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The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette

Master's Theses

The elasmobranch osmoregulatory strategy is predicated on the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, primarily urea and trimethylamine n¬-oxide (TMAO). Despite the abundance of these plasma osmolytes, it is notable that elasmobranchs appear to lack urease and TMA oxidase (Tmase), enzymes that scavenge urea-nitrogen and synthesize TMAO, respectively. However, urease and Tmase are found in many species of bacteria. Therefore, I hypothesized that intestinal bacteria are responsible for urease and Tmase activity in elasmobranchs. Absent dietary nitrogen sources, I evaluated the effects of reduced intestinal microbiota on osmoregulation in Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) in vivo. D. sabina were given daily broad-spectrum ...


Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman

Master's Theses

Anurans are mass spawners, often with multiple females spawning together, resulting in thousands of tadpoles sharing a habitat. Such large numbers of tadpoles with limited dispersal can lead to intense competition for resources. Inter and intra-specific competition for food could have negative impacts on the growth and survival of smaller tadpoles. Fecal bacterial communities have the potential to be used as indicators of changes in diet making it possible to determine if tadpoles in the wild are eating the same food or not. After feeding on two prepared diets that differed in the percentage of complex carbohydrates, the fecal bacterial ...


Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips 2016 Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo

Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The primary goal of the Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group (BPPG) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to prevent microbial contamination between Earth and other planetary bodies. This helps preserve the ability to study other worlds as they exist in their natural states and protects our biosphere from extraterrestrial life. The process for identifying microbes located on space-bound hardware in JPL can be more efficient and precise by using the technique called matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Once this identification technique is fully implemented, the process time will be reduced from two weeks to one ...


Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Filamentous fungi have a long history in biotechnology for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The advancements made in recent years have earned filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus species a dominant place among microbial cell factories. Although the model fungus A. nidulans has been extensively studied, the genetic and regulatory networks that underlie morphogenesis and development have yet to be fully characterized. The Rho GTPases (Cdc42 and RacA) are one of the most important regulators of the morphogenetic processes among diverse eukaryotic organisms. Although the functions of these GTPases are relatively well-characterized, little is known about their downstream ...


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Genomic Diversity Of Pseudoalteromonas Atlantica From Geographically Distant Deep Marine Basins, Erika N. Youngquist 2016 The University of Tennessee Knoxville

Genomic Diversity Of Pseudoalteromonas Atlantica From Geographically Distant Deep Marine Basins, Erika N. Youngquist

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha McMichael 2016 Midway College

The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha Mcmichael

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

Abstract

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium, it is normally found in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals and humans. E. coli and/or fecal coliforms have been used as fecal indicators in water, food, and contact surfaces. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the prevalence of E. coli and fecal coliforms on the bottom of backpacks belonging to college students in central Kentucky. Forty samples were taken from bottoms of college students’ backpacks in central Kentucky. Sterile swabs were used to collect the samples from the backpacks. The swabs were placed ...


No Nonsense: The Protection Of Wild-Type Mrnas From Nonsense-Mediated Mrna Decay In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Krista Patefield 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

No Nonsense: The Protection Of Wild-Type Mrnas From Nonsense-Mediated Mrna Decay In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Krista Patefield

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Gene regulation in eukaryotes is tightly controlled at multiple levels to ensure proper expression and cellular homeostasis. Misregulation of gene expression is a common source of genetic disease. One mechanism by which cells are able to control gene expression is through the synthesis and degradation of the mRNA molecules encoding the genes. The transcription and degradation of mRNA molecules controls the pool mRNAs that are available to the translational machinery. One of the well-studied mRNA decay pathways is the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay pathway (NMD). Originally, NMD was discovered as a posttranscriptional mRNA surveillance mechanism responsible for the deadenylation-independent decapping and ...


The Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific To Hpv45 L1 Protein, Allie Morgan 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific To Hpv45 L1 Protein, Allie Morgan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer around the world, resulting in nearly 300,000 deaths each year (Torre et al., 2012). Infection with high risk types of Human Papillomavirus is the primary etiologic event associated with the development of cervical cancer (Wallboomers, 1999). Since 2006, HPV vaccines have dramatically decreased cases of cervical cancer in developed countries. However, because these vaccines are expensive and require cold chain storage, their use in developing countries, where 85% of deaths from cervical cancer occur, has been limited (Torre et al., 2012; Kane, 2006). Development of second generation ...


Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas

Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current

Many of the taxa in the family Lachnospiraceae are currently misclassified as Clostridium spp. Here attempt to rectify many of these issues, beginning with an in-depth genomic and physiologic analysis of Clostridium methoxybenzovorans, culminating in the assertion that is a heterotype of Clostridium indolis, followed by reclassification of the broader group in which this organism resides. We propose two novel genera, Lacriformis and Enterocloster, to reclassify this clade, this includes reclassification of Clostridium sphenoides, Clostridium indolis, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium celerecrescens, Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium amygdalinum, and Desulfotomaculum guttoideum as Lacriformis sphenoides, comb. nov., Lacriformis indolis, comb. nov ...


Aeromonas Hydrophila In Amphibians: Harmless Bystander Or Opportunistic Pathogen, Zachary P. Rivas 2016 University of Central Florida

Aeromonas Hydrophila In Amphibians: Harmless Bystander Or Opportunistic Pathogen, Zachary P. Rivas

Honors in the Major Theses

For several decades amphibian populations have been declining. Historically, the bacterium A. hydrophila (Ah) was hypothesized to be the causal factor in amphibian disease and population declines. However, with the discovery of a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in 1998, which was identified on the skin of amphibians during documented mortality events, Ah research became of minor interest as focus shifted to Bd. Recent studies into the immunocompromising abilities of Bd, however, have opened new questions about its relationship with Ah and their combined effects on a host.

In this study, I explore the relationship between infection with these two ...


Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald

Doctoral Dissertations

North American moose (Alces alces) are a culturally and economically valued species. Recent population declines raise concern for the survivability of this natural resource. The Minnesota population has experienced the most dramatic decline, with a 60% loss in total numbers since 2006. Nematode parasites, particularly some species of filarids, are important pathogens of moose and could be contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study investigates the eco-epidemiology of two filarial parasites of moose: Rumenfilaria andersoni and Elaeophora schneideri. By surveying cervid species from six U.S. states, we discovered R. andersoni was present in moose from all sample locations with ...


Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts 2015 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Microalgae can be grown on municipal wastewater media to both treat the wastewater and produce feedstock for algae biofuel production. However the reliability of treatment must be demonstrated, as well as high areal algae productivity on recycled wastewater media and efficient sedimentation harvesting. This processes was studied at pilot scale in the present research.

A pilot facility was operated with nine CO2-supplemented raceway ponds, each with a 33-m2 surface area and a 0.3-m depth, continuously from March 6, 2013 through September 24, 2014. The ponds were operated as three sets of triplicates with two sets continuously ...


Method Assessment For Microalgae Quantification In Wastewater Treatment And Biofuel Production, Kristen S. Harrison 2015 University of Arkansas at Fayetteville

Method Assessment For Microalgae Quantification In Wastewater Treatment And Biofuel Production, Kristen S. Harrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is growing interest in the use of microalgae for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. However, there is not yet a reliable, user-friendly method of quantifying the biomass and lipid production of a large sample of algae. This study aims to establish and validate new methods for green microalgae quantification using the Microplate reader and the Coulter Counter. Chlorella vulgaris was chosen as the ‘ideal’ algal species for wastewater treatment and biofuel production due to its structure, lipid production, and pollution removal ability. Three traditional quantification methods -- microscope cell count, lipid separation, and chlorophyll extraction -- were compared to the Microplate ...


Variation In Microbiome Composition And Stability For A Vancomycin Treated Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Patient With Ulcerative Colitis Compared With Controls, Alanna Dubrovsky 2015 California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo

Variation In Microbiome Composition And Stability For A Vancomycin Treated Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Patient With Ulcerative Colitis Compared With Controls, Alanna Dubrovsky

Symposium

The bacterial composition of the human intestines contributes to much more than just digestion. In the inflammatory, autoimmune conditions primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the microbiome may be, in some cases, a factor. To gain a better understanding of the composition and stability of the microbiome in a patient treated with vancomycin for PSC, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis was performed on 13 controls and 1 patient, and 16s rRNA microbiome composition analysis was performed on 1 patient and 3 controls. Results showed similar levels of stability, with surprising differences in composition.


Role Of The C-Terminus Of The Catalytic Subunit Of Translesion Synthesis Polymerase Ζ (Zeta) In Uv-Induced Mutagensis, Hollie M. Siebler 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Role Of The C-Terminus Of The Catalytic Subunit Of Translesion Synthesis Polymerase Ζ (Zeta) In Uv-Induced Mutagensis, Hollie M. Siebler

Theses & Dissertations

Cellular DNA is under constant attack by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents that threaten genome integrity. Unrepaired DNA lesions often stall replicative DNA polymerases and are bypassed by translesion synthesis (TLS) to prevent replication fork collapse. TLS mechanisms are lesion- and species-specific, with prominent roles of specialized DNA polymerases with relaxed active sites. After incorporation of nucleotide(s) across from the lesion, the distorted primer termini are typically extended by DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ). As a result, Pol ζ is responsible for most DNA damage-induced mutations. Mechanisms of sequential polymerase switches and regulation of Pol ζ access to ...


Characterization Of The Replication Of Coxsackievirus B3 With A Mutationally Disrupted Cre(2c) And The Use Of Creatinine-Hydrochloride As An Antibacterial Agent, Shane E. Smithee 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Characterization Of The Replication Of Coxsackievirus B3 With A Mutationally Disrupted Cre(2c) And The Use Of Creatinine-Hydrochloride As An Antibacterial Agent, Shane E. Smithee

Theses & Dissertations

Following natural or experimental infection, and in cell culture, coxsackie B virus (CVB) RNA can persist for weeks in the absence of CPE yet with detectable viral RNA. Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that this persistence produced viral RNA with up to 49 nucleotide deletions at the 5’ genomic terminus, partially degrading the cloverleaf (or domain I), an RNA structure that is required for efficient viral replication. A cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2C protein coding region [CRE(2C)] templates the addition of two uridine residues to the virus-encoded RNA replication primer, VPg, prior to genomic replication ...


Cmv Chemokines And Co-Infection: A Dissemination Plot That Peptides Can Foil, Pranay Dogra 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Cmv Chemokines And Co-Infection: A Dissemination Plot That Peptides Can Foil, Pranay Dogra

Doctoral Dissertations

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of both non-hereditary mental retardation and hearing loss, and CMV infection/reactivation causes serious complications in transplant and immune compromised patients. Due to these issues, development of a CMV vaccine and/or therapeutics is required. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to gain a better understanding of CMV pathogenesis. Because of its coevolution with humans, HCMV has evolved genes with homology to human immune modulatory genes. Several of these genes help CMV establish a successful and lifelong infection within the host. An example is the viral CXC chemokine homolog UL146 gene (vCXCL-1 ...


The Role Of Phosphatidylserine And Phosphatidylethanolamine In Candida Albicans Virulence, Sarah Elizabeth Davis 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Role Of Phosphatidylserine And Phosphatidylethanolamine In Candida Albicans Virulence, Sarah Elizabeth Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

In hospitalized patients with neutropenia, Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of systemic bloodstream infections, which have a mortality rate of approximately 30 %. The phosphatidylserine synthase enzyme of C. albicans, Cho1p, appears to be a good drug target as a mutant lacking this enzyme (the cho1Δ/Δ [null mutant]) is avirulent in animal models of Candida infections and this enzyme is not conserved in humans. We discovered that the loss of phosphatidylserine (PS) synthesis affects C. albicans' expression of the Als3p adhesin, a virulence protein, and loss of PS synthesis also compromises the cell wall, causing increased exposure ...


How Many Particles Are Present In The Air? Bioaerosol Detection Using An Air Particle Counter, Angie Pamela Rivera, Parag Vaishampayan 2015 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

How Many Particles Are Present In The Air? Bioaerosol Detection Using An Air Particle Counter, Angie Pamela Rivera, Parag Vaishampayan

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Relative cleanliness in terms of particle abundance in spacecraft assembly facilities is determined by particle counts carried out in clean rooms during resting conditions. Particle counters assess total particles and particle size distribution, but do not distinguish inert particles from biological particles, which may include bacterial spores that are resistant to standard cleanroom sterilization procedures. Current cleanroom certifications do not fully assess the effects of human presence on spacecraft contamination since humans are known symbionts to enumerate microorganisms and assessments are performed at rest when there is no human presence. In this study, contamination risks and bioburden in spacecraft assembly ...


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