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The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan 2018 College of William and Mary

The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Two component signal transduction systems in bacteria are key for environmental adaptation. Signaling via these systems is traditionally considered to be relatively simple, only involving interactions between the sensory protein and its cognate response regulator. The ArsRS two component system is vital for the acid response in Helicobacter pylori. This study investigates the mechanism by which ArsRS responds to acid in H pylori. Recent studies in our lab have challenged the the classic model in which the response regulator ArsR is activated by the phosphorylation of a conserved aspartic acid by the transfer of a phosphoryl group from a histidine ...


Characterizing The Virulence Factor Yape In Yersinia Pestis., Tiva Templeton VanCleave 2018 University of Louisville

Characterizing The Virulence Factor Yape In Yersinia Pestis., Tiva Templeton Vancleave

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague and is primarily transmitted by fleas. Upon infection, the bacteria rapidly travel to the regional lymph nodes causing inflammation and cellulitis in these tissues (referred to as buboes). Two outer membrane proteins, YapE and Pla, have been implicated to have roles in dissemination to the lymph nodes. Their adhesive properties have shown that they are able to interact with host macrophages thereby increasing their ability to disseminate to regional lymph nodes. More recently, we have shown that YapE is cleaved by another virulence factor important for lymph node colonization, Pla, to ...


Characterization Of Type Ii Toxin Anti-Toxin Systems In Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans., Blair W. Schneider 2018 University of Louisville

Characterization Of Type Ii Toxin Anti-Toxin Systems In Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans., Blair W. Schneider

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbes express many protective mechanisms in response to environmental stress. Toxin/anti-toxin systems encode a biologically active toxin and a labile anti-toxin that inhibits the toxin’s activity. These systems are known to contribute to persister cell and biofilm formation. A. actinomycetemcomitans thrives in the complex oral microbial community and is subjected to continual environmental flux. Little is known regarding the presence and function of TA systems in this organism or their contribution survival in the oral environment. Using BLAST searches and other informatics tools, we identified 11 intact TA systems that are conserved across all seven serotypes of A ...


Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...


The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that is responsible for a wide range of infections, ranging from relative minor skin infections to life-threatening disease such as bacteremia, septicemia, and endocarditis. S. aureus possesses many different virulent factors that aid in its ability to cause this wide array of infections. One major virulence factor includes the production of capsular polysaccharide (CP). The production of CP plays a major role in the virulence response during infection specifically by providing S. aureus an antiphagocytic mechanism that allows the pathogen to evade phagocytosis during an infection. S. aureus has developed complex genetic regulatory ...


Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Since 1930 the University of California, Davis, has been developing strawberry cultivars that are adapted to the agricultural industry and regional farms. Developing cultivars that require fewer inputs are of significant economic importance in agronomy. Developing a crop resistant to a disease is beneficial for horticulturists since less labor and chemicals are needed for a high yield.6

In commercial strawberry cultivars, complete resistance to V. dahlia is extremely rare. The majority of Californian strawberry cultivars are highly susceptible to it.2 Over the last 18 years of plant breeding for strawberry cultivars with a high degree of resistance and ...


On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen 2018 Arizona State University

On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen

Open Access Articles

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the beta -herpesvirus subfamily within Herpesviridae that is nearly ubiquitous in human populations, and infection generally results only in mild symptoms. However, symptoms can be severe in immunonaive individuals, and transplacental congenital infection of HCMV can result in serious neurological sequelae. Recent work has revealed much about the demographic and selective forces shaping the evolution of congenitally transmitted HCMV both on the level of hosts and within host compartments, providing insight into the dynamics of congenital infection, reinfection, and evolution of HCMV with important implications for the development of effective treatments and vaccines.


Sodium Polyphosphate And Polyethylenimine Enhance The Antimicrobial Activities Of Plant Essential Oils, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Sodium Polyphosphate And Polyethylenimine Enhance The Antimicrobial Activities Of Plant Essential Oils, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Plant extracts have been used for millennia for treatment of disease, with much recent interest focusing on the antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils (EOs). Although EOs are active against common microbial pathogens, their effective use as topical, environmental, or food antimicrobials will require EO-based formulations with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, two polyionic compounds, sodium polyphosphate (polyP, a polyanion) and polyethylenimine (PEI, a polycation), were evaluated for their abilities to enhance the antimicrobial activities of six EOs against the human pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Minnesota, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and ...


Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu 2018 Old Dominion University

Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) and the low efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) possess a high surface-area-to-volume ratio and size-dependent plasmonic optical properties, enabling them to serve both as imaging probes to study sized-dependent MDR and as potential drug carriers to circumvent MDR and enhance therapeutic efficacy. To this end, in this study, we synthesized three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), 2.4 ± 0.7, 13.0 ± 3.1, and 92.6 ± 4.4 nm, functionalized their surface with a monolayer of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT), and covalently conjugated them with ...


Studies On The P. Aeruginosa T3s Translocon Assembly: Interaction Of Popd With Membranes, Yuzhou Tang 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Studies On The P. Aeruginosa T3s Translocon Assembly: Interaction Of Popd With Membranes, Yuzhou Tang

Doctoral Dissertations

Type III secretion (T3S) system is deployed by a wide range of pathogens to manipulate host cell response and establish infection. The T3S system is a syringe-like apparatus that spans across the double membrane of bacteria, protruding 50nm-80nm into the extracellular space and connecting with target cell membrane. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the proteins PopB and PopD are secreted and found associated with the target eukaryotic cell membrane. These two proteins are believed to form a transmembrane complex or translocon to allow effector protein translocation. Despite its key role in pathogenesis, the assembly mechanism and structure of this critical transmembrane complex ...


Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs 2017 Technische Universität München, Germany

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The human pathogen L. monocytogenes and the animal pathogen L. ivanovii, together with four other species isolated from symptom-free animals, form the "Listeria sensu stricto" clade. The members of the second clade, "Listeria sensu lato", are believed to be solely environmental bacteria without the ability to colonize mammalian hosts. To identify novel determinants that contribute to infection by L. monocytogenes, the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis, we performed a genome comparison of the two clades and found 151 candidate genes that are conserved in the Listeria sensu stricto species. Two factors were investigated further in vitro and in ...


Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne illnesses are a leading cause of infectious diseases in the world. Among enteric organisms Salmonella is a key pathogen. It’s high prevalence in poultry and other food-animal sources make it imperative to study. Salmonella has the ability to modify its genetic content with help of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. Incompatibiltiy group 1 (IncI1) plasmids are commonly reported in Salmonella. This study evaluates role on IncI1 plasmids in antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Salmonella. Genetic determinants of resistance and virulence are noted among our IncI1-containing Salmonella isolates. These genetic elements are also transferable and reported to carry ...


Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen around the world and chickens are the major reservoir to transmit Salmonella into the human food chain. For decreasing the infection of Salmonella, we developed six attenuated live vaccines based on Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (ST) for testing the cross-serovar and cross-serogroup protection from the challenge of Salmonella Heidelberg and Campylobacter jejuni. One of the constructed vaccine strain showed ability to protect against challenge from Salmonella Heidelberg. Even though some preventive approaches are able to decrease Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens or other farm animals, Salmonella transmission mechanisms remain unclear ...


Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2017 Old Dominion University

Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits the human anaplasmosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we show that A. phagocytophilum specifically up-regulates I. scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide, isoatp4056 and kynurenine amino transferase (kat), a gene involved in the production of tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid (XA), for its survival in ticks. RNAi analysis revealed that knockdown of isoatp4056 expression had no effect on A. phagocytophilum acquisition from the murine host but affected the bacterial survival in tick cells. Knockdown of the expression of kat mRNA alone or in combination with isoatp4056 mRNA significantly affected A. phagocytophilum survival and isoatp4056 expression ...


The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones 2017 George Washington University

T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K Mcmahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of ...


Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu 2017 National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research

Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM) is not well understood.

METHODS: To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37), human beta defensin- 2 (HBD2), human neutrophil peptides 1-3, (HNP1-3) and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB).

RESULTS: Circulating levels of cathelicidin and HBD2 were significantly higher and granulysin levels were significantly lower in PTB-DM compared to PTB, LTB or NTB, while the levels of HNP1-3 were significantly higher in PTB-DM compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the ...


The Feoabc Locus Of Yersinia Pestis Likely Has Two Promoters Causing Unique Iron Regulation, Lauren O'Connor, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, Robert D. Perry 2017 University of Kentucky

The Feoabc Locus Of Yersinia Pestis Likely Has Two Promoters Causing Unique Iron Regulation, Lauren O'Connor, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, Robert D. Perry

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The FeoABC ferrous transporter is a wide-spread bacterial system. While the feoABC locus is regulated by a number of factors in the bacteria studied, we have previously found that regulation of feoABC in Yersinia pestis appears to be unique. None of the non-iron responsive transcriptional regulators that control expression of feoABC in other bacteria do so in Y. pestis. Another unique factor is the iron and Fur regulation of the Y. pestis feoABC locus occurs during microaerobic but not aerobic growth. Here we show that this unique iron-regulation is not due to a unique aspect of the Y. pestis Fur ...


Pseudogymnoascus Destructans Transcriptome Changes During White-Nose Syndrome Infections, Sophia M. Reeder, Jonathan M. Palmer, Jenni M. Prokkola, Thomas M. Lilley, DeeAnn M. Reeder, Ken Field 2017 Bucknell University

Pseudogymnoascus Destructans Transcriptome Changes During White-Nose Syndrome Infections, Sophia M. Reeder, Jonathan M. Palmer, Jenni M. Prokkola, Thomas M. Lilley, Deeann M. Reeder, Ken Field

Faculty Journal Articles

White nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans that can grow in the environment saprotrophically or parasitically by infecting hibernating bats. Infections are pathological in many species of North American bats, disrupting hibernation and causing mortality. To determine what fungal pathways are involved in infection of living tissue, we examined fungal gene expression using RNA-Seq. We compared P. destructans gene expression when grown in culture to that during infection of a North American bat species, Myotis lucifugus, that shows high WNS mortality. Cultured P. destructans was grown at 10 to 14 C and P. destructans growing ...


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