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Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay 2017 University of Montana

Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Bartonella bacilliformis is a gram negative alpha-proteobacterium native to the Andes of South America. Bartonella causes Carrion’s disease, a potentially life threatening disease transmitted by the sand fly. It has a mortality rate of 88% when untreated and 10% when treated. Diagnostics and control measures for the disease are underdeveloped and no vaccine is available. Recent outbreaks indicate that the range of the pathogen is increasing with nearly 1.7 million people in western South America at risk. Little is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of B. bacilliformis. Recent research done by UC San Diego found a paralogous ...


Impact Of Microbiota On Resistance To Ocular Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-Induced Keratitis, Abirami Kugadas, Stig Hill Christiansen, Saiprasad Sankaranarayanan, Neeraj K. Surana, Stefanie Gauguet, Ryan Kunz, Raina Fichorova, Thomas Vorup-Jensen, Mihaela Gadjeva 2016 Harvard Medical School

Impact Of Microbiota On Resistance To Ocular Pseudomonas Aeruginosa-Induced Keratitis, Abirami Kugadas, Stig Hill Christiansen, Saiprasad Sankaranarayanan, Neeraj K. Surana, Stefanie Gauguet, Ryan Kunz, Raina Fichorova, Thomas Vorup-Jensen, Mihaela Gadjeva

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

The existence of the ocular microbiota has been reported but functional analyses to evaluate its significance in regulating ocular immunity are currently lacking. We compared the relative contribution of eye and gut commensals in regulating the ocular susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced keratitis. We find that in health, the presence of microbiota strengthened the ocular innate immune barrier by significantly increasing the concentrations of immune effectors in the tear film, including secretory IgA and complement proteins. Consistent with this view, Swiss Webster (SW) mice that are typically resistant to P. aeruginosa-induced keratitis become susceptible due to the lack of microbiota. This ...


Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke 2016 University of Maine

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall can ...


Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Most animal–microbe symbiotic interactions must be advantageous to the host and provide nutritional benefits to the endosymbiont. When the host provides nutrients, it can gain the capacity to control the interaction, promote self-growth, and increase its fitness. Chlorella-like green algae engage in symbiotic relationships with certain protozoans, a partnership that significantly impacts the physiology of both organisms. Consequently, it is often challenging to grow axenic Chlorella cultures after isolation from the host because they are nutrient fastidious and often susceptible to virus infection. We hypothesize that the establishment of a symbiotic relationship resulted in natural selection for nutritional and ...


First Evidence For A Vibrio Strain Pathogenic To Mytilus Edulis Altering Hemocyte Immune Capacities, Yosra Ben Cheikh 2016 University of le Havre

First Evidence For A Vibrio Strain Pathogenic To Mytilus Edulis Altering Hemocyte Immune Capacities, Yosra Ben Cheikh

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Memory Cd8+ T Cell Function During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: A Dissertation, Stephen M. Carpenter 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Memory Cd8+ T Cell Function During Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: A Dissertation, Stephen M. Carpenter

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells conferred by vaccination to be short-lived after Mtb challenge. To compare memory and naïve CD8+ T cell function during their response to Mtb, we track their expansions using TB10.4-specific retrogenic CD8+ T cells. We find that the primary (naïve) response outnumbers the ...


The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. McDougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


Implication Of Biological And Synthetic Nanoparticles In Evolution And Development Of Antibiotic Resistance Relevant For Aquaculture, Petter Langlete 2016 University of Oslo

Implication Of Biological And Synthetic Nanoparticles In Evolution And Development Of Antibiotic Resistance Relevant For Aquaculture, Petter Langlete

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. McDougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.


Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we ...


The Effects Of Quorum Sensing And Temperature On The Soluble Proteome Of Vibrio Salmonicida, Christopher L. Massey 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Effects Of Quorum Sensing And Temperature On The Soluble Proteome Of Vibrio Salmonicida, Christopher L. Massey

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vibrio salmonicida causes cold-water vibriosis in salmon populations around the world and causes financial damage to fisheries designed to farm these salmon. Very little is known about the physiology of how V. salmonicida causes disease and measures to contain vibriosis are restricted to either vaccinating individual fish against disease or administering antibiotics when an outbreak is detected. These procedures are costly and increase the risk for selection of antibiotic-resistant V. salmonicida strains. A recent reoccurrence of outbreaks in Norwegian fisheries provided incentive to better understand the virulence mechanisms of V. salmonicida. In this thesis, a proteomic approach was used to ...


Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen 2016 University of Tennessee

Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

In introducing the infectious disease focus for this edition of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, the author describes the unsolved mysteries surrounding the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces and the related pathogenesis of pulmonary blastomycosis.


Comparison Of Anti-Pneumococcal Functions Of Native And Modified Forms Of C-Reactive Protein, Donald Neba Ngwa 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Comparison Of Anti-Pneumococcal Functions Of Native And Modified Forms Of C-Reactive Protein, Donald Neba Ngwa

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The anti-pneumococcal function of native C-reactive protein (CRP) involves its binding to phosphocholine molecules present on Streptococcus pneumoniae and subsequent activation of the complement system. However, when pneumococci recruit complement inhibitory protein factor H on their surface, they escape complement attack. Non-native forms of CRP have been shown to bind immobilized factor H. Accordingly, we hypothesized that modified CRP would bind to factor H on pneumococci, masking its complement inhibitory activity, allowing native CRP to exert its anti-pneumococcal function. As reported previously, native CRP protected mice from lethal pneumococcal infection when injected 30 minutes before infection but not when injected ...


Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor 2016 University of Louisville

Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Y. pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of plague. This bacterium, while most noted or the Black Death during the European 14th century, is not a historic pathogen but a re-emerging pandemic with both domestic and global impact. Y. pestis is capable of colonizing the macrophage, and actively subverts phagolysosome maturation to establish a replicative niche known as the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV). The exploited host factors required to support the YCV are unknown. Here we identified a comprehensive list of host factors required for Y. pestis survival through a genome-wide RNAi high-throughput screen. We ...


A Novel And Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterial Identification Method Utilizing Immunomagnetic Beads And Single Cell Laser-Light Scattering, Kaylagh Hollen 2016 Northern Michigan University

A Novel And Rapid Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterial Identification Method Utilizing Immunomagnetic Beads And Single Cell Laser-Light Scattering, Kaylagh Hollen

All NMU Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated human associated bacterial pathogen. It plays an important role in skin and soft-tissue infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. S. aureus diagnosis and treatment requires a minimum of 24-48. With this in mind, previous studies suggest that faster pathogen identification has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Improved patient outcomes including a reduction in hospitalization time, decreased risk of nosocomial infections, and decreased in medical costs. The impact of faster identification on patient outcome has led us to develop an alternative method of S. aureus identification via ImmunoMagnetic Separation (IMS) and ...


Exploring The Mechanisms Of Action Of Antifungal Peptides Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae., Michelle L. Mason 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Mechanisms Of Action Of Antifungal Peptides Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae., Michelle L. Mason

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Candida albicans is a normal inhabitant of the skin and mucosal membranes of humans, however, in individuals with depressed immune systems or disrupted cutaneous flora, Candida can overgrow and cause serious infection. Candida infection is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection in the United States. These infections are often associated with longer hospital stays and higher mortality. Current drug therapies for this infection are largely ineffective due to the increased drug resistance of Candida species, and for some therapeutics, high levels of drug toxicity to humans. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring salivary peptide that has strong antifungal properties ...


Characterization Of The Ato Gene Family In Alternative Carbon Metabolism, Heather A. Danhof 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomediical Sciences at Houston

Characterization Of The Ato Gene Family In Alternative Carbon Metabolism, Heather A. Danhof

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

As a commensal colonizer and opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans is the most clinically important human associated fungus. Systemic infection carries an unacceptably high mortality rate of ~40% in the growing population of immunocompromised individuals. Macrophages are important innate immune cells that limit the niches in the human body in which C. albicans can persist through phagocytic removal. However, following phagocytosis C. albicans readily escapes from the immune cell by differentiating into filamentous hyphae, a process that should be inhibited in the normally acidic phagolysosome. We have shown that C. albicans induces germination by neutralizing the phagolysosome. To better understand this ...


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