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Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe 2021 University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe

International Journal of Speleology

The emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, thus the search for novel antimicrobial compounds has become a continuous necessity. Underexplored and extreme environments, such as cave ecosystems, have been identified as a promising potential source for the discovery of novel microorganisms with novel antimicrobial compounds (AMC). This study presents the first cave microbiological investigation in Sri Lanka, with a special preference for bioprospecting of novel AMC. The cave sediment characterization demonstrated the presence of close to strong acidic conditions (pH 3.1 – 3.3) and thus indicates the possibility of isolating acidophilic microorganisms. Eight cave wall/ceiling ...


The Inhibition Of Growth Of S. Cerevisiae, U. Maydis, And M. Lychinidis-Dioicae By Apiaecea Plant Extracts, Jackson M Hoffman, Jared Scott, David Schultz PhD 2021 University of Louisville

The Inhibition Of Growth Of S. Cerevisiae, U. Maydis, And M. Lychinidis-Dioicae By Apiaecea Plant Extracts, Jackson M Hoffman, Jared Scott, David Schultz Phd

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

The Apiaceae family of plants contains over 3,500 species, many of which are used as food crops: vegetables (carrot, parsnip, celery, etc.), herbs (cilantro, fennel, dill, etc.), and spices (cumin, anise, caraway, etc.). Many spices have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial properties against both bacteria and fungi. We set out to determine if the Apiaceae spice extracts currently used in our lab for anticancer studies exhibit any antimicrobial properties. Ethanolic extracts were made from several Apiaceae seeds: Apium graveolens (celery), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Anethum graveolens(dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Coriandrum satvium (coriander), Pimpinella ansium (anise), Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain), Carum ...


Innate Pathogenic Traits In Oral Yeasts, Ayat Ibrahiem Esmaeel Al-laaeiby, Adnan A. Al-Mousawi, Inaam M.N. Alrubayae, Abdullah Al-Saadoon, Maysoon Almayahi 2020 University of Basrah

Innate Pathogenic Traits In Oral Yeasts, Ayat Ibrahiem Esmaeel Al-Laaeiby, Adnan A. Al-Mousawi, Inaam M.N. Alrubayae, Abdullah Al-Saadoon, Maysoon Almayahi

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The normal flora community plays a significant role in both healthy and patient individual’s bodies. It has improved its ability to change from beneficial to opportunistic organisms causing crucial infections in immunocompromised patients. This study was conducted to identify the community of yeast species, and to investigate potential virulence factors. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals, yeast species were isolated and identified using both traditional and advance molecular genetics technique. The results revealed that Candida albicans was the dominant isolate, while Meyerozyma caribbica was the least. The phylogenetic tree was constructed for 13 species using the Neighbour-Joining method ...


Assessment Of Grain Safety In Developing Nations, Jose R. Mendoza 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Assessment Of Grain Safety In Developing Nations, Jose R. Mendoza

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Grains are the most widely consumed foods worldwide, with maize (Zea mays) being frequently consumed in developing countries where it feeds approximately 900 million people under the poverty line of 2 USD per day. While grain handling practices are acceptable in most developed nations, many developing nations still face challenges such as inadequate field management, drying, and storage. Faulty grain handling along with unavoidably humid climates result in recurrent fungal growth and spoilage, which compromises both the end-quality and safety of the harvest. This becomes particularly problematic where there is little awareness about health risks associated with poor quality grain ...


Second Messenger Cyclic-Di-Gmp Regulation In Acinetobacter Baumannii, Justin Deal 2020 East Tennessee State University

Second Messenger Cyclic-Di-Gmp Regulation In Acinetobacter Baumannii, Justin Deal

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Over time, “superbugs,” or bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics, have become a great concern in modern medicine. Viable alternates are currently being looked into as effective and safe ways to prevent or treat infections caused by these superbugs. One such method is through the utilization of the second messenger molecule cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) that has been shown to regulate phenotypes within other bacteria that may control surface colonization in Acinetobacter baumannii. Through a series of experiments, the active enzymes that create c-di-GMP - diguanylate cyclases - and break down c-di- GMP - phosphodiesterases - have been inactivated in mutants to test phenotypes including ...


The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson 2020 East Tennessee State University

The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Quorum sensing molecules have become a recent focus of study to learn if and how they can be used, both on their own and in conjecture with current antimicrobial methods, as a means of bacterial control. One such quorum sensing molecule is the sesquiterpene alcohol, Farnesol, which is synthesized and released by the fungus, Candida albicans. In most in-vivo cases, our laboratory has shown that Alcaligenes faecalis overtakes C. albicans, preventing its growth. However, as a way to counteract this inhibitory effect, Farnesol may be one way that Candida has found to fight back. In this study, we focused on ...


Determining Ideal Swab Type For Collection Of The Microbiome For Forensic Identification Purposes, Natalie M. Wise 2020 Bowling Green State University

Determining Ideal Swab Type For Collection Of The Microbiome For Forensic Identification Purposes, Natalie M. Wise

Honors Projects

In recent years, forensic scientists have begun looking at the microbiome as a new possible human identification method. The microbiome is made up of all the microorganisms living on or in the human body.1 It is believed that it may be possible to use the microbiome as a unique identifier, to link cohabitating individuals, or even to connect a person with a specific location. In order to study the microbiome, we must first be able to successfully collect it, and then, release it from that collection tool for examination. This may sound simple, but this area of research is ...


Anthrax Event Detection Using Twitter: Analysis Of Unigram And Bigrams For Relevant Vs Non-Relevant Tweets, Michele Miller, William L. Romine 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Anthrax Event Detection Using Twitter: Analysis Of Unigram And Bigrams For Relevant Vs Non-Relevant Tweets, Michele Miller, William L. Romine

Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials

Due to the lack of anthrax attacks in recent times, researchers have used naturally occurring events to assess their anthrax detection models, but these provide little information on how the models will perform in the context of an unannounced, intentional release of a bioterrorism agent, like anthrax. Therefore, it is important to develop a detection model using data surrounding real anthrax scares and events.We develop a methodology to detect an anthrax-related event on Twitter. We describe a process to separate the tweets concerning anthrax-related events from those not related so experts can address misconceptions and fears in real-time.Most ...


Engineered Nanoparticles For Site-Specific Bioorthogonal Catalysis: Imaging And Therapy, Riddha Das 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Engineered Nanoparticles For Site-Specific Bioorthogonal Catalysis: Imaging And Therapy, Riddha Das

Doctoral Dissertations

Bioorthogonal catalysis offers a strategy for chemical transformations complementary to bioprocesses and has proven to be a powerful tool in biochemistry and medical sciences. Transition metal catalysts (TMCs) have emerged as a powerful tool to execute selective chemical transformations, however, lack of biocompatibility and stability limits their use in biological applications. Incorporation of TMCs into nanoparticle monolayers provides a versatile strategy for the generation of bioorthogonal nanocatalysts known as “nanozymes”. We have fabricated a family of nanozymes using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as scaffolds featuring diverse chemical functional groups for controlled localization of nanozymes in biological environments, providing unique strategies for ...


Investigating The Role Of Torc1 And The Transcription Factor Sfp1p In The Regulation Of Hmo1 Gene In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Mathew Damien Smith 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Investigating The Role Of Torc1 And The Transcription Factor Sfp1p In The Regulation Of Hmo1 Gene In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Mathew Damien Smith

LSU Master's Theses

HMGB proteins are eukaryotic, chromatin-associated proteins that play roles in both DNA dynamics and transcription regulation. Hmo1p is an HMGB protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that behaves somewhat like a hybrid between mammalian HMGB proteins and the metazoan linker histone H1. mTORC1, a protein complex containing the Tor1p kinase and a major regulator of cellular growth, is inhibited by both rapamycin and stress. It has also been shown to not only associate with Hmo1p at various gene promoters, but also regulate the HMO1 gene itself through direct binding. In this study, the Hmo1p-mTORC1 relationship was further investigated through two questions: 1 ...


Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. DuChene 2020 Senckenberg am Meer, Marine Research Department

Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. Duchene

International Journal of Speleology

Barite (BaSO4) speleothems have been reported from caves around the globe and interpreted to have chiefly formed in phreatic, hypogene, hydrothermal settings. Here we report two contrasting types of barite speleothems (bluish tabular crystals in a shallow pool and actively dripping greenish stalactites), which today form at lower temperatures in the non-hydrothermal and vadose environment of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, USA. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, along with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, WDS), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD), characterize the habit and chemical composition as barite. Fractionation of the minor element calcium is related to growth along ...


The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans PhD 2020 West Virginia University

The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans Phd

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nanotechnology takes advantage of cellular biology’s natural nanoscale operations by interacting with biomolecules differently than soluble or bulk materials, often altering normal cellular processes such as metabolism or growth. To gain a better understanding of how copper nanoparticles hybridized on cellulose fibers called carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) affected growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mechanisms of toxicity were explored. Multiple methodologies covering genetics, proteomics, metallomics, and metabolomics were used during this investigation. The work that lead to this dissertation discovered that these cellulosic copper nanoparticles had a unique toxicity compared to copper. Further investigation suggested a possible ionic or molecular mimicry ...


Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-ameen Dr. 2019 Dep. Biology/Plant Pathology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq

Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between disease incidence of both Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (FCR) and physiochemical parameters for soil samples and environmental factors in 14 selected wheat fields in the North of Basra province. The results showed that both diseases were occurred in all surveyed fields. The level of FCR incidence was higher than FHB. The incidence of both diseases was increased with favourable weather conditions (high humidity and temperature ˃15 °C), reaching the highest levels in crucial periods before and during the ripening stage. The percentage of disease incidence ranged between 6 ...


The Antimicrobial Activity And Cellular Targets Of Plant Derived Aldehydes And Degradable Pro-Antimicrobial Networks In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Yetunde Adewunmi 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

The Antimicrobial Activity And Cellular Targets Of Plant Derived Aldehydes And Degradable Pro-Antimicrobial Networks In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Yetunde Adewunmi

Dissertations

Essential oils (EOs) are plant-derived products that have been long exploited for their antimicrobial activities in medicine, agriculture, and food preservation. EOs represent a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics due to the broad-range antimicrobial activity, low toxicity to human commensal bacteria, and the capacity to kill microorganisms without promoting resistance. Despite the progress in the understanding of the biological activity of EOs, many aspects of their mode of action remain inconclusive. The overarching aim of this work was to address these gaps by studying molecular interactions between antimicrobial plant aldehydes and the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We initiated my ...


#39 - Extended-Spectrum Beta (Β) Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Flat Creek Water Samples, Luis Vidals, Maria Mayorga-Gutierrez 2019 University of North Georgia

#39 - Extended-Spectrum Beta (Β) Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Flat Creek Water Samples, Luis Vidals, Maria Mayorga-Gutierrez

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Antibiotics have played a major role in containing bacterial infections. Extended spectrum beta (β) lactamases, better known as ESBLs, are enzymes produced by the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae that inhibit the activity of many common antibiotics used today such as penicillin. The genes that encode for ESBLs are bla genes and are plasmid encoded. Thus, they can be easily transferred to different species of bacteria via horizontal transmission. In this study, freshwater samples were collected upstream and downstream of a water treatment plant and were tested for ESBL-producing bacteria. A total of 12 colonies were isolated and DNA extraction was performed ...


#15 - Assessing The Presence Of Wolbachia In The Mosquito Populations Of Northeast Georgia, Usa, Madison Embrick, Emma Rogers, Evan Lampert, Davison T. Sangweme, Mason Carlisle 2019 University of North Georgia

#15 - Assessing The Presence Of Wolbachia In The Mosquito Populations Of Northeast Georgia, Usa, Madison Embrick, Emma Rogers, Evan Lampert, Davison T. Sangweme, Mason Carlisle

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Wolbachia, a Gram-negative bacterium that infects mosquitoes along with other arthropods, can suppress the spread of microfilaria through reducing the populations of mosquitoes that carry the heartworms. Historically, research has been conducted to use in the prevention of infections from parasites or viruses like Zika or yellow fever. It is important to understand ways of preventing the various infections from occurring not only by host prevention but through vector prevention or suppression. In the summer of 2018, a total of thirty-five adult female mosquitoes were collected in Oakwood, Georgia at the University of North Georgia in two locations between May ...


Survivability Of Bacteria In Highly Acidic Environments, Bianca Goldman, Maria Diaz 2019 Dalton State College

Survivability Of Bacteria In Highly Acidic Environments, Bianca Goldman, Maria Diaz

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

This study was performed to determine if bacteria are able to survive in acidic environments for extreme lengths of time. Seeing as how bacteria have a known mutualistic relationship with humans by assisting with processes such as food fermentation and ubiquitous gastric commensals (Cotter, 2003), the bacteria should be able to pass through the stomach into the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. The average pH of stomach acid ranges from 1.5 when hungry to 5 a few hours after eating (Kong, 2008). Would any bacteria be able to survive the lowest average pH of the stomach and pass into ...


Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phylum with no representatives in pure culture, is found in various anaerobic environments worldwide. “Caldatribacterium”, a lineage within Atribacteria that is predicted to be a strictly anaerobic sugar fermenter based on cultivation-independent genomic analyses, is currently being maintained in lab enrichment cultures with fucose as its sole growth substrate. Metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing indicated that the fucose culture was a co-culture of “Caldatribacterium” and an uncultivated member of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium. Due to failed attempts to isolate “Caldatribacterium” by dilution-to-extinction and plating, it was hypothesized that “Caldatribacterium” is dependent in some way on the ...


Comparison Of The Kinetic Parameters Of Escherichia Coli 0157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes And Salmonella Typhimurium Derived From The Baranyi And Huang Models In A Chemically Defined Minimal Medium, Jose Isidro Fuentes 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Comparison Of The Kinetic Parameters Of Escherichia Coli 0157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes And Salmonella Typhimurium Derived From The Baranyi And Huang Models In A Chemically Defined Minimal Medium, Jose Isidro Fuentes

LSU Master's Theses

Microbial growth can be characterized by parameters such as lag time, growth rate, and maximum population density at any specific point of time. Mathematical models that predict microbial growth of foodborne pathogens are increasingly used in the food industry as a viable alternative to traditional methods of microbial enumeration. The Baranyi model has been widely used as the primary model of choice by many authors because of its performance and accuracy. The most recently developed Huang model has been less implemented and few comparisons between the Baranyi and Huang models have been made when modeling pathogenic growth. For this research ...


Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


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