to prevent microbial contamination between Earth and other planetary bodies. This helps preserve the ability to study other worlds as they exist in their natural states and protects our biosphere from extraterrestrial life. The process for identifying microbes located on space-bound hardware in JPL can be more efficient and precise by using the technique called matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Once this identification technique is fully implemented, the process time will be reduced from two weeks to one ...


Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Filamentous fungi have a long history in biotechnology for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The advancements made in recent years have earned filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus species a dominant place among microbial cell factories. Although the model fungus A. nidulans has been extensively studied, the genetic and regulatory networks that underlie morphogenesis and development have yet to be fully characterized. The Rho GTPases (Cdc42 and RacA) are one of the most important regulators of the morphogenetic processes among diverse eukaryotic organisms. Although the functions of these GTPases are relatively well-characterized, little is known about their downstream ...


Improving Metabolic Engineering And Characterization Of Clostridium Thermocellum For Improved Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Beth Alexandra Papanek 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improving Metabolic Engineering And Characterization Of Clostridium Thermocellum For Improved Cellulosic Ethanol Production, Beth Alexandra Papanek

Doctoral Dissertations

Biofules are an important option for humanity to move away from its dependence on fossil fuels. Transitioning from food crops to lignocellulosic alternatives for the production of biofuels is equally important. Most commonly, biofuels are produced using a crop such as corn or soybeans to feed sugars to the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the fermentation of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biofuel production would eliminate the need for food crops and transition to biomass such as switchgrass, poplar, or corn stover. Currently, lignocellulosic biofuel production is limited primarily because of the cost of converting the biomass to fermentable sugars than can then be ...


Chemokines And Peptides That Promote And Inhibit Cmv Entry, Elisabeth Anne Pitt 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Chemokines And Peptides That Promote And Inhibit Cmv Entry, Elisabeth Anne Pitt

Masters Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes morbidity and mortality in congenitally infected newborns, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Currently, there is no approved CMV vaccine to address these issues. In an effort to develop an alternative treatment to CMV we tested our hypothesis that heparan sulfate binding D-peptides would be effective against multiple HCMV strains in vitro and it would be effective in vivo against murine CMV (MCMV) (Chapter 1). We show that the D-peptide is able to reduce CMV infection in vitro and in vivo. Another approach to combating CMV infections is to neutralize pathogenic factors that contribute to CMV spread ...


Genomic Diversity Of Pseudoalteromonas Atlantica From Geographically Distant Deep Marine Basins, Erika N. Youngquist 2016 The University of Tennessee Knoxville

Genomic Diversity Of Pseudoalteromonas Atlantica From Geographically Distant Deep Marine Basins, Erika N. Youngquist

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Oxidative Stress Response In Archaea: Elucidation Of Oxidant Sensing And Tolerance Mechanisms In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Matthew Edward Jennings 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Oxidative Stress Response In Archaea: Elucidation Of Oxidant Sensing And Tolerance Mechanisms In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Matthew Edward Jennings

Theses and Dissertations

Methanogens are archaea possessing a conserved metabolic pathway which produces methane. Many of the enzymes in the methanogenesis pathway are Fe-S proteins, meaning methanogens are sensitive to conditions which disrupt Fe-S clusters. Molecular oxygen is capable of disrupting Fe-S clusters through oxidation of the iron atoms. Furthermore, reduced iron can facilitate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), meaning methanogens must possess antioxidant mechanisms. Detection and eradication of ROS is important for all cells, due to the potentially fatal consequences of unchecked oxidation. This dissertation presents two separate projects investigating mechanisms the model methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans possess for dealing with ...


The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha McMichael 2016 Midway College

The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha Mcmichael

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

Abstract

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium, it is normally found in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals and humans. E. coli and/or fecal coliforms have been used as fecal indicators in water, food, and contact surfaces. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the prevalence of E. coli and fecal coliforms on the bottom of backpacks belonging to college students in central Kentucky. Forty samples were taken from bottoms of college students’ backpacks in central Kentucky. Sterile swabs were used to collect the samples from the backpacks. The swabs were placed ...


No Nonsense: The Protection Of Wild-Type Mrnas From Nonsense-Mediated Mrna Decay In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Krista Patefield 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

No Nonsense: The Protection Of Wild-Type Mrnas From Nonsense-Mediated Mrna Decay In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Krista Patefield

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Gene regulation in eukaryotes is tightly controlled at multiple levels to ensure proper expression and cellular homeostasis. Misregulation of gene expression is a common source of genetic disease. One mechanism by which cells are able to control gene expression is through the synthesis and degradation of the mRNA molecules encoding the genes. The transcription and degradation of mRNA molecules controls the pool mRNAs that are available to the translational machinery. One of the well-studied mRNA decay pathways is the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay pathway (NMD). Originally, NMD was discovered as a posttranscriptional mRNA surveillance mechanism responsible for the deadenylation-independent decapping and ...


The Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific To Hpv45 L1 Protein, Allie Morgan 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific To Hpv45 L1 Protein, Allie Morgan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer around the world, resulting in nearly 300,000 deaths each year (Torre et al., 2012). Infection with high risk types of Human Papillomavirus is the primary etiologic event associated with the development of cervical cancer (Wallboomers, 1999). Since 2006, HPV vaccines have dramatically decreased cases of cervical cancer in developed countries. However, because these vaccines are expensive and require cold chain storage, their use in developing countries, where 85% of deaths from cervical cancer occur, has been limited (Torre et al., 2012; Kane, 2006). Development of second generation ...


Aeromonas Hydrophila In Amphibians: Harmless Bystander Or Opportunistic Pathogen, Zachary P. Rivas 2016 University of Central Florida

Aeromonas Hydrophila In Amphibians: Harmless Bystander Or Opportunistic Pathogen, Zachary P. Rivas

Honors in the Major Theses

For several decades amphibian populations have been declining. Historically, the bacterium A. hydrophila (Ah) was hypothesized to be the causal factor in amphibian disease and population declines. However, with the discovery of a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in 1998, which was identified on the skin of amphibians during documented mortality events, Ah research became of minor interest as focus shifted to Bd. Recent studies into the immunocompromising abilities of Bd, however, have opened new questions about its relationship with Ah and their combined effects on a host.

In this study, I explore the relationship between infection with these two ...


Interactomics-Based Functional Analysis: Using Interaction Conservation To Probe Bacterial Protein Functions, J. Harry Caufield 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Interactomics-Based Functional Analysis: Using Interaction Conservation To Probe Bacterial Protein Functions, J. Harry Caufield

Theses and Dissertations

The emergence of genomics as a discrete field of biology has changed humanity’s understanding of our relationship with bacteria. Sequencing the genome of each newly-discovered bacterial species can reveal novel gene sequences, though the genome may contain genes coding for hundreds or thousands of proteins of unknown function (PUFs). In some cases, these coding sequences appear to be conserved across nearly all bacteria. Exploring the functional roles of these cases ideally requires an integrative, cross-species approach involving not only gene sequences but knowledge of interactions among their products. Protein interactions, studied at genome scale, extend genomics into the field ...


Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas

Doctoral Dissertations

Many of the taxa in the family Lachnospiraceae are currently misclassified as Clostridium spp. Here attempt to rectify many of these issues, beginning with an in-depth genomic and physiologic analysis of Clostridium methoxybenzovorans, culminating in the assertion that is a heterotype of Clostridium indolis, followed by reclassification of the broader group in which this organism resides. We propose two novel genera, Lacriformis and Enterocloster, to reclassify this clade, this includes reclassification of Clostridium sphenoides, Clostridium indolis, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium celerecrescens, Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium amygdalinum, and Desulfotomaculum guttoideum as Lacriformis sphenoides, comb. nov., Lacriformis indolis, comb. nov ...


Influence Of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Isolated From “Amabere Amaruranu” Cultured Milk On Adipogenesis, Justin E. Kotala 2015 East Tennessee State University

Influence Of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Isolated From “Amabere Amaruranu” Cultured Milk On Adipogenesis, Justin E. Kotala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was performed to test the in vitro effects of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolate from “amabere amaruranu”, a traditional Kenyan cultured milk, on 3T3-L1 and Caco-2 cell lines. Cultures of fully mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with bacterial isolate cell extract (CE), filtered spent broth (FSB) from overnight bacterial culture, or with a PBS control. Expression levels of PPAR³1 and 2, C/EBP±, and ATGL proteins in 3T3-L1 cells were upregulated by FSB treatment. CE treatment did not affect protein expression levels. Expression of MTTP and SREBP-1c proteins in Caco-2 cells showed no change with either treatment. Optical density ...


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