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Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the nanoparticles formed ...


Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart 2022 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart

Biology Theses

Organisms produce chemical weapons for defense, but target organisms can develop resistance. In their introduced range, non-native species may bring “novel weapons” against which native organisms have not co-evolved resistance. The invasive European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) may have brought antimicrobial secretions to the Northeastern United States that are novel weapons against native fungal and bacterial soil organisms. I hypothesized that M. rubra would better inhibit seed pathogens resulting in greater emergence of native myrmecochorous Viola sororia seeds and, as a side effect, more strongly inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than a native seed dispersing ant (Aphaenogaster picea). I also expected ...


Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genomic Analysis Of Metabolic Differences Found In Clostridium Perfringens That Cause Necrotic Enteritis In Poultry, Connor Aylor

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Clostridium perfringens is a common member of gut microbiota in healthy animals, but can also be an important pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. It produces several protein toxins that contribute to both histotoxic and enteric diseases in animals. Necrotic enteritis in poultry has been associated with the NetB toxin of C. perfringens; however, this toxin alone is insufficient to cause disease in infected chickens. While considerable research has focused on the presence of toxins and virulence factors, little has been done to assess the function of metabolic factors on the ability of the bacteria to cause disease. In this ...


Aeromonas Phage Research And The Public Health Impact Of Antibiotics In Aquaculture Workers, Madelyn Merchant 2022 Bowling Green State University

Aeromonas Phage Research And The Public Health Impact Of Antibiotics In Aquaculture Workers, Madelyn Merchant

Honors Projects

One of the most common fish diseases in aquaculture is Aeromonas infection. The most common way to treat this infection is through antibiotics. The bacteria in the fish can become antibiotic-resistant and perpetuate the disease. The diseases in fish create a huge financial loss and the industry loses $6 billion per year due to diseases in fish. An alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage which causes less environmental degradation and is better for human gut flora. In aquaculture there have been examples of aquaculture workers becoming sick from the water in aquaculture ponds as well as from people eating the fish ...


Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price 2022 Bowling Green State University

Diversity Of Bacteriophage In Burkholderia Species, Abigail Price

Honors Projects

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria and offer the potential of a therapeutic alternative to chronic infections that do not respond to antibiotic-based therapies. B. vietnamiensis is one of a number of Burkholderia species involved with chronic drug resistant infections in the lungs of individuals with compromised respiratory systems, as found in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, most especially, are of particular significance in patients with cystic fibrosis. The diversity of the Burkholderia species is explored by using online databases and looking at bacteriophage or phage-encoding viruses found in B. vietnamiensis. The open reading frames ...


Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti 2022 University of Lynchburg

Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti

Student Scholar Showcase

Widespread antibiotic resistance has quickly become one of the most concerning crises affecting modern medicine, especially in cases of Staphylococcal infections, which have become resistant to all ��-lactam antibiotics. As a result, research into alternative forms of treatment for bacterial infections is a top priority. Bacteriophage therapy is a popular candidate for replacing antibiotics, due to the way the viruses interact with the bacteria. The 80�� prophage integrates its DNA into Staphylococcus aureus strain 10616 via the lysogenic cycle, and replicates with the bacterial cell. When stressed, the bacteria stop replicating and the prophage stimulates the lytic cycle, activating transcription ...


Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig 2022 Liberty University

Sars-Cov-2 Reveals That Chimeric Agents Are The Bioweapons Of The Future, Rachel Craig

Senior Honors Theses

Bioweapons programs have existed since their development during the Cold War. These biowarfare programs initially utilized naturally occurring pathogens capable of infecting crops, livestock populations, and human populations. Anthrax is a widely exploited bioagent responsible for attacks ranging from the Germans’ deployment in World War I to the mailing of anthrax through the postal service in attempts on U.S. senators’ lives. With the development of genetic manipulations, the Soviet Union began modifying anthrax to resist detection and treatment. With the continued advancement of science and technology, a new bioagent has entered the scene – the man-made chimeric virus. Chimeric viruses ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


An Exploratory Study On The Microbiome Of Northern And Southern Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis Ticks Predicts Changes And Unique Bacterial Interactions, Deepak Kumar, Latoyia P. Downs, Abdulsalam Adegoke, Erika Machtinger, Kelly Oggenfuss, Richard S. Ostfeld, Monica Embers, Shahid Karim 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

An Exploratory Study On The Microbiome Of Northern And Southern Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis Ticks Predicts Changes And Unique Bacterial Interactions, Deepak Kumar, Latoyia P. Downs, Abdulsalam Adegoke, Erika Machtinger, Kelly Oggenfuss, Richard S. Ostfeld, Monica Embers, Shahid Karim

Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America. However, the prevalence of Lyme borreliosis is clustered around the Northern States of the United States of America. This study utilized a metagenomic sequencing approach to compare the microbial communities residing within Ix. scapularis populations from northern and southern geographic locations in the USA. Using a SparCC network construction model, we performed potential interactions between members of the microbial communities from Borrelia burgdorferi–infected tissues of unfed and blood-fed ticks. A significant difference in bacterial composition and diversity was ...


Investigating Public Support For Biosecurity Measures To Mitigate Pathogen Transmission Through The Herpetological Trade, Elizabeth F. Pienaar, Diane J. Episcopio-Sturgeon, Zachary T. Steele 2022 Old Dominion University

Investigating Public Support For Biosecurity Measures To Mitigate Pathogen Transmission Through The Herpetological Trade, Elizabeth F. Pienaar, Diane J. Episcopio-Sturgeon, Zachary T. Steele

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The expanding global trade in herpetofauna has contributed to new infectious disease dynamics and pathways that allow for the rapid spread of pathogens geographically. Improved biosecurity is needed to mitigate adverse biodiversity, economic and human health impacts associated with pathogen transmission through the herpetological trade. However, general lack of knowledge of the pathogen transmission risks associated with the global trade in herpetofauna and public opposition to biosecurity measures are critical obstacles to successfully preventing pathogen transmission. In 2019 we administered a survey to 2,007 members of the public in the United States of America to ascertain their support for ...


Elucidation Of Novel And Established Campylobacter Species With Clinical And Agricultural Significance Through Phenotypic, Genotypic, And Taxonomic Investigation, Caoimhe Lynch 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Elucidation Of Novel And Established Campylobacter Species With Clinical And Agricultural Significance Through Phenotypic, Genotypic, And Taxonomic Investigation, Caoimhe Lynch

Theses

Campylobacter spp. are well-established human, veterinary and economic pathogens, with a broad host range spanning from terrestrial and marine mammalian, avian and reptilian hosts. The scope of the study includes novel and notorious species within the genus, with reference to zoonotic agents Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli - the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the EU and Ireland, Campylobacter fetus that represents the most common campylobacter causing bacteraemia and two novel species isolated from pigs not described in the literature previously. C. jejuni and C. coli isolates (n = 350) recovered from broiler caecal and neck skin samples, collected from ...


An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey 2021 Munster Technological University, Cork

An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are well-recognised nosocomial pathogens that pose a significant threat to public health. Associated with poorer clinical outcomes than their vancomycin-sensitive counterparts, the prevalence of VRE in Ireland has increased in recent times, with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network reporting that out of 29 countries, Ireland demonstrated the highest rates of vancomycin resistance among invasive Enterococcus faecium isolates between 2011 and 2014 (2011; 34.9%, 2012; 44.0%, 2013; 42.7%, 2014; 45.1%). Herein, we investigate VRE prevalence in the Mercy University Hospital (MUH) – an acute care hospital in southern Ireland. A total of 21 first-time ...


Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, Mario Meza-Segura, James R. Birtley, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Christian Mueller, Karl J. Simin, Lawrence J. Stern, Beth A. McCormick 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, Mario Meza-Segura, James R. Birtley, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Christian Mueller, Karl J. Simin, Lawrence J. Stern, Beth A. Mccormick

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Shigella spp. are highly adapted pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in human and nonhuman primates. An unusual feature of Shigella pathogenesis is that this organism invades the colonic epithelia from the basolateral pole. Therefore, it has evolved the ability to disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier to reach the basolateral surface. We have shown previously that the secreted serine protease A (SepA), which belongs to the family of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, is responsible for the initial destabilization of the intestinal epithelial barrier that facilitates Shigella invasion. However, the mechanisms used by SepA to regulate this process remain unknown. To ...


Retroviral Infection Dynamics In Maine's Wild Turkeys, Stephanie A. Shea 2021 University of Maine

Retroviral Infection Dynamics In Maine's Wild Turkeys, Stephanie A. Shea

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Widespread wild turkey reintroductions in the late 1900s have led to increases in population density and geographic distribution across North America. This rapid population expansion has put them into proximity with closely-related wild and domestic avian species, increasing the risks of pathogen transmission. Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus detected in wild turkeys in 2009, and previously known to infect domestic turkeys. Following its initial detection, surveys reported variable LPDV prevalence across eastern North America with most wild turkeys being asymptomatic, however diagnostic cases revealed 10% mortality of LPDV-infected individuals. Given its recent detection, little is known ...


Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li 2021 The University of Maine

Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Potato early dying (PED) is a yield-constraining soilborne disease of potato, caused by Verticillium spp. with V. dahliae being the predominant causal agent. Since the pathogen inhabits soil for long periods, PED management aims to reduce the population of V. dahliae in soil. Benzovindiflupyr and azoxystrobin are effective chemicals and frequently used in the control of V. dahliae. In this study, field trials were conducted at Aroostook Farm, Presque Isle, ME in 2019 and 2020. Chemical and biological products have been studied for PED control, and fungicide resistance was also examined. To evaluate fungicide resistance, benzovindiflupyr was characterized on sensitivity ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Pine And Miscanthus Biochar On Water Activity And Escherichia Coli Populations In Commercial Broiler Litter, Christopher Austin Marty 2021 Mississippi State University

Evaluating The Effects Of Pine And Miscanthus Biochar On Water Activity And Escherichia Coli Populations In Commercial Broiler Litter, Christopher Austin Marty

Theses and Dissertations

The decrease in subtherapeutic antibiotic administration in poultry has increased the need to address production challenges caused by pathogens, such as E. coli. One potential way to improve bird health and reduce bacterial infection is through the addition of litter amendments that absorb moisture. Biochar (BC) has previously been shown to increase water holding capacity in poultry litter, but its effects on E. coli mitigation are unknown. The objectives of this research were to 1) evaluate water activity of poultry litter amended with pine and miscanthus BC, and 2) determine the effects of different BC inclusion rates on litter E ...


Impact Of Probiotics On Black Soldier Fly Larvae Transmission Of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia, Emily Marie McLaughlin 2021 University of Maine - Main

Impact Of Probiotics On Black Soldier Fly Larvae Transmission Of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia, Emily Marie Mclaughlin

Honors College

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen which can cause a variety of infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It has recently been found that black soldier flies can act as carriers for S. maltophilia (Callegari et al., 2020). I have investigated how probiotics impact their vector capabilities. Black soldier fly larvae have been fed substrate spiked with S. maltophilia. After several days of feeding, the larvae were investigated by PCR and plating (Sveensson-Stadler et al., 2011). Two groups of larvae were fed with potatoes infected with S. maltophilia. Persistence of S. maltophilia was determined using PCR by taking samples from days ...


Lyme Arthritis: A Primer For Primary Care, Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Justin Nistico, Pranav Nair 2021 Arnot Ogden Medical Center

Lyme Arthritis: A Primer For Primary Care, Ganesh Arun, Farhan Ali, Sowmya Srinivas, Justin Nistico, Pranav Nair

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria belonging to the Borreliaceae family. Wooded forests and terrains are affected, including those in the Northeastern United States. Teenage ticks are most commonly discovered on humans as those ticks need to satisfy their nutritional requirements for growth. They bite warm, moist areas of the body and take 24 to 48 hours to transmit the Borrelia Burgdorferi infection. Lyme disease manifests as a multisystem disorder in humans, and is known for its dermatological, neurological and rheumatological findings. For the primary care provider, Lyme disease should be on the differential in multisystem diseases. Our case ...


A Nosy Neighbor: Purification And Functional Characterization Of Lpg2149, Ashley M. Holahan 2021 Purdue University

A Nosy Neighbor: Purification And Functional Characterization Of Lpg2149, Ashley M. Holahan

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Ubiquitination is a process that marks proteins for various cell-signaling pathways, namely protein degradation and other processes. Th ese pathways are essential in a wide array of cellular processes, including defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. Th e ubiquitination process is universally found in all eukaryotic organisms, including plants and animals, and thus plays a vital role in cellular homeostasis. Recently, more discoveries have been made on prokaryotic effector proteins that hijack the ubiquitination system even when they do not possess a ubiquitin system of their own. MavC, also known as lpg2147 (Gan, Nakayasu, Hollenbeck, & Luo, 2019; Puvar et al., 2020; Valleau et ...


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