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Isolated Adult Hypoganglionosis Presenting As Sigmoid Volvulus: A Case Report., Irfan Qadir, Muhammad Musa Salick, Abrar Barakzai, Hasnain Zafar 2017 Aga Khan University

Isolated Adult Hypoganglionosis Presenting As Sigmoid Volvulus: A Case Report., Irfan Qadir, Muhammad Musa Salick, Abrar Barakzai, Hasnain Zafar

Hasnain Zafar

Introduction:Isolated hypoganglionosis is a rare cause of intestinal innervation defects. It is characterized by sparse and small myenteric ganglia, absent or low acetylcholinesterase activity in the lamina propria and hypertrophy of the muscularis mucosae, principally in the region of the colon and rectum. It accounts for 5% of all intestinal neuronal malformations. To the best of our knowledge, only 92 cases of isolated hypoganglionosis were reported from 1978 to 2009. Isolated hypoganglionosis usually manifests as enterocolitis or poor bowel function, and is diagnosed in infancy or childhood. We report the first case of isolated hypoganglionosis presenting with sigmoid volvulus ...


Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2017 Old Dominion University

Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits the human anaplasmosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we show that A. phagocytophilum specifically up-regulates I. scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide, isoatp4056 and kynurenine amino transferase (kat), a gene involved in the production of tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid (XA), for its survival in ticks. RNAi analysis revealed that knockdown of isoatp4056 expression had no effect on A. phagocytophilum acquisition from the murine host but affected the bacterial survival in tick cells. Knockdown of the expression of kat mRNA alone or in combination with isoatp4056 mRNA significantly affected A. phagocytophilum survival and isoatp4056 expression ...


The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones 2017 George Washington University

T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K Mcmahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of ...


Intestinal Organoids Model Human Responses To Infection By Commensal And Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli, Sayali S. Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V. Ward, Alison A. Weiss 2017 University of Cincinnati

Intestinal Organoids Model Human Responses To Infection By Commensal And Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli, Sayali S. Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V. Ward, Alison A. Weiss

Open Access Articles

Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause the potentially fatal complication hemolytic uremic syndrome, and currently only supportive therapy is available. Lack of suitable animal models has hindered study of this disease. Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs), generated by in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, represent differentiated human intestinal tissue. We show that iHIOs with addition of human neutrophils can model E. coli intestinal infection and innate cellular responses. Commensal and O157:H7 introduced into the iHIO lumen replicated rapidly achieving high numbers. Commensal E. coli did not cause damage, and were completely contained ...


Serologic Assessment Of Antigenic Type-V And Other Outer Membrane Proteins From Brucella Species As Differential Diagnostic Targets For Brucellosis, Samantha D. Lambert` 2017 University of Wyoming

Serologic Assessment Of Antigenic Type-V And Other Outer Membrane Proteins From Brucella Species As Differential Diagnostic Targets For Brucellosis, Samantha D. Lambert`

Honors Theses AY 16/17

The Type V auto-secreting proteins of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens have been shown to be important surface-expressed molecules that facilitate colonization and in vivo survival. In particular, Brucella species have been shown to carry genes with the potential to express several Type V and Type V-like secreted proteins that are antigenic, possess putative virulence function, and may very well contribute to persistence of the microorganism in susceptible hosts (cattle, pigs, bison, sheep, and cervids [elk and deer]). Additionally, some of these proteins may be differentially surface-expressed and thus potentially represent species-specific markers. Experiments were therefore conducted to assess the feasibility of ...


Burkholderia Cenocepacia J2315-Mediated Destruction Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nrs77 Biofilms., Rachel Thompson 2017 University of Louisville

Burkholderia Cenocepacia J2315-Mediated Destruction Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nrs77 Biofilms., Rachel Thompson

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that affects over 30,000 people in the US and more than 70,000 people worldwide. Recurring bacterial infections in CF patients result in tissue damage that dramatically lowers respiratory function and are ultimately fatal. The formation of bacterial biofilms in the mucus and on lung epithelial tissue allows pathogens to be protected from antibiotics and the host immune system, making treatment of infection difficult. The interactions between CF pathogens in co-culture biofilms are not well understood and were examined in this study. Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cenocepacia, two common CF pathogens, were ...


Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel 2017 Northern Michigan University

Molecular Subtyping Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From The U.P. Community For The Presence Of Toxin-Encoding Genes, Carol I. Kessel

All NMU Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of human bacterial infections; however, humans can also be asymptomatically colonized with S. aureus. Asymptomatic carriers can potentially spread S. aureus infection to others. These infections can range from mild to severe. The pathology of a S. aureus infection is often dependent on which toxins are expressed and the virulence factors with which they are associated. One goal of this study was to isolate S. aureus from healthy, consenting adult volunteers who submitted nasal swabs for culture and qRT-PCR analysis to determine which strains are present in the community. This knowledge could potentially ...


The Regulatory Relationship Of Transcriptional Regulators Msab And Cody In Capsule Production In Staphylococcus Aureus, Brittany L. Trunell 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Regulatory Relationship Of Transcriptional Regulators Msab And Cody In Capsule Production In Staphylococcus Aureus, Brittany L. Trunell

Honors Theses

There are many transcriptional regulators found in pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Many of these regulators are essential for the organism’s ability to switch from commensal form to the virulent pathogenic form. One of these main regulators is CodY. This regulator has been shown to be responsive to nutrient availability during phases of growth. Additionally, we have recently found that MsaB, the only protein coding ORF of the msaABCR operon, is a putative co-regulator of capsule along with CodY. To explore these regulator interactions, we produced mutations of codY and msaABCR individually and a double mutation of msaABCR/ codY. We have ...


Non-Capsular Virulence Factors Of Cryptococcus Neoformans, Kirk Nickish 2017 Liberty University

Non-Capsular Virulence Factors Of Cryptococcus Neoformans, Kirk Nickish

Senior Honors Theses

Cryptococcus neoformans is an emerging pathogen that kills hundreds of thousands every year, especially in underdeveloped areas with little access to modern medical care. New treatments for the disease are needed to shorten treatment and decrease the side effects and costs associated with the drugs currently in use. Many C. neoformans genes have been identified that are necessary for full virulence in the host. Cir1, a regulatory protein associated with iron regulation, and Zip1, a surface zinc transporter, are both necessary for full virulence in the host. Anti-fungals targeted at these proteins or the proteins produced by other genes discussed ...


The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

With the average American consuming 26 chickens per year, poultry is in high demand. Avian related infectious disease is rising and bacteria pose serious concerns for the health of livestock and possess zoonotic potential. The goal of the study is to evaluate surface protein EtsC highly prevalent among Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), as a vaccine antigen candidate against these pathogens in chickens. The objective of this study is to determine antibody response in chickens vaccinated with the EtsC recombinant antigen. Eighteen 4 day-old White Leghorns (N=9/group) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice at two-week interval with PBS (control) or ...


Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) significantly impacts the poultry industry by causing the disease colibacillosis in chickens. In this research study, a vaccine containing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), prevalent among APEC, was evaluated for its broad potential protectivity against APEC. The objectives of our study are to 1) evaluate whether an OmpA vaccine would stimulate an antibody response in chickens and 2) show in vitro broad protection against bacteria. At 4 days-old, White Leghorn chickens (9/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously twice at two week-intervals with either PBS (control) or 50 μg OmpA in CpG adjuvant. On day 33 of ...


Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Of Essential Oils On Candida Fungus, Geoffrey Elliot Lester 2017 Glester4@student.gsu.edu

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Of Essential Oils On Candida Fungus, Geoffrey Elliot Lester

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Genomic Analysis Of Factors Associated With Low Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistance In Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 95 Strains, Craig M. Stephens, Sheila Adams-Sapper, Manraj Sekhon, James R. Johnson, Lee W. Riley 2017 Santa Clara University

Genomic Analysis Of Factors Associated With Low Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistance In Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 95 Strains, Craig M. Stephens, Sheila Adams-Sapper, Manraj Sekhon, James R. Johnson, Lee W. Riley

Biology

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains belonging to multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) are globally distributed and a common cause of infections in humans and domestic fowl. ST95 isolates generally show a lower prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance than other pandemic ExPEC lineages. We took a genomic approach to identify factors that may underlie reduced resistance. We fully assembled genomes for four ST95 isolates representing the four major fimH-based lineages within ST95 and also analyzed draft-level genomes from another 82 ST95 isolates, largely from the western United States. The fully assembled genomes of antibiotic-resistant isolates carried resistance genes exclusively on ...


Natural Vertical Transmission Of Wnv In Montana, Inderbir Bains 2017 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Natural Vertical Transmission Of Wnv In Montana, Inderbir Bains

Life & Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

West Nile Virus (WNV) emerged and rapidly spread throughout the United States within several years. WNV is spread in Montana primarily by the mosquito vector Culex tarsalis. Horizontal transmission of WNV has been extensively studied, while little is known regarding vertical transmission. Previous research suggests vertical transmission is possible in controlled laboratory studies. This research attempts to document natural vertical transmission in Montana. Larvae were collected and analyzed for WNV via RTPCR. Results show no presence of natural vertical transmission. Culex larvae and adult male mosquito collection methods were insufficient, fluctuations in temperatures and variant rainfall were contributing factors. Future ...


Neurotrophic Factors Ngf, Gdnf And Ntn Selectively Modulate Hsv1 And Hsv2 Lytic Infection And Reactivation In Primary Adult Sensory And Autonomic Neurons, Andy Y. Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J. Sriranganathan, Angela M. Ives, Andrea S. Bertke 2017 Old Dominion University

Neurotrophic Factors Ngf, Gdnf And Ntn Selectively Modulate Hsv1 And Hsv2 Lytic Infection And Reactivation In Primary Adult Sensory And Autonomic Neurons, Andy Y. Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J. Sriranganathan, Angela M. Ives, Andrea S. Bertke

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Thus, NGF may not maintain latency in adult sensory neurons. To identify NTFs important for maintaining HSV1 ...


Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2017 Old Dominion University

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


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