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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin 2021 Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin

Journal of Bioresource Management

Mastitis is highly prevalent infection in cattle causing cost-effective loss in dairy milk production. Escherichia coli is the most frequently isolated bacteria causing mastitis worldwide. The current study was performed to investigate the mastitis prevalence and effect of different antibiotics against pathogens causing it. In sum, 216 milk samples were collected randomly including 108 each from both cows and buffaloes. These samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test for prevalence of mastitis that found 18.50% and 23.14% in buffaloes and cows respectively. Mastitis was more prevalent both in buffaloes and cows at the age of 9-10 years ...


A Metabolomics-Based Approach To The Screening Of Endometrial Cancer: Development Of A Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-Based Method, Allycia Lee 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

A Metabolomics-Based Approach To The Screening Of Endometrial Cancer: Development Of A Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-Based Method, Allycia Lee

Honors Theses

Endometrial Cancer (EC) is the most common malignant tumor of the female reproductive tract. Currently there are no methods for effectively screening EC, but one method that is thought to be useful in screening EC is metabolomics. Metabolomics involves the analysis of metabolites which are low molecular weight inorganic and organic chemicals that are substrates, intermediates, and by-products of enzyme-mediated biochemical reactions in the cell. Previous research shows that the metabolic signature of EC patients are discernable from those of healthy patients. To aid in the development of an effective screening method for EC, blood serum, urine, and saliva samples ...


Antibiotic Resistance, A Global Pandemic, Deneil Patel 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Antibiotic Resistance, A Global Pandemic, Deneil Patel

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Process Interventions For Improving The Microbiological Safety Of Low Moisture Food Ingredients, Tushar Verma 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Process Interventions For Improving The Microbiological Safety Of Low Moisture Food Ingredients, Tushar Verma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The recurrence of Salmonella in low moisture foods and the implementation of the FSMA rule requires a need to validate legacy and novel processing technologies. In this dissertation, a legacy thermal (extrusion), a novel thermal (radiofrequency (RF) heating), and a non-thermal (chlorine dioxide) technology, were evaluated as intervention technologies for Salmonella in low moisture foods. The twin-screw extruder was performed at different levels of screw speeds, temperatures, moisture contents, and fat contents to understand the impact of processing conditions on Salmonella inactivation in oat flour. At temperature >65°C, the Salmonella population was below the detection limit. At 55°C ...


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth 2021 University of South Dakota

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Cloning Of Pe11 (Lipx, Rv1169c) Gene Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beijing Strain To Pcdna3.1 Plasmid Vector, Lulut Azmi Supardi, Andriansjah Rukmana, Fithriyah Sjatha 2021 Biomedical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

Cloning Of Pe11 (Lipx, Rv1169c) Gene Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beijing Strain To Pcdna3.1 Plasmid Vector, Lulut Azmi Supardi, Andriansjah Rukmana, Fithriyah Sjatha

Makara Journal of Science

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a persistent global health problem with a high mortality rate. Currently, TB is controlled by administering the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, but the effectiveness of its protection varies among individuals in a population. The pe/ppe gene family comprises a typical group of genes that play a role in avoiding the host immune response and inducing persistent TB infection. Based on in silico analysis, the pe11 gene has estimated immunogenicity and potential as a TB seed vaccine candidate. The pe11 gene from an Indonesian isolate of an M ...


Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki 2021 University of California - San Diego

Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Surface expression of the common vertebrate sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by commensal and pathogenic microbes appears structurally to represent "molecular mimicry" of host sialoglycans, facilitating multiple mechanisms of host immune evasion. In contrast, ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (Kdn) is a more ancestral Sia also present in prokaryotic glycoconjugates that are structurally quite distinct from vertebrate sialoglycans. We detected human antibodies against Kdn-terminated glycans, and sialoglycan microarray studies found these anti-Kdn antibodies to be directed against Kdn-sialoglycans structurally similar to those on human cell surface Neu5Ac-sialoglycans. Anti-Kdn-glycan antibodies appear during infancy in a pattern similar to those generated following incorporation of ...


Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro do V Antonelli 2021 University of Oxford

Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro Do V Antonelli

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Individuals with malaria exhibit increased morbidity and mortality when infected with Gram-negative (Gr-) bacteria. To explore this experimentally, we performed co-infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi and Citrobacter rodentium, an extracellular Gr- bacterial pathogen that infects the large intestine. While single infections are controlled effectively, co-infection results in enhanced virulence that is characterized by prolonged systemic bacterial persistence and high mortality. Mortality in co-infected mice is associated with disrupted iron metabolism, elevated levels of plasma heme, and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes. In addition, iron acquisition by the bacterium plays a key role in pathogenesis because ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen associated with raw and undercooked eggs, poultry, beef, fruits, and vegetables. In the United States, Salmonella is responsible for approximately 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations, and 450 deaths annually. For many years, conventional detection methods such as culture-dependent and PCR-based methods have been the “golden standards” for the detection of this pathogen due to their high sensitivity and reliability. However, they still have some disadvantages such as long enrichment steps and high costs that need to be overcome. The development of a rapid and reliable method for the detection of S. Typhimurium ...


Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The outcome of an encounter with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on the pathogen’s ability to adapt to the heterogeneous immune response of the host. Understanding this interplay has proven difficult, largely because experimentally tractable small animal models do not recapitulate the heterogenous disease observed in natural infections. We leveraged the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse panel in conjunction with a library of Mtb mutants to associate bacterial genetic requirements with host genetics and immunity. We report that CC strains vary dramatically in their susceptibility to infection and represent reproducible models of qualitatively distinct immune states. Global analysis of ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa advantageously modify animal host physiology, for example, by inhibiting host protein synthesis. Translational inhibition of insects and mammalian hosts by P. aeruginosa utilizes the well-known exotoxin A effector. However, for the infection of Caenorhabditis elegans by P. aeruginosa, the precise pathways and mechanism(s) of translational inhibition are not well understood. We found that upon exposure to P. aeruginosa PA14, C. elegans undergoes a rapid loss of intact ribosomes accompanied by the accumulation of ribosomes cleaved at helix 69 (H69) of the 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a key part of ribosome decoding center. H69 cleavage ...


Bacteremia And Endocarditis, Steven C. Hatch 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Bacteremia And Endocarditis, Steven C. Hatch

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation provides an overview of the pathogens that cause bacteremia and endocarditis. Manifestations, pathology and treatment are discussed. The goals of the presentation are: Consider major pathogens that cause bacteremia and endocarditis in both adults and children; Discuss pathogenesis; Review clinical manifestations; Discuss basic treatment strategies; and Highlight useful sources of information.


Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr 2020 Georgia College and State University

Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr

The Corinthian

Shigella bacteria cause half a million infections, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 70 deaths annually in the United States. These bacteria are of particular concern due to their high survivability, low infectious dose, and high adaptability. Cases of shigellosis from Shigella sonnei are becoming a more prevalent issue in the U.S. as the bacteria continues to develop higher resistance to today’s strongest antibiotics. Much of this resistance is connected to the exchange of genes between strains of Shigella due to insertion sequences (IS), intercontinental travel, and men who have sex with men (MSM). As a result of increased resistance ...


Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is recognized as one of the most important pathogens in hospital and community healthcare settings. The clinical outcome of infection of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to fulminant pseudomembranous colitis and death. In recent studies, it has been suggested that a high proportion of nosocomial CDI cases are transmitted from asymptomatic carriers which might be acting as infection reservoirs. Understanding what causes the different responses to infection could lead to the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Although several explanations have been proposed to explain variations in susceptibility, understanding of the exact mechanisms ...


Evaluation Of Semi-Quantitative Compared To Quantitative Cultures Of Tracheal Aspirates For The Yield Of Culturable Respiratory Pathogens - A Cross-Sectional Study, Salima Rattani, Joveria Farooqi, Ghazala Jabeen, Saeeda Chandio, Qaiser Kash, Aijaz Khan, Kauser Jabeen 2020 Aga Khan University

Evaluation Of Semi-Quantitative Compared To Quantitative Cultures Of Tracheal Aspirates For The Yield Of Culturable Respiratory Pathogens - A Cross-Sectional Study, Salima Rattani, Joveria Farooqi, Ghazala Jabeen, Saeeda Chandio, Qaiser Kash, Aijaz Khan, Kauser Jabeen

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) depends on the presence of clinical, radiological and microbiological findings. Endotracheal suction aspirate (ETSA) is the commonest respiratory sample sent for culture from intubated patients. Very few studies have compared quantitative and semi-quantitative processing of ETSA cultures for LRTI diagnosis. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative and semi-quantitative ETSA culture for LRTI diagnosis, agreement between the quantitative and semi quantitative culture techniques and the yield of respiratory pathogens with both methods.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University clinical laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan. One hundred and seventy-eight ...


A Natural Polymorphism Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Esxh Gene Disrupts Immunodomination By The Tb10.4-Specific Cd8 T Cell Response, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Nathan D. Hicks, Shayla Boyce, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Stephen M. Carpenter, Julie Boucau, Neelambari Joshi, Sylvie Le Gall, Sarah M. Fortune, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Natural Polymorphism Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Esxh Gene Disrupts Immunodomination By The Tb10.4-Specific Cd8 T Cell Response, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Nathan D. Hicks, Shayla Boyce, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Stephen M. Carpenter, Julie Boucau, Neelambari Joshi, Sylvie Le Gall, Sarah M. Fortune, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

CD8 T cells provide limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in the mouse model. As Mtb causes chronic infection in mice and humans, we hypothesize that Mtb impairs T cell responses as an immune evasion strategy. TB10.4 is an immunodominant antigen in people, nonhuman primates, and mice, which is encoded by the esxH gene. In C57BL/6 mice, 30-50% of pulmonary CD8 T cells recognize the TB10.44-11 epitope. However, TB10.4-specific CD8 T cells fail to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We speculate that Mtb elicits immunodominant CD8 T cell responses to antigens that are inefficiently presented by infected ...


Immunometabolism In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Immunometabolism In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Here, we discuss 5 concepts that have emerged in studies of metabolic and immune interactions in C. elegans. The major emerging theme is that the immune response and the ability to survive pathogen infection is heavily influenced by pathogen-induced changes in host metabolism.


Microbial Diversity In The Sawmill Environment: Implications On The Health Of Sawmill Workers And Merchants, Nigeria, Ebere J. Okafor-Elenwo EJ, Odaro S. Imade Os, Osazee E. Izevbuwa EO 2020 Igbinedion university okada

Microbial Diversity In The Sawmill Environment: Implications On The Health Of Sawmill Workers And Merchants, Nigeria, Ebere J. Okafor-Elenwo Ej, Odaro S. Imade Os, Osazee E. Izevbuwa Eo

Journal of Bioresource Management

There is an increasingly high suspicion of occupational health diseases amongst workers in sawmill factories. Hence this study aimed to determine the microbial diversity in some sawmill factories in Okada, Edo State, Nigeria to evaluate potential implications of the factory’s processing area on the health of the workers and wood merchants. Bacteria and fungi count in the bioaerosols within the processing area of each factory was performed with the passive air sampling technique. While in the sawdust samples, microbial counts were carried out with the pour plate technique. Identification of the microbes was performed with macroscopic and microscopic examinations ...


Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu 2020 SL Consulting

Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Measuring virus-specific antibody responses to emerging pathogens is a well-established and highly useful tool to diagnose such infections, understand interactions between the immune system and pathogens, and provide potential clues for the development of vaccines or therapeutic agents against such pathogens. Since the beginning of 2020, the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 as the emerging virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has provided new insight into the complexity of antibody responses to this dangerous virus. The current review aims to sort out diverse and sometimes seemingly confusing findings to put together a cohesive understanding on the profile of antibody responses elicited in ...


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