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Timely Development Of Vaccines Against Sars-Cov-2, Shan Lu 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Timely Development Of Vaccines Against Sars-Cov-2, Shan Lu

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

The rapidly emerging SARS-2-CoV (SARS-2) has been spreading through China and entering many parts of the world with easy human-to-human transmission and thousands of deaths. Development of a vaccine, and a vaccine which can be quickly deployed on a global scale, is no longer merely a discussion or part of a debate whether such a vaccine is ultimately needed.


Jc Virus Infected Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Produce Extracellular Vesicles That Infect Glial Cells Independently Of The Virus Attachment Receptor, Bethany A. O'Hara, Jenna Morris-Love, Gretchen V. Gee, Sheila A. Haley, Walter J. Atwood 2020 Brown University

Jc Virus Infected Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Produce Extracellular Vesicles That Infect Glial Cells Independently Of The Virus Attachment Receptor, Bethany A. O'Hara, Jenna Morris-Love, Gretchen V. Gee, Sheila A. Haley, Walter J. Atwood

Open Access Articles

The human polyomavirus, JCPyV, is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed and immunomodulated patients. Initial infection with JCPyV is common and the virus establishes a long-term persistent infection in the urogenital system of 50-70% of the human population worldwide. A major gap in the field is that we do not know how the virus traffics from the periphery to the brain to cause disease. Our recent discovery that human choroid plexus epithelial cells are fully susceptible to virus infection together with reports of JCPyV infection of choroid plexus in vivo has led us to hypothesize that ...


Li Wenliang, A Face To The Frontline Healthcare Worker. The First Doctor To Notify The Emergence Of The Sars-Cov-2, (Covid-19), Outbreak, Eskild Petersen, David Hui, Davidson H. Hamer, Lucille Blumberg, Lawrence C. Madoff, Marjorie Pollack, Shui Shan Lee, Susan McLellan, Ziad Memish, Ira Praharaj, Sean Wasserman, Francine Ntoumi, Esam Ibraheem Azhar, Timothy D. Mchugh, Richard Kock, Guiseppe Ippolito, Ali Zumla, Marion Koopmans 2020 University of Aarhus

Li Wenliang, A Face To The Frontline Healthcare Worker. The First Doctor To Notify The Emergence Of The Sars-Cov-2, (Covid-19), Outbreak, Eskild Petersen, David Hui, Davidson H. Hamer, Lucille Blumberg, Lawrence C. Madoff, Marjorie Pollack, Shui Shan Lee, Susan Mclellan, Ziad Memish, Ira Praharaj, Sean Wasserman, Francine Ntoumi, Esam Ibraheem Azhar, Timothy D. Mchugh, Richard Kock, Guiseppe Ippolito, Ali Zumla, Marion Koopmans

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Dr Li Wenliang, who lost his life to the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, became the face of the threat of SARS-CoV-2 to frontline workers, the clinicians taking care of patients. Li, 34, was an ophthalmologist at Wuhan Central Hospital. On 30th December, 2019, when the Wuhan municipal health service sent out an alert, he reportedly warned a closed group of ex-medical school classmates on the WeChat social media site of “Seven cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) like illness with links with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market” at his hospital. He was among eight people reprimanded by security officers for ...


The Cancer Microbiome: Distinguishing Direct And Indirect Effects Requires A Systemic View, Joao B. Xavier, Amir Mitchell 2020 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

The Cancer Microbiome: Distinguishing Direct And Indirect Effects Requires A Systemic View, Joao B. Xavier, Amir Mitchell

Open Access Articles

The collection of microbes that live in and on the human body - the human microbiome - can impact on cancer initiation, progression, and response to therapy, including cancer immunotherapy. The mechanisms by which microbiomes impact on cancers can yield new diagnostics and treatments, but much remains unknown. The interactions between microbes, diet, host factors, drugs, and cell-cell interactions within the cancer itself likely involve intricate feedbacks, and no single component can explain all the behavior of the system. Understanding the role of host-associated microbial communities in cancer systems will require a multidisciplinary approach combining microbial ecology, immunology, cancer cell biology, and ...


Life Line March 2020, Otterbein Biology and Earth Science Department 2020 Otterbein University

Life Line March 2020, Otterbein Biology And Earth Science Department

Life Line - The Biology Department Newsletter

The Department Welcomes Dr. Sinn; Modeling to Help with Global Research; The Paradise of Bombs Revisited; The End of an Era in Conesville Ohio; Reports from two recipients of the Melinda Phinney Award for Pre-Med Travel Experiences; Preparing Skins for Study; Genomics in the Jungle; Zoo Program Gets New T -Shirt and Sweatshirt Designs; Aquarium Track Dives Right In; Dr. Svitana’s Sabbatical Accomplishments;Biology Behind Bars; Grossology: The Science of Icky, Sticky, Disgusting Things.


Cell Cycle-Associated Expression Patterns Predict Gene Function In Mycobacteria, Aditya Bandekar, Sishir Subedi, Thomas Ioerger, Christopher M. Sassetti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cell Cycle-Associated Expression Patterns Predict Gene Function In Mycobacteria, Aditya Bandekar, Sishir Subedi, Thomas Ioerger, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

While the major events in prokaryotic cell cycle progression are likely to be coordinated with transcriptional and metabolic changes, these processes remain poorly characterized. Unlike many rapidly-growing bacteria, DNA replication and cell division are temporally-resolved in mycobacteria, making these slow-growing organisms a potentially useful system to investigate the prokaryotic cell cycle. To determine if cell-cycle dependent gene regulation occurs in mycobacteria, we characterized the temporal changes in the transcriptome of synchronously replicating populations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). By enriching for genes that display a sinusoidal expression pattern, we discover 485 genes that oscillate with a period consistent with the cell ...


Proteomic And Transcriptional Profiles Of Human Stem Cell-Derived Beta Cells Following Enteroviral Challenge, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Agata Jurczyk, Basanthi Satish, Sambra D. Redick, Natasha Qaisar, Melanie I. Trombly, Pranitha Vangala, Riccardo Racicot, Rita Bortell, David M. Harlan, Dale L. Greiner, Michael A. Brehm, Jerry L. Nadler, Jennifer P. Wang 2020 Eastern Virginia Medical School

Proteomic And Transcriptional Profiles Of Human Stem Cell-Derived Beta Cells Following Enteroviral Challenge, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Agata Jurczyk, Basanthi Satish, Sambra D. Redick, Natasha Qaisar, Melanie I. Trombly, Pranitha Vangala, Riccardo Racicot, Rita Bortell, David M. Harlan, Dale L. Greiner, Michael A. Brehm, Jerry L. Nadler, Jennifer P. Wang

Open Access Articles

Enteroviral infections are implicated in islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Significant beta-cell stress and damage occur with viral infection, leading to cells that are dysfunctional and vulnerable to destruction. Human stem cell-derived beta (SC-beta) cells are insulin-producing cell clusters that closely resemble native beta cells. To better understand the events precipitated by enteroviral infection of beta cells, we investigated transcriptional and proteomic changes in SC-beta cells challenged with coxsackie B virus (CVB). We confirmed infection by demonstrating that viral protein colocalized with insulin-positive SC-beta cells by immunostaining. Transcriptome analysis showed a decrease in insulin gene expression following ...


The Impact Of Changes In Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Location And Ownership On The Practice Of Infectious Diseases, Michael Pentella, Melvin P. Weinstein, Susan E. Beekmann, Philip M. Polgreen, Richard T. Ellison III 2020 University of Iowa

The Impact Of Changes In Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Location And Ownership On The Practice Of Infectious Diseases, Michael Pentella, Melvin P. Weinstein, Susan E. Beekmann, Philip M. Polgreen, Richard T. Ellison Iii

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications

The number of onsite clinical microbiology laboratories in hospitals is decreasing, likely related to the business model for laboratory consolidation and labor shortages, and this impacts a variety of clinical practices including banking isolates for clinical or epidemiologic purposes. To determine the impact of these trends, infectious disease (ID) physicians were surveyed regarding their perceptions of offsite services. Clinical microbiology practices for retention of clinical isolates for future use were also determined. Surveys were sent to members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's (IDSA) Emerging Infections Network (EIN). The EIN is a sentinel network of ID physicians who ...


Emerging Priorities For Microbiome Research, Chad M. Cullen, Kawalpreet K. Aneja, Sinem Beyhan, Clara E. Cho, Stephen Woloszynek, Matteo Convertino, Sophie J. McCoy, Yanyan Zhang, Matthew Z. Anderson, David Alvarez-Ponce, Ekaterina Smirnova, Lisa Karstens, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Hongzhe Li, Ananya Sen Gupta, et al. 2020 Drexel University

Emerging Priorities For Microbiome Research, Chad M. Cullen, Kawalpreet K. Aneja, Sinem Beyhan, Clara E. Cho, Stephen Woloszynek, Matteo Convertino, Sophie J. Mccoy, Yanyan Zhang, Matthew Z. Anderson, David Alvarez-Ponce, Ekaterina Smirnova, Lisa Karstens, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Hongzhe Li, Ananya Sen Gupta, Et Al.

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Microbiome research has increased dramatically in recent years, driven by advances in technology and significant reductions in the cost of analysis. Such research has unlocked a wealth of data, which has yielded tremendous insight into the nature of the microbial communities, including their interactions and effects, both within a host and in an external environment as part of an ecological community. Understanding the role of microbiota, including their dynamic interactions with their hosts and other microbes, can enable the engineering of new diagnostic techniques and interventional strategies that can be used in a diverse spectrum of fields, spanning from ecology ...


Beneficial Endophytic Bacterial Populations Associated With Medicinal Plant Thymus Vulgaris Alleviate Salt Stress And Confer Resistance To Fusarium Oxysporum, Osama Aballa Abdelshafy Mohamad, Jin-Bao Ma, Yong-Hong Liu, Daoyuan Zhang, Shao Hua, Shirkant Bhute, Brian P. Hedlund, Wen-Jun Li, Li Li 2020 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography

Beneficial Endophytic Bacterial Populations Associated With Medicinal Plant Thymus Vulgaris Alleviate Salt Stress And Confer Resistance To Fusarium Oxysporum, Osama Aballa Abdelshafy Mohamad, Jin-Bao Ma, Yong-Hong Liu, Daoyuan Zhang, Shao Hua, Shirkant Bhute, Brian P. Hedlund, Wen-Jun Li, Li Li

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

As a result of climate change, salinity has become a major abiotic stress that reduces plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. A variety of endophytic bacteria alleviate salt stress; however, their ecology and biotechnological potential has not been fully realized. To address this gap, a collection of 117 endophytic bacteria were isolated from wild populations of the herb Thymus vulgaris in Sheikh Zuweid and Rafah of North Sinai Province, Egypt, and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The endophytes were highly diverse, including 17 genera and 30 species. The number of bacterial species obtained from root tissues was ...


Hiv-1 Did Not Contribute To The 2019-Ncov Genome, Chuan Xiao, Xiaojun Li, Shuying Liu, Yongming Sang, Shou-Jiang Gao, Feng Gao 2020 University of Texas at El Paso

Hiv-1 Did Not Contribute To The 2019-Ncov Genome, Chuan Xiao, Xiaojun Li, Shuying Liu, Yongming Sang, Shou-Jiang Gao, Feng Gao

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

When a new pathogen that causes a global epidemic in humans, one key question is where it comes from. This is especially important for a zoonotic infectious disease that jumps from animals to humans. Knowing the origin of such a pathogen is critical to develop means to block further transmission and to develop vaccines. Discovery of the origin of a newly human pathogen is a sophisticated process that requires extensive and vigorous scientific validations and generally takes many years, such as the cases for HIV-1, SARS and MERS. Unfortunately, before the natural sources of new pathogens are clearly defined, conspiracy ...


Combining Genomics And Epidemiology To Track Mumps Virus Transmission In The United States, Shirlee Wohl, Lawrence C. Madoff, Bronwyn L. MacInnis 2020 Harvard University

Combining Genomics And Epidemiology To Track Mumps Virus Transmission In The United States, Shirlee Wohl, Lawrence C. Madoff, Bronwyn L. Macinnis

Open Access Articles

Unusually large outbreaks of mumps across the United States in 2016 and 2017 raised questions about the extent of mumps circulation and the relationship between these and prior outbreaks. We paired epidemiological data from public health investigations with analysis of mumps virus whole genome sequences from 201 infected individuals, focusing on Massachusetts university communities. Our analysis suggests continuous, undetected circulation of mumps locally and nationally, including multiple independent introductions into Massachusetts and into individual communities. Despite the presence of these multiple mumps virus lineages, the genomic data show that one lineage has dominated in the US since at least 2006 ...


A High-Fat/High-Protein, Atkins-Type Diet Exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Infection In Mice, Whereas A High-Carbohydrate Diet Protects, Chrisabelle C. Mefferd, Shrikant S. Bhute, Jacqueline R. Phan, Jacob V. Villarama, Dung M. Do, Stephanie Alarcia, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A High-Fat/High-Protein, Atkins-Type Diet Exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Infection In Mice, Whereas A High-Carbohydrate Diet Protects, Chrisabelle C. Mefferd, Shrikant S. Bhute, Jacqueline R. Phan, Jacob V. Villarama, Dung M. Do, Stephanie Alarcia, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI) can result from the disruption of the resident gut microbiota. Western diets and popular weight-loss diets drive large changes in the gut microbiome; however, the literature is conflicted with regard to the effect of diet on CDI. Using the hypervirulent strain C. difficile R20291 (RT027) in a mouse model of antibiotic-induced CDI, we assessed disease outcome and microbial community dynamics in mice fed two high-fat diets in comparison with a high-carbohydrate diet and a standard rodent diet. The two high-fat diets exacerbated CDI, with a high-fat/high-protein, Atkins-like diet leading to severe CDI ...


Conformational Changes In The Ebola Virus Membrane Fusion Machine Induced By Ph, Ca2+, And Receptor Binding, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Uriel Bulow, William E. Diehl, Natasha D. Durham, Fernando Senjobe, Kartik Chandran, Jeremy Luban, James B. Munro 2020 Tufts University

Conformational Changes In The Ebola Virus Membrane Fusion Machine Induced By Ph, Ca2+, And Receptor Binding, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Uriel Bulow, William E. Diehl, Natasha D. Durham, Fernando Senjobe, Kartik Chandran, Jeremy Luban, James B. Munro

Open Access Articles

The Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope glycoprotein (GP) is a membrane fusion machine required for virus entry into cells. Following endocytosis of EBOV, the GP1 domain is cleaved by cellular cathepsins in acidic endosomes, removing the glycan cap and exposing a binding site for the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) receptor. NPC1 binding to cleaved GP1 is required for entry. How this interaction translates to GP2 domain-mediated fusion of viral and endosomal membranes is not known. Here, using a bulk fluorescence dequenching assay and single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET)-imaging, we found that acidic pH, Ca2+, and NPC1 binding synergistically induce conformational ...


Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser 2020 Iowa State University

Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

Animal Science Publications

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a widely used forage grass which shares a symbiosis with the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala. The endophyte produces an alkaloid toxin that provides herbivory, heat and drought resistance to the grass, but can cause fescue toxicosis in grazing livestock. Fescue toxicosis can lead to reduced weight gain and milk yields resulting in significant losses to the livestock industry. In this trial, 149 Angus cows across two farms were continuously exposed to toxic, endophyte-infected, fescue for a total of 13 weeks. Of those 149 cows, 40 were classified into either high (HT) or low (LT) tolerance ...


Utilization Of Mechanocatalytic Oligosaccharides By Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli As A Model Microbial Cell Factory, Tao Jin, Mats Käldström, Adriana Benavides, Marcelo D. Kaufman Rechulski, Laura R. Jarboe 2020 Iowa State University

Utilization Of Mechanocatalytic Oligosaccharides By Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli As A Model Microbial Cell Factory, Tao Jin, Mats Käldström, Adriana Benavides, Marcelo D. Kaufman Rechulski, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Mechanocatalysis is a promising method for depolymerization of lignocellulosic biomass. Microbial utilization of the resulting oligosaccharides is one potential route of adding value to the depolymerized biomass. However, it is unclear how readily these oligosaccharides are utilized by standard cell factories. Here, we investigate utilization of cellulose subjected to mechanocatalytic depolymerization, using ethanologenic Escherichia coli as a model fermentation organism. The mechanocatalytic oligosaccharides supported ethanol titers similar to those observed when glucose was provided at comparable concentrations. Tracking of the various oligomers, using maltose (alpha-1,4) and cellobiose (beta-1,4) oligomers as representative standards of the orientation, but not linkage ...


Isolated Antibiotic Producing Bacteria In Local Soil Samples Determined To Be Bacillus, Cassidy Potter, Dr. Lori Scott 2020 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Isolated Antibiotic Producing Bacteria In Local Soil Samples Determined To Be Bacillus, Cassidy Potter, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

Nosocomial pathogens are multi-drug resistant to antibiotics that fight bacterial infections posing danger to the public health, the most dangerous of them being the ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.). This project is a collabortaion with the TIny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on studentsourcing antibiotic discovery from the soil. TEPI allows student-led research on local soil samples from Bettendorf, IA to discover potential novel antibiotic producing bacteria that could potentially treat ESKAPE pathogens and reduce public health risk. Two soil isolates ...


Identification Of Uncommon Antibiotic-Producing Illinois Soil Isolates, Lesly Muniz, Dr. Lori Scott 2020 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Identification Of Uncommon Antibiotic-Producing Illinois Soil Isolates, Lesly Muniz, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

This project is a collaboration with the Tiny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on student sourcing antibiotic discovery from the soil. We researched tester strains B. subtilis and E. coli from the soil isolates obtained. We further verified if the isolates were common antibiotic bacteria. Unfortunately, this project heavily relied on biochemical tests, colony morphology, and Gram stains to reject or fail to reject our hypothesis. Our goal was to discover new antibiotic-producing bacteria that could be beneficial in combating ESKAPE strains. A proper PCR and DNA extraction would be required ...


Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. DuChene 2020 Senckenberg am Meer, Marine Research Department

Active Growth Of Non-Hydrothermal Subaqueous And Subaerial Barite (Baso4) Speleothems In Lechuguilla Cave (New Mexico, Usa), Max Wisshak, Hazel A. Barton, Katey E. Bender, Harvey R. Duchene

International Journal of Speleology

Barite (BaSO4) speleothems have been reported from caves around the globe and interpreted to have chiefly formed in phreatic, hypogene, hydrothermal settings. Here we report two contrasting types of barite speleothems (bluish tabular crystals in a shallow pool and actively dripping greenish stalactites), which today form at lower temperatures in the non-hydrothermal and vadose environment of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, USA. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, along with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, WDS), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD), characterize the habit and chemical composition as barite. Fractionation of the minor element calcium is related to growth along ...


Pseudomonas And Bacillus Soil Isolates Produce Antibiotics, Chelsea Brandt, Dr. Lori Scott 2020 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Pseudomonas And Bacillus Soil Isolates Produce Antibiotics, Chelsea Brandt, Dr. Lori Scott

Identifying and Characterizing Novel Antibiotic Producing Microbes From the Soil

The recent emergence of antibiotic resistance bacterial strains presents a significant challenge and threat to human healthcare. While new methods of treatment such as bacteriophage therapy and combinations of existing antibiotics are being researched, the human population is in dire need of new antibiotics to replace those that are ineffective. This research addresses this need by identifying antibiotic producing bacteria in a soil sample from Davenport, IA. This project is a collaboration with the Tiny Earth Project Initiative (TEPI), which is a global network of educators and students focused on studentsourcing antibiotic discovery from soil. Microbiology lab techniques and 16S ...


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