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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Investigation Of Rapid Diagnostic Tests For Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Mac) From Various Isolates And Identification Of Virulence Factors Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) In Vitro, Claudia Antonika 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigation Of Rapid Diagnostic Tests For Characterization Of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Mac) From Various Isolates And Identification Of Virulence Factors Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) In Vitro, Claudia Antonika

UCARE Research Products

Chapter 1

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) has become one of the major problems in public health and livestock. Members of MAC, such as M. avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) and M. avium subsp hominissuis (MAH), are responsible for many opportunistic infections and the loss of livestock. MAP is economically significant to the beef and dairy industries because it is the etiologic agent of Johnes’s disease, a chronic and fatal enteritis in ruminants. Tracing the infection sources of MAC could be difficult since it infects many types of hosts in the natural environment. Furthermore, there is less information known about MAP ...


Optimization Of Rt-Qpcr Protocols To Quantify Chua Gene Expression In Campylobacter Jejuni Mutants Under Iron-Limited Conditions, Jacob D. Wilbert 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Optimization Of Rt-Qpcr Protocols To Quantify Chua Gene Expression In Campylobacter Jejuni Mutants Under Iron-Limited Conditions, Jacob D. Wilbert

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Two Component System Independent Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori, Catharine Burgess 2020 William & Mary

Two Component System Independent Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori, Catharine Burgess

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The acid acclimation capabilities of Helicobacter pylori allow it to colonize the gastric biome for decades, causing many adverse health effects for its human host. The Acid Response System (ArsRS) accomplishes much of the H. pylori acid response by inducing the transcription of subunits and accessory genes of the enzyme urease. Hydrolyzing urea into CO2 and NH3 to buffer the periplasm facilitates long term bacterial survival.

We used H. pylori isogenic mutants of ArsRS and other TCS (DarsS, and DarsS-DcrdS-DflgS) to examine TCS-independent pH mediated gene expression. Control and TCS mutants were treated at pH 7 and ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, HCA Lung Biological Network 2020 Harvard Medical School

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata 2020 The Ohio State University

The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

A pneumonia outbreak with unknown etiology was reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, associated with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified by the WHO as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), producing the disease named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The virus is closely related (96.3%) to bat coronavirus RaTG13, based on phylogenetic analysis. Human-to-human transmission has been confirmed even from asymptomatic carriers. The virus has spread to at least 200 countries, and more than 1,700,000 confirmed cases and 111,600 deaths have been recorded, with massive global ...


Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates And Susceptibility To Clostridioides Difficile Infection, Keegan Schuchart, Jennifer Auchtung, Thomas Auchtung 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates And Susceptibility To Clostridioides Difficile Infection, Keegan Schuchart, Jennifer Auchtung, Thomas Auchtung

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This experiment looked into the effects of dietary microbiota accessible carbohydrates (MACs)on the composition of human GI microbe colonies and their susceptibility to pathogen infection. Three different concentrations of MAC ingrained media were tested in mini bioreactor arrays, treated with antibiotics, infected with Clostridioides difficile, then allowed to recover. Microbe community was examined for strain composition and diversity before and after the antibiotic treatment and Clostridioides difficile infection. After the initial mini bioreactor run, individual isolates were investigated in their ability to respond to specific MACs Arabinoglactina, Inulin, and Soluble starch at experimental concentrations.


Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker

Publications and Research

Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an extremely versatile multidrug-resistant pathogen with a very high mortality rate; therefore, it has become crucial to understand the host response during its infection. Given the importance of mice for modeling infection and their role in preclinical drug development, equal emphasis should be placed on the use of both sexes. Through our studies using a murine model of acute pneumonia with A. baumannii, we observed that female mice were more susceptible to infection. Likewise, treatment of male mice with estradiol increased their susceptibility to infection. Analysis of the airway compartment revealed enhanced inflammation and reduced ...


Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil

UCARE Research Products

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes a disease called white mold that can infect more than 450 plant species including soybeans, dry beans, green beans, canola, and sunflower. This pathogen is capable of up to $252M in losses every year (U.S. Canola Association, 2014). Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease. However, resistance to the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations and there have been multiple reports of S. sclerotiorum isolates becoming resistant to certain fungicides. Since different fields in different states use different fungicide treatments on plants ...


On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson 2020 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is ...


Comparison Of Five Methods For Detection Of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamases In Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria, Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso, Subhi H. Khalaf 2020 Biophysics Dept., College of Science, University of Mosul

Comparison Of Five Methods For Detection Of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamases In Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria, Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso, Subhi H. Khalaf

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in 55 isolates of Gram negative enteric bacteria isolated from lower respiratory tract infections, was investigated by using the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI method which showed that 41.8% of the isolates produced this type of β-lactamases, and that Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were the most producing species with a production rate of 61.1%, followed by Escherichia coli isolates 43.75%. Five confirmatory methods were used to detect these enzymes: ceftazidime agar method, double-disk synergy method, combination disk method, modified 3D extract method and enzymatic disks method. The study indicated that ceftazidime agar method ...


Listeria Monocytogenes Response To Anaerobic Environments, Brandy N. Roberts, Damayanti Chakravarty, J.C. Gardner III, Steven C. Ricke, Janet R. Donaldson 2020 Mississippi State University

Listeria Monocytogenes Response To Anaerobic Environments, Brandy N. Roberts, Damayanti Chakravarty, J.C. Gardner Iii, Steven C. Ricke, Janet R. Donaldson

Faculty Publications

Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for the disease, listeriosis. It is particularly lethal in pregnant women, the fetus, the elderly and the immunocompromised. The pathogen survives and replicates over a wide range of temperatures (4 to 42 °C), pH, salt and oxygen concentrations. Because it can withstand various environments, L. monocytogenes is a major concern in food processing industries, especially in dairy products and ready-to-eat fruits, vegetables and deli meats. The environment in which the pathogen is exposed can influence the expression of virulence genes. For instance, studies have shown that variations in oxygen ...


A High-Fat/High-Protein, Atkins-Type Diet Exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Infection In Mice, Whereas A High-Carbohydrate Diet Protects, Chrisabelle C. Mefferd, Shrikant S. Bhute, Jacqueline R. Phan, Jacob V. Villarama, Dung M. Do, Stephanie Alarcia, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A High-Fat/High-Protein, Atkins-Type Diet Exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Infection In Mice, Whereas A High-Carbohydrate Diet Protects, Chrisabelle C. Mefferd, Shrikant S. Bhute, Jacqueline R. Phan, Jacob V. Villarama, Dung M. Do, Stephanie Alarcia, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI) can result from the disruption of the resident gut microbiota. Western diets and popular weight-loss diets drive large changes in the gut microbiome; however, the literature is conflicted with regard to the effect of diet on CDI. Using the hypervirulent strain C. difficile R20291 (RT027) in a mouse model of antibiotic-induced CDI, we assessed disease outcome and microbial community dynamics in mice fed two high-fat diets in comparison with a high-carbohydrate diet and a standard rodent diet. The two high-fat diets exacerbated CDI, with a high-fat/high-protein, Atkins-like diet leading to severe CDI ...


Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse McClure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse Mcclure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson

Open Access Articles

The prevalence of tickborne diseases worldwide is increasing virtually unchecked due to the lack of effective control strategies. The transmission dynamics of tickborne pathogens are influenced by the tick microbiome, tick co-infection with other pathogens, and environmental features. Understanding this complex system could lead to new strategies for pathogen control, but will require large-scale, high-resolution data. Here, we introduce Project Acari, a citizen science-based project to assay, at single-tick resolution, species, pathogen infection status, microbiome profile, and environmental conditions of tens of thousands of ticks collected from numerous sites across the United States. In the first phase of the project ...


Crispr-Cas9 Editing Of Nitrate Transporter Gene, Um03849, In Ustilago Maydis, Luke A. Schroeder, Sunita Khanal, Michael H. Perlin 2020 University of Louisville

Crispr-Cas9 Editing Of Nitrate Transporter Gene, Um03849, In Ustilago Maydis, Luke A. Schroeder, Sunita Khanal, Michael H. Perlin

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Ustilago maydis, the basidiomycete smut-fungus, can infect and cause tumors in corn plants. For this, mating between compatible haploid cells is important. The mating and subsequent dimorphic transition in U. maydis require starvation for nutrients such as nitrogen, in addition to pheromone-receptor interactions between compatible partners. In this research, the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technique was used to create INDEL mutations (sequence insertion or deletion) in the nitrate transporter gene, um03849, in U. maydis. The gene was edited in mating compatible haploid strains 1/2 and 2/9. The phenotypes were characterized for the um03849 mutants as to growth ability, mating efficiency ...


The Effects Of Nutrient Availability On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mono And Co-Culture Biofilms, Julie T. Nguyen, Deborah R. Yoder-Himes Ph.D., Rhiannon Cecil 2020 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Nutrient Availability On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mono And Co-Culture Biofilms, Julie T. Nguyen, Deborah R. Yoder-Himes Ph.D., Rhiannon Cecil

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder characterized by faulty ion channels and result in thick mucus accumulation, especially in lungs. Mucus buildup provides ideal conditions for bacterial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the second most prevalent bacterium isolated from people with CF and has a high clinical importance. Most CF pathogens form biofilms which make treatment of infections difficult. Biofilms are clusters of cells attached to a surface enclosed in a structured matrix. These structures are a means to provide shelter for bacteria from the environment, especially antibiotics and the immune system. PA alone can form these biofilms, but ...


Biofilm Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Viability Is Altered By Burkholderia Cenocepacia, Bridget Wall, Tiffany J. Brandt, Dr. Deborah Yoder-Himes 2020 University of Louisville

Biofilm Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Viability Is Altered By Burkholderia Cenocepacia, Bridget Wall, Tiffany J. Brandt, Dr. Deborah Yoder-Himes

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Respiratory failure caused by chronic and recurrent microbial infections is the most common cause of death for people with cystic fibrosis (CF)1, a disease causing the formation of thick mucus in the lungs2. Most bacteria can form biofilms, collections of sessile cells adhered to a surface by a secreted substance. Biofilm-associated cells develop antibiotic resistance at higher rates3. The thicker mucus in CF lungs is extremely difficult to clear via action of the mucociliary escalator and its presence fosters the formation of bacterial biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cenocepacia are two pathogens commonly found in the CF ...


Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson

Honors Theses and Capstones

Overall, approximately 95 percent of reported cases of vector-borne disease were associated with ticks, making these the most medically important group of arthropods in the United States.1 Despite the prevalence of tick-borne infections, the process for the diagnosis of this condition is not well studied. This study aims to analyze data from a pool of 100 patients who underwent testing for tick-borne disease in the same institution in Dover, New Hampshire during the most recent peak tick season of 2019. Information utilized in this study included: patient age, sex, location of testing (inpatient versus outpatient), diagnostic testing methods used ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga 2019 University of Maine

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-ameen Dr. 2019 Dep. Biology/Plant Pathology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq

Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between disease incidence of both Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (FCR) and physiochemical parameters for soil samples and environmental factors in 14 selected wheat fields in the North of Basra province. The results showed that both diseases were occurred in all surveyed fields. The level of FCR incidence was higher than FHB. The incidence of both diseases was increased with favourable weather conditions (high humidity and temperature ˃15 °C), reaching the highest levels in crucial periods before and during the ripening stage. The percentage of disease incidence ranged between 6 ...


Phenotypic Study Of Anthracnose Resistance In Black Walnut And Building A Mapping Population, Sadie D. Land 2019 Missouri State University

Phenotypic Study Of Anthracnose Resistance In Black Walnut And Building A Mapping Population, Sadie D. Land

MSU Graduate Theses

Black walnut anthracnose, caused by Gnomonia leptostyla, is the most widespread and destructive disease affecting black walnut trees (Juglans nigra). Breeding cultivars for a higher resistance to anthracnose is a natural and efficient strategy for improving the health and production quality of black walnut trees. The two goals of this study were to reveal that the ‘Sparrow’ cultivar of black walnut contains a significantly higher resistance to anthracnose than the ‘Football’ cultivar when separated from environmental factors, and to expand the ‘Football’ × ‘Sparrow’ F1 mapping population to evaluate how the trait of resistance is inherited in the progeny. A phenotypic ...


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