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Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard 2022 Western Kentucky University

Functional Characterization Of Mycobacterium Smegmatis Phage Moomoo Gene Products: Identification Of Toxic Genes, Whitney Heard

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mycobacteriophages are a group of phages that infect members of the genus Mycobacteria. Previous studies have conducted extensive comparisons of the mycobacteriophage genomes and amino acid sequences to establish different phage families. MooMoo is a singleton mycobacteriophage that has been characterized due to its lack of appreciable homology to other phages. Some of its unique properties include its structure and the isolation of a mutant that causes clear plaque phenotypes. The experiments described in this thesis identified three MooMoo phage (gp87, gp90, and gp91) encoded proteins that are toxic to the bacterial host, Mycobacterium smegmatis.Through the use of a …


Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Discovering Novel Polyextremotolerant Fungi, And Determining Their Ecological Role Within The Biological Soil Crust Consortium, Erin Carr

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ecological niche of polyextremotolerant fungi within oligotrophic ecosystems such as biological soil crusts has not yet been determined. These fungi persist in locations where nutrients are depleted while simultaneously surrounded by autotrophic microbes such as algae and cyanobacteria. Yet it has not been shown that they are engaging in any exchange of nutrients the way lichens do. However, there is seemingly no other way for these fungi to obtain vital nutrients, such as carbon or nitrogen, other than from these microbes. Here we have isolated polyextremotolerant fungi from cold desert biological soil crusts which are a microbial biofilm that …


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda Induced Decrease In Neurite Growth In An In Vitro Model Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda Induced Decrease In Neurite Growth In An In Vitro Model Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Title: Short chain fatty acid combination treatment protects against 6-OHDA induced decrease in neurite growth in an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease.

Authors: Alex Morris1, Louise M. Collins1,2,3, Gerard W. O’Keeffe2, Caitriona M. Guinane1

1 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University (MTU), Cork, Ireland.

2 Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

3 Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This leads to motor dysfunction which is accompanied by gastrointestinal comorbidities such as constipation …


Application Of Fructans-Degrading Lachancea Fermentati Fst5.1 As An Alternative To Baker’S Yeast In The Production Of A Low-Fodmap Whole Wheat Bread., Małgorzata Borowska 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Application Of Fructans-Degrading Lachancea Fermentati Fst5.1 As An Alternative To Baker’S Yeast In The Production Of A Low-Fodmap Whole Wheat Bread., Małgorzata Borowska

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

FODMAPs are a group of poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates comprised of easily fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols. When consumed, they can exert gastrointestinal symptoms of pain, flatulence, or an irregular bowel movement in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Whole wheat bread is an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, polyphenols, and other nutrients, but its consumption is restricted in a low-FODMAP diet due to high fructans content. Although alternatives exist, these are primarily gluten-free, often inferior in terms of quality, nutritional profile, and consumer acceptance. Bioprocessing using microbial fermentation has a proven capacity to reduce FODMAPs in cereal products, but …


Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams 2022 Georgia Gwinnett College

Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams

Georgia Journal of Science

As one of the most widely distributed bacterial cytoplasmic symbionts on earth, Wolbachia pipientis Hertig serves as a model organism for the understanding of host-symbiont interactions. Many mosquito species are infected with Wolbachia strains that induce a form of reproductive manipulation called cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which infected females gain a reproductive advantage over uninfected females in mixed infection populations. The selective advantage of cytoplasmic incompatibility often results in a population sweep of Wolbachia and co-transmitted mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial evolution and phylogenetic inferences drawn from mitochondrial gene sequences are thus potentially compromised by reproductive manipulating symbionts, like Wolbachia. Our initial …


Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria In Freshwater Crayfish, Colby Finch 2022 University of Mississippi

Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria In Freshwater Crayfish, Colby Finch

Honors Theses

The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is increasing in natural aquatic environments. Alongside this, organisms that live in these ecosystems are increasingly harboring antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, I analyzed the capacity for the crayfish species Procambarus vioscai paynei to harbor antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Crayfish, as well as water and sediment, were sampled from a pond at the University of Mississippi Field Station. The guts of crayfish were plated on TSA agar, as well as agar containing vancomycin, erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline, or ciprofloxacin. Following incubation, counts of bacteria were determined. Selected bacterial isolates were tested for multiple antibiotic-resistance. Bacterial isolates were also …


Metagenome-Wide Associations And Metabolic Modeling To Predict The Biomarkers For Colorectal Cancer, Nagavardhini Avuthu 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Metagenome-Wide Associations And Metabolic Modeling To Predict The Biomarkers For Colorectal Cancer, Nagavardhini Avuthu

Theses & Dissertations

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. It is a multifactorial disease mediated by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Over time, the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes results in the activation of oncogenes and deactivation of tumor suppressor genes in the colon and rectal region which finally leads to tumor development. The gut microbiome is the main factor linking the effects of diet and environmental factors to host metabolism. Several studies showed the dysbiosis of gut microbiota in CRC patients with an increased proportion of pathogenic …


A Comparison Of Heterotroph Isolation And Sequencing Methods From Various Cyanobacterial And Algal Microbiomes, Victoria Starks 2022 University of Mississippi

A Comparison Of Heterotroph Isolation And Sequencing Methods From Various Cyanobacterial And Algal Microbiomes, Victoria Starks

Honors Theses

Cyanobacteria have provided a vast, new source of natural products to be utilized in drug development. Because of their non-axenic nature, cyanobacteria typically have an abundance of symbiotic heterotrophs living in association with them. These bacteria can play significant roles in the survival of its cyanobacterial host as well as provide the potential production of unique compounds. The possibility of unknown natural products is only increased by the flexible nature of these bacteria, as altering its environmental state can change the activity of biosynthetic pathways and even activate novel production. Our research team’s intent is to isolate cyanobacterial strains from …


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing …


Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Critical Points For Bacterial Contamination In The Microbrewery Environment, Alex Ryan Thompson 2022 Clemson University

Identification Of Critical Points For Bacterial Contamination In The Microbrewery Environment, Alex Ryan Thompson

All Theses

There are 8,884 craft breweries producing over 23 million barrels of beer in the United States as of 2020. These 23 million barrels of craft beer account for 12.3% of the United States beer consumption in 2020. The American craft beer industry is substantial and needs to protect its product from bacterial contamination.

Overall, beer is a microbially stable product. Beers pH, ethanol levels, CO2 concentrations, the presence of hop-derived antimicrobial compounds, and low levels of O2 make beer a highly unfavorable environment for most bacterial species. Furthermore, the brewing process, which involves heat treatments and chemical sanitizers …


The Role Of Stm1987 And Arti In Arginine Response Of Salmonella Typhimurium, Deeba Mohseni 2022 East Tennessee State University

The Role Of Stm1987 And Arti In Arginine Response Of Salmonella Typhimurium, Deeba Mohseni

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cyclic-di-GMP, a common bacterial second messenger, has been thought to help develop virulence and biofilms in bacteria, most specifically in Salmonella Typhimurium. By being able to dysregulate cyclic-di-GMP production, virulence may be better combatted. STM1987, an L-arginine-responsive diguanylate cyclase with a periplasmic sensory domain, dimerizes and generates the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP in response to the amino acid L-arginine in a pathway that also requires the periplasmic L-arginine-binding protein ArtI. Their biochemical responses to L-arginine and when they dimerize could help clarify this pathway, so I sought to develop a periplasmic dimerization sensor to better monitor these biochemical interactions. Similar …


Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart 2022 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart

Biology Theses

Organisms produce chemical weapons for defense, but target organisms can develop resistance. In their introduced range, non-native species may bring “novel weapons” against which native organisms have not co-evolved resistance. The invasive European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) may have brought antimicrobial secretions to the Northeastern United States that are novel weapons against native fungal and bacterial soil organisms. I hypothesized that M. rubra would better inhibit seed pathogens resulting in greater emergence of native myrmecochorous Viola sororia seeds and, as a side effect, more strongly inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than a native seed dispersing ant (Aphaenogaster picea …


Annual Faculty Research Symposium 2022, Oakwood University 2022 Oakwood University

Annual Faculty Research Symposium 2022, Oakwood University

Proceedings

No abstract provided.


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life …


Characterizing The Amino Acid Activation Center Of The Naturally Editing-Deficient Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetase Phers In Mycoplasma Mobile, Nien-Ching Han, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba 2022 The Ohio State University

Characterizing The Amino Acid Activation Center Of The Naturally Editing-Deficient Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetase Phers In Mycoplasma Mobile, Nien-Ching Han, Arundhati Kavoor, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

To ensure correct amino acids are incorporated during protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) employ proofreading mechanisms collectively referred to as editing. Although editing is important for viability, editing-deficient aaRSs have been identified in host-dependent organisms. In Mycoplasma mobile, editing-deficient PheRS and LeuRS have been identified. We characterized the amino acid activation site of MmPheRS and identified a previously unknown hyperaccurate mutation, L287F. Additionally, we report that m-Tyr, an oxidation byproduct of Phe which is toxic to editing-deficient cells, is poorly discriminated by MmPheRS activation and is not subjected to editing. Furthermore, expressing MmPheRS and the hyperaccurate variants renders …


Exploration Of Lignin-Based Superabsorbent Polymers (Hydrogels) For Soil Water Management And As A Carrier For Delivering Rhizobium Spp., Toby Adjuik 2022 University of Kentucky

Exploration Of Lignin-Based Superabsorbent Polymers (Hydrogels) For Soil Water Management And As A Carrier For Delivering Rhizobium Spp., Toby Adjuik

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Superabsorbent polymers (hydrogels) as soil amendments may improve soil hydraulic properties and act as carrier materials beneficial to soil microorganisms. Researchers have mostly explored synthetic hydrogels which may not be environmentally sustainable. This dissertation focused on the development and application of lignin-based hydrogels as sustainable soil amendments. This dissertation also explores the development of pedotransfer transfer functions (PTFs) for predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using statistical and machine learning methods with a publicly available large data set. A lignin-based hydrogel was synthesized, and its impact on soil water retention was determined in silt loam and loamy fine sand soils. Hydrogel treatment …


Biodegradation Of Rubber Particles In Soil: Using Acclimated Bacteria Isolated From Kansas Soil To Degrade Cryogrinds In Slurry, Shane Graham 2022 The University of Akron

Biodegradation Of Rubber Particles In Soil: Using Acclimated Bacteria Isolated From Kansas Soil To Degrade Cryogrinds In Slurry, Shane Graham

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This study investigated the viability of bioremediating rubber cryogrind using enriched indigenous bacteria. To begin the experiment, soils from three highway roadside locations in Kansas, KS 96 and West, KS 400 and 143rd, and 199th, were collected and transported to the lab to be studied. An initial soil characterization was run on the soil samples using distilled (DI) water mixture and 0.01 M CaCl2 to assess conductivity. The soils were tested to gather a baseline of the relationship between pH and conductivity and the impact of its distance from the roadside. Bacteria were isolated from …


Modification Of Culture Medium And Identification Of Microbial Contaminants For Improved In Vitro Propagation Of Freshwater Mussels, Raquel M. Wetzell 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Modification Of Culture Medium And Identification Of Microbial Contaminants For Improved In Vitro Propagation Of Freshwater Mussels, Raquel M. Wetzell

Theses and Dissertations

In vitro propagation efforts play an essential role in conserving and restoring threatened freshwater mussel populations by circumventing the need for a fish host. Across a broad range of taxa, transformation is induced with an artificial M199 medium and rabbit serum. However, such formulation may not be sufficient in culturing critical species with more specific physiological requirements. In this study, multiple serum mixtures were tested to improve in vitro transformation of two freshwater mussel species: yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) and tidewater mucket (Atlantaconcha ochracea). These species were selected because they parasitize similar fish host species but …


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